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Assignment 2 (MATH 214 B1)

1. Use the Comparison Test or Limit Comparison Test to determine whether the
given series converges or diverges.
∑∞ √ ∑∞ √
n+ n n+ n
(a) 2
(b)
n=1
n + n n=1
n + n3
∑∞
1 + 3n
(c)
n=1
1 + 2n
Solution.

(a) Let an := (n + n)/(n + n2 ) and bn := 1/n, n = 1, 2, . . .. We have
√ 1 + √1n
an n(n + n)
lim = lim = lim = 1.
n→∞ bn n→∞ n + n2 n→∞ 1 + 1
n

∑∞ 1
∑∞ √
n+ n
Since n=1 n is divergent, the series n=1 n+n2 diverges, by the limit comparison
test.

(b) Let an := (n + n)/(n + n3 ) and bn := 1/n2 , n = 1, 2, . . .. We have
√ 1 + √1n
an n2 (n + n)
lim = lim = lim = 1.
n→∞ bn n→∞ n + n3 n→∞ 1 + 12
n

∑∞ 1
∑∞ √
n+ n
Since n=1 n2 is convergent, the series n=1 n+n3 converges, by the limit compari-
son test.

(c) Let an := (1 + 3n )/(1 + 2n ) and bn := 3n /2n , n = 1, 2, . . .. We have

an 1 + 3n 2n 1 + 3n 2 n
lim = lim = lim = 1.
n→∞ bn n→∞ 1 + 2n 3n n→∞ 3n 1 + 2n
∑∞ ∑∞
Note that n=1 bn = n=1 ( 32 )n is a geometric series with ratio r = 3/2. Hence, the
∑∞ ∑∞ 1+3n
series n=1 bn is divergent. By the limit comparison test, the series n=1 1+2 n is

also divergent.

1
2. The Alternating Series Test will be used in the following problems.
∑∞ √
n
(a) Is the series n=1 (−1)n √n+1 convergent or divergent?
∑∞ √
n
(b) Is the series n=1 (−1)n n+1 convergent or divergent?
∑∞ (−1)n−1
(c) Find the sum of the series n=1 n2 such that the error is within 0.01.

Solution.
(a) We have √
n
lim √ = 1 ̸= 0.
n→∞ n+1
∑∞ √
n√ n
The series n=1 (−1) n+1
diverges, by the nth term test for divergence.

n
(b) Let bn = n+1 . Then bn > bn+1 for n = 1, 2, . . .. Indeed, the following inequalities are
equivalent:
√ √
n n+1 n n+1
> ⇐⇒ > ⇐⇒ n(n + 2)2 > (n + 1)2 (n + 1).
n+1 n+2 (n + 1)2 (n + 2)2

The last inequality is valid since

n(n + 2)2 = n3 + 4n2 + 4n > n3 + 3n2 + 3n + 1 = (n + 1)2 (n + 1) for n ≥ 1.

Moreover, √
n
lim bn = lim = 0.
n→∞ n→∞ n + 1
∑∞ √
n
By the alternating series test, the series n=1 (−1)n n+1 converges.

(c) Let bn = 1/n2 . Then bn > bn+1 for n = 1, 2, . . . and limn→∞ bn = limn→∞ 1/n2 = 0.
∑∞ n−1
By the alternating series test, the series n=1 (−1) n2 converges. Let Rn = s − sn .
We have the following estimate:

1
|Rn | ≤ bn+1 = .
(n + 1)2

In order for 1/(n + 1)2 < 0.01 it suffices to choose n = 10. For n = 10 we have


10
(−1)j−1
sn = s10 = ≈ 0.818.
j=1
j2

Thus, the sum of the series s ≈ 0.82.

2
3. Determine whether the given series is absolutely convergent, conditionally convergent,
or divergent.
∑∞ ∑∞
(−1)n−1 (−1)n−1
(a) √ (b) √
n=1
n n=1
n n


(c) (−1)n 31/n
n=1

Solution.
(a) We have
(−1)n−1
1 1
√ = √ = 1/2 .
n n n
∑∞ ∑∞ n−1
Since n=1 n1/21
is divergent, the series n=1 (−1)√
n
does not converges absolutely.
∑∞ (−1)n−1
But the series n=1 √n is convergent by the alternating series test. Therefore,
∑∞ n−1
the series n=1 (−1)√
n
is conditionally convergent.

(b) We have
(−1)n−1
1 1
√ = √ = 3/2 .
n n n n n
∑∞ 1
But n=1 n3/2 is a p-series with p = 3/2 > 1. Hence, the series is convergent.
Consequently, the series
∑∞
(−1)n−1

n=1
n n

is absolutely convergent.

(c) Since
lim 31/n = 1 ̸= 0,
n→∞
∑∞ n 1/n
the series n=1 (−1) 3 is divergent by the nth term test for divergence.

3
4. Use the Ratio Test to determine whether the given series is convergent or divergent.
∑∞ ∑∞
n10 (−2)n
(a) (b)
n=1
3n n=1
n3

∑∞
100n
(c)
n=1
n!

Solution.
(a) Let an = n10 /3n . Then

a (n + 1)10 3n 1( 1 )10
n+1 1
lim = lim n+1 10
= lim 1+ = < 1.
n→∞ an n→∞ 3 n n→∞ 3 n 3
∑∞ n10
By the ratio test, the series n=1 3n converges.
(−2)n
(b) Let an = n3 . Then

a 2n+1 n3 2n3
n+1
lim = lim = lim = 2 > 1.
n→∞ an n→∞ (n + 1)3 2n n→∞ (n + 1)3

∑∞ (−2)n
By the ratio test, the series n=1 n3 diverges.
100n
(c) Let an = n! . Then

a 100n+1 n!
n+1 100
lim = lim n
= lim = 0.
n→∞ an n→∞ (n + 1)! 100 n→∞ n + 1

∑∞ 100n
By the ratio test, the series n=1 n! converges.

5. Find the radius of convergence and interval of convergence of the given power series.
∑∞ ∑∞
(x − 2)n (−2)n (x + 3)n
(a) (b) √
n=1
n3n n=0
n+1
∑∞ ∑∞
(2x − 5)n (−100)n xn
(c) (d)
n=1
n3 n=1
n!

Solution.
(x−2)n
(a) Let un := n3n , n = 1, 2, . . .. Then

u (x − 2)n+1 n3n |x − 2|n |x − 2|


n+1
lim = lim = lim = .
n→∞ un n→∞ (n + 1)3 n+1 (x − 2)n n→∞ 3(n + 1) 3

4
By the ratio test, the series converges if |x − 2|/3 < 1, i.e., |x − 2| < 3. Hence, the
radius of convergence of this series is R = 3. Note that |x − 2| < 3 is equivalent
to −1 < x < 5. When x = −1, the series

∑∞ ∑∞ ∑∞
(x − 2)n (−3)n (−1)n
= =
n=1
n3n n=1
n3n n=1
n

∑∞ (x−2)n ∑∞ 1
converges, by the alternating series test. When x = 5, n=1 n3n = n=1 n
diverges. Therefore, the interval of convergence is [−1, 5).

(b) Let un := (−2)n (x + 3)n / n + 1. We have
u √
n+1 2n+1 |x + 3|n+1 n+1
lim = lim √ = 2|x + 3|.
n→∞ un n→∞ n+2 2 |x + 3|n
n

By the ratio test, the series converges if 2|x + 3| < 1, i.e., |x + 3| < 1/2. Hence,
the radius of convergence is R = 1/2. Moreover, the interval of convergence is
(−7/2, −5/2].

(c) Let un := (2x − 5)n /n3 . We have


u |2x − 5|n+1 n3
n+1
lim = lim = |2x − 5|.
n→∞ un n→∞ (n + 1)3 |2x − 5|n

By the ratio test, the series converges if |2x − 5| < 1, and diverges if |2x − 5| > 1.
But |2x − 5| < 1 is equivalent to −1 < 2x − 5 < 1, that is, −1/2 < x − 5/2 < 1/2.
Hence, the radius of convergence is R = 1/2. It can be shown that the interval
of convergence is [2, 3].

(d) Let un := (−100)n xn /n!. We have


u 100n+1 |x|n+1
n+1 n! 100|x|
lim = lim == lim = 0.
n→∞ un n→∞ (n + 1)! 100 |x|
n n n→∞ n+1

The radius of convergence is ∞, and the interval of convergence is (−∞, ∞).