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CONVEYORS FOR RMHS

Prepared By -
Harsh Gupta
P.NO. - 163636
AET-2016
Tata Steel Ltd. (KPO)
CONTENTS

SI. NO. TOPIC Page No.

1 Introduction 1
Parts of a belt conveyor 3
a. Conveyor Belts
b. Idlers
2 c. Conveyor Pulleys
d. Drive Arrangement
e. Take up unit
f. Miscellaneous Equipment
4 Appendix - IS - Codes Selection 8
5 References 9
INTRODUCTION

 CONVEYORS - Conveyors are gravity or powered equipment commonly used for


conveying bulk or unit load from one point to another point (uni-directional and fixed path),
continuously or intermittently. The equipment as a whole remains stationary.
In RMHS (TSK), conveyors are fulfilling the following basic needs -
 Power operated
 Bulk load supply
 Continuous service

 CLASSIFCATION OF CONVEYORS -
1. Belt conveyor
2. Chain conveyor
3. Haulage conveyor
4. Cable conveyor
5. Bucket conveyor
6. Roller conveyor
7. Screw conveyor
8. Hydraulic conveyor
9. Pneumatic conveyor

 BELT CONVEYORS - A belt conveyor consists of an endless and flexible belt of


sufficient strength which is laid over two pulleys (one is driver and other one is driven) at the
ends. Material is placed on the moving belt with the help of chutes so that it can be transferred
from one end to other end safely. Between two end pulleys, the belt is supported on idlers or
slider bed. A belt tensioning arrangement is provided to counter the sag in the belt.
 Depending upon the application, belt conveyors may be horizontal, vertical or inclined.
 Conveying capacity of a belt conveyor can be controlled by changing belt speed.

 TYPES OF BELT CONVEYORS -


SI.
Type of belt conveyor Applications
NO.
1. Flat belt conveyor Small distance, Unit load transfer
2. Trough belt conveyor Long distance, Bulk solid transfer

Fragile material, Fine bulk materials, Corrosive


3. Closed belt conveyor
and reactive material

4. Metallic belt conveyor Food and chemical industries


5. Portable conveyor Loading and unloading of unit loads

6. Chain or rope driven belt conveyor Serves as a load carrier with rope and chain drive.

7. Submerged belt conveyor Free flowing and powdered material.

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 PARTS OF A BELT CONVEYOR -
1. Conveyor belts
2. Idlers
3. Pulleys
4. Drives
5. Take-ups
6. Loading and unloading devices
7. Belt cleaners
8. Training idlers
9. Conveyor structure
10. Transfer terminals (Junction house)

 ASPECTS OF BELT CONVEYOR DESIGN -


1. Checking / determining conveyor capacity,
2. Belt tension required to convey the load and selection of belt,
3. Selection of driving and other pulleys,
4. Determining motor power,
5. Selection of idlers and its spacing.

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PARTS OF A BELT CONVEYOR

 CONVEYOR BELTS -
Refer to IS:1891 - Conveyor and elevator textile belting.

Cotton fabric ply constructed rubber covered belting is the most common type of belt for flat
and trough belt conveyors. The internal carcass of woven fabric gives the longitudinal strength
of pulling the loaded belt and transverse strength for supporting the load, and the cover of
rubber and/or plastics protects the carcass from damage. Number of fabric plies varies from 3
for shorter belt widths (300mm and above) to a maximum of 12 to 14 plies for belt width of
2000mm.

Belt Covers - The requirements of the cover is to work satisfactorily in contact with the
materials to be carried by the belt. For this purpose, sufficient thickness (not less than 1.0 mm)
of top and bottom surface covers of different rubber compounds and plastics are used. Covers in
the following grades are available:
Grade M24, Grade N17, Grade N17 (synthetic), Grade HR, Grade FRAS, PVC Grades.

Belt Designation -
N17-250 / 4
No. Of plies
Grade
Full Thickness
Breaking Strength
(kN/m)

Belt Splicing - Vulcanization or Mechanical joints

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 IDLERS -
Refer to IS:8598 - Specification for idlers and idler sets for belt conveyors.

There are two types of idlers -


1. Straight carrying and return idlers
2. Troughing idler sets.
Material for idler construction - Refer to IS:9295 - Steel tubes for idlers for belt
conveyors.
Idler dimensions - Refer to IS:8598 - Specification for idlers and idler sets for belt
conveyors.
Following parameters has to be found out -

a. Length of the idler


b. Idler diameters
c. Idler vertical clearance
d. Idler sets (no. of idlers in each set)
e. Type of idler mounting
f. Slots for bolts
g. Edge Clearance
h. Spindle ends and type
i. Troughing angle
j. Angle of tilt of side idlers
k. Shape of idler set
l. Idler spacing

IDLER SET DESIGNATION -

d1 l d2
Shape of
idler set N 133 x 1000 A x 25

Type of spindle end

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 CONVEYOR PULLEYS -
Refer to IS:8531 - Specification for pulleys for belt conveyors.

As the conveyor belt passes around these bend pulleys, the plies of the belt are elongated in
proportion to the distance of the ply form center of the pulley. The differential elongation of one
ply over the other is taken up by the rubberized bonding between two plies. Larger the pulley,
less is differential elongation between the plies hence less tendency to ply separation. This is the
reason the bend pulleys are made large.
Following parameters are required to specify a pulley -
1. Type of pulley - Head/Tail/Bend/Snub
2. Diameter of pulley
3. Face width of pulley
4. Diameter of shaft
5. Diameter of bearing
6. Flat or Crowned
7. Type of lagging (if required)

DESIGNATION OF PULLEY -

Face Width

Belt Pulley 400 x 1200 C R Rubber Lagging

Diameter Crowning

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 DRIVE ARRANGEMENT -
1. Motor -
a. Type
b. Power rating
c. Speed
d. Supply voltage
2. Reducer
a. Type
b. Size
c. Reduction ratio
d. Hold back - Yes / No
3. Couplings
a. Type
b. Size
4. Brakes
a. Type
b. Torque

 TAKE UP UNIT -
Refer to IS:11592 - Selection and designation of belt conveyors.
There are following different type of take up arrangements -
1. Loop take up
2. Gravity weight take up unit for intermediate points
3. Gravity weight take up unit for end pulleys
4. Screw take up

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 MISCELLENIOUS EQUIPMENTS -
1. Belt cleaning device
2. Loading and unloading devices
3. Training idlers
4. Conveyor structure
5. Transfer terminals (Junction House)

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APPENDIX

BELT CONVEYOR PARTS


CONVEYOR BELTS
SI. NO. Factor to be calculated Ref. Remarks
1 Type of Belt
2 Belt Material
3 Belt Thickness
4 Belt Width IS:1891 Belt Designation from the same Code
5 Belt Construction
6 Belt Covers (Grade)
7 Belt Splicing

IDLER
Type of Idler -
a. Straight Carrying and Return
1
Idlers
b. Troughing Idler Sets IS:8598
a. Straight and Carrying Idler
b. Troughing Idler Sets
2 Idler Construction - Steel Tubes IS: 9295
3 Mounting of Idler Rollers
4 Idler Dimensions
a. Diameter
b. Length IS:8598
c. Troughing Angle
d. Edge Clearance
e. Idler Spacing
5 Bearing for Idler Roller

CONVEYOR PULLEYS
1 Material of pulley
2 Manufacturing Method
3 Dimensions
4 Surface Roughness IS:8531
5 Surface Material (if required)
6 Bearing for Idler Roller
7 Bearing Housing

DRIVE ARRANGEMENT

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1 Motor Selection
2 Shaft Coupling (Flexible)
3 Gearbox Selection
4 Braking Arrangement

BELT TENSIONING ARRANGEMENT


1 Type of Take-up Unit
a. Mechanical or Screw Type
b. Gravity Type
2 Counterweight

LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICES


1 Type of material
Storage or transfer Unit
2
Hopper/Bin/Chute/Storage Pile
3 Delivery Rate
Delivery Rate Controller
4
RG/RPG/FG
5 Feeder (if required)
6 Side Boards
7 Skirt Plates
8 Tripper or Plough (As Required)

BELT CLEANERS
1 Scrapper / Wiper / Roller Brush
2 Material
3 Dimensions

TRAINING IDLERS
1 Distance between Training Idlers
2 Tilt Angle

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REFERENCES
1. “Introduction to material handling” - Siddhartha Ray - New age publication
2. IS:11592 - Selection and designation of belt conveyors
3. IS:1891 - Conveyor and elevator textile belting
4. IS:8598 - Specification for idlers and idler sets for belt conveyors
5. IS:9295 - Steel tubes for idlers for belt conveyors
6. IS:8531 - Specification for pulleys for belt conveyors

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