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• India has often been called a nation of shopkeepers. Presumably the reason for this is; that,
a large number of retail enterprises exist in India. In 2004, there were 12 million such units
of which 98% are small family businesses, utilizing only household labour. Even among
retail enterprises, which employ hired workers, a majority of them use less than three
• Retailing is the combination of activities involved in selling or renting consumer goods
and services directly to ultimate consumers for their personal or household use. In addition
to selling, retailing includes such diverse activities as, buying, advertising, data processing
and maintaining inventory.
• While sales people regularly call on institutional customers, to initiate and conclude
transactions, most end users or final customers, patronize stores. This makes store
location, product assortment, timings, store fixtures, sales personnel, delivery and other
factors, very critical in drawing customers to the store.
• Final customers make many unplanned purchases. In contrast those who buy for resale or
use in manufacturing are more systematic in their purchasing. Therefore, retailers need to
place impulse items in high traffic locations, organize, store layout , trains sales people in
suggestion , and place related items next to each other, to stimulate purchase.


• Department Stores
• Discount Stores
• Clothing Stores
• Specialty retailers

• Convenience Stores
• Grocery Stores
• Drug Stores
• Home furnishing retailers
• Auto Retailers
• Direct Sales Catalog and mail order companies
• Some e-commerce businesses


• Organized retailing in India was estimated at Rs.18, 000 crores in 2002-2003 and has
grown at about 40% over the last 3 years (Source KSA Retail Outlook).
• Retailing has a tremendous impact on the economy. It involves high annual sales and
employment. As a major source of employment retailing offers a wide range of career
opportunities including; store management, merchandising and owning a retail business.
• Consumers benefit from retailing in that, retailers perform marketing functions that makes
it possible for customers to have access to a broad variety of products and services.
Retailing also helps to create place, time and possession utilities. A retailer's service also
helps to enhance a product's image.
• Retailers participate in the sorting process by collecting an assortment of goods and
services from a wide variety of suppliers and offering them for sale. The width and depth
of assortment depend upon the individual retailer's strategy.
• They provide information to consumers through advertising, displays and signs and sales
personnel. Marketing research support is given to other channels, members.
• They store merchandise, mark prices on it, place items on the selling floor and otherwise
handle products; usually they pay suppliers for items before selling ,,them to final
customers. They complete transactions by using appropriate locations, and timings, credit
policies, and other services e.g. delivery.
• Retailing in a way, is the final stage in marketing channels for consumer products.
Retailers provide the vital link between producers and ultimate consumers.



• Successful retail operations depend largely on two main dimensions: margin and turnover.
How far a retail enterprise can reach in margin and turnover depends essentially on the
type of business (product lines) and the style and scale of the operations. In addition the
turnover also depends upon the professional competence of the enterprise.
• In a given business two retail companies may choose two different margin levels, and yet
both may be successful, provided the strategy and style of management are appropriate.


• Ronald R. Gist "Suggested a conceptual frame work, using margin and turnover, for
understanding the retail structure and evolving a retail strategy."
• Margin is defined as the percentage mark tip at which the inventory in the store is sold and
turnover is the number of times the average inventory is sold in a year. This is a
diagrammatic representation of the frame work and can be applied to almost any type of
retail business.
• Depending upon the, combination of the two parameters, a retail business will fall into one
of the four quadrants. For instance L-L signifies a position which is low on both margin
and turnover; whereas, H-L indicates high margin and low turnover.


• Such an operation assumes that low price is the most significant determinant of customer
patronage. The stores in this category price their products below the market level.
Marketing communication focuses mainly on price. They provide very few services; if
any, and they normally entail an extra charge whenever they do. The merchandise in these
stores are generally pre-sold or self sold. This means that the customers buy the product,
rather than the store selling them.
• These stores are typically located in isolated locations and usually stock a wide . range of
fast moving goods in several merchandise lines. The inventory consists of well known

brands for which a consumer pull is created by the manufacturer through national
advertising. Local promotion focuses on low price. Wal-mart in the United States is an
example and Pantaloon Chain or Subhiksha are Indian examples of such stores.


• This operation is based on the premise that distinctive merchandise, service and sales
approach are the most important factors for attracting customers. Stores in this category
price their products higher than those in the market, but not necessarily higher than those
in similar outlets. The focus in marketing communication is on product quality and

• Merchandise is primarily sold in store and not pre-sold. These stores provide a large
number of services and sell select, categories of products. They do not stock national
brands which are nationally advertised. Typically, a store in this category is located in a
down town area or a major shopping center. Sales depend largely on salesmanship and
image of the outlet.


• These stores generally stock a narrow line of products with turnover of reasonably high
frequency. They could be situated in a non commercial area but not too far from a major
thoroughfare. Their location advantage allows them to charge a higher price. High over
head costs and, low volumes also necessitate a higher price.


• Retail enterprises in this category are pushed to maintain low margins because of price
wars. Compounding this problem is the low volume of sales, which is probably a result of
poor management, unsuitable location etc. such businesses, normally get wiped out over a
period of time.


• Regardless of the particular type of retailer (such as a supermarket or a department store),
retailers can be categorized by (a) Ownership, (b) Store strategy mix, and (c) Non store
operations. Figure 1.3 illustrates this concept.

• Form of Ownership
• A retail business like any other type of business, can be owned by a sole proprietor,
partners or a corporation. A majority of retail business in India are sole proprietorships
and partnerships.
• Independent Retailer
• Generally operates one outlet and offers personalized
service, a convenient location and close customer contact.
Roughly 98% of all the retail businesses in India, are
managed and run by independents, including barber shops,
drycleaners, furniture stores, bookshops, LPG Gas Agencies
and neighborhood stores. This is due to the fact that into
retailing is easy and it requires low investment and little
technical knowledge. This obviously results in a high degree
of competition..

• Most independent retailers fail because of the ease of entry,

poor management skills and inadequate resources.

Retail Chain

• It involves common ownership of multiple units. In such

units, the purchasing and decision making are centralized.
Chains often rely on, specialization, standardization and
elaborate control- systems. Consequently chains are able to
serve a large dispersed target market and maintain a well
known company name. Chain stores have been successful,
mainly because they have the opportunity to take advantage
of "economies of scale" in buying and selling goods. They
can maintain their prices, thus increasing their margins, or
they can cut prices and attract greater sales volume. Unlike
smaller, independent retailers with lesser financial means,
they can also take advantage of such tools as computers and
information technology. Examples of retail chains in India

are Shoppers stop; West side and IOC, convenience stores at

select petrol filling stations.

Retail Franchising

• Is a contractual arrangement between a "franchiser" (which

may be a manufacturer, wholesaler, or a service sponsor)
and a "franchisee" or
• Franchisees, which allows the latter to conduct a certain
form of business under an established name and according
to a specific set of rules. The franchise agreement gives the
franchiser much discretion in controlling the operations of
small retailers. In exchange for fees, royalties and a share of
the profits, the franchiser offers assistance and very often
supplies as well. Classic examples of franchising are;
McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Nirulas.


• A retail cooperative is a group of independent retailers that

have combined their financial resources and their expertise
in order to effectively control their wholesaling needs. They
share purchases, storage, shopping facilities, advertising
planning and other functions. The individual retailers retain
their independence, but agree on broad common policies.
Amul is a typical example of a cooperative in India.

Store Strategy Mix

• Retailers can be classified by retail store strategy mix,

which is an integrated combination of hours, location,
assortment, service, advertising, and prices etc. The various
categories are:

• (A)Convenience Store: Is generally a well situated, food

oriented store with long operating house and a limited
number of items. Consumers use a convenience store; for
fill in items such as bread, milk, eggs, chocolates and candy
• (B)Super markets: Is a diversified store which sells a broad
range of food and non food items. A supermarket typically
carries small house hold appliances, some apparel items,
bakery, film developing, jams, pickles, books, audio/video
CD's etc. The Govt. run Super bazaar, and Kendriya
Bhandar in Delhi are good examples of a super market.
Similarly in Mumbai, we have Apna Bazar and Sahakari
• (C)Department Stores: A department store usually sells a
general line of apparel for the family, household linens,
home furnishings and appliances. Large format apparel
department stores include Pantaloon, Ebony and Pyramid.
Others in this category are: Shoppers Stop and Westside.
• (D)Speciality Store: Concentrates on the sale of a single
line of products or services, such as Audio equipment,
Jewellery, Beauty and Health Care, etc. Consumers are not
confronted with racks of unrelated merchandise. Successful
speciality stores in India include, Music World for audio
needs, Tanishq for jewellery and McDonalds, Pizza Hut and
Nirula's for food services.
• (E)Hyper Markets: Is a special kind of combination store
which integrates an economy super market with a discount
department store. A hyper market generally has an ambience
which attracts the family as whole. Pantaloon Retail India
Ltd. (PRIL) through its hypermarket "Big Bazar", offers
products at prices which are 25% - 30% lower than the
market price.

Non Store Retailing


• In non store retailing, customers do not go to a store to buy.

This type of retailing is growing very fast. Among the
reasons are; the ability to buy merchandise not available in
local stores, the increasing number of women workers, and
the presence of unskilled retail sales persons who cannot
provide information to help shoppers make buying decisions
• The major types of non store retailing are:
• (A)In Home Retailing: Where, a sales transaction takes
place in a home setting - including door-door selling. It
gives the sales person an opportunity to demonstrate
products in a very personal manner. He/She has the
prospect's attention and there are fewer distractions as
compared to a store setting. Examples of in home retailing
include, Eureka Forbes vaccum cleaners and water filters.
• (B)Telesales/Telephone Retailing: This involves contact
between the prospect and the retailer over the phone, for the
purpose of making a sale or purchase. A large number of
mobile phone service providers use this method. Other
examples are private insurance companies, and credit
companies etc.
• (C)Catalog Retailing: This is a type of non store retailing
in which the retailers offers the merchandise in a catalogue,
which includes ordering instructions and customer orders by
mail. The basic attraction for shoppers is convenience. The
advantages to the retailers include lover operating costs,
lower rents, smaller sales staff and absence of shop lifting.
This trend is catching up fast in India. Burlington's
catalogue shopping was quite popular in recent times. Some
multi level marketing companies like Oriflame also resort to
catalogue retailing.
• (D)Direct Response Retailing: Here the marketers
advertise these products/ services in magazines, newspapers,
radio and/or television offering an address or telephone

number so that consumers can write or call to place an

order. It is also sometimes referred to as "Direct response
advertising." The availability of credit cards and toll free
numbers stimulate direct response by telephone. The goal is
to induce the customer to make an immediate and direct
response to the advertisement to "order now." Telebrands is
a classic example of direct response retailing. Times
shopping India is another example.
• (E)Automatic Vending: Although in a very nascent stage
in India, is the ultimate in non personal, non store retailing.
Products are sold directly to customers/buyers from
machines. These machines dispense products which enable
customers to buy after closing hours. ATM's dispensing
cash at odd hours represent this form of non store retailing.
Apart from all the multinational banks, a large number of
Indian banks also provide ATM services, countrywide.
• (F)Electronic Retailing/E-Tailing: Is a retail format in
which retailers communicate with customers and offer
products and services for sale, over the internet. The rapid
diffusion of
internet access and usage, and the perceived low cost of
entry has stimulated the creation of thousands of
entrepreneurial electronic retailing ventures during the last
10 years or so. Amazon.com, E-bay and Bazee.com
HDFCSec.com are some of the many e-tailers operating.


• Is a hypothesis that attempts to explain the emergence of
new retailing institutions and their eventual decline and
replacement by newer retailing institutions? Like products
retailing institutions also have a life cycle.

• According to this theory new retailers enter the market as,

low margin, low price, low status institutions. The cycle
begins with retailers attracting customers by offering low
price and low service. Over a period of time these retailers
want to expand their markets and begin to stock more
merchandise, provide more services, and open more
convenient locations. This trading up process. Increases the
retailers’ costs and prices, creating opportunities for new
low price retailers to enter the market.
• The evolution of the department store illustrates the "wheel
of retailing" theory. In its entry phase, the department store
was a low cost-low service venture. With time it moved up
into the trading-up phase. It upgraded its facilities, stock
selection, advertising and service. The same department
store then moves into the vulnerability phase, because it
becomes vulnerable to low cost/low service formats, such as
full line discount stores and category specialists. Figure 1.5
illustrates this theory. While the wheel hypothesis has a
great deal of intuitive appeal and has been borne out in
general by many studies of retail development, it only
reflects a pattern. It is not a sure indicator of every change,
nor was it ever intended to describe the development of
every individual retailer.

• There are many factors for retailers to consider while
developing and implementing their marketing plans. Among
the major retailing decisions are these related to (a) Target
markets (b) Merchandise management (c) Store location (d)
Store image (e) Store personnel (f) Store design (g)
Promotion, and (h) Credit and collections.
Target Markets: Although retailers normally aim at the mass market, a growing number are
engaging in marketing research and market segmentation, because they are finding it
increasingly difficult to satisfy everyone. Through a careful definition of target markets,
retailers can use their resources and capabilities to position themselves more effectively and
achieve differential advantage. The tremendous growth in number of speciality stores in
recent years is largely due to their ability to define precisely the type of customers, they want
to serve.
• Merchandise Management: The objective here is to identify the merchandise that
customers want, and make it available at the right price, in the right place at the right
time. Merchandise Management includes (i) merchandise planning (ii) merchandise
purchase, and (iii) merchandise control. Merchandise planning deals with decisions
relating to the breadth and depth of the mix, needed to satisfy target customers to
achieve the retailers return on investment. This involves sales forecasting, inventory
requirements, decisions regarding gross margins and mark ups etc. Merchandise
buying involves decisions relating to centralized or decentralized buying, merchandise
resources and negotiation with suppliers. Merchandise Control: deals with maintaining
the proper level of inventory and protecting it against shrinkage (theft, pilferage etc.).
• Store Location: Location is critical to the success of a retail store. A store's trading-
area is the area surrounding the store from which the outlet draws a majority of its
customers. The extent of this area depends upon the merchandise sold. For example
some people might be willing to travel a longer distance to shop at a speciality store
because of the unique and prestigious merchandise offered. Having decided on the
trading area a specific site must then be selected. Factors affecting the site include,
traffic patterns, accessibility, competitors' location, availability and cost and
population shifts within the area.
• Store Image: A store image is the mental picture, or personality of the store, a retailer
likes to project to customers. Image is affected by advertising, services; store layout,
personnel, as well as the quality, depth and breadth of merchandise. Customers tend to
shop in stores that fit their images of themselves.
• Store Personnel: Sales personnel at a retail store can help build customer loyalty and
store image. A major complaint in many lanes of retailing, is the poor attitude of a
salesperson. There is a growing trend now, to provide training to, these sales clerks to
convert them from order takers to effective sales associates.
• Store Design: A store's exterior and interior design affect its image and profit
potential. The exterior should be attractive and inviting and should blend with the
store's general surroundings. The term "Atmospherics" is used to refer to the retailer's
effort at creating the right ambience. Merchandise display is equally important. An
effective layout guides the customer though the various sections in the store and
facilitates purchase.
• Promotion: retail promotion includes all communication from retailers to consumers
and between sales people and customers. The objective is to build the stores image,
promote customer traffic, and sell specific products. It includes both, personal and non
personal promotion. Personal communication is personal selling - the face to face
interaction between the buyer and the seller. Department stores and speciality stores,
emphasize this form of promotion. Non personal promotion is advertising. The media
used are TV, Radio, Newspapers, Outdoor displays and direct mail, other forms of
promotion include, displays, special sales, give always and contests etc.
• Credits & Collections: Retailers are generally wary of providing credit, because of
additional costs-financing accounts receivables, processing forms and bad debts etc.
But many customers prefer some form of credit while purchasing. This explains the
popularity of different types of credit cards and debit cards.


• In recent years the nature of retailing has changed dramatically, as firms try to protect
their positions in the market place. Many customers are no longer willing to spend as
much time on shopping as they once did. Some sectors of retailing have become
saturated, several retailers are operating under high levels of debt and number of
retailers after running frequent "sales", have found it difficult to maintain regular
• Retailers are adapting to*the shopping needs and time constraints of working women,
dual earner households and the increased customer interest in quality and customer
• Shopping Malls: A growing number of shopping malls are coming up all over the
country. In north India; there seems to be a proliferation of such malls surrounding
Delhi, in places like Gurgaon and Noida. In general they target higher income
customers, with their prestigious specialty shops, restaurants and department stores.
• Factory Outlets: Manufacturers are opening factory outlets to sell off surplus
inventories and outdated merchandise. This forward vertical integration gives
manufacturers greater control' over distribution, than selling the merchandise to off
price retailers. Mohini knitwear of Ludhiana (Punjab) and number of woolen and
hosiery manufacturers set up their outlets in Delhi during winters.
• Non Store Retailing: Non store retailing is accelerating at a faster rate than in store
retailing. This includes direct marketing. In Home shopping TV shopping and e-tailing
• Diversification of Offerings: Scrambled (unrelated products or services)
merchandising is taking on a broader meaning and inter type competition among
retailers is growing. For instance Citibank is organizing tourist trips and sending mail
order catalogues to its credit card customers.
• Impact of Technology on Shopping Behaviors: The way retailers present their
merchandise and conduct their transactions are changing. Cable TV Channels are used
to present merchandise, Videos have replaced catalogues and computer linkages to
acquire information and make purchases are on the increase. Virtual shopping through
PDA's is another possibility.

Multi Channel Retailing: Traditional store based and catalogue retailers are placing more
emphasis on their electronic channels and evolving into multi channel retailers, because they
can reach new markets and overcome limitations posed by traditional formats.


The Reliance Group, founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (1932-2002), is India's largest private
sector enterprise, with businesses in the energy and materials value chain. Group's annual
revenues are in excess of USD 27 billion. The flagship company, Reliance Industries Limited,
is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector company in India.

Backward vertical integration has been the cornerstone of the evolution and growth of
Reliance. Starting with textiles in the late seventies, Reliance pursued a strategy of backward
vertical integration - in polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics, petrochemicals, petroleum
refining and oil and gas exploration and production - to be fully integrated along the materials
and energy value chain.

The Group's activities span exploration and production of oil and gas, petroleum refining and
marketing, petrochemicals (polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics and chemicals), textiles and

Reliance enjoys global leadership in its businesses, The Group exports products in excess of
USD 15 billion to more than 100 countries in the world. There are more than 25,000
employees on the rolls of Group Companies. Major Group Companies are Reliance Industries
Limited (including main subsidiaries Reliance Petroleum Limited and Reliance Retail
Limited) and Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited.

"Growth has no limit at Reliance. I keep revising my vision. Only when you can dream
It, you can do it."

Dhirubhai H. Ambani
Founder Chairman Reliance Group
December 28, 1932 - July 6, 2002

Dhirubhai Ambani founded Reliance as a textile company and led its evolution as a global
leader in the materials and energy value chain businesses.


Mukesh D. Ambani Chairman &

Managing Director

Nikhil R. Meswani Executive Hital R. Meswani
Director Executive Director


India’s Fortune 500 private sector giant, Reliance Industries Ltd, has, in fact, been first off the
blocks by launching its first Reliance Fresh outlets in Hyderabad,

Reliance fresh is the retail chain division of reliance industries of India which is headed by
Mukesh Ambani. Reliance has entered into this segment by opening new retail stores into
almost every metropolitan and regional area of India. Reliance plans to invest rs 25000 crores
in the next 4 years in their retail division and plans to begin retail stores in 784 cities across
the country. The reliance fresh supermarket chain is ril’s rs 25,000 crore venture and it plans
to add more stores across different g, and eventually have a pan-India footprint by year 2011.
The super marts will sell fresh fruits and vegetables, staples, groceries, fresh juice bars and
dairy products and also will sport a separate enclosure and supply-chain for non-vegetarian
products. Besides, the stores would provide direct employment to 5 lakh young Indians and
indirect job opportunities to a million people, according to the company. The company also
has plans to train students and housewives in customer care and quality services for part-time

Reliance Fresh will…

• Forge strong and lasting bonds with millions of farmers and will transform the
Relationship with customers to a new level
• Offer unmatched affordability, quality, convenience, service and choice
• Offer our customers the widest range of fruit and vegetables at the best prices in
the neighborhood
• Provide for the daily needs of our customers by offering staples, grocery and
household products at great prices
• Offer consistent high quality, unbeatable freshness and great service so that our
Customers know that we can be trusted every day.


In Ranchi there are 9 outlets of Reliance Fresh:

1. SPG Mart

2. Trikuta Hill

3. Rathod Circular Road

4. Vyas Enclave

5. L N Complex

6. M R Tower

7. Eyelex Hinoo Main Road

8. Prasad Motors

9. Booty More

On an average turnover is 50, 000 in Ranchi, where as compare to others cities it is too low.

Their main aim is to provide good quality products in lower price & customer service &
customer satisfaction.

According to reliance fresh store manager they were satisfying 75% of customer expectations.

These Are the Problems We Found In Reliance Fresh in Ranchi:–

- Ranchi is a cultural oriented city

- Per Consumer income lower than compare to metropolitan cities

- The most of the consumer will prefer to go for local market

- Reliance is situated in high income consumer area

There is limited consumer

- Advertising strategy is not good in Ranchi.


- It is the organizational study

- identify the reliance marketing strategy in Ranchi

- We provide information to reliance fresh to focus

On middle class consumers in Ranchi

- Implementation of this plan should not affect

Other R

Marketing Research

Marketing research as a functional area of management is becoming

increasingly important as compared to other field. All decisions in modern

business organization revolve around the marketing information. Because

the success of the business does not depend upon the guess work rather

have the correct information about the customer, what they want, how

want, how much they are able to pay, and the substitute available in the

they market etc. This information’s can be collected and utilized the help

of marketing research.

Marketing research is the systematic and objective identification,

collection, analysis, discrimination, and use of information for the

purpose of improving decision making related to the identification

and solution of problem in marketing.

Types of Research

1. considered. Basically there is a little knowledge on which to build.

2. Descriptive Research: Descriptive research embraces a large

proportion of marketing research. The purpose is to provide an
accurate snapshot of some aspect of the market environment. In
descriptive research, hypothesis often will exist, but them tentative
and speculative.

3. Causal Research: When it is necessary to show that one variable

Causes or determines the values of other variables, a casual


Approach must be used. Since data collection method is from


Hence Descriptive type of research is used for analysis of the


All research approaches can be classified into three general

categories research:

3. Exploratory Research: Exploratory research is used when one is

seeking insights into the general nature of the problem, the possible
decision alternatives, and relevant variables that need to be
Types and collection of data used

Basically there are two types of data which are used in marketing research

1. Primary Data

A. Observation
B. Interview
C. Questionnaires

Interview: Interview is one of the chief means of collecting data in

research process. Interview may be defined as a systematic conversation
initiated for a specific purpose and focus on certain content areas.

Surveys: There are mainly three types of surveys, depending upon the
method of data gathering used: Personal surveys, telephone
surveys and mail surveys.

Advantages of Surveys
1. Wider Distribution
2. Less Distribution bias
3. Thoughtful reply

The primary data under processing is collected from both direct filling the
questionnaires and through telephone interviews also.

2. Secondary Data: The data once collected by once person

become the secondary data if used by another person.

Sources of Secondary Data: The various sources of data are as follows:

1. Bibliography
2. Directories
3. Televisions
4. Newspapers
5. Journals
6. Websites

The Secondary data like information of existing customers, information

about company has been taken from company website, company’s yearly
chronicles and employee’s of the company.

A sample is a part of population. The sample should be representative of

the population and the information obtained must be reliable. In any
survey where reliability is desired, the errors and variances have to be
controlled, measured and interpreted.


 The type of Research Design will be Descriptive

 The types of Primary Data collection procedures that would

probably be used.

 Population –Dealers, distributors, fleet owners, company’s

representative in Ranchi.

 Process – Sampling

 Method of data collection – Typed Questionnaire

Attitude Measurement

Attitude is psychological constructs, a way of conceptualizing the

intangible. Attitude can’ really be observed or measured directly because
their existence is inferred from their consequences. Attitudes are mental
states used by individuals to structure the way they perceived their
environment and guided the way respond to it.

Types of Attitude measurements Scale: There are four types of

measurement scale as follows.

1. Nominal Scale: In a nominal scale, objects are assigned to

mutually exclusive, labeled categories but there is no necessary
relationship among the categories.

2. Ordinal Scale: An ordinal scale is obtained by arranging them in

order with regards to some common variable. The question is
simply whether each object has more or less of this variable than
some other objects.

3. Interval Scale: In an interval scale the numbers used to rank the

objects also represent equal increments of the attributes being

4. Ratio Scale: A ratio scale is a special kind of interval scale that

has a natural zero point.

The Nominal Scale is used while designing the questionnaire. Both close
ended and open ended questions are put together in the questionnaire.

PRIMARY DATA – Collected from consumers and suppliers, reliance fresh employees

SECONDARY DATA – Collected from internet, articles, and news papers.

The information is the major part of any research proposal to attain certain objectives we
require both secondary and primary data which is discussed above


The hypothesis tested on both reliance fresh and people of Ranchi

H0: Reliance fresh is not famous & not significant in Ranchi.

H1: Reliance fresh is famous & highly significant in Ranchi.


Every research has certain limitation so there is no research is free from limitation same thing
happen in this research which is discussed below:

- Less investment in advertising in Ranchi city

- People are very conservative

- Primary data is not sufficiently available

- Much of the research done was based on consumer and supplier survey

- Research based on Ranchi city

- Last but not least time constraint.


A detailed study in Reliance Retail focusing primarily on two areas of their operations.

1. Retail stores operations based on aspects :-

I. General operations according to the company manuals.

II. Store operations based on SUSD (Shutter up to Shutter down)

2. An analysis of footfall, ticket size & catchment of Reliance fresh stores operating in
Ranchi district in order to determine their performances based on indicators like sale,
sale per sq. feet , gross margin, shrinkage , dumping and ticket size for the month of

May 2009 as well as their comparison with month of April 2009.


Getting Products to Shelf

1) Indenting & Purchase Orders (PO’s)

(a)Indenting – DC Delivery:-

Indenting will be happen after checking stock in the store and goods in transit. Or whenever if
required any changes in indenting due to season, weekends or any festivals then the quantity
is modified. For branded goods there is a automatic indenting system which is handled by the
head office (Mumbai). Delivery of fruit & vegetables is after 48hours after being raised.
Indenting for milk and dairy products is delivered after 36 hours.

(b) Raising PO for Bakery

PO (purchase order) for bakery supply is raised in the store and also released to the vendors
by the stores. PO on vendors can be raised only once each day & it will be valid for 24 hours.
2) Receiving:-

(a) Checking of Delivery in DC

All the Dry DC delivery will be checked by a store staff in the DC staging area before
packing and loading. This is to minimize delivery count error and ensure that right quantity is
delivered to the stores. Behind this all the activity owner is Store Manager.

(b) Receiving Goods in Store: From DC & CPC

Receiving indented goods from the DC & CPC as per the delivery schedule. At the time of
receiving goods from DC many things which is followed by the SM, ASM,& CSA:-
 Check the seal in front of driver.
 Note down the air condition temperature.
 Inspect stocks for transit damages.
 If any HU (Handling unit) / article is found damaged, excess, or missing noted it on
the trip sheet for return to DC.
 Do the GRN (Goods return note) for the delivery for the actual received quantity.
 Stores are not unloading transit damaged stocks. Transit damages will be returned to
DC in the same delivery truck.
 The main focus during goods receiving must be to unload the crates/ cartons from the
truck as quickly and safely as possible.

(c) Receiving from Vendors

Procedure for receiving goods directly from vendors. Behind this whole activity
owner is store manager/ asst. store manager. Reliance fresh stores indenting specially
bakery, beverage and books/magazines and music. SM/ASM Checks:-
 Check the deliveries for quantity, damages and freshness and accept only good
products as per shelf life norms.
 Do not accept any short shelf life or damage quantity from vendor and reduce it from
the invoice if required.
 Remove all expired products from the shelf and get them replaced with fresh product
without any GRN for the same.
 In case of books/magazines and music SM/ASM check bar-codes on the books or
music CDs delivered by the vendor & return the unsold items to the vendors.
 Vendors and store staff check physically check DSD deliveries for damages and
freshness and accept only fresh saleable products.
3) Replenishment of goods

(a) Replenish Shelf from Goods Receiving Area

Process of moving goods from goods receiving area to the respective bays/freezers/chillers as
per the priority fill rule.
 Frozen products received must have first priority for stacking in the Freezers.
 Strictly follow FIFO
 Place previous stock in the front/top of the shelf.
 Chilled product received must have second priority after frozen product for stacking
in the chillers.

4) Managing Price Changes

(a) Changing SELs for those SKU’s where price has been changed. All the changing
of SKU’s is done by headquarter Mumbai.

5) Managing Planogram

Implementation of changes of Planogram

The Planogram indicates the location for each SKU on a shelf. This process describes how to
change Planogram. Changing of Planogram is wholly managed by headquarter. Headquarter
send new Planogram to store by mail. Changing of fixtures and shelf heights, at
per new Planogram. The major change of shelf is less than 5 bays. Check quality of stock
received as per Planogram, raise an indent of additional stock if required. Stack goods as per
Planogram and readjust SEL to align with the left hand side of the first facing going from the
left. All the changes made on shelf to be signed off by store manager. All the Planogram to be
provided in standard format. Planogram indicate shelf heights. Planogram is send to the store
at least 2 days in advance of the change. No stock to be displayed on the shelf if it not in the
Planogram. If the F& V section looks empty in the late evening because of stock outs, then
store manager may change only the F& V Planogram in a suitable manner to give appearance
of full store.

6) Getting Products from Shelf to customers

(a) Promotion management (setting up the store for new promotions)

 Store check that all new promotional stock has been received from the DC and the
free gift under promotional offer are bundle along with the promotional stock. If the
free gift is too large to be accommodated on the shelf – the gift should be provided to
the customer at the till.
 Put up new promotional signage above the end cap at the marketing defined
 ASM/SM briefs the staff at the morning and afternoon meeting on the promotion
 Staff need to be briefed on the following :
 Details of the promotion
 Period of the promotion
 Advantages to the customer
 Any special arrangements at the till
 Sales target for the promotion
 Process for dealing with left over promotion stock
 If the customer brings the promotion item back for exchange / refund – the customer
has to bring back the free offer as well. Exception can be made at the customer’s
favour at discretion of store manager.

7) Stock Display Management

 Filling up the gaps on the shelves for SKU sold during the day is defined as spot fill.
 Fill F&V in a similar manner using crates stored in the bottom shelf of the wall racks,
below heapers and in back room. Follow FEFO, FIFO rules.
 In case of F&V, remove the old crates, place the new crates on the racks and then
place the older products on top of the newer products – FIFO
 Checking of temperature of chillers and freezers is also a part of SDM.
 It is the process of checking and moving stocks to ensure that the older stock gets
sold before the newer ones.
 FEFO / FIFO to be followed for stock rotation for non F&V SKUs.
 The thing which is strictly followed is removal of damaged part of the F&V will not
be carried out at the shop floor under any circumstances.
 In every store every day employees check for date code check schedule for the day in
store perform.
 Employees removed expired products from the shelves and take them to the back of
the store.
 Employees identify & segregate near expiry products for mark down as per
markdown policy and guidelines.
 Procedure for selling loose staple products to the customer in desired quantity.
 Procedure for managing the concessionaire in our stores like the Pickles counters,
Sweet counters etc.
 Home delivery: for this there is some procedure which is followed by stores.
 Purchase a detailed street map of the local area e.g. Eicher
 Outline on the map the catchments which fall in 2 Km
radius of the store.
 Prepare a list of roads / building with in that area.
 They appoint two employees for Home delivery champions
(HDC) – for order taking, picking and billing.
 Home delivery associate (HDA) – billing and delivery.
 There is two type of home delivery which is given by the
RF: Convenience order – this is a situation in which the
customer has come to the store, picked items, got them
billed and then request RF store team to deliver to his
residence. The payment in this case for the goods has
already been received.
Phone Orders - This is a situation in which the customer
does not carry out the activities of physically picking,
billing etc. but places an order on phone by calling either at
the store or at the call centre. The payment in this case
would be received once the delivery CSA goes to the
customer destination and hands over the goods.

 Big orders store hire auto, rickshaws & it is decided by

store manager.

8) Managing waste and markdowns :

(a) Segregation of damaged and expiry in store :-

(a) For F&V crates are received carefully for the item not for sale as per reliance retail
quality and are removed from the shelf.
(b) It is done by CSA / F&V champion.

(a) Near expiry product is markdown as per the RR rule.
(b) An expired product is segregated and are treated as per following.


DSD supply Exchange with fresh stock from the
vendor at the time of next delivery
DC supply Dump in store.

(b)Markdown for damages and near expiry:-

Damaged and near expiry products are markdown as per the following rules:

Markdown criteria:-
Up to Rs. 15 or 15 % of selling price (whichever is lower) & it is done by Store manager.

Up to Rs 30 or 30% of SP(whichever is lower) & it is also done by DM / AM.

Beyond Rs 30 or 30% of SP & it is done by state fresh head.

Dumping of damages & expiry product:- Treatment for damaged & expired product are
done in following manner:-

Loss type Action

(a) Type C damage • Dump in store (shown in SAP)
• Dispose in store.
(b) All expiry – (DC supply & DSD • Dump in system (SAP)
without RTV) • Display in store
(c) Expiry – (DC supply with RTV) • Exchange with fresh stock, fresh
vendor at the time of next delivery

 For processing of dump (damaged & expired) approval is obtained from store
 After dumping, all the dump are entered into dump register in the presence of SM
with his /her signature.
 The entire dumped product is then get hand overed to garbage collection agency.
 For type C damaged product some part of each product is kept as proof.
 Finally the dump register is present near DM/AM for approval (signature).

(c)Dump on arrival:-
 On arrival of goods (F&V stock received from DC) poor quality goods are
 It is kept in separate place in the store with the sticker “dumped on arrival – not
for sale” along with receiving date.
 And the respective SM is informed.
 In the GRN (goods received roles) for the delivery, poor quality stocks are
entered as “Damaged Quality”.
 Further it is kept for inspection and area F&V executive is informed. E-mail is
send to the F&V head / F&V category head.
 Finally dumped stocks are hand over to garbage agency.
 In case the GRN is done at the back end maintain a record of the DUA and also
record the some on the invoice that is sent to the commercial team.

(9) Returns:-

(a) Goods Return to DC:-

 A finalized list of good stock article for return to DC is obtained from state
merchandising team.
 According to the list stock of articles are segregated and are moved to the
back office.
 Return schedule is obtained from the state merchandising team and packing
of goods carton are planned.
 They are packed properly. Food and non-food items are packed separately.
 And GRDC is created in SAP for the quality to be returned.
 Finally it is loaded and dispatched to DC in DC truck and return to DC
documents is get signed by the truck driver and is kept with itself.

(b) Goods Return to Vendor:-

 Stocks which are to be returned to vendor are taken out to the back room..
 DSD returns are segregated as per category guidelines.
 Return to vendor document is created in the store.
 Returns are loaded to the vendor’s vehicle.
 2 copies of vendor document are made and is got signed by the vendor.
 One copy is issued to the vendor and 2nd copy is filled as record.
 Security control register for returns are updated regularly

(c) Physical verification of stock:-

 All PI documents present in the system are checked and closed.
 Stocks take checklist is updated.
 It is managed with DC to ensure that there is no afternoon or evening
delivery on the stocks count day.
 Following are checked and ensure:-
(i) GRN for all DC deliveries have been prepared.
(ii) GRN for all DSD deliveries have been completed.
(iii) All damaged products (type c ) have been dumped.
(iv) All expiry product have been dumped.
(v) PI documents for stocks take is generated.
(vi) HHTs are managed and ensured that they working properly etc.

(d) Stocks count and reconciliation:-

 Objective of the count, the layout of the stores and the process are briefly
explained to the staff.
 For stock count staffs are delivered for counting of articles in fixtures and for
entering the count in the HHT.

Back of store – store take

SKUs by weight (F&V, loose staples, etc)
(i) Each loose article are weighed separately and quantity stickers are pasted.
(ii) It is continued until all SKUs are weighed.

SKUs by count:-
(i) Product variants are segregated. Number of units are counted and stickers are pasted
with the quality on SKUs.
(ii) It is continued until all the SKUs are not counted.
(iii) PI count in the HHT is opened (all PI document together) and quantity is entered after
scanning the EAN / article code of the SKUs from the product in the HHT PI
(iv) It is continued in this manner till all the SKUs in the back of store is counted and the
quantity is entered in the PI documents with the help of HHT.
(e) Store Opening :-
(i) Store shutter is opened.
(ii) Burglar alarm is put off.
(iii) Entry for collection of keys and store opening details are recorded in the
register kept at the security.
(iv) Lights are switched on and all the equipments are checked for working made.
(v) Generators are checked for water level, engine oil and Diesel.

(f) Store closing:-

(i) Announcement is made for store closing 10 min before closing.
(ii) No. of tills to be closed or operated fully depends upon the no. of customer
in the store.
(iii) Ensure that no customer is present inside the store.
(iv) POS & EDC closure process is performed.
(v) It is checked that equipment is in order or not after which the store is closed.
(vi) Security guard is got to put paper seal on safe and almirah.
(vii) All air-conditioners are switched off except server room a/c (which must be
maintained between 22-24 degree c )
(viii) Display lights and façade lights are switched off.
(ix) Back room lock is sealed with a paper seal.
(x) Burglar alarm in the store is updated and key register is signed in.
(xi) Finally shutters are locked.

On the sales floor-stock take:-

(i) Counting and weighing of bays are started, and quantity or count stickers are pasted.
(ii) PI documents are opened , EAN/ article code on the products are scanned using the
HHT and the counted number is entered.
(iii) Similarly all the SKUs shelves and bays counted on sales floor and the count entry is
entered in the PI document.
(iv) Control sheet for the fixtures that has been counted are updated.
(v) Once all the articles in the store are counted and count entry is done in the HHT , post
the count data by pressing the “ post count” button in the HHT only.
(vi) HHT would display the list of SKUs for which count has been not entered then the
article in the store is looked upon and count is updated in case the article is
present in the store and count entry was missed earlier.
(vii) The final counted data is posted once again by pressing the “post count” button.
(viii) Success log is checked to ensure that all the PI documents are successfully
(ix) The stock take report is generated is SAP and inventory differences is listed.
(x) In case of major variations record is performed and the count in the PI document is
changed and the count is reported.
(xi) The variation is checked and confirmed and then the difference is posted by posting
the PI documents in ZSTORE, using the ‘Post ‘option under “Phy inv. Post” in
the physical inventory menu.
(xii) The stock take check list lifted in the store.

Catchment area: - the area and population from which a region attracts visitors or


5/16/2009 462 205 6/1/2009 408 204
5/17/2009 365 198 6/2/2009 546 308
5/18/2009 487 345 6/3/2009 546 435
5/19/2009 567 342 6/4/2009 453 397
5/20/2009 452 354 6/5/2009 456 198
5/21/2009 354 189 6/6/2009 453 231
5/22/2009 436 301 6/7/2009 523 303
5/23/2009 645 403 6/8/2009 435 352
5/24/2009 367 300 6/9/2009 543 342
5/25/2009 564 402 6/10/2009 435 241
5/26/2009 453 275 6/11/2009 564 312
5/27/2009 543 305 6/12/2009 543 309
5/28/2009 453 436 6/13/2009 426 189
5/29/2009 435 254 6/14/2009 534 256
5/30/2009 546 345 6/15/2009 423 352
5/31/2009 389 203 6/16/2009 498 423
6/17/2009 456 352


Considering the above chart it can be concluded that female visit more as compare to the male
counterpart and hence reliance fresh owner should consider about the female and should take
more care of female in the sphere of services,protection and product availibilty also.


if we consider the above chart it can be easily concluded that the people between the age
group 23-32 visit more and more in the reliance fresh store and hence store manager
should take care of this age group peoples so that they may captivate them by giving
various discount or facilities etc.
The targets for the current month to any store are assigned according to the sales figures of
the preceding month. Usually the target for the current month is greater than the sales
achieved for the last month by 10-15 % in normal conditions. They can also exceed to almost
25% in some cases where there is large scale supply of stocks of certain kind seeing upon the
arising opportunity for their sale.

STOREWISE REVENUE (All the figures are in lakhs)

. code Name Achieve Targe Achieve Archive Vs MTD
No d t d d%
1 2118 SPG mart 4163 32.87 37.62 34.58 92 % 5%
2 2119 Trikuta hill 2234 8.66 9.55 8.84 93 % 2%
3 2120 Rathoid 2111 17.60 20.25 17.59 87 % 0%
4 2121 Vyas 2560 16.15 18.91 17.65 93 % 9%
5 2122 L N 4832 29.09 32.67 32.83 100 % 13 %
6 2377 M R Tower 1935 6.65 7.72 6.81 88 % 2%
7 2445 Eyelex 2800 20.26 26.47 22.58 85 % 11 %
8 2727 Prasad 5764 20.03 22.96 21.08 92 % 5%
9 2812 Booty 2440 15.22 17.56 16.60 95 % 9%
Result 28839 166.53 193.7 178.55 92 % 7%
Reliance Retail calculates its input per store in form of sales / ft / day in total no. of hrs. of
operation (from 7:00 AM till 9;30 PM). This cost of operation / input includes rentals,
logistics cost, labor costs, electricity charges and up keep and maintenance charges. FTD
(fixed till date) sale / sq ft. represents the break-even point for the company. In case of May
2009 FTD takes into consideration. 31st days of operation from 1st may 2009 to 31st may 2009.
FTD sale/sq ft is assigned to each individual store from the Mumbai based headquarters of
Reliance Retail


Sr. No Storecode Store Name Area FTD LMTD MTD

1 2118 SPG mart 4163 41.2 25.5 26.8

2 2119 Trikuta hill 2234 17.5 12.8 12.8
3 2120 Rathoid C.R 2111 34.1 26.9 26.9
4 2121 Vyas Enclave 2560 32.7 20.4 22.2
5 2122 L N Complex 4832 32.5 19.4 21.9
6 2377 M R Tower 1935 11.3 11.1 11.4
7 2445 Eyelex hinoo 2800 40.3 23.3 26.0
8 2727 Prasad 5764 15.9 11.2 11.8
9 2812 Booty More 2440 24.0 20.1 21.9
Result 28839 28.0 18.6 20.0

So it can be seen that none of the nine operating. Reliance fresh stores in Ranchi have been
able to achieve their break-even point for the month of May 2009. Reliance Fresh stores are
on verge of completing almost 2yrs of their operation in Ranchi district but they are yet to
reach their breakeven point.
Out of the 47 Reliance fresh outlets in eastern region (including 9 from Ranchi) none have
yet reached their BEP.The Company assigns gross margin of operation to each individuals
stores based on their past performances of sales, inputs in current month, shrinkages and


Sr. No Store Store Name Area

1 2118 SPG mart 4163 15.3 % 15.8 % 14.5 %
2 2119 Trikuta hill 2234 13.1 % 15.1 % 14.3 %
3 2120 Rathoid C.R 2111 8.9 % 14.7 % 6.8 %
4 2121 Vyas Enclave 2560 15.4 % 15.9 % 11.3 %
5 2122 L N Complex 4832 12.1 % 14.7 % 13.1 %
6 2377 M R Tower 1935 11.6 % 13.9 % 6.8 %
7 2445 Eyelex hinoo 2800 15.0 % 16.2 % 15.5 %
8 2727 Prasad Motors 5764 16.1 % 14.7 % 14.1 %
9 2812 Booty More 2440 16.4 % 14.5 % 12.9 %
Result 28839 14.0 % 14.7 % 14.1 %

It can be seen that except store no Trikuta Hill, L N Complex & Eyelex, none of these stores
have been able to give the assigned levels of gross margin.

Reliance Retail has a policy of not letting to exceed the shrinkage (loss of goods due to theft
& pilferage) & dumping (loss of goods due to expiry) to individually exceed 2% of the total
sales. It was observed that due to practices like better in-store upkeep, supply close to demand
, better surveillance etc. the shrinkage & dumping were restricted to the desired level in
almost of the stores.


Sr. No Store Store Name Area Shrink% Dump%

1 2118 SPG mart 4163 1.0 1.4
2 2119 Trikuta hill 2234 2.1 4.0
3 2120 Rathoid C.R 2111 0.9 3.4
4 2121 Vyas Enclave 2560 2.5 2.5
5 2122 L N Complex 4832 1.4 1.0
6 2377 M R Tower 1935 2.5 3.7
7 2445 Eyelex hinoo 2800 1.3 3.0
8 2727 Prasad Motors 5764 2.1 1.6
9 2812 Booty More 2440 -0.5 2.5
Result 28839 1.4 2.2

Trikuta hill store, Vyas Enclave store, & M R Tower had above restricted limit shrinkage &
dumping. For Prasad motor store only % age & shrinkage was high.

Whereas in Rathod circular road ,Eyelex hinoo & Booty more store only (%) age dumping
was high than the restricted limit.

Number of tickets means the total number purchases that were made during the entire month.

Sr. No Store Store Name Area FTD MTD

1 2118 SPG mart 4163 576 15,238
2 2119 Trikuta hill 2234 309 7,925
3 2120 Rathoid C.R 2111 460 13,766
4 2121 Vyas Enclave 2560 573 14,892
5 2122 L N Complex 4832 634 17,074
6 2377 M R Tower 1935 237 8,301
7 2445 Eyelex hinoo 2800 532 12,817
8 2727 Prasad Motors 5764 537 14,570
9 2812 Booty More 2440 340 11,010
Result 28839 4189 115,593

It was observed that against the target on only 4189 purchase all the 9 Reliance Fresh stores
of Ranchi registered combinedly 115,593 purchases.

Sales / tickets (ticket size) FTD represents the value of sales per purchase that the stores
should make in order to reach the BEP margin.

Sales /ticket (MTD) represents the value of sales per purchase actually achieved by the store.


Sr. No Store Store Name Area FTD MTD

1 2118 SPG mart 4163 298 227
2 2119 Trikuta hill 2234 126 112
3 2120 Rathod C.R 2111 156 128
4 2121 Vyas Enclave 2560 146 118
5 2122 L N Complex 4832 248 192
6 2377 M R Tower 1935 92 82
7 2445 Eyelex hinoo 2800 212 176
8 2727 Prasad Motors 5764 170 145
9 2812 Booty More 2440 172 151
Result 28839 192 154
In this case also it was seen that none of the 9 stores have reached the BEP.

Reliance retail expected its Reliance Fresh venture to reach its BEP within a span of 1 – 1.5 of
their operation and to become a profit making entity after that out of 9 stores in Ranchi all
have completed their at least 1 – 2 years of existences but are yet to achieve their BEP.


 Based on my ovservation I found that reliance fresh is not

able to make an advertisement properly as compare to big bazaar
or other retail store which is its competitor. so company should
make a proper team to let the people aware about their schemes
and offers being given by reliance fresh.
 Company should increase the number of counter so that it may
minimize the quie of the customers.
 Company should acquire more and more skilled people so that it
may satisfied their customer in all areas.


 Company should pay kind attention towards the existing customer

and try to provide them quick response in the sphere of services so
that they become BSNL’S loyal customers.
 Many corporate houses was there who were reluctant to use bsnl
lease line provided that someone assure them to have a promt
services from them.

 Main competitor Airtel Tata and Reliance comes with various

schemes and margins on the other hand Bsnl is not giving any sort
of scheme and discount that is why many clients were inclined
toward using the lease line offered by other players..
After all business is all about profit and retailer wants some profit
and margins.


Behavior and commitments of sales man towards the dry outlets should be improved.


It was a pleasant experience to have a summer project in a big company

like BSNL. It has given me an opportunity to know all dimensions of the
market and how to tackle problems of it .I have learned various functions
carried out at all the level of organization especially of middle level and
lower level. After a rigorous period of my project I come to know that how
practical knowledge is different from the theoretical concepts.

I was supposed to do project in Delhi where BSNL is playing major role in

the field of telecommunication having a market share of approximately
73% .Other players are Airtel Reliance and Tata.india has a large market
size and it is increasing day by day.
From the survey and analysis of data it can be concluded that still there is
a big opportunity to convert small and big clients. But some how company
is lagging behind in the era of cutthroat competition .company is unable to
make good relationship with corporate clients. Main rival Airtel is trying
to capture more market share with their new ideas and plan. As BSNL is
concern the company should become liberal on his policies. Company
should give the clients more facilities so that they may became new
clients and may continue through it. The company also needs a proper
marketing wing to operate well in this areas and accomplish the goal
,mission and vision of the company.