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Amritansh kr.

Choubey
PDM-03-004

Waste Management
Assignment

1. Explore the existing and potential livelihood opportunities in the waste management sector.
Answer: -
Solid waste management (SWM) has three basic components, namely, collection, transportation
and disposal. The objective of SWM is to reduce the quantity of solid waste disposed off on land
by recovery of materials and energy from solid waste in a cost effective and environment friendly
manner.
Lack of financial resources, institutional weaknesses, improper choice of technology and public
apathy towards waste has made the prevalent system of waste management far from
satisfactory. For instance, the practice of uncontrolled dumping of waste on the outskirts of
towns and cities have created serious environmental and public health problems that threaten
water quality and urbanization itself.

World waste production is expected to be approximately 27 billion tons per year by 2050, one-
third of which will come from Asia, with major contributions from China and India. Waste
generation in urban areas of India will be 0.7 kg per person per day in 2025, approximately four
to six times higher than in 1999. The problems associated with waste become more acute as the
size of communities increase and this provides opportunities for decentralized waste
management by self-help groups and NGOs. The waste produced in urban areas of India is
approximately 170 000 tons per day, equivalent to about 62 million tons per year, and this is
expected to increase by 5% per year owing to increases in population and changing lifestyles.
. Plastics were greatly preferred by the individual actors partly because they are readily available
and secondly because they have immediate use which makes them easy to sell. Scrap metals was
also preferred by over a quarter of the respondents because they are also readily available
especially at the industrial area and the garages. Scrap metals also fetch a higher price compared
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to the rest based on the quality and quantity of the scrap. Only a few respondents were involved
in collecting decomposing garbage, this is because of its limited usage which does not translate
to earning income, however a few of the respondents used it for composting while the majority
of the respondents earned income by transporting the waste to dumpsites. Though the
availability of waste papers in the municipality is high only a few of the respondents in this study
were involved in waste paper collection. This is partly because of the bulkiness of the papers and
lack of immediate pre- processing use.
So, there is hues opportunities in waste management because Government/Municipal of Patna
has not approach to segregate all wastage, in this condition youth have opportunity in this waste
management sector. As like Nidaan NGO is working in Patna which generate job opportunity for
backward class people.

2. Sanitary napkins and diapers use has increased over the years and so has the problem of
managing this waste. Think about what is a possible solution to this problem in a sustainable
manner.

Answer:-There has been a rise in the awareness campaigns about the benefits of use of sanitary
napkins not only in urban but also in the rural India. When we have seen the condition of Waste
generation in urban areas of India will be 0.7 kg per person per day in 2025, approximately four
to six times higher than in 1999. The problems associated with waste become more acute as the
size of communities increase and this provides opportunities for decentralized waste
management by self-help groups and NGOs. The waste produced in urban areas of India is
approximately 170 000 tons per day, equivalent to about 62 million tons per year, and this is
expected to increase by 5% per year owing to increases in population and changing lifestyles.
There has been enormous rise in the use of napkins and so has the waste coming out of it. One
most common waste in all dumping which persists other than plastic is the used napkins. In cities,
there are ULB which dumps the waste in a dumping ground and hence the residents hardly care
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about it. Once the use of napkins or diapers would rise in the rural areas, the issue would be
complicated as the waste management system in rural India is not that organized.
The possible solutions to this could be finding substitutes of materials that are used in the
sanitary napkins and diapers, so that they get decomposed within shorter period or use of
traditional method of using cloth as it can be used several times by washing. Other solution
would be finding ways or developing napkins that can be used several times by washing.
Other modern solution could be use of menstrual caps. These caps don’t need disposal after
every use and thus it can be more sustainable in terms of waste generation and waste
management.
In Tamil Nadu, manufacturer’s washable cloth pads as an alternative to disposable pads. These
washable pads can be used 75 times on an average, which is equivalent to 75 single use and
throw disposable sanitary napkins.
The menstrual caps are expensive but the self-life of these caps ranges between 2 years to 10
years and requires very little water for maintenance so this would be a perfect substitute for
disposable sanitary napkins in the rural areas.
In India manufactures ‘Sakshi’ pads which are fully compostable. It takes about 90-180 days to
fully disintegrate depending on varying environmental factors, ensuring that no toxicity is left in
the soil. Such environment friendly sanitary pads could be the answer to tackling serious rural
and urban disposal issues and also encourage communities to embrace practices to ensure
environmental sustainability.
The best solution is to use re-usable cloth sanitary pads. The design and use of these cloth napkins
is similar to disposables, and they provide absorbency by using many layers of cotton. The re-
usable cloth napkins protect the user from coming in contact with a number of harmful chemicals
found in disposable napkins. Switching to Environmental Friendly Disposables if it is available in
affordable price may reduce the problem to some extent. They are comfortable and extremely
eco positive.
Government agencies are largely indifferent to the issues of toxicity and serious health risks that
commercial pads pose for women. They even promote the use of incinerators particularly for
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disposing pads in school under the Swachch Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) without
considering the release of harmful dioxins and methane gas.
3. Segregation of waste at source is important for its efficient disposal. Please comment.
Answer: - In order to achieve a hygienic community, everyone should actively participate in
promoting cleanliness. Part of the waste management is the proper segregation of waste. This
will surely be a big help in reducing the waste. Thus, one has to follow waste segregation and
divide the waste into dry and wet waste to attain the following benefits.
Waste is something which cannot be made use of. Which is partially right. Not all ‘waste’ is waste!
There is always something good in your waste. Waste actually becomes a source of raw material.
For example you have a banana peel, cardboard, a bunch of old newspapers, glass bottles, some
plastic packaging material in your trash i.e. “Municipal Solid Waste”. Each of these materials
have their own characteristics and reuse/ reduce/ recycling/ stabilization potential. The banana
peel and other organic wastes, if segregated at the source, can be used as compost or it can be
anaerobically digested to form biogas. Paper has high recycling potential. Approximately 28 m
tons of wood can be saved from getting cut if 7.7 tonnes of paper is recovered for recycling! The
same can be said of glass, and packaging materials. 3.1 million tons of recovered glass can
substitute 3.3 million tons of minerals needed for production. So yes, all this can happen only if
you take responsibility and segregate your waste. Imagine how easy/ hassle free it would be for
workers handling MSW if segregation at the source is practiced. It is done in most parts of
developed Europe and possibly in other developed regions.
Recycling is important, but separating hazardous and non-hazardous wastes is vital. Hazardous
waste requires special handling, and hazardous waste in non-hazardous containers can cause
serious problems. Since special handling tends to be more expensive, you don’t want to waste
money by disposing of non-hazardous waste in hazardous waste containers. While some wastes
like reusable plastic or organic waste can be of some benefit, waste like hazardous metals and
glass cannot be recycled and hence has to be disposed of into far off places. Waste segregation
makes this process easier and less cumbersome. This way, the organic waste can be used in the
form of a compost or making bottles and not usable waste can be transported into areas on the
outskirts of the city and buried deep inside or can be burnt in order to reduce pollution and
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damage caused to the environment. This also confirms that the waste is disposed of legally with
the permission of the waste disposal company and the roads and pathway will be devoid of any
waste.
Regular clearance is possible with controlled dumping
Segregating the waste into dry and wet waste with the use of Skip bins rental at all times makes
the clearance process quick and easy. As the waste would have been isolated well beforehand,
they can be sent to the landfills without much monitoring and thus saves a lot of time and money
for the authorities managing waste segregation.
Easy transportation of waste
While some wastes like reusable plastic or organic waste can be of some benefit, waste like
hazardous metals and glass cannot be recycled and hence has to be disposed off into far off
places. Waste segregation makes this process easier and less cumbersome. This way, the organic
waste can be used in the form of a compost or making bottles and non-usable waste can be
transported into areas on the outskirts of the city and buried deep inside or can be burnt in order
to reduce pollution and damage caused to the environment. This also confirms that the waste is
disposed off legally with the permission of the waste disposal company and the roads and
pathway will be devoid of any waste.
Waste separation is important for maintaining the value of the material. For example, paper that
already mixed with organic waste cannot be recycled because it is already tainted.
Segregation and recycling
For many business, the most common form of segregation is separating out recyclable waste
such as paper, plastic and glass from landfill and compostable waste. The inclusion of other types
of waste in recycling containers causes several problems, all stemming from the fact that
contamination reduces the quality of recycled paper and plastic products. To prevent this, waste
management firms need to spend longer sorting improperly segregated waste, raising manpower
costs. Contaminated recycled products also sell for less, a loss that gets passed on to the
customer. In fact, if recycling is too heavily contaminated, it is often sent to landfill instead of
recycled. The same applies to compost, which needs to be free of contamination from other types
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of waste in order to be used or resold. The bottom line is that rubbish removal is dependent on
proper waste segregation and recycling as the first step of the process.
Other types of waste segregation
Recycling is important, but separating hazardous and non-hazardous wastes is vital. Hazardous
waste requires special handling, and hazardous waste in non-hazardous containers can cause
serious problems. Since special handling tends to be more expensive, you don’t want to waste
money by disposing of non-hazardous waste in hazardous waste containers.
The importance of on-site segregation
Post-collection segregation takes longer, costs more and can wind up harming the environment
if it leads to recyclable waste being sent to landfill. The simplest way to solve this problem is to
solve it before it starts by practicing proper on-site segregation of waste. Clearly-marked
containers for different kinds of waste and well-understood recycling procedures can save space,
time, money and effort in recycling your business’s waste products.
Thus, we can summarize that there are a number of important reasons that we encourage waste
segregation; legal obligations, cost savings and protection of human health and the environment.
As a business, you should make it as easy as possible for your staff to correctly segregate their
waste. This can include labelling, making sure you have enough accessible bins and making it
clear why segregation is so important. So next time you’re presented with a choice to put your
plastic bottle in a general waste bin or a plastic bin, reach over to the plastic one and pop it in
there. Also, segregated waste is also often cheaper to dispose of because it does not require as
much manual or mechanical sorting.
Trammel separators/drum screens: These separate materials according to their particle size.
Waste is fed into a large rotating drum which is perforated with holes of a certain size. Materials
smaller than the diameter of the holes will be able to drop through, but larger particles will
remain in the drum.

4. Comment on the condition and involvement of the informal sector in waste


management in the city?
Amritansh kr. Choubey
PDM-03-004

Answer:- In low and middle-income countries, the informal sector carries out a significant
proportion of recycling activity in solid waste management (SWM). The term ‘informal
waste workers’ designates people who make a living from waste, but are not formally
tasked with providing the service by the responsible authorities. The informal sector is
characterized by small-scale, labor-intensive, largely unregulated and unregistered low-
technology manufacturing or provision of materials and services. Waste pickers collect
household or commercial/industrial waste and many hundreds of thousands of wastes
pickers in India depend on waste for an income, despite the associated health and social
issues. Pickers extract potential value from waste bins, trucks, streets, waterways and
dumpsites. Some work in recycling plants owned by cooperatives or waste picker
associations. Waste picking is often the only source of income for families, providing a
livelihood for significant numbers of urban poor and usable materials to other
enterprises. Waste pickers in Pune collect organic waste for composting and biogas
generation. Waste pickers also make a significant contribution by keeping cities clean.
In the context of India, Waste collection in India goes back to the 17th century, where
bones, rags and paper were among the first commodities to be collected. Solid waste
management was traditionally the responsibility of municipal bodies. Across the country,
the workforce carrying out solid waste collection and transport activities consisted
primarily of socially excluded communities on the margins of society. The caste system in
Indian society, which continues to exist, is a determining factor in the solid waste
management system. Waste picking, along with any work related to garbage or the
handling of carcasses and human excreta is traditionally bound to the lowest caste – the
‘untouchables’. From the very beginning, women from these cases have been the only
ones prepared to soil their hands and they therefore make up the majority of waste
pickers. The men, on the other hand, are active in itinerant buying, with access to capital,
relatively better work conditions and therefore marginally better status. There is
historical evidence of the immigration of low caste workers to Delhi during worker
shortages to handle waste in the city. Many Bangladeshi migrants and their families have
also worked in the field of waste. Because of their involvement and because of the filthy
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work environment, the occupation of waste picking has traditionally been held in low
esteem by the population and by political decision-makers. The fact that no other social
category has been prepared to start waste picking, even in times of poverty and hardship,
offered at least some degree of guaranteed job security to waste pickers.
Current structure of the informal waste sector
Nowadays large numbers of people are associated with waste management in India.
Researchers estimate that about 1% of the urban population in India is active in the
informal recycling sector. The informal waste sector is socially stratified in a pyramid with
scrap collectors (waste pickers and itinerant waste buyers) at the bottom and re-
processors at the top. Various actors such as retailers, stockists and wholesalers occupy
the strata in between. The majority of retailers are former waste pickers who have
managed to Waste pickers retrieve paper, plastic, metal and glass scrap from garbage bins
or receptacles provided by municipalities for the disposal of garbage on the street, and
from landfill sites where collected garbage is transported and dumped. They
rudimentarily sort and then sell the collected scrap commodities to retail scrap
establishments by weight or unit. Itinerant buyers purchase small quantities of scrap from
households, offices, shops and other small commercial establishments assemble some
capital and to take up another activity. Scrap collection is the first stage in the recycling
sector and is undertaken by two categories of workers: waste pickers and itinerant
buyers. The retail traders form the top stratum of the scrap trade and are most often
located in slums with significant populations of scrap collectors. They have a direct
relationship with the scrap collectors from whom they purchase scrap. Processing and
reprocessing industries that source scrap usually exist in both the informal and the formal
economy. Plastics and electronic waste are typically processed in the informal sector
while paper, cardboard, metals and glass are handled by the formal sector. Waste picker
organisations in India, is with various levels of contractual and non-contractual relations
to the formal authorities. They are formed as cooperatives or associations and are
integrated in local source segregation schemes at different levels. Their tasks vary from
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door-to-door garbage collection to the management of recycling centres and scrap


trading.
All of the organizations underscored the value and the work of informal sector waste
recyclers. Subsequent developments in the following years led to the formation of
different waste management initiatives and included engaging in dialogue with waste
generators to enable them to understand the relevance of involving waste pickers in
emerging waste management initiatives.
Thus, there is positive consequences of the different initiative done for informal sector.