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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 1

MAGALLONA VS. ERMITA

655 SCRA 476, JULY 16, 2011, G.R. NO. 187167

PRINCIPLE:

ARCHIPELAGIC BASELINES (R.A. 9522)

- Baselines laws such as R.A. 9522 are enacted by United Nations


convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS III) states parties to mark out
specific base ports along their costs from which baselines are drawn,
either straight or contoured, to serve geographic starting points to
measure the breadth of the maritime zones and continental shelf.
- Baselines Laws are nothing but statutory mechanisms for United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) States Parties to
delimit with precision the extent of the maritime zones and continental
shelves.
- R.A. 9522 increased the Philippines’ total maritime space by 145,216
nautical miles.
- Enactment of United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS III) compliant baselines law for the Philippine archipelago and
adjacent areas, as embodied in R.A. 9522, allows an internationally
recognized delimitation of the breadth of the Philippines’ maritime
zones and continental shelf.
- View that by setting the baselines to conform to the prescriptions of
UNCLOS III, R.A. 9522 did not surrender any territory for UNCLOS III is
concerned with setting order in the exercise of sea-use rights, not the
acquisition or cession of territory.

DIAZ VS. THE SECRETARY OF FINANCE

654 SCRA 96,

PRINCIPLE:

SEPARATION OF POWERS
- The grant of tax exemption is a matter of legislative police that is within
the exclusive prerogative of Congress.
- The executive exercises exclusive discretion in matters pertaining to the
implementation and execution of tax laws – it is more properly suited
to deal with the immediate and practical consequences of the value
added tax (VAT) imposition.

NEW SUN VALLEY HOMEOWNER’S ASSOCIATION, INC. VS. SANGGUNIANG


BARANGAY, BARANGAY SUN VALLEY, PARANAQUE CITY

654 SCRA 438

PRINCIPLE:

LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE. The local government unit’s power to close and
open roads within its jurisdiction is clear under the Local Government Code.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2

SY VS.PEOPLE

654 SCRA 395

SUBJECT: BILL OF RIGHTS

PRINCIPLE: WARRANTLESS SEARCH AND SEIZURE

The 1987 Constitution states that a search and consequent seizure must
be carried out with a judicial warrant; otherwise, it becomes unreason and an
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