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# BFC 10403

FLUID MECHANICS
aliza@uthm.edu.my

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Learning Outcome
• At the end of this chapter, students should be able
to:
i. Understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes
and the analysis of fully developed flow
ii. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with
pipe flow in piping networks
iii. Understand the different velocity and flow rate
measurement techniques

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Chapter 4:  Analysis of Flow in
Pipes
Department of Water Resources and Environment
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental
UTHM

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Introduction
• Average velocity in a pipe
– Recall ‐ because of the no‐slip condition,
the velocity at the walls of a pipe or duct
flow is zero
– We are often interested only in Vavg,
which we usually call just V (drop the
subscript for convenience)
– Keep in mind that the no‐slip condition
causes shear stress and friction along the
Friction force of wall on fluid pipe walls

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Introduction
• For pipes of constant
diameter and
incompressible flow
– Vavg stays the same down
the pipe, even if the
velocity profile changes
Vavg Vavg • Why? Conservation of
Mass

same same
same
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Introduction

• For pipes with variable diameter, m is still the same
due to conservation of mass, but V
D 1 ≠ V2
1

D2

V1 m V2 m

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Laminar and Turbulent Flows

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LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOWS
Laminar: Smooth
streamlines and highly
ordered motion.
Turbulent: Velocity
fluctuations and highly
disordered motion.
Transition: The flow
fluctuates between laminar
and turbulent flows.
Most flows encountered in
practice are turbulent.
The behavior of
Laminar and
colored fluid
turbulent flow
injected into the
regimes of
flow in laminar
candle smoke
and turbulent
plume.
flows in a pipe.
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Laminar and Turbulent Flows
• Critical Reynolds number (Recr)
Definition of Reynolds number for flow in a round pipe
Re < 2300  laminar
2300 ≤ Re ≤ 4000  transitional
Re > 4000  turbulent

• Note that these values are
approximate.
• For a given application, Recr depends
upon
– Pipe roughness
– Vibrations
– Upstream fluctuations, disturbances
(valves, elbows, etc. that may disturb
the flow)

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Minor Losses
• Piping systems include fittings, valves, bends, elbows, tees,
inlets, exits, enlargements, and contractions.
• These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and
cause additional losses because of flow separation and mixing
• We introduce a relation for the minor losses associated with
these components

## • KL is the loss coefficient.

• Is different for each component.
• Is assumed to be independent of Re.
• Typically provided by manufacturer or
generic table (e.g., Table 8-4 in text).
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f = 0.021
ε= 0.001

Re = 3.72 x 105

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BFC 10403

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