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The Use of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) To Teach Speaking

Dewi Wulan Suci Rahmadhani


150210401063

English Departent
The Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
The University of Jember
2016

Introduction
Teaching and learning speaking is considered as a difficult activity for EFL. Lochana &
Deb (2006) state that most EFL teachers teach language by lecturing and focusing on grammatical
rules instead of language use. Therefore, it is more effective to teach language from context and
meaning (Ellis, 2003). Teachers often provide fewer opportunities for learners to practice English.
moreover, both teachers and learners frequently use the Indonesian language throughout English
classes. Many EFL learners cannot effectively use English in conversation or correspondence with
others. According to Xiao (2009), EFL learners avoid employing target language and cannot apply
it in genuine communication. Hashim (2006) shows that learning a language works effectively
when learners are in a positive environment and are given opportunities to communicate in
authentic situations.
A lot of research shows that task-based learning has been accepted as an alternative
approach to resolve the crisis of teaching English. Oxford (2006) says that task-based teaching and
learning is an exciting field that offers great riches if explored by teachers in their dual roles as
instructors and action researchers. Muller (2006) states that after using task-based learning,
teachers can be confident that they are meeting institutional requirements and facilitating the
development of genuine communication skills among learners.
The Procedures
1. Pre-Speaking
This activity is a group work which means that the class is divided into some group
consisting of five to six students. in this part, all group discusses the same topic that they want to
choose based on the mutual agreement. During the pre-Speaking, the teacher gives an illustration
about how each group to prepare materials, make a resume and mind map from the source, and
how to do a recall for speaking.
In this part, the teacher asks the students to choose one topic interest and the way how they
search supporting materials their speaking. For instance, the topic interest they choose is about
bullying. The students can the source from many resources like newspapers, book, television, the
internet, or so on.

2. During The Speaking Process


Students can read a book or newspaper that discuss about bullying. they can cut it if it is
necessary, or make a copy. Then, they are asked to make a note or resume from the source. The
same activity is required for students taking the source from TV and internet. They are required to
make a note during the TV program talking about bullying. They can also record it if it is necessary.
If the source is taken from the internet, they need to download it if the format is video or print it
out if the format is an article.
In the following meeting, the group students are asked to gather the sources and construct
a mind map. In this activity, the teacher can walk around the class to give some suggestions or
give some help if it is necessary. After constructing a mind map, each student in the group has to
have the same mind map to do a recall. The teacher instructs them to do a practice in their group
by doing a recall speaking in turns, each student has to do it in 5 minutes.
After some practices together, they will present the result of their group discussion in front
of class one by one, all students are required to do a speaking in front of the class. The presenter
is allowed to bring their mind map only.
3. Post-Speaking
In this phase, during the individual speaking presentation, the rest of group members are
asked to analyze and make a list about what part that the presenter does not mention. This activity
also helps the rest group member train their memory to memorize the materials well.
After doing the speaking presentation, the teacher will do a review with all the students.
The activity they can do is listing the point. For example, the victims of bullying, the effect of
bullying, how to overcome bullying in school, etc.

The Result
Some students starting the lesson with no idea about the topic they have chosen, then they
are asked to do a simple research to find some supporting sources. While doing the research, they
also try to comprehend the topic and gain some vocabularies in order to build a topic familiarity
in their mind. As stated by Huang (4: 2008) that the level of difficulty in writing is based on the
familiarity of topics that students have to write. The same way in speaking, the more familiar the
topic, the easier students to speak.
Thus, it is a right decision to let the students choose the topic in order to build their
confidence because most students believe that they are able to talk about something with a friendly
topic. Moreover, the presentation held in the group also build their confidence before doing an
individual speaking presentation. They also learn to be critical by analyzing their friend's speaking
presentation.

Conclusion
This activity could become one of the alternative tasks that teacher uses teaching speaking
especially for beginners since they still learn how to collect and deliver the message and they do
not have lots experiences in speaking. To give an enjoyable activity will motivate students’
speaking interest as well as build students’ confidence. Moreover, the various sources is being an
interesting thing, because not all students like reading a textbook, or newspaper, so they can find
the sources from other media like youtube.
References
Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Task-Based Language Teaching. In Approaches and Methods
in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
doi:10.1017/CBO9780511667305.022
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. (2006). Task-based language teaching in the Asia context: Defining ‘task’. Asian EFL
Journal, 8 (3), 12-18.
Long, M. H. (2007). Recasts in SLA: The story so far. Long, M., & Robinson, P. (1998).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.