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Syllabus- Unit 3- Agriculture and Rural Development for NABARD Grade A and B 2017

Water Resource: Irrigation Management: types of irrigation, sources of irrigation, crop-


water requirement, command area development, water conservation techniques, micro-
irrigation, irrigation pumps, major, medium and minor irrigation.

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Contents
Syllabus ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1
Irrigation............................................................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Definition ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Advantages.................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Disadvantages ............................................................................................................................................................... 4
Purpose of Irrigation ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
Role of water for growth and development of crops ....................................................................................................... 5
Sources of Water............................................................................................................................................................... 6
Surface Water ............................................................................................................................................................... 6
River .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Reservoir ................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Lake ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Ponds......................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Tank ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Ground Water ............................................................................................................................................................... 6
Necessity of Irrigation in India .......................................................................................................................................... 8
Significance of Irrigation in Indian Economy..................................................................................................................... 8
Present Status, Development and Utilization of Water Resources .................................................................................. 8
Surface Water ............................................................................................................................................................... 8
Ground Water ............................................................................................................................................................... 8
Irrigation Development ..................................................................................................................................................... 8
Irrigation Potential Created and Utilized .......................................................................................................................... 8
Irrigation Projects.............................................................................................................................................................. 9
Irrigation Projects Classification.................................................................................................................................... 9
Based on Cultural Command Area (CCA) ................................................................................................................ 10
Major, Medium and Minor irrigation...................................................................................................................... 10
Based on the Way of Water Application ................................................................................................................. 10
Irrigation management ................................................................................................................................................... 12
Types of Irrigation ........................................................................................................................................................... 12
Surface irrigation methods ......................................................................................................................................... 12
Wild or uncontrolled flooding ................................................................................................................................. 12
Controlled flooding ................................................................................................................................................. 12
Sub-surface Irrigation or Sub-irrigation .................................................................................................................. 13
Micro Irrigation ........................................................................................................................................................... 14
Sprinkler Irrigation .................................................................................................................................................. 14
Drip Irrigation .......................................................................................................................................................... 15

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Crop Water Requirement................................................................................................................................................ 16
Introduction to Pumping System .................................................................................................................................... 17
Hydraulic Ram ............................................................................................................................................................. 18
Centrifugal Pumps ....................................................................................................................................................... 18
Propeller Pump ........................................................................................................................................................... 18
Mixed-Flow Pump ....................................................................................................................................................... 18
Submersible Pump ...................................................................................................................................................... 18
Vertical Turbine Pump ................................................................................................................................................ 19
Jet Pump...................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Command Area Development and Water Management ................................................................................................ 19
Water Conservation Techniques ..................................................................................................................................... 19
Earthen Embankment ................................................................................................................................................. 19
Farm Ponds ................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Embankment Type .................................................................................................................................................. 19
Excavated or Dugout Ponds .................................................................................................................................... 19
Trenching .................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Diversion ..................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Ditches ........................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Prime Minister Krishi Sinchayee Yojana.......................................................................................................................... 20

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There are two main ways that farmers can use agricultural water to cultivate crops:

 Rain-fed farming
 Irrigation

1. Rain-fed farming –
Part of Paid Course
2. Irrigation
Part of Paid Course

Definition
 Irrigation is defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land, in
accordance with the ‘crop water requirements’ throughout the ‘crop period’ for full-
fledged nourishment of the crops.
 Irrigation water is supplied to supplement the water available from rainfall, soil
moisture storage and capillary rise.
 However, in many cases, it is not possible to meet the full crop water requirement
throughout the season due to limited water availability. In such cases, deficit
irrigation is provided in the form of life saving or supplemental irrigation.
 Besides meeting the crop water requirement, irrigation is also provided for field
preparation, climate control (crop cooling and frost control), and leaching of
excessive salts. Hence, irrigation is essential.

Irrigation has several advantages and disadvantages which are listed below:

Advantages

Part of Paid Course

Disadvantages

Part of Paid Course


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Purpose of Irrigation

Part of Paid Course

Role of water for growth and development of crops

Part of Paid Course

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Sources of Water

Part of Paid Course

Surface Water

Part of Paid Course

River
A river is a natural water course, usually of freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a
sea, or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up
completely before reaching another body of water.

Reservoir

Part of Paid Course

Lake
A lake is an inland water body of considerable size. Lakes can serve as the source or
termination point for rivers or smaller streams. Lakes are distinct from lagoons as they are
not part of the ocean. Lakes are larger and deeper than ponds.

Ponds

Part of Paid Course

Tank

Part of Paid Course

Ground Water

Part of Paid Course

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Wells and Tubewells are the major source of irrigation. Canals rank second, while the
tanks stand third.
Well and Tube Well Irrigation:
Part of Paid Course

Well irrigation is more popular in those regions where ground water is in plenty
Part of Paid Course

 Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under well irrigation

Part of Paid Course

 In Gujarat, about 82 per cent of the net irrigated area

Part of Paid Course

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 Tamil Nadu has the largest

Part of Paid Course

 Merits of Well and Tube Well Irrigation:

Part of Paid Course

Necessity of Irrigation in India

Part of Paid Course

Significance of Irrigation in Indian Economy

Part of Paid Course

Part of Paid Course

Present Status, Development and Utilization of Water Resources

Surface Water

Part of Paid Course

Ground Water

Part of Paid Course

Irrigation Development

Part of Paid Course


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Irrigation Potential Created and Utilized
Ultimate Irrigation Potential (UIP): This term refers to the gross area that could be irrigated
theoretically if all available land and water resources would be used for irrigation.

Irrigation Potential Created (IPC):

Part of Paid Course

Irrigation Potential Utilized (IPU):

Part of Paid Course

Irrigation Projects
In India, irrigation has always been the largest user of water. Irrigation projects mainly
consists engineering (or hydraulic) structures which collect, convey, and deliver water to
areas on which crops are grown.

Irrigation projects may range from a small farm unit to those serving extensive areas of
millions of hectares. A small irrigation project may consist of a low diversion weir or an
inexpensive pumping plant along with small ditches (channels) and some minor control
structures. A large irrigation project includes a large storage reservoir, a huge dam,
hundreds of kilometres of canals, branches and distributaries, control structures, and other
works.

Irrigation Projects Classification


Irrigation projects are classified in different ways, however, in Indian context it is usually
classified as follows:

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Based on Cultural Command Area (CCA)

Major, Medium and Minor irrigation


 Major Irrigation Projects:
Part of Paid Course

 Medium Irrigation Projects:


Part of Paid Course

 Minor Irrigation Projects:


Part of Paid Course

The Major and Medium Irrigation (MMI) projects are further classified into two types
based on irrigation method adopted.

 Direct Irrigation method:


Part of Paid Course

 Indirect or Storage Irrigation Method:


Part of Paid Course

Based on the Way of Water Application


The Irrigation schemes are classified into two types based on way of water application.

 Gravity/Flow Irrigation Scheme:


 Part of Paid Course
Perennial Irrigation Scheme:
Part of Paid Course
Non-Perennial Irrigation Scheme
Part of Paid Course

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 Lift Irrigation Scheme:
Part of Paid Course

Some of the Major Irrigation Projects:

Year of
Name River State
completion

Punjab, Haryana and


Beas Project Beas River 1974
Rajasthan

Bhakra Nangal Punjab and Himachal


Sutlej 1963
Project Pradesh

Chambal Rajasthan and


Chambal 1960
Project Madhya Pradesh

Damodar valley Jharkhand, West


Damodar 1948
project Bengal

Gandak project Gandak Bihar-UP 1970

Hirakund
Mahanadi Orisa 1957
Project

Indira Gandhi Satluj and


Punjab 1965
Canal Beas

Koshi Project Kosi River Bihar and Nepal 1954

Nagarjuna
Krishna AP 1960
Sagar Project

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Irrigation management
 Irrigation management Aim
Part of Paid Course

 Irrigation scheduling
Part of Paid Course

Types of Irrigation
In order to achieve higher application, distribution and storage efficiency of irrigation water
suitable method must be adopted.

Part of Paid Course

The main methods of irrigation are: Surface, subsurface, sprinkler and drip.

Surface irrigation methods

Part of Paid Course

Wild or uncontrolled flooding

Part of Paid Course

Controlled flooding

Part of Paid Course

The following are most common methods used under field conditions:

Part of Paid Course


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Advantages

Part of Paid Course

Limitations

Part of Paid Course

1. Basin irrigation

Part of Paid Course

Advantages

Part of Paid Course

Limitations

Part of Paid Course

2. Furrow irrigation
3. Part of Paid Course

Sub-surface Irrigation or Sub-irrigation

Part of Paid Course

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The essential requirements for a successful sub-surface irrigation are:

Part of Paid Course

Advantages

Part of Paid Course

Limitations

Part of Paid Course

Micro Irrigation

Part of Paid Course

Sprinkler Irrigation

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Part of Paid Course

Advantages

Part of Paid Course

Limitations

Part of Paid Course

Drip Irrigation

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Part of Paid Course

Features of drip irrigation:

Part of Paid Course

Advantages

Part of Paid Course

Limitations

Part of Paid Course

Crop Water Requirement

Part of Paid Course

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Crop water demand can also be expressed in term of supply as:

WR = IRR + ER +ΔS +GWC

Where:

WR = Total depth of water required during the life of crop irrespective of source

IRR = Irrigation

ER = Effective rainfall received during crop life

ΔS = Profile water use i.e., difference in soil moisture in the crop root zone at the beginning
and end of the crop

GWC= Groundwater contribution, if any

Water requirement of different crops

Crop Water requirement


(mm)
Rice 1200
Wheat 450-650
Maize 500-800
Cotton 700-1300
Soybean 400-700
Sugarcane 1500-2500
Sorghum 450-650
Groundnut 500-700

Introduction to Pumping System

Part of Paid Course

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Hydraulic Ram

Part of Paid Course

Part of Paid Course

Centrifugal Pumps

Part of Paid Course

Propeller Pump

Part of Paid Course

Mixed-Flow Pump

Part of Paid Course

Submersible Pump

Part of Paid Course

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Vertical Turbine Pump

Part of Paid Course

Jet Pump

Part of Paid Course

Command Area Development and Water Management

Part of Paid Course

The programme is being implemented under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna
(PMKSY) - Har Khet Ko Pani from 2015-16.

Part of Paid Course

Water Conservation Techniques


Water conservation can be done by construction of various structures as follows:

Earthen Embankment

Part of Paid Course

Farm Ponds

Part of Paid Course

Embankment Type

Part of Paid Course

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Excavated or Dugout Ponds

Part of Paid Course

Trenching

Part of Paid Course

Diversion

Part of Paid Course

Ditches

Part of Paid Course

Prime Minister Krishi Sinchayee Yojana

Part of Paid Course

The scheme has four components which are as under:

 Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP):


Part of Paid Course
 Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP):

Part of Paid Course

 Per Drop More Crop (PDMC):


Part of Paid Course
 Watershed Development (WD):

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Part of Paid Course

Benefits envisaged during the period 2015-16 to 2019-20 under various components of
PMKSY are given below:

Components Utilization/coverage

Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) 76.03 Lakh Ha.*

RRR, SMI, GW 6.0 Lakh Ha.


HKKP
CADWM 15.0 Lakh Ha. *

Per Drop More Crop 10.0 Million Ha.

Watershed Development 11.5 Lakh Ha

* During 2016-17, Ninety Nine (99) Major/Medium Irrigation Projects having irrigation
potential of 76.03 Lakh ha. have been identified for completion in phases by Dec., 2019
including their command area development work. Thus CADWM targets have been merged
with AIBP.

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