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~ s Cerebrum: the largest part of the brain, where most thinking is done Cerebellum:
~ s Cerebrum: the largest part of the brain, where most thinking is done Cerebellum:

~

s

Cerebrum: the largest part of the brain, where most thinking is done

Cerebellum: a smaller part of the brain found below and behind the cerebrum that coordinates muscle movement

and

s

S

Brain Stem: the small part of the brain at the top of the spinal cord that controls involuntary muscle movement and reflexes

Neuron: the basic working unit of the nervous system which has an axon and many dendrites that carry nerve impulses

has an axon and many dendrites that carry nerve impulses V'ous System Cerebrum ~rebellurn --Brain stem
has an axon and many dendrites that carry nerve impulses V'ous System Cerebrum ~rebellurn --Brain stem

V'ous System

Cerebrum

~rebellurn --Brain stem
~rebellurn
--Brain stem

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Q:

How big is the human brain?

A:

It weighs just under 3 pounds and is about the size of a softball.

Q:

Do humans have the biggest brains?

Can you name three important parts of the brain, and

A:

No. Elephants and whales have bigger brains, but human

Q:

brains are the largest in proportion to over-all body weight.

A:

explain what they do? The cerebrum which is the site of memory, reasoning, decision making, and voluntary control. The cerebellum which helps coordinate smooth muscle movement. The brain stem which controls how fast the heart beats, how many breaths you take, and controls reflexes.

Q: How are the two hemispheres of the brain different?

A:

The left cerebrum is the seat of logic and step-by-step

thinking. The right cerebrum is the seat of creativity and pattern recognition.

Q:

How do messages get to your brain?

A:

Through nerves, which branch out to reach each part of the body. Sensory nerves carry messages to your brain. Motor nerves carry orders back to muscles.

to your brain. Motor nerves carry orders back to muscles. Slim Says: "When you go bike

Slim Says:

"When you go bike riding, roller blading, or skate boarding, be sure to wear a safety helmet to protect your brain if you should take a lall."

to protect your brain if you should take a lall." Your brain is the busiest place

Your brain is the

busiest place on

earth

Thinking and dreaming and learning since birth

Deciding and guiding the things that you do Night and day working its job never through

that you do Night and day working its job never through J ]n less than a

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]n less than a second, about 100,000 nerve cells can send messages to and from your brain

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The brain uses 25% of all the oxygen you breathe but it only weighs about 1I50 'h of your total weight.

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85% of the brain is made up of water.

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Inside your skuU~ your brain floats in a special fluid that cushions it from inj uries.

Brainancl

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your brain controls everything you do - from walking, to eating, and drawmg too.

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CerebY'urn

~I--""'Cere be II um

-------B -,.-

Va jn stern

, 1n and the

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erv<'U$ --

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Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about all the million of neurons sending messages to and from your brain right this second.

1. Cell Body

2. Axon

3. Dendrite

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your brain and nervous system work together.

Brain and

II

Experiment

erVDUS $

stem

1'0 help you under$tand ho'W the three part$ of your brain 'Work together

Stretch out your ann in front of you, then

make a circle in

finger. Finally) touch the tip ~f your finger to your nose.

the air

with vo~r index

Explanation: You used your big cerebrum to read about and understand this experi­ ment. The cerebrum also ordered your muscles to move. Then the smaller cere­ bellum made sure all the muscles worked together to carry out the order. The brain stern has been controlling your breathing and heartbeat the whole time you!ve been concentrating on this experiment.

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lJrainand

Experiment

prove your

to think

Put your hand over your hovv many times it

'~tg)(periri1eh¥lji

without you

count in one minute.

d clock or a watch with a second­

hand),

and

Did you decide to make this change, or

did it

by itself?

Explanation:

brain stern \'\c'orks

out you having to think about

It always

checks on your body's inner conditions. If

you need more energy

more

beat faster to carry more to your cells,

you're

it \evill direct your heart to

and

Find a nail

a fi

of a

black marker.

Count how many dots you can make on

the

of

nail.

Explanation: Neurons

more than 50,000

of a naill

the

so small that them could fit on

Brnin/NelVous System Activity Sheet:

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ExperiMent

To IIl1derdal1d More apout coordination

Take a pencil and write your name very

lightly on a

paper.

Ex.planation: This simple act took a tremen­ amount of coordination. You muscles in your hand, and shoulder. You had to reach out to the right place to pick up the pencil, grasp and arrange it

between your fingers at the correct angle.

you had to hold

tip to the paper,

and move it with enough pressure to write!

but not enough to snap

point.

as hard as or break!

Explanation: Your skull has an

ike

which is one

the strongest shapes

in nature. !fit

blow;the

the

squeezed or

a

evenly spread around

all

skull is harder to

take a spill.

Sit

bit.

wiggle your left

a

it down

lift your

stay still a moment

move it

around.

Explanation: Movement on the right

of your

hemisphere. is controlled by

When YOll limited your movement to one side of your body! you used one hemisphere at a time,

IS

by your on the left right hemisphere

Brainand--­

Brainand--­ ;{ 9;,-; , //1i/",// ''I·~e·····~:Fj~qfJ~~:"qf::X9u~I~fBpil~/,1 What part of your body

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What part of your body is wrinkled, holds about 15 trillion bits of information, and has total control over everything you do? You were right if you said your brainl Your brain is the "leader" of your body. It coordinates all of your body's movements. It collects and stores information that it receives from your senses. It sorts out this information and gives orders to all of your body parts, keeping everything working closely together. But, how does your brain do all this work? Scientists have found that different areas of the brain control different functions. They have even been able to "map" the brain. This means they can show which part of the brain is responsible for thinking, speaking, smelling, . moving, feeling, hearing, seeing, balancing, and breathing. Now, you be the scientist. Make your own fact sheet about the brain. You might start by answering the questions below. You can also add any other information you find in your research. Plan to use the library.

1 How does the brain compare to a "conductor" of an orchestra?

2 Why is the brain wrinkled?

3 What protects the brain?

4 What part of the brain is responsible for thinking and remembering?

5 Which part of the brain is more highly developed in humans than in any other animal?

6 What is an optical illusion? How is the brain fooled by an optical illusion?

6 What is an optical illusion? How is the brain fooled by an optical illusion? BrainJNervous
6 What is an optical illusion? How is the brain fooled by an optical illusion? BrainJNervous

BrainJNervous System Activity Sheet 8

Brain and

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i ;:--;_-_ -.<-'- ,," -' Your nervous system is a system of communications. Your

Your nervous system is a system of communications. Your brain receives information from your five senses. This information is carried to your brain by the nerves of your body. Then, your brain interprets this information by comparing it to past information that is stored in its memory. Once, your brain understands the information, it sends new messages along your nerves to the different parts of your body, telling each part what to do.

. Other systems of communications are computer networks, telephones, televisions, radjos, satellites, and even CB's (citizen's band radios). Think about these systems of communications as you answer the questions below.

1 List several things that your nervous system can do.

-- -------------­

------------~

2 What system of communications would you compare your nervous system to? Explain your answer.

3 Compared to other systems of communications, do you think the nervous system is special? Why or why not?

Share your answers with your classmates and your teacher.

special? Why or why not? Share your answers with your classmates and your teacher. BrainINervous System
special? Why or why not? Share your answers with your classmates and your teacher. BrainINervous System

BrainINervous System Activity Sheet 9

Brain and-

·
·

erVOU$ $

Brain and- · erVOU$ $ stem The nerve cells in your body control your muscles by

stem

The nerve cells in your body control your muscles by telling them how and when to move. A nerve cell is made up of a long, spiky "tail" at one end and a "head" at the other end. Throughout your body, the "tail" of one nerve cell touches the "head" of the next nerve cell. Because of this, messages race along quickly from one end of your body to the other. Below is an example of how your nervous system works. Read the paragraph. Accidently, you put your finger on a hot dish that has just been removed from the oven. The hot dish is the stimulus. It sends out a message which says "hot". Your finger is the receptor of the stimulus' message. Your finger receives the "hot" message. Nerve cells from your finger carry the message along the sensory neurons of your arm to your spinal cord. From your spinal cord, the message is carried to your brain. Your brain then answers this message by sending a new message back down your spinal cord. From your spinal cord, the message is carried through the motor neurons to the muscle in your arm. When the muscle receives the message, it pulls your finger away from the hot dish. All this happens in a fraction of a second!

Now look at the diagram and the blank lines. Fill in the blank lines with the correct names of the parts of the nervous system. Use the paragraph above to help you.

1

the nervous system. Use the paragraph above to help you. 1 1 5 'apsnUI - 9

1

5

nervous system. Use the paragraph above to help you. 1 1 5 'apsnUI - 9 ~suo.mau

'apsnUI - 9 ~suo.mau .lotOUI - 9 ~p.l03 fBU!ds • v ~suo.mau hJ:osuas - E :.IOld;:};)a.I - Z :sntnUIqs - 1 :S.I;:},M,SUV

• v ~suo.mau hJ:osuas - E :.IOld;:};)a.I - Z :sntnUIqs - 1 :S.I;:},M,SUV BrainlNervous System Activity

BrainlNervous System Activity Sheet 10

1;; Amoeba: a one-celled creature 1;; Membrane: the thin outer wall of the cell 1;;
1;; Amoeba: a one-celled creature 1;; Membrane: the thin outer wall of the cell 1;;

1;;

Amoeba: a one-celled creature

1;;

Membrane: the thin outer wall of the cell

1;;

Nucleus: the part of a cell that is responsible for directing cell activity

of a cell that is responsible for directing cell activity Q: What are all living things
of a cell that is responsible for directing cell activity Q: What are all living things
of a cell that is responsible for directing cell activity Q: What are all living things

Q:

What are all living things made up of?

A:

Cells. Some living things have more, some

Q:

have less. An amoeba may only have one cell, while an elephant has trillions and trillions of cells.

A:

How many cells make up your body? About 100 trillion!

Q:

Are all human cells the same?

A:

No. There isa wide variety of sizes, shapes

Q:

and functions. Humans have bone cel1s, muscle cells, skin cells, nerve cells, blood cells and many more. Each has it's own kind of work to do.

A:

How are cells like members of an orchestra or band? They all must work together in harmony to

What do cells do all day?

Q:

do their job well.

A:

Cens are constantly taking in food and oxygen, changing it into energy and releasing waste.

and oxygen, changing it into energy and releasing waste. Slim Says: "Each and every cell in

Slim Says:

"Each and every cell in your body needs good food and clean air. So treat your cells well- cat right and get lots of exercise." .

cells well- cat right and get lots of exercise." . Cells are tiny, yes it's true

Cells are tiny, yes it's true But tiny cells add up to you Bone cells, blood cells, nerve cells too Small cells, all cells through and through

nerve cells too Small cells, all cells through and through J' Some cells arc so tiny
nerve cells too Small cells, all cells through and through J' Some cells arc so tiny

J'

Some cells arc so tiny you could fit 250,000 of them

on the period at the end of

this sentence.

J'

White blood cells help fight

germs by surrounding them

and "gobbling them up."

J'

Millions of cells die each day and millions of new ones are made to take their place.

white

blood cell

bone

cell

Have fun coloring this drawing. Think about how your body is a family ofcel1s working together.

There are countless numbers of cells in your body and shape. But they have many

There are countless numbers of cells in your body

and shape. But they have many structures in common. The cell is your body's basic building block. The structures in each cell work together like a factory. Here are the jobs that each cell performs.

Cells vary.in size

Each cell holds the plans for operating the cell, for building and repairing the cell. and for making a new cell from the cell itself.

2

Each cell controls the amounts of solids, liquids, and gases going into and out of the celL

3

Each cell stores nutrients from the food you eat and then releases energy from these nutrients.

4

Each cell uses the raw materials in food to make new body proteins.

5

Each cell gets rid of the body's wastes.

Below are two drawings of different cells. Look closely at each one. Draw a circle around all of the structures that are the same. Then, on the blank lines, describe how you think the cells are different, (Hint:

Think about the size. shape, and the kind of cell each one is.)

white

blood cell

Think about the size. shape, and the kind of cell each one is.) white blood cell
,
,

bone --

cell

Think about the size. shape, and the kind of cell each one is.) white blood cell
Think about the size. shape, and the kind of cell each one is.) white blood cell

Cells Activity Sheet 2

Your body has niany different kinds oreens. There are blood, bone, nerve, fat, muscle. liver,

Your body has niany different kinds oreens. There are blood, bone, nerve, fat, muscle. liver, and hair cells. Each of these. groups of cells make up tht~ diflerent organs in your body. AU of your body's ceUs

and organs cooperate with each other For example, your eyes, brain, nerves,

read and write,

Give one more example of how several parts of your body work together as a "team".

working together as a "team", and muscles allow you to

Ten why you think it is important for all of the your body to work together as a "team".

and organs of

Compare the work of the cells and organs of your body to a "family", a "group", or a "nation",

Share an experience that you have had which shows how teamwork helped you a job done.

have had which shows how teamwork helped you a job done. On the other side of

On the other side of this paper, draw a picture showing how Slim Goodhody and a group of people might join together in work or play. Share your answers and picture with the class.

of people might join together in work or play. Share your answers and picture with the

Cells Activity Sheet 3

I l;; Atrium: either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart
I l;; Atrium: either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart

I

l;;

Atrium: either of the two upper chambers on each side of the heart

1;

Ventricle: either of the two lower chambers on each side of the heart

1;

Cardiac Muscle: another name for the heart muscle

1; Cardiac Muscle: another name for the heart muscle Q: Why is the heart considered the
1; Cardiac Muscle: another name for the heart muscle Q: Why is the heart considered the
1; Cardiac Muscle: another name for the heart muscle Q: Why is the heart considered the

Q:

Why is the heart considered the strongest muscle?

What job does the heart do?

A:

It works the. hardest. Night and day, year after year it

Q:

keeps pumping.

A:

It pumps blood through the body.

Q:

How big is the heart?

A:

About the size of your fist.

Q:

Where is the heart located?

A:

It hangs in the center of the chest, between the lungs

Q:

and just under the breastbone. (Thanks to the "Pledge of Allegiance" most people think the heart is on the left side. It is only tipped a tiny bit more to the left side and this is the place it is easiest to feel and hear tbe heart beat.)

A:

Why is exercise good for your heart? Yes. Your heart is a muscle, and like all muscles it grows stronger with use. A strong heart can pump more blood each time it beats.

use. A strong heart can pump more blood each time it beats. Slim Says: "If you

Slim Says:

"If you want a strong and healthy heart, you need to exercise for about 30 minutes straight without stopping. You need to do this five days a week."

without stopping. You need to do this five days a week." Lub-dub, lub-dub inside your chest
without stopping. You need to do this five days a week." Lub-dub, lub-dub inside your chest

Lub-dub, lub-dub inside your chest lub-dub, lub-dub no time for rest Lub-dub, lub-dub your mighty heart is pumping blood To every part

 
 

J

Your heart is about the same size as your fist and grows at about the same rate.

J

A baby's heart beats about] 35 times per minute. That's faster than a grown-up's heart, which beats about 75 times a minute.

J

Your heart wi II beat more than one million times in the next two weeks.

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how hard your heart works to keep
Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how hard your heart works to keep

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how hard your heart works to keep you alive and healthy.

AORTA
AORTA
hard your heart works to keep you alive and healthy. AORTA SUPERIOR VENA CAVA RIGHT ATRIUM

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA

RIGHT ATRIUM LEFT ATRIUM INFERIOR VENA CAVA Heart Activity Sheet
RIGHT ATRIUM
LEFT ATRIUM
INFERIOR
VENA CAVA
Heart Activity Sheet

,

­

Find an old tennis ball. Cut a little hole in it and fill the ball with water. What hap­ pens when you squeeze it? What happens when you relax your grip?

Explanation: Every time your heart beats,

Make your own stethoscope by rolling up a sheet of paper or using the cardboard tube frorn inside a roll of paper towels. Color your stethoscope your favorite color. Put one end of the stethoscope to a friend's chest and the other end to your

heart W'ork$

it acts something like the tennis ball. The heart muscle squeezes blood out and on its way. Then, between beats, it goes back to Its original shape. It refills with blood, then repeats the whole process.

ear. Can you hear your friend's heartbeat? (Tip: Move the stethoscope around until the beating comes in loud and clear.)

Explanation: A stethoscope helps collect

the lilub-dub" sound so you can hear

more clearly.

Make a fist. Open it. Now, make a fist again. How many times do you think you could do this in a minute? About seventy-five?

Try this: Have a friend count one minute while you count how many times you can open and close your fist. Were you tired at the end of one minute? How much longer do you think you could do this? Your hand might have tired, but did you know that:

• your heart beats about 72 times a minute and about 100,000 times in a 24-hour period?

• your heart only rests for a fraction of a second between beats?

• your heart is made up of muscles and is about the size of your fist?

• the beating of your heart is something like the opening and closing of your fist?

• when your heart beats, it is pumping blood through your entire body?

Try this: To find out what happens when your heart beats, you will need a rubber ball. With a pin, make a small hole at the top of the ball. Fill the ball with water. To do this, fill a basin with water. Put the ball under water, and squeeze it. Then, relax your grip. The ball will fill with water. Now, take the ball out of the water. Squeeze it several times. What happens each time you squeeze? Does water spurt out? Did the shape of the ball change after each spurt of water? Just as the ban changed shape, so does your heart, forcing the bJood out through your blood vessels, to circulate through your body.

A fact sheet gives information on a subject. All statements on a fact sheet must
A fact sheet gives information on a subject. All statements on a fact sheet must

A fact sheet gives information on a subject. All statements on a fact sheet must be true.

Design your own fact sheet on the heart and blood. To start, read

the sentences below

fact. Cross out the sentences that don't belong.

add them to this sheet. You will have to go to the library and use reference books to complete this fact sheet.

Some are facts. Put a check mark in front of each

you find new facts,

1

The heart is located in the center of the chest, but leans to the right side.

2

A muscle wall and valves divide the heart into four chambers-the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle.

3

Blood is forced in and out of the heart through valves which open and close.

4 The lub-dub sound made the contraction and relaxation of the chambers and the valve action. 5 The brain tells the heart what to do. B There are three types of blood vessels-arteries, veins, and capillaries.

7 Arteries carry blood away from your heart to the rest of your body. 8 Veins carry blood to your heart from your body.

9 Blood in the arteries

oxygen and food while blood

veins carries wastes, like carbon

and food while blood veins carries wastes, like carbon the 10 The capillaries are tiny blood

the

10 The capillaries are tiny blood vessels which allow the blood to pass between the arteries and veins.

The heart

the prettiest organ in the body.

12 Sir William Harvey, an English doctor, discovered that blood flows in only one direction through each blood 13 The arteries, veins, capillaries go in many different directions, but they are all connected.

14 Blood comes in two colors-bright red and bright blue.

15 Red blood cells bring oxygen to your body and carry away

Red blood cells bring oxygen to your body and carry away 16 \'\lJ1ite blood tells destroy
Red blood cells bring oxygen to your body and carry away 16 \'\lJ1ite blood tells destroy

16

\'\lJ1ite blood tells destroy germs and help heal cuts. New blood cells are made inside the bones.

18

The heart can feel happy, lonely, and angry.

Now, your fact sheet with your friends and family.

The heart can feel happy, lonely, and angry. Now, your fact sheet with your friends and
The heart can feel happy, lonely, and angry. Now, your fact sheet with your friends and

Heart Activity Sheet 4

Would you like to "fee]", "see", and "hear" your heart? Below are several activities you can try. You will need a watch with a second hand and a partner.

• To "feel" your heart, place the first two fingers of your right hand lightly against the inside of your left wrist. There is a large artery near the surface. It is at this point that you can feel the pumping action of your heart. This is called your pulse. By finding your pulse, 'you can tell your heartbeat rate. Have your partner count one minute while you count the number of beats you feel in your wrist. What is your pulse rate? Now, you count one minute while your partner takes his or her pulse. What is your partner's pulse rate?

• To "see" your heart, you will need a paper straw and a small piece of tape. Bend up one end of the straw about a quarter of an inch to make a ledge. Find the pulse in your wrist and tape the ledge of the straw onto your wrist. The straw should be standing up. The straw will jiggle slightly at each heartbeat. Have your partner count one minute as you count the number of jiggles you see. What is the pulse rate? Is it the same as the first time you took your pulse? What about your partner's pulse rate?

• To "hear" your heartbeat, you will need a piece of construction paper and a rubber band. Roll up the paper lengthwise and put the rubber banG around it. Then, put one end of the tube against your partner's chest on the left side and hold it in place by putting your ear to the other end. Take your hand away. Every time your partner's heart beats, you will hear a thumping sound. If you listen carefully, you should hear two sounds that say lub-dub, lub-dub, lub-dub. How many lub-dub's do you hear in one minute? Now, have your partner listen to your chest and count the beats. How many are heard? Are the numbers the same as the pulse rates taken

• I • 1 1 Your body's system ofcirculation is a wonderful method oftransportation Bringingfood

I

• 1 1
1
1
• I • 1 1 Your body's system ofcirculation is a wonderful method oftransportation Bringingfood to
• I • 1 1 Your body's system ofcirculation is a wonderful method oftransportation Bringingfood to

Your body's system ofcirculation is a wonderful method oftransportation Bringingfood to every cell transporting oxygen as well Round and around it}lows within the river oflife under your skin

and around it}lows within the river oflife under your skin .j Blood makes the round-trip body

.j

Blood makes the round-trip body journey about 1,000 times a day!

.j

Blood flowing through your body changes color! When it picks up oxygen in your lungs, it turns bright red. When it drops that oxygen otT to your cells, it turns darker red.

.j

Your body has between 60,000 and 100,000 MILES of blood vessels.

~ Arteries: the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart

~ Veins: the blood vessels that carry blood to the heart

~ Capillaries: the blood vessels that {:onnect the arteries and veins

~ Circulation: the continuous movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels

;

~"

,

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,

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plscu~sibnSt~rtelfs}!;

, ~. ~ :~n';'" \,'

Q:

What does the heart pump?

A:

Blood.

Q:

How does the blood travel?

A:

Through tubes called blood vessels.

Q:

How many kinds of blood vessels are there, and

A:

what do they do? There are three kinds of blood vessles. Arteries

Q:

carry the blood out and away from the heart. Veins return blood to the heart. Capillaries are the tinest blood vessels that connect the two.

A:

What does blood carry'? Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to all the body's

Q:

cells, and carries away waste products such as carbon dioxide.

A:

What is a pulse? The pulse is the rhythm you can feel as blood is pumped through your body. It is caused by arteries stretching a bit as the blood moves through. It is not a steady flow, but rather moves at the same pace as the heart beat.

Q: Why is the movement of blood through your body called circulation?

A:

Because the blood moves around and around in an endless circuit.

the blood moves around and around in an endless circuit. Slim Says: "If you want a

Slim Says:

"If you want a strong and healthy heart, you need to exercise for about 30 minutes straight without stopping. You need to do this five days a week"

heart, you need to exercise for about 30 minutes straight without stopping. You need to do

1

1

Your Blood Flow

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about what blood is bringing to all the cells of your body.

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how many blood vessels you have in your body. All together they would reach 3 times around the world.

1

Have fun colorin'

Think b

IS , like a a "R' out how

g In thIS . drawing

y ur bloodstream

.

0

Iver of Life" .

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about why there are waste cans on board the cell's boat.

Circulation Activity Sheet·

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about aU the sites you'd see if you could sail along the bloodstream.

1

.fbiN:I~:ij'l'y,.~i~~~{

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about the air you breathe and the food you eat and how it's all delivered to your cells.

1 1

II

1

Experirn~nt

lauch the first two fingers of one hand to Explanation: At these three places, blood

(1) The wrist of your other hand right below the thumb (palms up), (2) Your tem­ ple, (3) The side of your neck right below your jaw. What do you feel?

runs close to the surface of your skin, and you can feel the pulse.

1 Jogging. Bicycling. Swimming. Jumping. Bending. The more exercise you get, the stronger your heart
1
1
1 Jogging. Bicycling. Swimming. Jumping. Bending. The more exercise you get, the stronger your heart will
1 Jogging. Bicycling. Swimming. Jumping. Bending. The more exercise you get, the stronger your heart will

Jogging. Bicycling. Swimming. Jumping. Bending. The more exercise you get, the stronger your heart will be. Since your heart is made of muscle, it needs exercise to keep it strong. Exercise that makes your heart beat faster for two minutes or more helps to strengthen it. Find out what happens to your heartbeat rate when you exercise To keep track of your personal record, fill in the chart on this page a you complete each step below.

Step A:

pulse for one minute. (Note: The Stop, Look, Listen~To Your Heart card tells you how to take your pulse.)

Sit quietly for about ten to fifteen minutes. Then, take your

Step B:

again for one minute.

Jump up and down for about three minutes. Take your pulse

Step C:

wait another two minutes and take your pulse again. Do this every two minutes until your pulse returns to its normal rate.

Sit quietly for about two minutes. Take your pulse. Then,

Step A:

Step B:

Step C:

My pulse rate before exercising is

My pulse rate after exercising is

My pulse rate after the first two minutes of resting is

It took.

the rate it was in step A.

minutes for my pulse rate to return to

What did you find out about yourself? Answer these questions.

1 Was there a difference in your pulse rate from step A to step B? .

2 Was it faster or slower in step B?

By how much?

3 Imagine that you had a 20-pound backpack on your back as you jumped up and down. How would this affect your heart?

4 Do you think it mightbe harmful to your heart if you were 20 pounds over weight? Why?

4 Do you think it mightbe harmful to your heart if you were 20 pounds over
4 Do you think it mightbe harmful to your heart if you were 20 pounds over

Circulation Activity Sheet 8

1

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Thump. Thump. Your hearl is a pump. Every minute of every day, your hearl pushes blood through your body. But where does your blood go? To find out, llse this drawing of the circulatory system. Follow each direction below the drawing. You will need a pen, a bright red crayon, and a dark red crayon.

Ve.in

Left Side of the Heart

Artery

1 Your circulatory systeminc1udes your lungs, heart, arteries, and veins. The major artery and vein have been labeled. Label the lungs and the heart.

2 The blood's trip starts on the left side of the heart. A large arrow shows you where it starts. At this point, the blood is bright red since it is carrying oxygen. Color the blood.

3 Your blood leaves the heart and travels into the artery called the aorta. From here it passes through smaller blood vessels, called capillaries, to the lower and upper parts of your body. Color the blood in the artery and capillaries.

4 As the blood passes through the capillaries, it drops off oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide. The blood now changes to a dull, dark red color since it is not carrying oxygen. The blood returns to the heart through the veins. Color in the vein.

5 From the vein, the blood enters the right side of the heart. Draw an arrow Rhowing this.

6 The blood is pumped out of the heart and into the lungs. Here, the blood leaves the waste and picks up oxygen. Draw an arrow to show where the blood goes when it leaves the right side of the hearl.

1

How are railroads, boats, airplanes, trucks, and buses similar to your blood? You were right if you said that they are all systems of transportation. Each one can pick up cargo, carry it to a specific place. drop it ofC and pick up some more. To compare these systems, make a "Transportation: From Buses to Blood" booklet by following these directions.

• Cut out pictures of different forms of transportation. Paste each one on a separate sheet of paper. 'Write a caption for each that tells what it travels on or through, where it might go, to whom it is important. and why it is important. Then cut out or draw a picture of your blood. Write a caption that describes its route through your body.

• Choose two forms of transportation from above. Dra.wor cut out a "road map" for each vehicle. Make up a key that tells what it travels on or through (roads, water. sky). Mark off a route that it might follow. Now, make a "road map" for your blood. First, show the route it takes inside your heart. Then, show or describe the route it takes throughout your body.

• Choose two or more of the above forms of transport.ation. Draw or cut out pictures of the kinds of cargo each one might carry. Write a caption describing the cargo. What is it? Is it perishable? Is it solid or liquid or gas? Is it large or small? Does it need a special container? Then, tell whether you think this is the best vehicle to carry this cargo. Now, describe your blood's cargo. Te11 what it carries on its trip from your heart through your body. Then, tell what it carries on its return trip from your body through your heart to your lungs. Do you think this is the best vehicle to carry this cargo? Why or why not?

• Put all of these pages together by stapling them or punching a hole on the side of each page and tying a piece of yam through all of the pages. Don't forget to add a cover that says, "Transportation: From Buses to Blood".

• I s Metabolize: the body's process for breaking down food and changing it into
• I s Metabolize: the body's process for breaking down food and changing it into

I

s

Metabolize: the body's process for breaking down food and changing it into energy

S

Intercostals: the muscles between your ribs that move your chest to help you breathe

S

Diaphragm: the large muscle which separates the chest cavity from the abdomen

t;

Alveoli: the tiny thin-walled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place

where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place Exhafe Inhale Q: A: They are
where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place Exhafe Inhale Q: A: They are

Exhafe

Inhale

of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place Exhafe Inhale Q: A: They are about the size

Q:

A: They are about the size of a pair of footballs and they fill your chest from the neck to the bottom of the ribs.

How big are your lungs?

Q:

About how many breaths do kids take each minute?

A:

About 20 to 25. (Time your students for a minute.)

Q:

What is in the air we breathe?

Why does the body need oxygen?

A:

Invisible gases - mostly nitrogen and oxygen. There are also

Q:

tiny amounts of carbon dioxide, argon and other gases.

A:

The body needs oxygen in order to change food into energy

Q:

(metabolize). This can be compared to a candle that needs oxygen in order to bum.

A:

Is what you breathe in the same as what you breathe out? No. You breathe out a lot more carbon dioxide then you

Q:

breathe in. Carbon dioxide is the waste product given off by the ceJIs after they have produced energy from food.

A:

What muscles help you breathe? The muscles between your ribs, called the intercostals, and the diaphragm that separates the chest from the abdomen.

the diaphragm that separates the chest from the abdomen. Slim Says: "Try to breathe in through

Slim Says:

"Try to breathe in through your nose most of the time. Your nose heIps clean, wann and moisten the air before it reaches your lungs AND NEVER, EVER SMOKE!"

air before it reaches your lungs AND NEVER, EVER SMOKE!" Poem You have a pink and

Poem

You have a pink and lovely pair oflungs designed to breathe the air To keep them healthy as can be Exercise and stay smokejree

J\!pating Fa,cts'

Your diaphragm, the muscle under your lungs, is the second hardest working muscle in your body. Just like your heart muscle, your diaphragm works day and night without ever stopping.

We take about ten million breaths a year!

Babies breathe faster t11an adults.

The tiny air sacs in your lungs are called alveoli. You have about

600 million of them.

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your diaphragm moves up and down
Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your diaphragm moves up and down

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your diaphragm moves up and down to help you breathe.

coloring in this drawing. Think about how your diaphragm moves up and down to help you
coloring in this drawing. Think about how your diaphragm moves up and down to help you

Lung Activity Sheet 1

CAVITY -~, ------NASAL I~--~--------------LARYNX ~~--~~-----------TRACHEA ~~~~=-----~~------ESOPHAGUS RIGHT ,
CAVITY -~, ------NASAL I~--~--------------LARYNX ~~--~~-----------TRACHEA ~~~~=-----~~------ESOPHAGUS RIGHT ,
CAVITY -~, ------NASAL I~--~--------------LARYNX ~~--~~-----------TRACHEA ~~~~=-----~~------ESOPHAGUS RIGHT ,
CAVITY
-~,
------NASAL
I~--~--------------LARYNX
~~--~~-----------TRACHEA
~~~~=-----~~------ESOPHAGUS
RIGHT
,
8RONCUS~-------N~
-------
!!.---CAP!
LLARI
Lo-4
:I~f=iIp~-1-~-----ALVEOLUS
------- !!.---CAP! LLARI Lo-4 :I~f=iIp~-1-~-----ALVEOLUS Have fun coloring in this drawing, Think about the ways your

Have fun coloring in this drawing, Think about the ways your body uses the air you breathe in,

DIAPHRAGM

{AI R SAC}

in this drawing, Think about the ways your body uses the air you breathe in, DIAPHRAGM

Lung Activity Sheet 2

~2tperimen.t

'.tD under~nd hDW' actwityaffect$ breathing

Most people

in and out about 17

a minute when they are

if this is true

you by

a

the air you

by yourborly ihto you

watch or

with a second hand. Now

brings your

run in

for a minute and time

breathing

Do

any

Activity: List the reasons some people might give for smoking. Then list the reasons people
Activity: List the reasons some people might give for smoking. Then list the reasons people

Activity:

List the reasons some people might give for smoking. Then list the reasons people have for not smoking.

• Ask a family doctor or nurse why smoking is harmful to your health and make an oral report to your class.

• Draw a healthy pair of lungs and then draw a picture of the lungs of a smoker. You will want to use some library reference books.

• Figure out how much money somebody who smokes spends in one year ifhe or she smokes:

• One pack a day

• One and a halfpacks a day

• Two packs a day

in one year ifhe or she smokes: • One pack a day • One and a
in one year ifhe or she smokes: • One pack a day • One and a

Lung Activity Sheet 4

Your heart is the hardest working muscle in your body. Do you know which is
Your heart is the hardest working muscle in your body. Do you know which is

Your heart is the hardest working muscle in your body. Do you know which is your second hardest working muscle? It's your diaphragm! Your diaphragm is the muscle that allows you to breathe. This picture shows you where your diaphragm is located. Stand up next to your desk. Feel your stomach. Then, use the picture to find your diaphragm.

Now, try these breathing exercises. You will need a watch with a second hand.

• First, inhale. (That means, "breathe in".) Does your diaphragm go up or down?

• Next, exhale. (That means, ""breathe out".) Does your diaphragm go up or down?

• Count your breathing rate. One breath is made up of an inhale and an exhale. Every time you finish the exhale, count it as one breath. Do this for one minute. What is your breathing rate?

• Jog in place for five minutes. Then, count your breathing rate for one minute. Record it here.

Was it faster than the first time you took it?

If your breathing rate is faster when you exercise, do you thinkyou are taking in more oxygen?

\Vhy or why not?

rate is faster when you exercise, do you thinkyou are taking in more oxygen? \Vhy or
rate is faster when you exercise, do you thinkyou are taking in more oxygen? \Vhy or

Lung Activity Sheet 5

Did you know that when you exercise, you breathe faster and Slllce you are breathing
Did you know that when you exercise, you breathe faster and Slllce you are breathing

Did you know that when you exercise, you breathe faster and Slllce you are breathing faster, you are taking in more oxygen? Did you know that taking in oxygen affects your body in several positive ways?

• It makes your heart and rib muscles stronger.

• It increases the number of cells that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in your lungs.

• It helps you to rapidly return to your normal breathing rate after exercising.

Exercises are divided into two groups. The first group is called aerobic exercises. "Aerobic" means "using oxygen". An aerobic exercise, such as jogging, takes more than five minutes to perform and allows you to breathe deeply so that you bring in more oxygen to your body. It also makes your heart work harder which, in turn, makes it stronger. The second group of exercises is called anaerobic exercises. These exercises, like bowling, do not cause you to bring in as much oxygen since you do not breathe so deeply. But, both aerobic and anaerobic exercises are good for you. Look at the list of exercises below. Write each one under the correct heading.

exercises below. Write each one under the correct heading. running doing warm-up exercises bicycling A e

running

doing warm-up exercises bicycling

Aerobic

swimming

doing calisthenics lifting weights

Anaerobic

Discuss your answers with your classmates and teacher.

doing calisthenics lifting weights Anaerobic Discuss your answers with your classmates and teacher. Lung Activity Sheet

Lung Activity Sheet 6

Oxygen comes into your lungs but carbon dioxide goes·out. To prove that there is a
Oxygen comes into your lungs but carbon dioxide goes·out. To prove that there is a

Oxygen comes into your lungs but carbon dioxide goes·out. To prove that there is a difference between what we breathe in and what we breathe out, try this experiment. You will need a partner.

Gather:

One bottle of limewater (which you can buy in a drugstore), two jars with wide openings, two round balloons, a piece of string about 12 inches hmg, a crayon, and a hand air pump.

Follow These Steps:

Part I

• Fill one jar half ftill with limewater.

• Blowup one of the balloons with the air pump. Do not let the balloon burst! When the balloon'is full, hold the end but do not tie it closed.

• Have your partner wrap the string around the middle of the balloon and mark the string with a crayon. Set the string aside. You will need it later since it will tell you how big the balloon is.

• Now, place the opening of this balloon into thejar of limewater. Slowly let the air out of the balloon inte:> the water. Watch what happens to the limewater.

Part II

• Fill the second jar half full with limewater.

• Blow up the second balloon with air from your lungs.

• Have your partner place the string marked in Part I around this balloon to make sure it is the same size as the first balloon. If it is not the same size, either blow it up more or let out some air.

• When it is the same size,place.the opening of this balloon into the

second jar of limewater and slowly let the happens to the limewater.

Your Observations:

air out. Watch what

1 In Part I, what happened to the limewater after you put the air from the pump intO it?

2 In Part II, what happened to the limewater after you put the air you breathed into it?

intO it? 2 In Part II, what happened to the limewater after you put the air
intO it? 2 In Part II, what happened to the limewater after you put the air

Lung Activity Sheet 7

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Breathe in. Breathe out. Inhale. Exhale. When you inhale, your body is taking in oxygen from the air around you. When you exhale, your body is getting rid of carbon dioxiae. This process is the job of your respiratory system. Do you know what organs make up your respiratory system? Do you know what each organ's job is? Below are two columns. The left­ hand column lists each organ. The right-hand column describes its function. On the blank line in front of each organ, write the letter that gives its description.

1

nose

2

throat

3 trachea (or windpipe)

A This organ is like

the hose of a vacuum

cleaner. It carries air.

B

These organs are like balloons. They contain the air sacs and are your body's breathing machines.

C These organs look like tiny clusters of grapes. They fill up with air. They pass oxygen to your blood as the blood passes carbon dioxide to them.

4 bronchial tubes D This organ is like a vacuum cleaner. It sucks in air and cleans it by catching the dust.

5

air sacs

E These look like the

branches of a tree. Each

branch connects to a lung.

6

lungs

7 diaphragm

F This is like a rubber sheet. It makes your lungs work. When you inhale, it pushes down and your lungs fill with air. When you exhale, it pulls up, and your lungs push out the air.

. G This organ looks like an upside-down "Y" tube. It is the body's main air passage. The voicebox sits on top of this tube.

Draw a picture of the respiratory system on the back of this paper. Include the seven organs listed above. Label each one.

I n ~ Skeleton: the body's framework of bones ~ Minerals: pal1s of food, like
I n ~ Skeleton: the body's framework of bones ~ Minerals: pal1s of food, like

I

nI ~ Skeleton: the body's framework of bones ~ Minerals: pal1s of food, like iron and

~ Skeleton: the body's framework of bones

~ Minerals: pal1s of food, like iron and calcium, that the body needs to stay healthy

~ Calcium: a silver-white metallic element that helps to form our bones

~ Spongy bone: the soft inner bone material

~ Marrow: the soft fatty material inside the bone that makes red blood cells

fatty material inside the bone that makes red blood cells Q: Do all animals have bones?
fatty material inside the bone that makes red blood cells Q: Do all animals have bones?

Q:

Do all animals have bones?

What do bones do?

A:

NO. Worms get along well without any bones. Crabs

Q:

carry their bones on the outside in the form of shells.

A:

They hold us up. They give us shape. They protect the

Q:

body's softer parts (heart, lungs, brain, etc.) from getting hurt. Bones also manufacture red blood cells.

A:

Are bones solid? No, the outside is hard, but the inside is soft and contains spongy material called marrow.

Q: .Why aren't bones solid?

A:

Ifbones were solid they would be very heavy and hard to move. If they were solid, blood co~ldn't flow through carrying nutrients to help them grow.

Q:

Where are most of the bones?

A:

Over half the bones in the body are in the hands and feet.

Q:

What are bones made of?

A: 30% of bone is living tissue, cells and blood vessels, 45% is

mineral deposits, mostly calciumphosphate and 25% is water.

deposits, mostly calciumphosphate and 25% is water. Slim Says: "To build healthy bones, you need to

Slim Says:

"To build healthy bones, you need to get enough minerals like calcium everyday. Drinking milk, eating yogurt, or snacking on cheese can help you get what you need."

or snacking on cheese can help you get what you need." r'oem Without your bones you

r'oem

Without your bones you couldn't stand up or have much shape at all Like a lump ofclay or a jellyfish or a punctured rubber ball

Like a lump ofclay or a jellyfish or a punctured rubber ball J Your bones are

J

Your bones are a blood factory. The. marroW inside them manufactures millions and millions of blood cells every day_

J

Babies have more than 300 bones when they're born. As a child grows older, many ofthese grow together and foml single bones. An adult has 206 bones.

J

More than half of all the bones in your body are in your wrists, hands, ankles, and feet.

J

The largest bone ill your body is your thighbone. The smallest is the tiny stirrup bone in your inner ear.

YoO,.:fratnework

Have fun coloringin this drawing. Think of all the bones that make up your body - 206 in all!

-- - " , II."" , ' _- ~ /-~, , Have fun coloring in
--
-
"
,
II.""
,
'
_-
~
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,
Have fun coloring in this drawing.
Think about how the middle ofyollr bones make blood.
I
I
Bones Activity Sheet 2
When you first a wall and fully measure Measure it again at the What happenE.'(J?
When you first a wall and fully measure Measure it again at the What happenE.'(J?
When you first a wall and fully measure Measure it again at the What happenE.'(J?

When you first

a wall and fully measure

Measure it again at the What happenE.'(J?

up, stand straight by a family member to care­ your height.

day.

Explanation: Your spine is actually made up of many separate bones., all lined a row. Soft disks between these as cushions. When you sleep, the are plumped with fluid. When you during the these disks flatten out a you seem to shrink.

plumped with fluid. When you during the these disks flatten out a you seem to shrink.
plumped with fluid. When you during the these disks flatten out a you seem to shrink.
plumped with fluid. When you during the these disks flatten out a you seem to shrink.
•
plumped with fluid. When you during the these disks flatten out a you seem to shrink.
plumped with fluid. When you during the these disks flatten out a you seem to shrink.
plumped with fluid. When you during the these disks flatten out a you seem to shrink.

Bones Activity Sheet 3

A break in a bone is called a fracture. Three common types are: 1. Simple
A break in a bone is called a fracture. Three common types are: 1. Simple

A break in a bone is called a fracture. Three common types are:

1.

Simple fracture

when

the bone breaks butthere is no

 

tearing of the muscles or skin.

2.

Open (or compound) fracture

when

the broken bone or a splintered

 

piece of bone causes a wound by

breaking through the skin.

3.

Greenstick fracture

when the

bone is not broken

completely through. This is a common fracture in children because their bones aren't fully hardened.

Activity:

Using your imagination, fin in the blanks in this story about broken bones.

I

when I was rushed to

and broke

in a

--~-~-------

bone.

doctor first t01d me I had a

-------­

---------------

and

The

. Then the doctor type of fracture. I wish rhad never

---------------

-------------

and The . Then the doctor type of fracture. I wish r had never --------------- -------------
and The . Then the doctor type of fracture. I wish r had never --------------- -------------

Bones Activity Sheet 4

on The bones of your body make up a framework. This framework is called your

on

on The bones of your body make up a framework. This framework is called your skeleton.
on The bones of your body make up a framework. This framework is called your skeleton.

The bones of your body make up a framework. This framework is called your skeleton. Your skeleton is important because it supports and protects your body's vita] organs and soft tissues. Most animals have a skeleton which is made up of a centraJ spine, or backbone. This gives the body its shape. Below are the skeletons of four animals. Look at each drawing. Can you tell what animal it is just by looking at its skeleton? On the blank line under each one, write the name of the animal.

the blank line under each one, write the name of the animal. Did you recognize the
the blank line under each one, write the name of the animal. Did you recognize the

Did you recognize the skeleton of a bird, a fish, a horse, and a cat? Now, think of some other things that have a framework or a skeleton. Choose one and draw a picture of it on the other side of this paper. Then. gather some toothpicks or pipe cleaners, some glue or string and anything else you might need to build your own skeleton. Ask your friends to guess what you have built.

else you might need to build your own skeleton. Ask your friends to guess what you

Bones Activity Sheet 5

How do you differ from a rag doll? A rag doll can't stand up by
How do you differ from a rag doll? A rag doll can't stand up by

How do you differ from a rag doll? A rag doll can't stand up by itself. It does not have a framework, But you do! Your framework is made up of 206 bones, This is called your skeleton. Below is a drawing of a skeleton, The names of several bones are listed above the drawing, Find out how many bones you can identify, Write the letter and the name of each bone on the correct blank line.

a lower leg e forearm i ribs m collarbone b thigh f wrist j toes
a
lower leg
e forearm
i
ribs
m collarbone
b
thigh
f wrist
j
toes
n
upper arm
c
skul1
g ankle
k fingers
d
hip
h
jawbone
1 backbone
p
o knee
shoulder blade
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
p o knee shoulder blade 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ~:l •

~:l 0 I

:q - 6

:~

-

S

~l

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ~:l • 0 I :q - 6

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vI ~u- f:l :d· 6l :W - II

q

:0 - t> :0 - £ :}J - (j :f - I

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Bones Activity Sheet 6

(J Tne Bar~cFQetC~ ·o.l>ou'fcElAnes """-v ->w-,~ ';'< _"j>iiij}YZ:i\-'

(J

(J Tne Bar~cFQetC~ ·o.l>ou'fcElAnes """-v ->w-,~ ';'< _"j>iiij}YZ:i\-'

Tne Bar~cFQetC~·o.l>ou'fcElAnes

"""-v ->w-,~

';'< _"j>iiij}YZ:i\-'

->w-,~ ';'< _"j>iiij}YZ:i\-' Using an example can often prove a fact. This card is

Using an example can often prove a fact. This card is divided into two sections. The top half gives several facts about bones. The bottom half gives examples. Read each fact and each example. Then, on the line next to the number, write the letter of the example that goes with the fact. When you finish, try doing one or more of the examples.

1

Your backbone is made up of 34 bones which fit together in 33 separate joints.

2

Your bones are porous. This means they are made up of tiny openings. They are also hollow.

The bones in your body come in different sizes and shapes. There are small bones and large bones. There are also flat bones.

4

You are born with about 270 bones. But, by the time you are full grown, you will have 206. Most of the bones in your head grow together by the time you are two years old.

One of the most useful set of bones in your body is in your thumb.

A Study your body. Compare the size of your toes with your

fingers, your arms with your legs. Then, look at your face in

a mirror. Your forehead is considered to be flat.

B The next time you hold a newborn baby, be careful holding its head. A baby's head has soft spots called fontanels. When

a baby is born, the bones of the skull are not fully grown. This allows the baby to come through the mother's birth canal more easily since the head can become smaller. As the baby grows up, the bones of the head knit together.

C Try to do several things that you do everyday without using your thumb. Try brushing your teeth, eating your sandwich, picking up your notebook, and doing your homework.

D Your body is flexible. You can do somersaults. You can bend-forwards and backwards. You can twist and turn.

can bend-forwards and backwards. You can twist and turn. E Ask your butcher for a piece

E Ask your butcher for a piece of bone. Study the outside as well as the inside.

twist and turn. E Ask your butcher for a piece of bone. Study the outside as

Bones Activity Sheet 7

" I Muscles move your bones around so you can stand J or sit back

"

I

" I Muscles move your bones around so you can stand J or sit back down
" I Muscles move your bones around so you can stand J or sit back down

Muscles move your bones around so you can stand J or sit back down Muscles help you take a walk and even help you when you talk Just think about the things they do all the ways they J re helping you

.j Muscles make up almost half of your weight! .j Muscles come in all different

.j

Muscles make up almost half of your weight!

.j

Muscles come in all different shapes - fiat, round, long; thin, and even diamond shaped.

.j

You have four muscles in your tongue.

.j

You use your muscles even when you're sleeping. Sometimes

 

people change positions thirtyto torty times a night.

~ Contract: when muscles fibers pull together, get shorter and "bunch up"

~ Flex: another word for contract

~ Voluntary Muscles: the skeletal muscles that you move at will

~ Involuntary Muscles: the muscles that move automatically, for example, those that line your digestive tract

~ Tendons: the bands oftough "muscle like" material that connect muscles to bones

"muscle like" material that connect muscles to bones Q: What parts of the body move bones?

Q:

What parts of the body move bones?

A:

Muscles. There are more than 600 of them doing the job.

Q:

Why are there more muscles than bones?

A:

Muscles must work in teams. One muscle (or group of

Q:

muscles) pulls the bone in one direction and another muscle (or group) reverses the action.

A:

Why can't one muscle pull AND push? Muscles are only able to do one kind of action they

Q:

can contract. Which means the muscle fibers pull in towards one other, causing them to "bunch up." When a muscle contracts, it pulls on the bone it is attached to. After the bone is moved, another muscle must contract to pull the bone back.

A:

Can you feel a muscle team at work? Yes. You can feel your biceps and triceps work to move

How many kinds of muscles do you have?

Q:

your arm.

A:

Three. Skeletal muscles that move the bones. They are under your control. Smooth muscles that push food along in digestion and squeeze blood into blood vessels and the cardiac muscle, which is another name for the heart. These last two kinds do their work automatically.

the heart. These last two kinds do their work automatically. Slim Says: "If muscles aren't used,

Slim Says:

"If muscles aren't used, they grow weaker and smaller. If you want to keep them healthy and strong, you need to exercise and eat right."

they grow weaker and smaller. If you want to keep them healthy and strong, you need

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about the 3 kinds of muscles you have: Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardic.

Heart

Stolnach

SCAPULA

TRfCEPS-

,.,

­

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about all the muscles that help you move.

"~---""""""'-TENDONS

-flHH~~-----HUMERUS

---1

-

BICEPS

TEN@)(t)f\J------4r- '"""""-

I"

NA -------\;;::o­

~----TENDON

3Ioo,.,

-RADIUS

a time yourself for a

minute. How many different emotions can

yOl

lnface

express?

bgperiment

'to feel your m.U$cle$ at work

Explanation: Sixteen different muscles in

your

work together to produce

hundreds of different expressions.

Explanation:

out in front

 

it bv

 
 

,

hand

itbunch u

!! geui

 

arm

\Nhen

bend

arm, you Ire

Iy

do

feeling your biceps

contracti ng.

How many of the followirigword$ can you find in this puzZle1U~the clues below the puzzle to help. you. Then, find the wordin the puzzle and circle itdHint: The words go horizontally and vertically.)

Word List

ligaments

hinge

tendon

cartilage

bone

joint

contract

muscles

relax

baH

C

A

R

T

I

L

A

G

E

0

M

B

N

0

I

P

M

T

N

Q

A

R

S

G

T

U

E

T

V

L

W

X

A

Y

S

N

R

E

L

A

X

M

B

D

A

Z

B

0

N

E

D

L

0

C

E

J

0

I

N

T

E

N

T

K

M

T

F

T

L

S

X

H

I

N

G

E

S

A

C

0

1

There are over 600 of these in your body. There are three different

kinds: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth "-

,

2

Every move you make depends on the workings oftwo or more

muscles. One must

as the other contracts.

3

This joins the muscle to the bone. When a muscle contracts, it

puUs on the

which pulls on the bone.

4

A skeletal muscle moves a

,

5

The place in your body where two bones fit togetheriscaUed a

6

In between two bones

a softpadof_·_·

which separates. the bones

 

7

The places in your body where the round ends of the armand leg

bones fit into sockets are called (!

 

and socket" joints.

This type of joint allows your arms and legs to move in. many different directions.

8

This joint allows certain bones to move ill only one direction. Your

elbow is an example of a "

 

" joint,

9

Bones are held together at the joints by tough fibers called

--------.-,

Push. Pull. Bend. Straighten. Lubba-dubba. The muscleain your body are at work. There are three
Push. Pull. Bend. Straighten. Lubba-dubba. The muscleain your body are at work. There are three

Push. Pull. Bend. Straighten. Lubba-dubba. The muscleain your body are at work. There are three different kinds of muscles.

Skeletalmusc1es. Another name for these muscles is voluntary ltlusclesbecauseyouhave cohtrol over them. These muscl~ are attached to your bones. When you run in a relay race, you are using your skeletal muscles;

Smooth musCles. These muscles .are.often caned

muscles~ You do not control them~They take care of all the work that goes on inside. your body, like tbe movement of your

stomach. But, they do not handle the work of your heart.

Cardiacmuseles. control your. heart.

Look at the list·ofactivities·below. Some are controlletLby the skeletal muscles. Others are controlled by the smooth muscles. Place each activity in the correct column onthecharl below. Then, wnte two more· activities in each column.

involuntary

These muscles makeup your heart and only

breathing climbing up a hill sneezing blinking throwing a ball

washing the dishes digesting your.food jumping rope writing a letter swallowiIlg·

Skeletal Muscles
Skeletal
Muscles
r i t i n g a l e t t e r s w a
r i t i n g a l e t t e r s w a

Muscle Activity Sheet 5

Directions: Follow the steps below to make a model arm with three bones and two

Directions: Follow the steps below to make a model arm with three bones and two muscles.

Materials: 3 cardboard squares: 1 equal to the length of your upper arm; 2 equal to the length of your forearm; strong tape; paperclip; 2 long balloons; strong string; glove, mitten, or cut*out paper hand.

strong string; glove, mitten, or cut*out paper hand. Step 1: To make the bones for your

Step 1: To make the bones for your model arm, roU each square of cardboard tightly into separate tubes and wrap the ends with strong tape.

into separate tubes and wrap the ends with strong tape. Step 2: To make the elbow

Step 2: To make the elbow joint, poke a hole through one end of all three tubes. Then straighten a paperclip and stick it through the holes so that the longer tube (the upper arm) is placed between the two shorter tubes (the forearm). Tape the other ends of the shorter tubes together to make the wrist.

Tie secure knots

Tie secure knots
shorter tubes together to make the wrist. Tie secure knots Step 3: To make the muscles,

Step 3: To make the muscles, blow a little air into two long balloons. Then tie a secure knot in bo1h ends of the balloons.

Then tie a secure knot in bo1h ends of the balloons. Step 4: Bend the tubes
Then tie a secure knot in bo1h ends of the balloons. Step 4: Bend the tubes

Step 4: Bend the tubes into a "V» shape. Then use strong string to tie one end of the first balloon on the "arm" below the "elbow," Tie the other end of the balloon at the top Kshoulder" of the single

tube.

of the balloon at the top Kshoulder" of the single tube. Step 5: Tie one end

Step 5: Tie one end of the second balloon at the back of the ·shoulder," and the other end at the "elbow." Then attach the glove, mitten or cut· out hand to the end of the forearm.

Muscle Activity Shcet 6

I ';::;":'~'':: ~ '.".' ; '{'{~';;:, ·;;;'Vocabiilary" . ~

I

I ';::;":'~'':: ~ '.".' ; '{'{~';;:, ·;;;'Vocabiilary" . ~

';::;":'~''::

~

'.".' ; '{'{~';;:,

·;;;'Vocabiilary"

.~

Digestion: the process of breaking food down into nutrients needed by the body

~ Alimentary Canal: another name for the digestive tract which includes the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine

~ Gastric Juice: the acid found in the stomach that helps digest food

Juice: the acid found in the stomach that helps digest food Q: Where does digestion start?

Q:

Where does digestion start?

Do all your teeth do the same work?

A:

In your mouth. Teeth start breaking food down physically

Q:

and saliva starts breaking it down chemically.

A:

No. The sharp teeth in front (incisors and canines) tear

food. The flat molars behind, grind it up.

Q:

Why must food be broken down?

A:

Even a small piece offood like a kernel of com is much larger than a celL For food to be used, it must be broken down into pieces smaller than cells. These bits are nutrients.

Q:

What happens to the food after it is swallowed?

A: It moves through a 30 foot long tube called the alimentary

canal. This tube keeps changing shape and function. It begins as the esophagus, widens to the stomach, narrows back to the small intestine and widens again into the large intestine.

Q:

Where does the food enter the blood stream?

A:

Through the walls of the small intestine.

Q:

What takes longer to digest, meat or bread?

A:

Meat, which has lots of protein, takes more time to digest than bread which is mostly made of carbohydrates.

to digest than bread which is mostly made of carbohydrates. Slim Says: "Help your digestion out

Slim Says:

"Help your digestion out by eating slowly. Make sure your food is well chewed before you swallow it down."

your food is well chewed before you swallow it down." At the end ofa meal your
your food is well chewed before you swallow it down." At the end ofa meal your

At the end ofa meal your body must deal with the feast that was once on your plate The food's broken down and then carried around by your blood at a nice steady rate It reaches each part so that each part can start to get power from what you just ate

Awaz1ng Fact~)

.,j

You can listen to digestion at work! About a half hour after eating, put your ear to a friend's stomach and listen to the rumbling, sloshing, and gurgling.

.,j

Your small intestines are between twenty and thirty feet long. 111at'8 four or five times as ta1l as you are!

.,j

Food can take as long as twelve hours to make the trip all the way through your digestive system.

Dige$ti n

Dige$ti n Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your teeth help you digest

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your teeth help you digest your food.

n Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your teeth help you digest your
n Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how your teeth help you digest your

Digestion Activi1y Sheet 1

i

e tion

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Just think of all the food that your stomach combines together to make energy.

Digestion Activity Sheet

Digesti n.

Digesti n. Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how our food energizes all the
Digesti n. Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how our food energizes all the
Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think about how our food energizes all the systems
Have fun coloring in this drawing.
Think about how our food energizes
all the systems of our bodies.
Digestion Activity Sheet'

1

1)ige. tiD t).

"A\~\·ri~ii~1'''···U;p·"

~,0<'/" ,,"" ;;- frj:;';;': ;"

<"

}lave fun coloring in this drawing. Think about your stomach churning and dissolving the food yOU eat.

I

~

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Digestion Ac

Di

Di E~~~'Fj~~I~~2i '6~periment With the help of a friend,and using a soft Explanation: Food and pillow,

E~~~'Fj~~I~~2i

Di E~~~'Fj~~I~~2i '6~periment With the help of a friend,and using a soft Explanation: Food and pillow,
'6~periment With the help of a friend,and using a soft Explanation: Food and pillow, stand
'6~periment
With the help of a friend,and using a soft
Explanation: Food and
pillow, stand on you(head. Now drink a
of water through a straw. Can you
fall into your
It
by tiny musdes lifle
swallO\v?
the tube between your
stomach.
a bread and it on your mouth and hold it a minute. happens? Explanation: Saliva
a
bread and
it on
your mouth and hold it
a minute.
happens?
Explanation: Saliva is a
juice that
starts digestion by breaking down food
even before you swallow.
i
Saliva is a juice that starts digestion by breaking down food even before you swallow. i
Saliva is a juice that starts digestion by breaking down food even before you swallow. i

Digestion Activity Sheet:

Di

Activity:

A cavity doesn't happen all at once. It is a slow process. 111ustrate the process of decay. Here is what you do.

First draw a picture of a tooth about 6" x 5" on the construction paper. Cut it out. Using if for a model make three more teeth just like it. Then with crayons illustrate these steps:

• On tooth number 1, draw the sticky film called plaque which is constantly coating our teeth. (Plaque is made up of bacteria. These bacteria use some of the food, which gets left behind after you eat, to make acid.)

• On tooth number 2, draw the outer coating of enamel on the tooth after this acid has begun to eat a hold in it.

• On tooth number 3, draw the cavity formed when the bacteria invades the dentine (the material which forms the tooth under the enamel).

• On tooth number 4, illustrate the filling the dentist places in the cavity to repair the damage.

Activity:

Make your o"Wn toothpaste by mixing together 1 tablespoon of salt and 2 to 3 teaspoons of baking soda. You can also add I to 2 drops of mint flavoring. Brush your teeth and discuss how it feels.

Do you know what organs belong to the digestive system? Do you know the path

Do you know what organs belong to the digestive system? Do you know the path that food takes when it is being digested? Read the paragraph below. It describes the process of digestion. There is one problem, though. The names of some of the organs have been left out. The numbers 1 to 6 have been put in their place. Below the paragraph are

the names of the organs

word and write it on the numbered lines that correspond to its correct place in the paragraph.

But

they are scrambled. Unscramble each

Digestion starts in your . Your teeth cut, tear, and grind

the food. Your tongue helps your teeth. Saliva moistens the food. When

the food is swallowed, muscles push it into the (2)

carries it to your . Here, the food is broken down even

more-from solids into thick liquids-with the help of digestive juices.

The food now moves into the

digestion is completed. Enzymes, bile from the (5), and

all usable solids into liquid. This liquid

is then carried by your through your body. The wastes of digestion are passed through your large intestine, and this completes the process ofdigestion.

which

small

(4)

where the process of

juices from the pancreas

small (4) where the process of juices from the pancreas sgaepshou loodb tcomash h m t

sgaepshou

loodb

tcomash

hmtou

 

ntiesetni

vilre

1

2

3_

 

4

5

6

h m t o u   ntiesetni vilre 1 2 3_   4 5 6 Digestion
h m t o u   ntiesetni vilre 1 2 3_   4 5 6 Digestion

Digestion Activity Sheet'

Di

Di Question: What do you think "Frustrated Fritz", "Depressed Denise", "Angry Ann", and

Question: What do you think "Frustrated Fritz", "Depressed Denise", "Angry Ann", and "Worrisome Warren" have in common?

Answer: All of them are upset or uneasy. Because of this, all of them may be causing trouble for their digestive systems. Why? Emotions can affect the way you digest food. If you feel angry, fearful, or worried when you eat, this can cause indigestion and make your stomach feel like it was "tied up in knots". If you feel depressed, this could stop your stomach from producing important digestive juices and cause the digestion of food to stop completely. Frustration may make your stomach churn too quickly, Any kind of uneasiness that occurs while you eat may cause an upset stomach or indigestion. How do you feel when you eat? For one week, keep track of the way you feel at each meal. Copy the chart below into your notebook. Make one for each day of the week. Describe how you feel when you eat each meal, Then, tell how your stomach feels one hour after you eat. Make a chart for snacks, too.

_

Monday ( While eating, I felt

~

Breakfast! t For one hour after, my stomach felt ~

( While eating, I felt

Lunch < I For one hour after, my stomach felt

(While eating, 1 felt Dmner < tFor one hour after, my stomach felt --------­

.

When the week ends, think about what you discovered. Answer these questions.

1 \-Vben do you think your digestive system works best?

2 If you feel upset or uneasy before a meal, what do you think is the best thing to do?

before a meal, what do you think is the best thing to do? 3 Do you

3 Do you think overeating, eating quickly, or not chewing your food well would affect your stomach? Why?

overeating, eating quickly, or not chewing your food well would affect your stomach? Why? Digestion Activity

Digestion Activity Sheet:

~ Nutrition: the process of taking in nutrients and using them for energy, growth, and
~ Nutrition: the process of taking in nutrients and using them for energy, growth, and

~ Nutrition: the process of taking in nutrients and using them for energy, growth, and cell repair

~ Nutrients: the chemical compounds that make up food

~ Diet: the foods a person usually eats on a regular basis

·,c,

III

rl

1
1
a person usually eats on a regular basis ·,c, III rl • 1 ~'"DiScllssion····StartersL Q: A:

~'"DiScllssion····StartersL

Q:

A:

Why do we need food? Food supplies our bodies with chemical compounds called nutrients. We need these nutrients in order to live.

How many nutrients are there and what are some of the jobs they do? There are six nutrients. Carbohydrates and Fats provide energy. Proteins build and repair cells. Minerals help bund strong teeth and bones. Vitamins help all the nutrients work together. 'Vater is a vital part of all cells.

Why do we need to eat a variety of foods? Because the human body is very complicated. There are lots of different jobs being done every moment. These jobs require many different kinds of nutrients and no single food contains them alL

How do we know which foods to eat to get the nutrients we need? The government has come out with a guide called the Food Pyramid. It is a guide to healthy eating.

Q:

A:

Q:

A:

Q:

A:

It is a guide to healthy eating. Q: A: Q: A: Q: A: Slim Says: "Learning

Slim Says:

"Learning about good nutrition is a key part of staying healthy. The beUe.r you eat, the better you'll. feel."

The beUe.r you eat, the better you'll. feel." Food is thefuel that keeps us alive Providing
The beUe.r you eat, the better you'll. feel." Food is thefuel that keeps us alive Providing

Food is thefuel that keeps us alive Providing the nutrients we need to thrive

A well balanced diet offoods each day gives us the fuel for school and play

~~~---~.--.-.~

day gives us the fuel for school and play ~~~---~.--.-.~ J The average person eats over

J

The average person eats over a thousand pounds of food each year.

J

Plants are able to make their ovm food using slll1light, water and nutrients in the soil. We human beings rely on plants and other animals for our lood.

J

Water is a vital nutrient. People can't survive for more than a few days without it. More than half of the weight of your body is water.

1

1

~:'''fi~:;or~~ij~rt1id;~~~:

;",:>S2}:,- .,,_,'1<:I,::<;~g;:.~;:-- '--- _;

Jr;h~~t~~

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think of all your favorite foods and where they fit into the food pyramid.

II " 1 1
II
"
1
1

.W·ho.·.·~q~~··.w~?

Have you ever heard the saying, t·you are what you eat?" Although you may not be a head of lettuce, the food you eat does affect yol.!r body. Substances in food, called nutrients, help your body function properly. Each nutrient has a specific job. You needto eat a varied diet to be sure you are getting aU of the nutrients. Below is a list pf nutrients. There are also descriptions of the nutrients. On the blank line, fill in the name of the nutrient being described.

1 lam the body's carpenter. I help to build and repair the body's

tissues. 1 am found in milk and milk Rroducts,meat, poultry, fish,

and eggs

Which nutrient am 17

2 1 am the·body's traffic cop.

the functions of the body. I am

found·in small amounts in fruits and vegetables. Which nutrient am

I?

1 regulate

3 I am the body's fuel. 1 am its best source of energy. 1 am found in cereals, bread, com, pasta, and potatoes. I am also found in milk, fruit, and honey. Of course, you can also find me in candy and cookies. Which nutrient am 11

4 1 am the body's conductor. I am needed to make certain body reactions ·<go". 1 help to release energy from carbohydrates, fats, and protein. I am found in fruits and vegetables. Which nutrient amI?

5 I am the body's river. I make up about two-thirds of the body. I move things into and out of the body's cells. I also help many of the body's chemical reactions happen. Which nutrient am 11

6 I am the body's storehouse. I provide heat and energy for the body as well as store them for future use. If you take in too much of me, lam stored as additional calories. 1 am found·in butter, margarine,· cream,

salad dressing, cheese, whole milk, and meat. Which nutrient am I?

margarine,· cream, salad dressing, cheese, whole milk, and meat. Which nutrient am I? Nutrition Activity Sheet
margarine,· cream, salad dressing, cheese, whole milk, and meat. Which nutrient am I? Nutrition Activity Sheet
margarine,· cream, salad dressing, cheese, whole milk, and meat. Which nutrient am I? Nutrition Activity Sheet

Nutrition Activity Sheet 2

,. 1 S Melanin: a pigment that gives skin its color S Epidermis: the outer
,. 1
,.
1
,. 1 S Melanin: a pigment that gives skin its color S Epidermis: the outer layer

S

Melanin: a pigment that gives skin its color

S

Epidermis: the outer layer of skin

S

Dermis: the inner layer of skin

DtscusslohStarters

Q:

What is the body's largest organ?

What are the main jobs of skin?

A:

Skin. It covers all the body and accounts for about 16% of

Q:

the body's weight.

A:

Skin is a waterproof covering that keeps our insides in. Skin

Q:

protects us from germs, helps keep our bodies at the right temperature, and is home to nerve endings that provide our sense of touch.

A:

Why do people have different colored skins? The skin's top layer contains a pigment called melanin.

Q:

Melanin gives skin its color. Everyone has ditTerent amounts of this pigment and so everybody's skin color is different. The darker your skin, the more melanin you have. But no matter what the color, everybody's skin works exactly the same way.

A:

How thick is skin? Skin averages only 0.04 to 0.08 inches thick. Skin thickness

Q:

varies with age and body location. The skin on your eyelids is much, much thinner than the skin on the soles of your feet.

A:

How many layers does skin have? Two. The outer epidermis on the surface which is actually a protective coating of dead, flat cells resembling paving stones. These are always flaking off as we move around. (9 pounds a year are lost!) Below the epidermis is the dermis which is made up of rapidly growing and dividing cells. The dermis is where nerve endings and blood vessels reside.

The dermis is where nerve endings and blood vessels reside. Slim Says: "When you're outside, you

Slim Says:

"When you're outside, you can protect your skin lrom hannful rays by using a good sun block lotion and wearing a hat."

by using a good sun block lotion and wearing a hat." Let's take some time to
by using a good sun block lotion and wearing a hat." Let's take some time to

Let's take some time to thank our skin which wraps us up, and keeps us in From our heads down to ourfeet it keeps out cold and holds in heat Protection germs can't slip through there's just so much our skin can do

slip through there's just so much our skin can do J J J The skin you

J

J

J

The skin you are wearing today isn't the same skin that covered you yesterday! That's because the outer layer of your skin is always flaking otI and being replaced by new skin from layers below.

Just one square inch of skin (on the back ofyour hand) has almost 20,000 touch receptors sending messages to your brain.

Your skin is waterproof1 Next time you wash your hands, or take a bath or shower, be glad that water can't get inside!

skin is waterproof1 Next time you wash your hands, or take a bath or shower, be

Have fun coloring in this drawing. Think of how well your skin protects your insides.

One of your body's busiest organs is your skin. It is responsible for doing many

One of your body's busiest organs is your skin. It is responsible for doing many of your body's jobs. Read the list below. Put a check mark next to each sentence that tells about one of the jobs your skin perfonns,

1

Your skin protects your body against bacteria.

2

Your skin regulates your body's movement.

3

Your skin helps control your body's temperature.

4

Your skin removes some of your body's waste through perspiration.

5

Your skin is the framework of your body.

6

Your skin acts as a sense organ which helps your nervous system.

7

Your skin controls the beating of your heart.

8

Your skin keeps your blood from escaping from your body.

9

Your skin receives the radiation from the sun and puts it to work.

10 Your skin aids you in moving your muscles.

Did you check 1, 3, 4, 6, and 91 These sentences tell about some of the jobs your skin performs. Choose at least one of the jobs that you checked off above and find out how your skin actually performs it. Then, share your information with your classmates.

Since your skin works so hard for you, you must, in turn, take care of it and keep it healthy. There is an easy way to do this. Read this paragraph and follow it everyday.

Wash your face several times a day with warm, soapy water. Work the lather into your face with a clean washcloth. Rinse with warm water. Then, rinse one more time with cold water. With a soft towel, pat your skin dry. Make sure you wash your hands and the rest of your body, too.

With a soft towel, pat your skin dry. Make sure you wash your hands and the
With a soft towel, pat your skin dry. Make sure you wash your hands and the

Skin Activity Sheet 2

., I If your head was a bed then your hair would be the spread

.,

I

., I If your head was a bed then your hair would be the spread A
., I If your head was a bed then your hair would be the spread A

Ifyour head was a bed then your hair would be the spread A protective covering ofblack, brown, blond or red

AmaiingFaqt8

J

We lose about 80 hairs a day.

J

I·Iair is as strong as aluminum. A single hair can hold up to three ounces. If you made a rope out of strands ofhair, it could lift a 2,000 pound automobile.

J

People have an average of 100,000

hairs on their heads.

~ Follicle: the holes in skin through which hairs grow

~ Melanin: a chemical pigment that makes skin or hair darker

"

~

-;

Discussion

~-

Starters;f,~'

Q:

What part.ofyour body gets cut, but feels no pain?

A:

Hair. (Nails as well)

Q:

Why don't you feel pain?

A:

Because the hair growing outside your body is made

Q:

of dead cells. However, if you pull a hair it will hurt, be.cause below the skin, at its roots, hair is alive and attached to a nerve cell.

A:

Why do some people have curly