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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

LABORATORY MANUAL 
ELECTRICAL MACHINES 
EDB 3053 

Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department


Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
32610 Seri Iskandar
Perak Darul Ridzuan
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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Written, compiled and edited by : AP Ir Dr Nursyarizal Bin Mohd Nor


AP Ir Dr Zuhairi Bin Haji Baharudin
Dr. Mohd Fakhizan Bin Romlie
AP Ir Dr. Perumal Nallagownden

Revision : Jan 2018

CONTENTS

LAB INFORMATIONS 3
LAB SAFETY AND PROCEDURE 4
EQUIPMENT INTRODUCTION 6
EXPERIMENT 1: SINGLE PHASE CAGE MOTOR 18
EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSFORMERS 26
EXPERIMENT 3: ASYNCHROUNOUS MACHINES 48
EXPERIMENT 4: SYNCHROUNOUS MACHINES 71
EXPERIMENT 5: DC MACHINES 93

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

LAB INFORMATIONS
 
A  total  of  five  (5)  lab  sessions  will  be  given  throughout  the  semester.  Students  are  expected  to 
attempt the lab by grouping. Viva is conducted for the first 15 minutes of the lab session. Mark for 
‘In Lab’ is given in individually basis. Short report needs to submit individually one week after the 
respective lab is conducted. Late submission will be penalized by deducting the mark. 
 
Punctuality is very important.  The mark will be deducted to those are not punctual.  Please follow 
all the lab safety and procedures. The formats of the short report are as follows: 
 
1. Short Report:  Results 
Analysis & Discussion 
Conclusion 
 
Rubric Assessments: 
 
A. In Lab 
B. Short Report 

NOTE:

Attendance: Attendance is compulsory. A student, who is unable to attend the lab session due to
some unforeseen circumstances, can replace the lab in another lab session within the same week as
long as permission is obtained from the lecturer/technician.

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

LAB SAFETY AND PROCEDURES


All students must read and understand the information in this document with regard to
laboratory safety and emergency procedures prior to the first laboratory session.
The first step is always to become familiar with the Lab itself. You should know where the fire
extinguishers and the emergency exits are located.
Each group is responsible for their Lab bench. After the Lab exercise is over, all equipment
should be powered down and all probes, cords, etc. returned to their proper position. Do not
cut and drop wires on the Lab bench. Lose cut wires have caused many short circuits. Your
Lab grade will be affected if your bench is not tidy when you leave the Lab.

Common Sense

Good common sense is needed for safety in a laboratory. It is expected that each student will work
in a responsible manner and exercise good judgment and common sense. If at any time you are not
sure how to handle a particular situation, ask your lab assistant or tutor for advice. DO NOT TOUCH
ANYTHING WITH WHICH YOU ARE NOT COMPLETELY FAMILIAR!!! It is always better to ask questions
than to risk harm to yourself or damage to the equipment.

Personal and General laboratory safety

1. Never eat, drink, or smoke while working in the laboratory.


2. Open-toed shoes are not allowed in the laboratory.
3. Horseplay will not be tolerated.
4. Read labels carefully.
5. Do not use any equipment unless you are trained and approved as a user by your lab
assistant or tutor.
6. Equipment Failure - If a piece of equipment fails while being used, report it immediately to
your lab assistant or tutor. Never try to fix the problem yourself because you could harm
yourself and others.
7. Double check circuits for proper connections and polarity prior to applying the power.
8. Never, ever modify, attach or otherwise change any high voltage equipment.
9. After wiring the bench equipment, the tutor must check the circuit before the supply is
switched on.
10. No leads are to be removed until the supply has been disconnected and any associated
machinery has stopped rotating.
11. Be aware of the location of the emergency “stop” and “trip” buttons.
12. Clean up your work area before leaving
13. Failure to comply with the above guidelines can result in you be ejected from the laboratory.

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Incident/ Accident Reporting


Everyone including employees, contractors and students shall report to UTP HSE Unit
immediately of the occurrence of any incident or accident including near misses according
to UTP accident reporting format. They shall also alert fire brigade, police and /or other
authorities relevant to the incidents or accidents. The Contractor shall be responsible for
reporting accidents and incidents to DOSH. UTP HSE Unit shall report to DOSH for any work’s
incident involves staff or student.

All incidents or accidents that result in or have the potential to cause serious injury or property
damage must be suitably investigated by the Contractor or UTP.

Emergency Evacuation Plan

In the event of evacuation, the alarm will ring continuously. Please follow the evacuation procedure;
as follows:
1. Leave by the nearest safe exit. Proceed in calm.
2. Proceed to your assigned Emergency Assembly Area (EAA).
3. Please leave all personal belonging.
4. Choose another exit route if you detect or sense a hazard.
5. Be ready to provide management or emergency response personnel with information they need
for documentation. Security Officers are located at every building to control the situation.
6. Return to the building only after you are told it is safe to do so

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

EQUIPMENT INTRODUCTION
This manual describes the typical experiments that are conducted in University Laboratories as
practical hands-on training of a course on Electrical Machines. They are treated in detail by
explaining the objectives, discussing electrical diagrams, by showing a brief overview of the theory
and associated formulae for a thorough understanding and summarization of the results for
subsequent analysis and discussion.

The list of experiments proposed is not exhaustive: more experiments, to be implemented with the
same equipment, can be designed by teachers and students to satisfy additional training
requirements.

The components suggested, machines and accessories, are chosen from our own catalogue as they
are all designed under the same standards with the specific purpose of being easily integrated and
capable of ensuring consistent results. For the same reason the suggested Power Supply is the
ELECTRON Model A0240 of which a picture of the front panel and a brief description are given at
page 7.

The power of the electrical machines may be of three different ranges (to be specified with the
order, see ELECTRON Model Codes in our Catalogue): 200-300W, 1KW and 3KW.

The following Electrical Machines are covered:

1. Transformers (single phase)

2. AC Asynchronous Machines (three phase)

3. AC Synchronous Machines (three phase)

4. DC Machines

The collection and analysis of data can be performed in two ways:

- By reading the instruments and manually recording the data in the tables provided and drawing
diagrams where applicable. This manual describes these procedures.

Note: The necessary instruments are identified with each experiment. They should be
procured locally and should be of adequate rating and precision. On request, we
can provide them together with the equipment.

- By collecting and analyzing data by means of an optional Personal Computer and specifically
designed Software that are provided with a comprehensive user manual.

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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EQUIPMENT INTRODUCTION (continued)


The manual is divided into four sections, one for each family of electrical machine, and each section
contains the related experiments that are all described with the following approach.

1. Objectives of the experiment: what it is about and what method will be used for its execution

2. Theoretical review: a brief discussion of the theory behind the subject being investigated

3. Formulae: a reminder of the main formulae involved

4. Components required: a list of the equipment required; ELECTRON equipment is suggested for
ensuring ease of integration and consistency of results

5. Circuit Diagrams: how the components are logically and practically connected

6. Execution of the experiment: the steps to be taken to achieve its objectives

7. Worksheets for manually collecting, recording results and their analysis

8. Graphs of the experiments results (where applicable)

NOTES:

The suggested components sections contain a list of the ELECTRON machines that can be
experimented. Their theoretical connection diagrams are also shown while the execution diagrams
are only shown for one machine of each group. The others can be easily developed from that.

When exercising a DC generator with shunt excitation it is possible that no output is obtained
because the excitation current at starting is not sufficient to overcome an opposite residual
magnetism. In such a case it is sufficient to reverse the generator's rotation or to feed the excitation
independently (ex. from Section PS4 of the A0240 Power Supply).
The exercises for determining the working characteristics of motors are based on the use of a braking
DC generator Model A4430 for providing the load. The exercises can be performed in exactly the
same way, with the same setup and procedure if a different type of brake is used, such as a powder
brake Model A4410, Eddy current brake Model A4420 or hysteresis brake Model A4440.

INDEX

Brief description of the Optional PC Assisted Measurement System.

User instructions for the ELECTRON Power Supply Model A0240 used in the tests.

User Instructions for the ELECTRON Torque Meter A4730 and Load Cell A4731.

User Instructions for the ELECTRON Digital Measuring Set Model A4750D.
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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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EXPERIMENTS:

1. SINGLE PHASE CAGE ROTOR (Capacitor start & run)

1.1 Objectives
1.2 Equipment required
1.3 Conducting of experiment
1.4 Question & result

2. TRANSFORMERS LABORATORY (Single phase)

2.1 Measurement of the winding resistance


2.2 Measurement of the transformation ratio
2.3 No load test
2.4 Short circuit test

3. AC ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES LABORATORY (three phase)

3.1 No load test


3.2 Short circuit test
3.3 Determination of working characteristics

4. AC SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES LABORATORY (three phase)

4.1 No load test


4.2 Short circuit test
4.3 Determination of the external characteristics

5. DC MACHINES LABORATORY

5.1 Measurement of the winding resistance


5.2 Magnetic characteristics
5.3 No load test

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

POWER SUPPLY ELECTRON MODEL A0240

Section PS1 Sections PS2 + 3 Section PS4

P A A A A mA

V V V
Key POI
VAK
P VAK
Ext. Contact
P P

AC Power Outlets SES VS


AC Exits AC+DC Exits DC Exits

A Ammeters
mA Milli-Ammeter
AC Exits L1, L2, L3, N, Ground (Section PS1)
AC + DC Exits AC L1, N (Section PS2) / Ground / DC +, - (Section PS3)
DC Exits +, -, Ground (Section PS4)
Key Key-Lock
P Protections
POI Power On Indicator
AC Power Outlets 1 x Three Phase, 2 x Single Phase
Ext. Contact (Optional) A normally closed external contact may be used to control the unit,
otherwise connect a jumper
SES Start, Emergency, Stop Pushbuttons
V Voltmeters
VAK Voltage Adjust Knobs
VS Voltage to Voltmeter Selector

User Instructions

Section PS1 delivers a Three Phase plus Neutral supply voltage that can be varied with the Voltage
Adjust Knob (VAK). With Voltage Selector VS, Voltmeter V can be connected to monitor any phase-
to-phase or phase-to-neutral voltage. It is used to power single and three phase electrical machines.

Section PS2 delivers a single phase-to-neutral voltage that is adjusted with the VAK of Section 1.
Used to power single phase machines and for tests that require AC single phase supply.

Section PS3 delivers a DC voltage that is also adjusted with the VAK of Section V1: this output is
normally used to feed DC machines armatures or for tests that require a DC source.

Section PS4 delivers a low power DC voltage, normally used to feed DC and synchronous machines
excitations. Can be varied with its dedicated VAK.
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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

TORQUE METER AND LOAD CELL MODELS A4730-A4731

The A4730 is a torque measuring instrument housed in a desk-top metallic enclosure that matches
the design philosophy and appearance of the other ELECTRON equipment for the Electrical
Machine Laboratory.

It operates by processing the input signal of the A4731 Load Cell that consists of a strain sensing arm
with force transducers in a bridge configuration. The Load Cell can be easily mounted on the
Electrical Machines Coupling Base A4840 by means of the accessories provided (example setting in
Fig.1) and is connected to a brake such as magnetic brake or braking generator.

The A4730 (see Fig. 2) can provide torque indications in 2 ranges (preset at the factory), respectively
up to 2 Nm (1.99) and 20 Nm (19.99).

The A4730 + A4731 system can be easily checked and calibrated by using the procedure indicated
below.

Fig.1 - Set-up of the load cell on a


Magnetic brake

Fig. 2 - Load Cell and Torque Meter

Each A4730 is pre-calibrated at the factory to work with its load cell and both are labeled with the
same identification number to prevent exchanging of units.

Before making calibrations or taking any measurement, always allow a 15-minute warm-up period in
order to reach thermal equilibrium in the gauge amplifier.

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When the meter has reach the operating temperature, adjust the Zero indication and Gain by
means of the FINE ADJUSTMENTS potentiometers accessible on the front panel of the unit. The Zero
adjustment is performed with the cell unloaded while for Gain adjustment follow the procedure
explained below.

In the rare case that the Fine Zero or Gain adjustment controls of the front panel do not allow the
correct indications, it may be necessary to re-calibrate the internal Coarse adjustment trimmers
located on the amplifier board (refer to Fig.3).

The procedure is described in the following section.

Fig.3 - Location of the coarse adjustment trimmers.

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

CALIBRATION OF THE A4730 AND A4731 UNITS

 Remove the upper cover of the cabinet. Connect the load cell on the unit. Allow a period of
time for warm-up of the unit.

Note: No load should be applied to the load cell at this stage.

 Place the Zero and Gain controls of the front panel to the mid-run position.

 Locate the Coarse Zero and Gain trimmers on the circuit board as shown in Fig.3.

 Adjust the Coarse Zero trimmer for an indication as close as possible to 0.00

 Apply the calibration weight to the load cell and adjust the Coarse Gain control for an
indication as near as possible to the calibration value.
Proceed as follows:

Hang a 5,000gr weight on the torque arm at a distance of exactly 250 mm from the brake shaft
centre, i.e. exactly at the position where the brake unit support is normally located. In order to
keep the arm in the horizontal position, it may be necessary to insert a wedge between the
arm and the brake shaft holder.
Refer to Figs.4 and 5 for the set-ups.

Fig.4 - Set-up for full scale adjustment using a magnetic brake

Adjust the Full Scale trimmer for an indication calculated as follows:

C = torque = 5 kg x 0.25 m = 1.25 kgm = 12.25 Nm

Remove the 5 kg weight and avoid excessive stress of the load cell so that the calibration remains
stable.

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

 Replace the outer cover of the cabinet.

 Perform the final FINE ADJUSTMENTS of the Zero and Gain of the unit by operating the front panel
controls.

The A4730 and A4731 units are now ready for operation.

The calibration procedure is the same when a braking DC generator is used instead of a magnetic
Brake (see Fig. 5)
250mm

5 Kg

Fig.5 - Set-up for the calibration using a braking DC generator.

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

MEASURING THE TORQUE WITH ARM AND WEIGHT SYSTEM

The torque can be measured with an arm and weight system. The brake dynamo has two pivots on
its sides on which two arm tubes are inserted: one short and the other 1 meter long with graduations.
Follow this procedure and refer to the drawing below:
1. Insert the arm tubes on the machine pivots
2. With the dynamo stopped, locate a 5 Newton weight on Position 0 (Zero) of the long,
graduated arm
3. Put a second 5 Newton weight on the short arm in a position such as to balance the
machine
4. Operate the machine, load it and shift the 5 Newton weight along the graduated arm until
the machine is balanced and record the distance in meters from the Zero Position
5. Repeat the readings at the different load conditions
6. The Torque values in Newton’s /Meter are obtained by multiplying the load in Newtons (5) by
the distance in Meters. (see Fig. 6)

Driving Motor

Zero Position
Brake Dynamo Graduated Arm

Balancing 5N Measuring 5N
Weight Weight

Figure 6 - Multiplying the load in Newton’s (5) by the distance in Meters.

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

DIGITAL ELECTRICAL POWER MEASURING SET MODEL A4750D

The Digital Electrical Power Measuring Set contains three instruments that make it suitable for most
laboratory and education requirements. The instruments are:

DC Ammeter with a range up to 10A

DC Voltmeter with a range up to 800V

Three Phase Power Analyzer for measuring several electrical parameters as explained below.

Front Panel

Ammeter Voltmeter Power Analyzer

+ - + -

Current Voltage
In Out
R U X

S V Y

T W Z

N N

RS485

NOTE: The location of the instruments may be different from that illustrated above.

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AC 3 Phase Power Analyzer


This Digital Power Analyzer measures various electrical parameters of three phase systems,
with or without neutral, and displays the readings separately for each phase or cumulatively.
Connection information is detailed in the manual provided with each instrument.
Before connecting the instrument verify that the voltages to be measured are compatible
with the instrument range.

Set-Up
The instrument parameters are set at the factory to default values. If so desired, they can be
changed by means of front panel pushbuttons as explained in the instrument manual provided with
it.

Serial line connection (optional)


On request, the instrument can be equipped with the connection to a serial line RS485.

Voltage Inputs
Nominal input voltage is 440V (max. phase-to-phase is 600V); for higher voltages use
appropriate transformers and respect their input and output phase sequence.

Current Inputs
Maximum current input from current transformers is 5A.

Power Supply
Power requirement is max 5VA at 115/220V (+15 -20%), 50/60Hz
FRONT PANEL

1 SETUP 3
DIGITAL DISPLAY

2 ENTER 4

1-2 Keys for entering the configuration menu and changing the set-ups.
Factory settings do not normally require modifications.
3-4 Keys for scrolling up and down the displayed readings. 12 sets of readings are
available as illustrated below.

Display Readings:

1. Line Voltages V1, V2, V3 7. Reactive power VAr1, VAr2, VAr3


2. Phase Voltages V1-2, V2-3, V1-3 8. Integral V, I, PF
3. Line Currents I1, I2, I3 9. Integral VA, W, Var
4. Power Factors PF1, PF2, PF3 10. Frequency Hz
5. Apparent Power VA1, VA2, VA3 11. Energy VarH, Wh
6. Real Power W1, W2, W3 12. 15 minutes average power VAr, W

The parameters are always computed, even when they are not displayed. They are
computed on 4 quadrants: this means that power may be negative.
Three connection methods are possible: single phase, 4 and 3 wires. In the latter case the
parameters are measured correctly only if there is no current on the neutral: that is if the load is
balanced.
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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

ELECTRICAL MACHINES
EDB 3053
SINGLE PHASE CAGE ROTOR
Name :
Id NO. :
Group No :

Lab Session :
Date :
Lecturer :
Lab Demo. :
:

----------CUT HERE----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NAME :

DATE OF SUBMITTED:
SHORT REPORT :

LAB STAMP :

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for In-Lab


Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)
Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
Analysis and Preparation
no ability to conduct ability to conduct adequate ability to superior ability to
B efore Experiment
experiments. Did not experiments. conduct experiments. conduct experiments.
collect meaningful Collected some Collected most of the Collected all the
information meaningful needed information appropriate
information information

❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


No understanding or Serious deficiencies in Sound understanding Complete
Safety & Health Issues
appreciation of safety addressing health and of health and safety understanding of
and health related safety issues leading issues. Mostly health and safety
issues to a unsupported effective in achieving issues leading to
and/or infeasible supported results sound and supported
result results

❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)


Participation Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
in Teamwork no ability to function ability to function adequate ability to superior ability to
(If applicable) effectively as effectively as function effectively as function effectively as
leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member
during experimental during experimental during experimental during experimental
work work work work

Successfully Performs
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Cannot completes Successfully Successfully Successfully
Experiments
tasks and standard completes experiment completes experiment completes
Without Supervision
procedures procedure with procedures with experiment
moderate supervision minimal supervision procedures
independently

Punctuality ❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


>10 minutes late 6-10 minutes late 1-5 minutes late Punctual
TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 18 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for short Report

Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Results No results or Minimum results are Results are presented Results are very
plagiarized work are presented but with minor error clearly presented
presented and could still be
improved

❑(0-2) ❑(3-13) ❑(14-24) ❑(25)


Analysis and No analysis and Minimum analysis and Analysis and Analysis and
Discussion discussion or discussion are discussion are discussion are very
plagiarized work are presented and presented but with clearly explained
presented analyzed/discussed minor error and could using relevant tool
still be improved such as graph, table,
etc.

Conclusions
❑(0) ❑(1-2) ❑(3-4) ❑(5)
No conclusions Minimum conclusions Conclusions are Conclusions are
are deduced deduced but not deduced very
comprehensive and comprehensively and
accurate accurately

TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 19 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

1. SINGLE PHASE CAGE ROTOR


(CAPACITOR START & RUN)
1.1 OBJECTIVES

To determine by experiment, different methods of starting and running single phase induction
motors using a capacitor permanently wired in series with the auxiliary winding and an additional
capacitor paralleled with the permanent capacitor via the centrifugal switch.

1.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

1) 1 x Cage rotor-ADM109
2) 1 x Centrifugal switch-ADM113
3) 1 x Rotating mechanism - ADM113A
4) 1 x Mechanical brake drum – ADM115
5) 1 x Single phase stator (Capacitor stator) - ADM104
6) 1 x End shield with brake slot and tachometer receptacle - ADM101A
7) 1 x Endshield-ADM102
8) 1 x Set allen keys-ADM118
9) 1 x Set bolt/nut assembly - ADM 116
10) 1 x Tacho meter
11] 1 x Set connecting leads

1.3 CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT

1) Assemble the motor according to the assembly diagrams and the following instructions:
Install the rotor into the stator. Clip the centrifugal switch assembly into the end housing
and terminate the connections on the binding posts. Mount and secure the end housings
onto the stator.

2) Connect up the circuit as illustrated in Fig. 1.

FIG 1 - WIRING DIAGRAM

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CONNECTION DIAGRAM
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3) Connect power and note the action of the rotor and the current drawn.
4) What is the current drawn at (a) start-up and (b) 5 seconds after start-
5) What is the direction of rotation?
6) Give reasons to support your observation of what the changes to the circuit have
achieved by comparing these observations to those obtained previously in fig 1.

1.4 ANSWERS TO METHOD QUESTIONS (RESULTS)

1) Current drawn at start-up.

_____________________________________________________________________

2) Current drawn 5 seconds after start-up

_____________________________________________________________________

3) Is there a difference between the initial and running currents?

_____________________________________________________________________

4) Did the rotor start spin on its own?

_____________________________________________________________________

5) In what direction did the rotor spin?

_____________________________________________________________________

6) Why did the rotor spin in this direction?

_____________________________________________________________________

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CONCLUSION

Here the student should tabulate in point form what they have learnt from doing the experiment.
They should also state whether the experiment was of any value to them or not, and if so, why?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

Report Organization

The report should follow the following format:


Results
Analysis & Discussion
Conclusions

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES
EDB 3053
TRANSFORMER EXPERIMENT
Name :
Id No. :
Group No :

Lab Session :
Date :
Lecturer :
Lab Demo. :
:

CUT HERE----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NAME :

DATE OF SUBMITTED:
SHORT REPORT :
LAB STAMP :

Page 24 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for In-Lab


Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)
Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
Analysis and Preparation
no ability to conduct ability to conduct adequate ability to superior ability to
B efore Experiment
experiments. Did not experiments. conduct experiments. conduct experiments.
collect meaningful Collected some Collected most of the Collected all the
information meaningful needed information appropriate
information information

❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


No understanding or Serious deficiencies in Sound understanding Complete
Safety & Health Issues
appreciation of safety addressing health and of health and safety understanding of
and health related safety issues leading issues. Mostly health and safety
issues to a unsupported effective in achieving issues leading to
and/or infeasible supported results sound and supported
result results

❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)


Participation Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
in Teamwork no ability to function ability to function adequate ability to superior ability to
(If applicable) effectively as effectively as function effectively as function effectively as
leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member
during experimental during experimental during experimental during experimental
work work work work

Successfully Performs
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Cannot completes Successfully Successfully Successfully
Experiments
tasks and standard completes experiment completes experiment completes
Without Supervision
procedures procedure with procedures with experiment
moderate supervision minimal supervision procedures
independently

Punctuality ❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


>10 minutes late 6-10 minutes late 1-5 minutes late Punctual
TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 25 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for short Report

Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Results No results or Minimum results are Results are presented Results are very
plagiarized work are presented but with minor error clearly presented
presented and could still be
improved

❑(0-2) ❑(3-13) ❑(14-24) ❑(25)


Analysis and No analysis and Minimum analysis and Analysis and Analysis and
Discussion discussion or discussion are discussion are discussion are very
plagiarized work are presented and presented but with clearly explained
presented analyzed/discussed minor error and could using relevant tool
still be improved such as graph, table,
etc.

Conclusions
❑(0) ❑(1-2) ❑(3-4) ❑(5)
No conclusions Minimum conclusions Conclusions are Conclusions are
are deduced deduced but not deduced very
comprehensive and comprehensively and
accurate accurately

TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 26 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

2. TRANSFORMERS LABORATORY
2.1 MEASUREMENT OF THE TRANSFORMER WINDINGS RESISTANCE

2.1.1 OBJECTIVES

Measure the primary and secondary windings resistance of single phase transformers with the
Volt-Ampere method (Ohm's Law).

2.1.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The transformers' windings resistance cause internal voltage drops that reduces their efficiency.
Therefore, it must be as low as possible. It is calculated by applying known DC voltage and
measuring the resulting current flow.

2.1.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Winding Voltage V Volts


Winding Current I Amperes
Winding Resistance R Ohms

R=V/I for single phase transformer

R=V/I * 2 for STAR connected three phase transformers

2.1.4 COMPONENTS

Single Phase Transformer Model A4110


Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Ammeter (A) With adequate range for this test
Voltmeter (V) With adequate range for this test

Page 27 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

2.1.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Single Phase Transformer

Primary Secondary
+ A
DC 0-24V
V
_

V A
A4110

Figure 1 . Connection Diagram

Page 28 of 98
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2.1.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the connection diagrams as shown in Fig. 1 and
must be grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the DC windings voltage regulator = 0 V.

- Switch on the power supply.


Increase input voltage regulator gradually by operating on the front knob power supply. It
must be increased in 2% steps up to 10 % max.
Do not exceed 10 % of nominal winding voltage to avoid overheating of the windings.

- Measure the voltage and current for any step and enter them in the worksheet tables.
( Tables 1).

- Repeat the above steps for all primary and secondary windings and calculate their
resistance with the formulae given above.

- Now calculate the average value of the resistance for each primary and secondary winding.
Similar windings should have similar resistance.

Page 29 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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2.1.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

PRIMARY

Winding Voltage 220V % 2 4 6 8 9

Winding Voltage V V

Winding Current I A
Winding Resistance
R Ω
(Calculation)
SECONDARY

Winding Voltage 160V % 2 4 6 8 9

Winding Voltage V V

Winding Current I A
Winding Resistance
R Ω
(Calculation)

Winding Voltage 220V % 2 4 6 8 9

Winding Voltage V V

Winding Current I A
Winding Resistance
R Ω
(Calculation)

Table 1. Measurement of the Transformer Windings Resistance

FORMULAE
Calculation: R=V/I for single phase transformer

Transformer Model:

Page 30 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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2.2 MEASUREMENT OF THE TRANSFORMATION RATIO

2.2.1 OBJECTIVES

Calculate the transformation ratio of single phase transformers.

2.2.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The transformation ratio is a characteristic value of every transformer and can be calculated
either as a ratio between primary and secondary windings turns or voltages. It is therefore >1 in a
step-down transformer and <1 in a step-up.

2.2.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Primary Voltage V1 Volts


Secondary Voltage V2 Volts
Transformation Ratio K

K=V1/V2 for single and three phase transformers

K=N1/N2 for single and three phase transformers

2.2.4 COMPONENTS

Single Phase Transformer Model A4110


Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Voltmeter (V1) With adequate range for this test
Voltmeter (V2) With adequate range for this test

Page 31 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

2.2.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Single Phase Transformer

Primary Secondary

AC 0-230V V1 V2

V2
V1

A4110

Figure 2 . Connection Diagram


Page 32 of 98
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2.2.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the connection diagrams as shown in Fig. 2 and
must be grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the AC input voltage PS2 or PS1 = 0 V.

- Switch on the power supply.


Increase the input voltage gradually in 20% steps from 0% to 100% of transformer’s nominal
voltage.

- At each step measure the voltage readings of V1 and V2 and enter them in the worksheet
table. ( Table 2 ).

- At each step compute the transformation ratio with the formulae given above and enter
them in the worksheet tables. ( Table 2 ).

- At this point calculate the average value of the transformation ratio.

2.2.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Input Voltage 220V % 20 40 60 80 100

Primary Voltage V1 V

Secondary Voltage V2 V
Transformation Ratio
K
(Calculation)
Table 2 . Measurement of the Transformation Ratio

FORMULAE
Calculation : K=V1/V2 for single and three phase transformers

Transformer Model:

Page 33 of 98
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2.3 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

2.3.1 OBJECTIVES

Calculate the resistance losses, determine the short circuit voltage and the short circuit power
factor, calculate the additional losses, the equivalent resistance and reactance.

2.3.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

With this test the transformer primary windings are fed with up to the nominal current and the
secondary windings are short-circuited. The power drawn is very low and therefore it is possible to
simulate the leakage fluxes in both primary and secondary windings because the latter depends
upon the load current in the two windings.

As the transformer is short-circuited, the input voltage must be very low, usually 5% of the nominal
rating and the mutual flux is of the same order of magnitude. Since the core losses are
approximately proportional to the square of the mutual flux, they are negligible.

This means that a wattmeter connected to measure the input power indicates only the copper
losses because there are no output power or core losses.

2.3.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Voltage V Volts
Current I Amperes
Input Power W Watts

Single phase transformers: P = W


Cos = P/(V * I)
I = P/(V * Cos)
R= P/I2
Z= V/I
X= Z2 - R2

Page 34 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

2.3.4 COMPONENTS

Single Phase Transformer Model A4110


Three Phase Transformer Model A4120
Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Ammeters (A) With adequate range for this test
Wattmeter’s (W1, W2) With adequate range for this test
Voltmeter (V) With adequate range for this test

2.3.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Single Phase Transformer

Primary Secondary
A W1
AC 0-24V V

Single Phase
Power supply Digital
Transformer
Multimeter
160v
220v

> 24Vac > 230Vac


0v

AC 110v
220v

DC
┼ ┼ ┴ V A
0v
0v

Figure 3 . Connection Diagram

Page 35 of 98
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2.3.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected in the connection diagrams as shown in Fig. 3 and must be
grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the AC input voltage PS2 or PS1 = 0 V.

- Switch on the power supply.


Increase the input voltage at 1% steps to about 5% of nominal rating until the nominal current
can be read in the primary winding.

- At each step enter the readings in the worksheet tables. ( Table 3 ).

- At the end calculate the Equivalent Secondary Reactance, Impedance and Resistance with
the above formulae.

- Plot the graph. (Graph 1)

Page 36 of 98
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2.3.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Input Voltage 220V % 1 2 3 4 5

Winding Voltage V V

Current A A

Wattmeter W W
Power Factor
Cos 
(Calculation)
Reactance

(Calculation)
Impedance

(Calculation)
Resistance

(Calculation)

Table 3 . Short Circuit Test

FORMULAE

Calculation :
P = W
Cos = P/(V * I)
I = P/(V * Cos)
R= P/I2
Z= V/I
X= Z2 - R2

Transformer Model:

Page 37 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Cos 
P
V

I (Amp)

Graph 1 . Short Circuit Test

Page 38 of 98
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2.4 NO LOAD TEST

2.4.1 OBJECTIVES

Calculate the hysteresis losses, measure the no-load current and calculate the no load Power
Factor of single and three phase transformers.

2.4.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The power absorbed by a transformer with its secondary windings open (no load) is caused by
hysteresis losses and eddy currents.
To reduce the hysteresis losses a ferromagnetic material is used that has a narrow hysteresis loop,
while to reduce the eddy currents the magnetic iron core is laminated and its sheets are
insulated by means of special resins.

2.4.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Voltage V Volts
Current I Amperes
Input Power P Watts
Power W Watts
Power Factor Cos

Single phase transformers: P= W


I = P/(V * Cos)
Cos = P/(V * I)

2.4.4 COMPONENTS

Single Phase Transformer Model A4110


Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Ammeters (A) With adequate range for this test
Wattmeters (W) With adequate range for this test
Voltmeter (V) With adequate range for this test

Page 39 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

2.4.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Single Phase Transformer

Primary Secondary
A W1
AC 0-220V V

Power supply Digital Transformer


Multimeter
220v 160v

>24Vac >230Vac
0v
AC 110v
220v
DC

┼ ┼ ┴ V A
0v 0v

Figure 4 . Connection Diagram

2.4.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the connection diagrams as shown in Fig. 4 and
must be grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the AC input voltage PS2 or PS1 = 0 V.

- Switch on the power supply.


Increase the input voltage gradually in 20% steps from 0% to 100% of the transformer nominal
voltage

- At each step measure the voltage, current and power readings and enter them in the
worksheet tables.

- Calculate the no load input power, power factor and no load current with the above
formulae.

- Plot the graphs. (Graph 2 & Graph 3)

Page 40 of 98
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2.4.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Input Voltage 220V % 20 40 60 80 100

Winding Voltage V V

Current A A

Wattmeter W W
Power Factor
Cos 
(Calculation)

Table 4 .No Load Test

FORMULAE

Calculation : Cos = P/(V * I)

Transformer Model:

Page 41 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

V
Graph 2 . No Load Test

Transformer Model:

Page 42 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

V
Graph 3. No Load Test

Transformer Model:

Report Organization

The report should follow the following format:


Results
Analysis & Discussion
Conclusions

Page 43 of 98
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ELECTRICAL MACHINES
EDB 3053
ASYNCHROUNOUS MACHINES EXPERIMENT
Name :
Id No. :
Group No :

Lab Session :
Date :
Lecturer :
Tutor(s) :
Lab Demo. :
:

----------CUT HERE----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NAME :

DATE OF SUBMITTED:
SHORT REPORT :
LAB STAMP :

Page 44 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for In-Lab


Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)
Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
Analysis and Preparation
no ability to conduct ability to conduct adequate ability to superior ability to
B efore Experiment
experiments. Did not experiments. conduct experiments. conduct experiments.
collect meaningful Collected some Collected most of the Collected all the
information meaningful needed information appropriate
information information

❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


No understanding or Serious deficiencies in Sound understanding Complete
Safety & Health Issues
appreciation of safety addressing health and of health and safety understanding of
and health related safety issues leading issues. Mostly health and safety
issues to a unsupported effective in achieving issues leading to
and/or infeasible supported results sound and supported
result results

❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)


Participation Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
in Teamwork no ability to function ability to function adequate ability to superior ability to
(If applicable) effectively as effectively as function effectively as function effectively as
leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member
during experimental during experimental during experimental during experimental
work work work work

Successfully Performs
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Cannot completes Successfully Successfully Successfully
Experiments
tasks and standard completes experiment completes experiment completes
Without Supervision
procedures procedure with procedures with experiment
moderate supervision minimal supervision procedures
independently

Punctuality ❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


>10 minutes late 6-10 minutes late 1-5 minutes late Punctual
TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 45 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for short Report

Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Results No results or Minimum results are Results are presented Results are very
plagiarized work are presented but with minor error clearly presented
presented and could still be
improved

❑(0-2) ❑(3-13) ❑(14-24) ❑(25)


Analysis and No analysis and Minimum analysis and Analysis and Analysis and
Discussion discussion or discussion are discussion are discussion are very
plagiarized work are presented and presented but with clearly explained
presented analyzed/discussed minor error and could using relevant tool
still be improved such as graph, table,
etc.

Conclusions
❑(0) ❑(1-2) ❑(3-4) ❑(5)
No conclusions Minimum conclusions Conclusions are Conclusions are
are deduced deduced but not deduced very
comprehensive and comprehensively and
accurate accurately

TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 46 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

3. AC ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINES LABORATORY

3.1 NO LOAD TEST

This experiment is performed on three phase squirrel cage motor.

3.1.1 OBJECTIVES

The experiment is meant to compute the no-load current and the no-load power factor.

3.1.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The power absorbed by an unloaded asynchronous motor is only caused by mechanical losses
(cooling and friction) and Joule losses in the stator and rotor.

The motor absorbs a low current and rotates close to the synchronism speed. Therefore the Joule
losses in the rotor are negligible and also its iron losses are low because of the low flux frequency.

3.1.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Power 1 W1 Watts
Power 2 W2 Watts
Power 3 W3 Watts
Armature Voltage V Volts
Armature Current I Amperes
No Load Power Factor Cos

Three Phase Motor: P= W1 + W2+W3


I = P/( 3 * V * Cos)
Cos = P/( 3 * I * V)

Page 47 of 98
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3.1.4 COMPONENTS

Squirrel Cage Asynchronous Motor Model A4220


Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Three phase analyzer Model A4750D

3.1.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Three Phase Motors Squirrel Cage Motor.

Three Phase M
PS1 Analyzer
3 Phases

Page 48 of 98
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Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

P A A A A mA

V V V

Key POI
VAK
P VAK
Overspeed
P P

AC Power Outlets SES VS


AC Exits AC + DC Exits DC Exits

Ammeter Voltmeter Power


Analyzer

R U X

S V Y

T W Z

N N
RS485

A4220

Figure 1 . Connection Diagram

Page 49 of 98
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3.1.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the connection diagrams (Fig. 1) and must be
grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Set the supply voltage PS1 = 0.

Switch on the power supply.

Increase the supply voltage PS1 to 120% of the motor's nominal voltage (380Volt).

Gradually decrease the voltage from 120% to 20% in 20% steps (Table 1).

At each step record the values of voltage V, current I and input power W1, W2 and W3 into the
work-sheet table (Table 1).

For each step calculate power P and the no-load power factor with the above formulae and
enter the values in the work-sheet table.

Plot the graphs. (Graph 1)

Page 50 of 98
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3.1.7 WORKSHEETS

Three Phase

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Armature Voltage 317V % 120 100 80 60 40 20

Winding Voltage V V

Armature Current I A

Wattmeter 1 W1 W

Wattmeter 2 W2 W

Wattmeter 3 W3 W
No Load Power
P W
(Calculation)
No Load Power Factor
Cos 
(Calculation)

Table 1 . No Load Test

FORMULAE

Calculation : P= W1 + W2+W3
Cos = P/( 3 * I * V)

Motor Model :

Page 51 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

I
P
Cos 

V
Graph 1. No Load Test

Motor Model:

Page 52 of 98
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3.2 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

3.2.1 OBJECTIVES

Compute the short circuit current and power factor.

3.2.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The rotor of the motor is locked and the stator is supplied with the nominal current that requires
up to 30% of nominal voltage.

The short circuit current graph is linear and can be used to determine the short circuit current at
nominal voltage. The short circuit current can also be calculated with the formulae given below.

3.2.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Power 1 W1 Watts
Power 2 W2 Watts
Power 3 W3 Watts
Armature Voltage V Volts
Armature Current I Amperes
Short Circuit Power Factor Cos

P = W1 + W2+W3 = 3 * V * I * Cos

Cos = P/ 3 *V*I

Page 53 of 98
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3.2.4 COMPONENTS

Asynchronous Motor Model A4220


Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Three phase analyzer Model A4750D
Rotor Mechanical Lock

3.2.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Theoretical Diagram

Squirrel Cage Motor

Rotor Mechanical Lock

Three Phase
Asynchronous
PS1 Analyzer
Motor

Page 54 of 98
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Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

P A A A A mA

V V V

Key POI
VAK
P VAK
Overspeed
P P

AC Power Outlets SES VS


AC Exits AC + DC Exits DC Exits

Ammeter Voltmeter Power


Analyzer

R U X

S V Y

T W Z

N N
RS485

A4220

Rotor Mechanical Lock

Figure 2 . Connection Diagram

* The rotor must be locked with the Rotor Mechanical Lock device provided.

Page 55 of 98
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3.2.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams (Fig. 2) and
must be grounded. The rotor must be locked with the Rotor Lock device provided.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Set the supply voltage PS1 = 0.

Switch on the power supply.

Adjust the stator input current PS1 to 0.6 Ampere so that nominal current flows in the stator
windings.

Gradually decrease PS1from 100% to 25% of nominal armature current in 15% steps(Table 2).

At each step record the values of voltage, current and input power W1, W2 and W3 into the
worksheet table.( Table 2)

For each step calculate power P and the short circuit power factor with the above formulae and
enter the values in the worksheets.( Table 2)

Plot the graphs .(Graph 2)

Page 56 of 98
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3.2.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Armature Current 0.6Amp % 100 85 70 55 40 25

Armature Voltage V V

Armature Current I A

Wattmeter 1 W1 W

Wattmeter 2 W2 W

Wattmeter 3 W3 W
No Load Power
P
(Calculation)
No Load Power Factor
Cos 
(Calculation)

Table 2 . Short Circuit Test

FORMULAE

Calculation

P = W1 + W2+W3 = 3 * V * I * Cos

Cos  = P/ 3 *V*I

Motor Model:

Page 57 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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I sc
Psc
Cos

V
Graph 2 . Short Circuit Test

Motor Model:

Page 58 of 98
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3.3 DETERMINATION OF WORKING CHARACTERISTICS

3.3.1 OBJECTIVES

Find the motor's load characteristics by loading it with a brake dynamo.


Measure the torque and mechanical power at various load conditions.
Calculate the motor efficiency.
Plot the load characteristics for analysis.

3.3.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The motor drives a loaded brake dynamo whose stator is mounted on bearings and capable of
rotating. Since the torque between its stator and rotor is proportional to the generated electrical
power, a dynamometer installed on its stator to counteract its rotation gives a reading of the
motor's torque.

The torque's value can be read in two ways:


- by a load cell connected to a torque meter
- by an arm and weights system

The torque can be varied by varying the dynamo's electric load.


The measured torque includes the losses on bearings, ventilation and on collector brushes.
However, they are small and do not affect significantly the experiment's results.

3.3.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT


Armature Voltage V Volts
Armature Curent I Ampères
Arm Length a m
Weight G N
Torque T Nm
Speed n min-1
Excitation Curent Ie Ampères
Input Power Pi Watts
Output Power Po Watts
Power 1 W1 Watts
Power 2 W2 Watts
Power 3 W3 Watts
Efficiency 

T =G*a
Po = 2 π n T/60
Pi = W1 + W2 + W3 = 3 * V * I * Cos
Cos = Pi / ( 3 * V * I) For three phase motor
 = Po / Pi

Page 59 of 98
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3.3.4 COMPONENTS

Three Phase Squirrel Cage Motor Model A4220


Braking DC Generator Model A4430
Coupling Base Model A4840
Power Supply Model A0240
Resistive Load Model A4510
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Three phase analyzer Model A4750D
RPM meter

3.3.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Theoretical Diagram

Three Phase Squirrel Cage and Slip Ring Motor (on slip ring motor short circuit ring brushes)

Three Phase
PS1 M
Analyzer
3 Phase

G A2

PS4

Page 60 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

Figure 3 . Connection Diagram


Page 61 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

3.3.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams (Fig. 3) and
must be grounded. The motor must be coupled to the brake dynamo.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Calibrate the torque meter as shown in Fig. 3.1.

Fig. 3.1 - Set-up for full scale adjustment using a magnetic brake (Example)

Hang a 5 N weight on the torque arm at a distance of exactly 110 mm from the brake shaft
centre, i.e. exactly at the position where the brake unit support is normally located. In order to
keep the arm in the horizontal position, it may be necessary to insert a wedge between the arm
and the brake shaft holder.

Adjust the Full Scale trimmer for an indication calculated as follows:

T = torque = 5 N x 0.11 m = 0.55 Nm

Remove the 5 N weights and avoid excessive stress of the load cell so that the calibration
remains stable.

Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. 3.

Set the excitation voltage PS4 to nominal output voltage 220V and drive motor voltage PS1
380V is reached.

Step up the three resistive (A4510) load rotary switches by one position at a time.
Enter the read values in the worksheet table.( Table 3)

Plot the graphs of the load characteristics.(Graph 3)

Notes: Measurements should be made as quick as possible to avoid overheating.


Page 62 of 98
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3.3.7 WORKSHEETS

Three Phase

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Load / Nominal Load Step 6 5 4 3 2 1

Armature Voltage PS1 V

Armature Current A A

Arm Length a m

Torque T Nm

Speed n rpm

Excitation Current PS4 A


Power Input
Pi W
(Calculation)
Power Output
Po W
(Calculation)
Power 1 W1 W

Power 2 W2 W

Power 3 W3 W

Efficiency (Calculation) 

Table 3 . Determination of Working Characteristics

FORMULAE

Calculation : T =G*a
Po = 2 π n T/60
Pi = W1 + W2 + W3 = 3 * V * I * Cos
Cos = Pi / ( 3 * V * I) For three phase motor
 = Po / Pi

Machine Model:

Page 63 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

I
n
T

Pi
Graph 3 . Determination of Working Characteristics

Machine Model:

Report Organization

The report should follow the following format:


Results
Analysis & Discussion
Conclusions

Page 64 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

ELECTRICAL MACHINES
EDB 3053
SYNCHROUNOUS MACHINES EXPERIMENT
Name :
Id No. :
Group No :

Lab Session :
Date :
Lecturer :
Lab Demo. :
:

----------CUT HERE----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NAME :

DATE OF SUBMITTED:
SHORT REPORT :
LAB STAMP :

Page 65 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for In-Lab


Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)
Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
Analysis and Preparation
no ability to conduct ability to conduct adequate ability to superior ability to
B efore Experiment
experiments. Did not experiments. conduct experiments. conduct experiments.
collect meaningful Collected some Collected most of the Collected all the
information meaningful needed information appropriate
information information

❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


No understanding or Serious deficiencies in Sound understanding Complete
Safety & Health Issues
appreciation of safety addressing health and of health and safety understanding of
and health related safety issues leading issues. Mostly health and safety
issues to a unsupported effective in achieving issues leading to
and/or infeasible supported results sound and supported
result results

❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)


Participation Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
in Teamwork no ability to function ability to function adequate ability to superior ability to
(If applicable) effectively as effectively as function effectively as function effectively as
leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member
during experimental during experimental during experimental during experimental
work work work work

Successfully Performs
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Cannot completes Successfully Successfully Successfully
Experiments
tasks and standard completes experiment completes experiment completes
Without Supervision
procedures procedure with procedures with experiment
moderate supervision minimal supervision procedures
independently

Punctuality ❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


>10 minutes late 6-10 minutes late 1-5 minutes late Punctual
TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 66 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for short Report

Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Results No results or Minimum results are Results are presented Results are very
plagiarized work are presented but with minor error clearly presented
presented and could still be
improved

❑(0-2) ❑(3-13) ❑(14-24) ❑(25)


Analysis and No analysis and Minimum analysis and Analysis and Analysis and
Discussion discussion or discussion are discussion are discussion are very
plagiarized work are presented and presented but with clearly explained
presented analyzed/discussed minor error and could using relevant tool
still be improved such as graph, table,
etc.

Conclusions
❑(0) ❑(1-2) ❑(3-4) ❑(5)
No conclusions Minimum conclusions Conclusions are Conclusions are
are deduced deduced but not deduced very
comprehensive and comprehensively and
accurate accurately

TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

Page 67 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4. AC SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES LABORATORY


4.1 NO LOAD TEST

This experiment is performed on a Synchronous Machine.

4.1.1 OBJECTIVES

Plot the magnetization characteristics of a synchronous generator.

4.1.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

This experiment shows the electromotive force Eo against the excitation current Ie.

The resulting graph shows that for the same value of excitation current there are two different
values of electromotive force, one for the ascending and one for the descending curves. Usually
the medium value of Eo is considered.

The area enclosed in the magnetization loop represents the power losses for magnetic hysteresis
(residual magnetism) in the armature iron.

4.1.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Voltage E01 Volts


Excitation Current Ie Amperes
Pair of Poles p
Speed n1 rpm
Frequency F1 Hz
Theoretical Frequency f Hz
Theoretical Speed n rpm
Theoretical Voltage E0 Volts

E0/E01 = n/n1
E0 =E01 * (n/n1) = E01 * (f/F1)
n1 = (60 * f)/p

Page 68 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.1.4 COMPONENTS

Three Phase Synchronous Machine Model A4223


Squirrel Cage Three Phase Drive Motor Model A4220
Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Coupling Base Model A4840
Three Phase Analyzer Model A4750D
RPM meter

4.1.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Generator Three Phase


PS4 3 Phase Analyzer

F
A

Motor
PS1 PS1
3 Phase

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Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

Figure 1 . Connection Diagram

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4.1.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams (Fig. 1) and
must be grounded. The synchronous machine is mechanically coupled to the driving
asynchronous motor.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the excitation voltage PS4 and drive motor voltage PS1 = 0

- Switch on the power supply and adjust PS1 to nominal motor voltage (380V).
When the motor is up to speed gradually increase the excitation current (PS4) from 0% to
100% in 10% steps.

- At each step enter in the worksheet table the values of the excitation current Ie, voltage E01
and frequency F1.(Table 1)

- Repeat the above steps while decreasing Ie from 100% to 10%

- If during the experiment the frequency F1 varies, adjust it to the theoretical value (f) with the
above formula. Do the same for voltage E01 to the theoretical value (E0)

- To stop the machines turn back the PS 4 to ‘0’ position first and PS 1 to ‘0’ position.

- Press Stop Button.

Plot the graph.(Graph 1)

4.1.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Excitation Current 0.2Amp % 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Excitation current Ie A

Voltage Eo1 V

Frequency F1 Hz

Excitation Current 0.2Amp % 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Excitation Current Ie A

Voltage Eo1 V

Frequency F1 Hz

Table 1. No Load Test


Machine Model:
Page 71 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Eo1

Ie
Graph 1. No Load Test

Machine Model:

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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.2 SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

This experiment is performed on a Synchronous Machine.

4.2.1 OBJECTIVES

Plot the short circuit characteristics of a synchronous generator. The short circuit diagram shows
the output current versus the excitation current when the armature windings are short circuited.

4.2.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

This test is performed by driving the generator to a speed close to nominal and by measuring the
short circuit current while stepping up the excitation current. It is not necessary to measure the
output frequency as the short circuit current is largely independent from speed when the
generator is running close to nominal RPM.

4.2.3 MEASUREMENTS

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Excitation Current A1 Amperes


Current 1 A2 Amperes
Current 2 A3 Amperes
Current 3 A4 Amperes
Short Circuit Current Isc Amperes

Page 73 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.2.4 COMPONENTS

Three Phase Synchronous Machine Model A4223


Squirrel Cage Three Phase Drive Motor Model A4220
Power Supply Model A0240
Coupling Base Model A4840
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Coupling Base Model A4840
Three phase analyzer Model A4750D

4.2.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Theoretical Diagram

A1

Generator Three Phase


PS4 3 Phase A2
Analyzer

A4

Motor
PS1
3 Phase

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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

Figure 2 . Connection Diagram

Page 75 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.2.6 Conducting the experiment

The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams (Fig. 2) and
must be grounded. The synchronous machine is mechanically coupled to the driving
asynchronous motor.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the excitation voltage PS4 and motor supply voltage PS1 = 0

- Switch on the power supply.


Start the driving motor

- When the motor reaches nominal speed by adjusting (PS1 to 380V), step up the excitation
current (PS4) Ie until nominal current (0.2Amp) is reached.

- At each step enter in the worksheet table the values of the excitation and generator
currents.(Table 2)

- Calculate the short circuit current as the average of the generator currents.

- Plot the graph.(Graph 2)

NOTE: Since the short circuit test graph is linear, short circuit current (Isc) can be drawn by
measuring only two points.

Page 76 of 98
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4.2.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Excitation Current 0.2Amp % 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Excitation current Ie-A4 A

Current 1 A1 A

Current 2 A2 A

Current 3 A3 A
Short Circuit Curr.
Isc A
(Calculation)

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Excitation Current 0.2Amp % 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Excitation current Ie-A4 A

Current 1 A1 A

Current 2 A2 A

Current 3 A3 A
Short Circuit Curr.
Isc A
(Calculation)

Table 2 . Short Circuit Test

Machine Model:

Page 77 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Isc

Ie

Graph 2 . Short Circuit Test

Machine Model:

Page 78 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.3 DETERMINATION OF THE EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS

This experiment is performed on a Synchronous Machine

4.3.1 OBJECTIVES

Plot the external characteristics of a synchronous generator with constant excitation current and
constant power factor.

4.3.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The load of an alternator affects its output voltage. How it is affected depends on the kind of
load.

With a resistive load the power factor is "1" and the output voltage may drop 8 to 20% from its no-
load value.

An inductive load such as induction motors causes a lagging power factor and an output
voltage drop as much as 25 to 50% below its no-load value.

A capacitive load causes a leading power factor and an increase in output voltage above the
no-load value.

These voltage variations are due to:


Resistance drops in the armature windings
Changes in flux
Reactance voltage

In fact, when the load current is capacitive the reaction ampere-turns increase the
magnetization while when the load current is inductive they decrease it.

4.3.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Output Voltage V Volts


Load Current I Amperes
Excitation Current I2 Amperes

P=V*I

Page 79 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.3.4 COMPONENTS

DC Motor (or other drive motor) Model A4244


Three Phase Synchronous Machine Model A4223
Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Coupling Base Model A4840
Resistive Load (R1) Model A4510
Capacitive Load (C1) Model A4520
Inductive Load (L1) Model A4530
Three phase analyzer Model A4750D

4.3.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS

Theoretical Diagram

PS1 M G Three-
phase
analyzer
F

R C L
Load Load Load
A2

PS4

Page 80 of 98
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Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

Figure 3 . Connection Diagram

Page 81 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.3.6 Conducting the experiment

The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams (Fig. 3) and
must be grounded. The synchronous machine is mechanically coupled to the driving motor.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

1. Reset the three loads and power supplies PS1 and PS4 to the 0 position.
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Adjust the motor's speed to about nominal speed by adjusting PS1 to 380V.
4. Adjust the excitation voltage until the no-load alternator (Synchronous Generator)
nominal output voltage Vo is reached (PS4 to 220V).
5. Step up the three resistive (A4510)load rotary switches by one position at a time
6. At each step enter in the worksheet table the output voltage V and current A1.( Table 3 )
7. When full load is reached, repeat step no 5 & 6 with the capacitive (A4520) and inductive
(A4530) loads.
8. Plot the graph.(Graph 3)

NOTE: The experiment must be performed with constant alternator excitation current.

Page 82 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

4.3.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Load R Step 1 2 3 4 5 6

Line Voltage V V

Excitation Current Ie A

Line Current I A

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Load C Step 1 2 3 4 5 6

Line Voltage V V

Excitation Current Ie A

Line Current I A

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Load L Step 1 2 3 4 5 6

Line Voltage V V

Excitation Current Ie A

Line Current I A

Table 3. Determination of the external characteristics

Machine Model:

Page 83 of 98
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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

(R/C/L)
Graph 3 . Determination of the external characteristics

Machine Model:

Report Organization

The report should follow the following format:


Results
Analysis & Discussion
Conclusions

Page 84 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

ELECTRICAL MACHINES
EDB 3053
DC MACHINES EXPERIMENT
Name :
Id No. :
Group No :

Lab Session :
Date :
Lecturer :
Lab Demo. :
:

----------CUT HERE----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NAME :

DATE OF SUBMITTED:
SHORT REPORT :
LAB STAMP :

Page 85 of 98
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for In-Lab


Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)
Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
Analysis and Preparation
no ability to conduct ability to conduct adequate ability to superior ability to
B efore Experiment
experiments. Did not experiments. conduct experiments. conduct experiments.
collect meaningful Collected some Collected most of the Collected all the
information meaningful needed information appropriate
information information

❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


No understanding or Serious deficiencies in Sound understanding Complete
Safety & Health Issues
appreciation of safety addressing health and of health and safety understanding of
and health related safety issues leading issues. Mostly health and safety
issues to a unsupported effective in achieving issues leading to
and/or infeasible supported results sound and supported
result results

❑(0-2) ❑(3-8) ❑(9-14) ❑(15)


Participation Demonstrated little or Demonstrated some Demonstrated Demonstrated
in Teamwork no ability to function ability to function adequate ability to superior ability to
(If applicable) effectively as effectively as function effectively as function effectively as
leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member leader/team member
during experimental during experimental during experimental during experimental
work work work work

Successfully Performs
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Cannot completes Successfully Successfully Successfully
Experiments
tasks and standard completes experiment completes experiment completes
Without Supervision
procedures procedure with procedures with experiment
moderate supervision minimal supervision procedures
independently

Punctuality ❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)


>10 minutes late 6-10 minutes late 1-5 minutes late Punctual
TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

86
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Rubric for short Report

Course : Electrical Machines Date:

Student: Student ID:

Topic Unacceptable Marginal Acceptable Exceptional


(Weight) Points
❑(0-1) ❑(2-5) ❑(6-9) ❑(10)
Results No results or Minimum results are Results are presented Results are very
plagiarized work are presented but with minor error clearly presented
presented and could still be
improved

❑(0-2) ❑(3-13) ❑(14-24) ❑(25)


Analysis and No analysis and Minimum analysis and Analysis and Analysis and
Discussion discussion or discussion are discussion are discussion are very
plagiarized work are presented and presented but with clearly explained
presented analyzed/discussed minor error and could using relevant tool
still be improved such as graph, table,
etc.

Conclusions
❑(0) ❑(1-2) ❑(3-4) ❑(5)
No conclusions Minimum conclusions Conclusions are Conclusions are
are deduced deduced but not deduced very
comprehensive and comprehensively and
accurate accurately

TOTAL

Examiner’s: Advanced Power Systems

(Name & Signature)

87
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

5. DC MACHINES LABORATORY
5.1 MEASUREMENT OF THE WINDINGS RESISTANCE

5.1.1 OBJECTIVES

Calculate the winding resistance of shunt DC machines with the Volt-Ampere method
(Ohm's Law).

5.1.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The windings resistance cause internal voltage drops that reduce the machine’s efficiency.
Therefore it must be as low as possible. It is calculated by applying known DC voltages and
measuring the resulting current flows.

5.1.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Winding Voltage V Volts


Winding Current I Amperes
Winding Resistance R Ohms

R=V/ I
5.1.4 COMPONENTS

DC Shunt Excitation Machine Model A4244


Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Ammeter With adequate range for this test
Voltmeter With adequate range for this test

5.1.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS


Theoretical Diagram
Shunt Excitation Machine
The shunt excitation winding has accessible ends for measuring its resistance

PS3 DC
V Machine

88
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Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

P A A A A mA

V V V

Key POI
VAK
P VAK
Overspeed
P P

AC Power Outlets SES VS


AC Exits AC DC Exits DC Exits

A V

A4244

A1 A2
G
B1 B2

Figure 1 . Connection Diagram

89
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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5.1.6 Conducting the experiment


The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams
(Fig. 1) and must be grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS


- Set the D.C. windings voltage PS3 = 0 V.

- Switch on the power supply.


Increase PS3 gradually by operating on the front knob. It must be increased in 2% steps
up to 10 % max.
Do not exceed 10 % of nominal winding voltage to avoid excessive winding
temperature

- Measure the voltage and current for any step and enter them in the worksheet tables.
( Table 1)

- Repeat the above steps for field winding and calculate their resistance with the
formula given above. ( Table 2 )

5.1.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Winding Voltage 220V % 2 4 6 8 10

Winding Voltage V V

Winding Current I A
Winding Resistance
R Ω
(Calculation)
Table 1 . Measurement of the windings resistance

Machine Model: Winding: Armature

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Winding Voltage 220V % 2 4 6 8 10

Winding Voltage V V

Winding Current I A
Winding Resistance
R Ω
(Calculation)
Table 2 . Measurement of the windings resistance

Machine Model: Winding: Field

90
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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5.2 MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS

This experiment can be performed on shunt excitation DC generators.

5.2.1 OBJECTIVES

Plot the magnetization characteristics of a DC machine.

5.2.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

This experiment shows the electromotive force Eo against the excitation current Ie.

The resulting graph shows that for the same value of excitation current there are two
different values of electromotive force, one for the ascending and one for the descending
curves. Usually the medium value of Eo is considered.

The area enclosed in the magnetization loop represents the power losses for magnetic
hysteresis (residual magnetism) in the armature iron.

5.2.3 MEASUREMENTS

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Armature Voltage V Volts


Excitation Current Ie Ampères
Speed n rpm

5.2.4 COMPONENTS

DC Shunt Excitation Machine Model A4244


Slip Ring Three Phase Drive Motor Model A4223
Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Coupling Base Model A4840
Ammeter With adequate range for this test
Voltmeter With adequate range for this test
RPM Meter

91
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5.2.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS – Theoretical Diagram

A +

M DC
PS1 3 Phase Machine PS4 V

Connection Diagram
A0240 Section PS1 Section PS2 - 3 Section PS4

P A A A A mA

V V V

Key POI
VAK
P VAK
Overspeed
P P

AC Power Outlets SES VS


AC Exits AC + DC Exits DC Exits

V A

A4222 A4244

A1 A2
G

B1 B2

Figure 2 . Connection Diagram

92
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5.2.6 Conducting the experiment

The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams (Fig. 2)
and must be grounded. The DC machine is mechanically coupled to the driving motor (3
Phase squirrel cage motor or single phase split phase/capacitor motor).

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the excitation voltage PS4 and drive motor supply voltage PS1 = 0

- Switch on the power supply and adjust PS1 to nominal motor voltage  380V.

- When the motor is up to speed gradually increase the excitation current from 0% to
100% in 10% steps by adjusting PS4.

- At each step enter in the worksheet table the values of voltage and excitation current.
( Table 2 )

- Repeat the above steps while decreasing the excitation current from 100% to 10%

- Plot of the ascending and descending in the same graph .( Graph 1)

5.2.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Excitation Current 0.2Amp % 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Excitation current Ie A

Voltage V V

Speed n rpm

Excitation Current 0.2Amp % 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Excitation Current Ie A

Voltage V VA

Speed n rpm

Table 2 . Magnetic characteristics

Machine Model:

93
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Ie
Graph 1 . Magnetic characteristics

Machine Model:

94
ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
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5.3 NO LOAD TEST

5.3.1 OBJECTIVES

The experiment is designed to measure the mechanical plus iron losses.

5.3.2 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The mechanical losses are caused by friction on bearings, brushes and ventilation.
They are not affected by the load and depend only on rotation speed. Copper losses may
be disregarded due to the low current absorbed in these conditions.
When in rotation, the rotor is subject to the alternating flux generated by the
excitation winding on the stator and this causes the iron losses due to hysteresis and Eddy
currents.

5.3.3 FORMULAE

PARAMETER SYMBOL UNIT

Armature Voltage Va Volts


Armature Current Ia Amperes
Input Power (no-load) P Watts
Mechanical Losses Pm Watts
Magnetic Losses Pfe Watts

P = Va * Ia = Pm + PFe
5.3.4 COMPONENTS

DC Shunt Excitation Machine Model A4244


Power Supply Model A0240
Cables Model A4890
Cables Support Model A4891
Coupling Base Model A4840
Ammeter With adequate range for this test
Voltmeter With adequate range for this test
RPM Meter

5.3.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS- Theoritical Diagram

Shunt Excitation

PS4 PS3 V M

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Connection Diagram

A0240 Section PS1 Sections PS2 - 3 Section PS4

P A A A A mA

V V V

Key POI
VAK
P VAK
Overspeed
P P

AC Power Outlets SES VS


AC Exits AC DC Exits DC Exits

A V

A4244

A1 A2
M
B1 B2

Figure 3 . Connection Diagram

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

5.3.6 Conducting the experiment

The components must be connected as shown in the in the connection diagrams (Fig. 3)
and must be grounded.

MANUAL DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

- Set the excitation voltage PS4 and armature voltage PS3 = 0

- Switch on the power supply and adjust PS4 to nominal voltage (220V).

Start the motor by gradually increasing the armature voltage PS3 until reach speed
3000 rpm by using tachometer.

- When the motor is at speed 3000 rpm , measure the current at the Ammeter and
voltage at voltmeter and enter the values in the worksheet table. (Table 3)

- Decrease PS3 (-10 Volt) and monitor Voltmeter.

- Decrease PS4 and make sure the motor is still at nominal speed of 3000 rpm. Avoid
making the excitation (PS4) current (voltage) too small or zero!!!.

- The experiment is completed when the armature voltage is so low that the motor
begins to slow down.

- To stop the motor, adjust PS3=0, then after the motor stop, adjust PS4=0.

- Plot the graph. ( Graph 2 )

5.3.7 WORKSHEETS

Parameter Symbol Unit Value

Armature Voltage Va V

Armature Current Ia A

No Load Losses P W

Table 3 . No load test

Machine Model:

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB EDB 3053
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENG. PROG.

Va

Graph 2 . No load test

Machine Model:

Report Organization

The report should follow the following


format:
Results
Analysis & Discussion
Conclusions

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