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A. Constant Resistance: 250.

0 ohms

Variation of voltage with Current


20 19

18
16 15
Measured Current (mA)

14
12 11

10
7.5
8
6
4
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5
Voltage (V)

B.

Variation of Resistance with Current


25
22

20
Measured Current (mA)

14 14
15

9.8
9
10

0
200 300 330 470 500
Resistor Value (ohms)
C.

Variation of Voltage with Resistance


12

9.6
10 9
Measured Voltage (V)

8
6.5

6
4.8
4
4

0
200 250 330 470 500
Resistor Value (ohms)

Introduction
When studying electric circuits, it is essential to understand Ohm’s Law. Georg Simon Ohm describes the
relationship among voltage, current, and resistance in an ideal conductor. The resistance, denoted by R, is defined as
the ratio of the voltage V across a piece of material to the current I through that material, or R = V / I.
Voltage (V) is the potential difference between two points which pushes the electrons to flow. The resistance
(R) is the material’s tendency to resist the flow of charge. Materials having high resistance are called insulators while
materials having low resistance are called conductors. Moreover, current (I) is the rate at which charge is flowing
through the resistance. Because the potential difference across a material following Ohm’s Law has a linear
relationship with the current, it is called “ohmic” or “linear.”
Voltmeters and ammeters are also important devices in demonstrating Ohm’s Law. A voltmeter is connected
in parallel with the resistor to measure the potential difference between any two points in a circuit. Meanwhile, an
ammeter is connected in series to measure the current in the circuit.
The students will try to investigate Ohm’s Law in a simple circuit and to determine the relationship between
voltage and current, current and resistance, and voltage and resistance.