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Т.А.

Знаменская

СТИЛИСТИКА
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Основы КУРСА

Т. A. Znamenskaya

STYLISTICS
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

FUNDAMENTALS OF THE COURSE

Допущено Министерством образования Российской Федерации


в качестве учебного п о с о б и я для студентов высших учебных
з а в е д е н и й , о б у ч а ю щ и х с я по с п е ц и а л ь н о с т и 030500 -
П р о ф е с с и о н а л ь н о е обучение (по отраслям)

Издание второе, исправленное

Москва • 2004

БИБЛИОТЕКА

В э Г У
ББК 81.2Англ-5я73

Знаменская Татьяна Анатольевна

Стилистика английского языка. О с н о в ы курса: У ч е б н о е п о с о б и е . И з д . 2 - е ,


испр. - М.: Е д и т о р и а л У Р С С , 2004. - 208 с.

ISBN 5-354-00659-7
Contents
Пособие освещает ключевые проблемы стилистики английского языка
и включает главы: предмет и задачи курса, выразительные средства языка,
грамматическая стилистика, теория функциональных стилей, основы стилистики
декодирования, глоссарий стилистических терминов. В каждой главе актуализация теоретических Preface 7
положений опирается на систему практических заданий,
которые могут быть использованы как на семинарских занятиях, так и для
самостоятельной работы. Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics . . . 9
Учебное пособие предназначено д л я студентов факультетов иностранных
языков, а также всех, кто изучает дисциплину "Стилистика английского языка".
1.1. Problems of stylistic research 9

1.2. Stylistics of language and speech 15

1.3. Types of stylistic research and branches


Рецензенты:

кандидат филологических наук, доцент В. А. Першикова of stylistics 16


( Н и ж е г о р о д с к и й государственный л и н г в и с т и ч е с к и й университет);
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Г. В. Андреева 1.4. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines 19
( Ш а д р и н с к и й педагогический институт);
С. Скляр, преподаватель колледжа Ш а й м е р (г. Ч и к а г о , С Ш А ) 1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring 21

1.6. Stylistic function notion 24

Practice Section 28
Издательство "Едиториал УРСС". 117312, г. Москва, rrp-т 60-летия Октября, 9.
Лицензия ИД № 0 5 1 7 5 от 25.06.2001 г. Подписано к печати 20.01.2004 г. Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language 33
Формат 6 0 x 9 0 I 1 6 . Тираж 1000 экз. Печ. л. 13. Зак. № 2-1229I427.
Отпечатано в типографии ООО " Р О Х О С " . 1 1 7 3 1 2 , г. Москва, пр-т 60-летия Октября, 9.
2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices 34

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means . . . . 37

2.2.1. Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system 39


ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО УРСС
НАУЧНОЙ И УЧЕБНОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
ISBN 5-354-00659-7

E-mail: U R S S @ U R S S . r u
Каталог изданий
в Internet: http://URSS.ru
Тел.Iфакс: 7 ( 0 9 5 ) 1 3 5 - 4 2 - 1 6
Тел.Iфакс: 7 ( 0 9 5 ) 1 3 5 - 4 2 - 4 6
© Едиториал У Р С С , 2004
Contents Contents

2.2.2. Stylistic theory and classification 3.4. Stylistic syntax 110


of expresssive means by G. Leech 45
Practice Section 116
2.2.3. I. R. Galperin's classification of expressive
means and stylistic devices . 50 Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles 122
2.2.4. Classification of expressive means
4.1. The notion of style in functional stylistics 122
and stylistic devices by Y. M. Skrebnev . . . 57
4.2. Correlation of style, norm and function
Practice Section 76
in the language 124
Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar 87 4.3. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational . 127

3.1. The theory of grammatical gradation. 4.4. An overview of functional style systems 131
Marked, semi-marked and unmarked structures . . 87 4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major
functional styles of English 142
3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types
of grammatical transposition 89 4.5.1. Literary colloquial style 143

3.3. Morphological stylistics. Stylistic potential 4.5.2. Familiar colloquial style 145

of the parts of speech 92 4.5.3. Publicist (media) style 148

3.3.1. The noun and its stylistic potential 92 4.5.4. The style of official documents 150

3.3.2. The article and its stylistic potential 95 4.5.5. ScientificIacademic style 153

3.3.3. The stylistic power of the pronoun 97 Practice Section 156

3.3.4. The adjective and its stylistic functions . . . 101 Chapter 5. Decoding stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions . 160

3.3.5. The verb and its stylistic properties 103


5.1. Stylistics of the author and of the reader.
3.3.6. Affixation and its expressiveness 107 The notions of encoding and decoding 161
Contents

5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis


and types of foregrounding 164

5.2.1. Convergence 167

5.2.2. Defeated expectancy 169


Preface
5.2.3. Coupling 171
The book suggests the fundamentals of stylistic theory that outline
5.2.4. Semantic field 174 such basic areas of research as expressive resources of the language,
stylistic differentiation of vocabulary, varieties of the national language
5.2.5. Semi-marked structures 177 and sociolinguistic and pragmatic factors that determine functional
styles.
Practice Section 179
The second chapter will take a student of English to the beginnings
Glossary for the Course of Stylistics 188 of stylistics in Greek and Roman schools of rhetoric and show how
much modern terminology and classifications of expressive means
Sources 201
owe to rhetoric.

Dictionaries 203 An important part of the book is devoted to the new tendencies and
schools of stylistics that assimilated advancements in the linguistic
th
science in such trends of the 20 century as functional, decoding
List of Authors and Publications Quoted 204
and grammatical stylistics.

The material on the wealth of expressive means of EngUsh will help


a student of philology, a would-be teacher and a reader of literature
not only to receive orientation in how to fully decode the message of
the work of art and therefore enjoy it all the more but also to improve
their own style of expression.

The chapter on functional styles highlights the importance of «time


and place» in language usage. It tells how the same language differs
when used for different purposes on different occasions in communi-
cation with different people. It explains why we adopt different uses of
language as we go through our day. A selection of distinctive features
of each functional style will help to identify and use it correctly
whether you deal with producing or analysing a text of a certain
functional type.
CHAPTER 1
Chapters on grammar stylistics and decoding stylistics are intended
to introduce the student to the secrets of how a stylistic device works.
Modern linguistics may help to identify the nature and algorithm of The Object of Stylistics
stylistic effect by showing what kind of semantic change, grammatical
transposition or lexical deviation results in various stylistic outcomes.

This book combines theoretical study and practice. Each chapter is


supplied with a special section that enables the student and the teacher Problems of stylistic research. Stylistics of language and speech.
to revise and process the theoretical part by drawing conclusions and Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics. Stylistics
parallels, doing comparison and critical analysis. Another type of practice and other linguistic disciplines. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic
involves creative tasks on stylistic analysis and interpretation, such coloring. Stylistic function notion.
as identifying devices in literary texts, explaining their function and
the principle of performance, decoding the implications they create.

The knowledge of the theoretical background of stylistic research and 1.1. Problems of stylistic research
the experience of integrating it into one's analytical reading skills
will enhance the competence and proficiency of a future teacher
Units of language on different levels are studied by traditional
of English. Working with literary texts on this level also helps to
branches of linguistics such as phonetics that deals with speech
develop one's cultural scope and aesthetic taste. It will also enrich
the student's linguistic and stylistic thesaurus. sounds and intonation; lexicology that treats words, their meaning and vocabulary structure
words and their function in a sentence which is studied by syntax. These areas of linguistic stud
The author owes acknowledgements for the kindly assistance in have a long-term tradition of regarding language phenomena from
reading and stylistic editing of this work to a colleague from the a level-oriented point of view. Thus the subject matter and the
Shimer College of Chicago, a lecturer in English and American material under study of these linguistic disciplines are more or less
literature S. Sklar. clear-cut.
It gets more complicated when we talk about stylistics. Some scholars intercourse in the sphere of one national language or another..." (8,
claim that this is a comparatively new branch of linguistics, which p. 73). In 1971 Prof. I. R. Galperin offered his definition of style "as
has only a few decades of intense linguistic interest behind it. The a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim
term stylistics really came into existence not too long ago. In point in communication." (36, p. 18).
of fact the scope of problems and the object of stylistic study go as
far back as ancient schools of rhetoric and poetics. According to Prof. Y. M. Skrebnev, whose book on stylistics was
published in 1994, "style is what differentiates a group of homogeneous
The problem that makes the definition of stylistics a curious one deals texts (an individual text) from all other groups (other texts)... Style
both with the object and the material of studies. When we speak of can be roughly defined as the peculiarity, the set of specific features
the stylistic value of a text we cannot proceed from the level-biased of a text type or of a specific text." (47, p. 9).
approach that is so logically described through the hierarchical system
of sounds, words and clauses. Not only may each of these linguistic All these definitions point out the systematic and functionally determined character of
units be charged with a certain stylistic meaning but the interaction
of these elements, as well as the structure and composition of the
The authors of handbooks on German (E. Riesel, M. P. Bran-
whole text are stylistically pertinent.
des), French (Y. S. Stepanov, R. G. Piotrovsky, K. A. Dolinin), English (I. R. Galperin,
Another problem has to do with a whole set of special linguistic V. A. Kukharenko, A. N. Morokhovsky and others) and Russian
means that create what we call "style". Style may be belles-letters (M. N. Kozhina, I. B. Golub) stylistics published in our country
or scientific or neutral or low colloquial or archaic or pompous, or over the recent decades propose more or less analogous systems of
styles style,
a combination of those. Style may also be typical of a certain writer - Shakespearean style, Dickensian basedetc.
onThere
a broad
is thesubdivision
style of the of all styles into two classes:
press, the style of official documents, the style of social etiquette and literary and colloquial and their varieties. These generally include
even an individual style of a speaker or writer - his idiolect. from three to five functional styles.

stylistics deals with styles. Different scholars have defined style Since functional styles will be further specially discussed in a separate
differently at different times. Out of this variety we shall quote the chapter at this stage we shall limit ourselves to only three popular
most representative ones that scan the period from the 50ies to the viewpoints in English language style classifications.
th
90ies of the 20 century.
Prof. I. R. Galperin suggests 5 styles for the English language.
In 1955 the Academician V. V. Vinogradov defined style as "socially
recognized and functionally conditioned internally united totality of 1) belles-lettres style: poetry, emotive prose, and drama;
the ways of using, selecting and combining the means of lingual 2) publicist style: oratory and speeches, essay, articles;
4) emotional colouring in language;
3) newspaper style: brief news items, headlines, advertisements,
editorial; 5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices;
4) scientific prose style; 6) the splitting of the literary language into separate systems called
style;
5) official documents style. 7) the interrelation between language and thought;
8) the individual manner of an author in making use of the language
Prof. I. V. Arnold distinguishes 4 styles:
(47, p. 5).

1) poetic style; These issues cover the overall scope of stylistic research and can only
2) scientific style; be representative of stylistics as a discipline of linguistic study taken
3) newspaper style; as a whole. So it should be noted that each of them is concerned
with only a limited area of research:
4) colloquial style.
Prof. Y. M. Skrebnev suggests a most unconventional viewpoint on 1. The aesthetic function of language is an immanent part of works
the number of styles. He maintains that the number of sublanguages of art - poetry and imaginative prose but it leaves out works of
and styles is infinite (if we include individual styles, styles mentioned science, diplomatic or commercial correspondence, technical
in linguistic literature such as telegraphic, oratorical, reference book, instructions and many other types of texts.
Shakespearean, short story, or the style of literature on electronics, 2. Expressive means of language are mostly employed in types of
computer language, etc.). speech that aim to affect the reader or listener: poetry, fiction,
oratory, and informal intercourse but rarely in technical texts or
Of course the problem of style definition is not the only one stylistic
business language.
research deals with.
3. It is due to the possibility of choice, the possibility of using
Stylistics is that branch of linguistics, which studies the principles, and synonymous ways of rendering ideas that styles are formed. With
effect of choice and usage of different language elements in rendering the change of wording a change in meaning (however slight it
thought and emotion under different conditions of communication. might be) takes place inevitably.
Therefore it is concerned with such issues as 4. The emotional colouring of words and sentences creates a certain
stylistic effect and makes a text either a highly lyrical piece of
1) the aesthetic function of language; description or a satirical derision with a different stylistic value.
2) expressive means in language; However not all texts eligible for stylistic study are necessarily
marked by this quality.
3) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
5. No work of art, no text or speech consists of a system of stylistic 1.2. Stylistics of language and s p e e c h
devices but there's no doubt about the fact that the style of
anything is formed by the combination of features peculiar to it, One of the fundamental concepts of linguistics is the dichotomy of
that whatever we say or write, hear or read is not style by itself "language and speech" (langue - parole) introduced by F. de Saussure.
but has style, it demonstrates stylistic features. According to it language is a system of elementary and complex signs:
phonemes, morphemes, words, word combinations, utterances and
6. Any national language contains a number of "sublanguages" or
combinations of utterances. Language as such a system exists in
microlanguages or varieties of language with their own specific
human minds only and linguistic forms or units can be systematised
features, their own styles. Besides these functional styles that are
into paradigms.
rooted in the norm of the language there exist the so-called "substandard" types of speech such as slang, barbarisms, vulgarisms,
taboo and so on. So language is a mentally organised system of linguistic units. An
individual speaker never uses it. When we use these units we mix
7. Interrelation between thought and language can be described in them in acts of speech. As distinct from language speech is not
terms of an inseparable whole so when the form is changed a purely mental phenomenon, not a system but a process of combining
a change in content takes place. The author's intent and the these linguistic elements into linear linguistic units that are called
forms he uses to render it as well as the reader's interpretation syntagmatic.
of it is the subject of a special branch of stylistics - decoding The result of this process is the linear or syntagmatic combination
stylistics. of vowels and consonants into words, words into word-combinations
8. We can hardly object to the proposition that style is also above and sentences and combination of sentences into texts. The word
other things the individual manner of expression of an author in "syntagmatic" is a purely linguistic term meaning a coherent sequence
his use of the language. At the same time the individual manner of words (written, uttered or just remembered).
can only appear out of a number of elements provided by the
Stylistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts, not with
common background and employed and combined in a specific
the system of signs or process of speech production as such. But
manner.
within these texts elements stylistically relevant are studied both
syntagmatically and paradigmatically (loosely classifying all stylistic
Thus speaking of stylistics as a science we have to bear in mind that means paradigmatically into tropes and syntagmatically into figures
the object of its research is versatile and multi-dimensional and the of speech).
study of any of the above-mentioned problems will be a fragmentary
description. It's essential that we look at the object of stylistic study Eventually this brings us to the notions of stylistics of language
in its totality. and stylistics of speech. Their difference lies in the material studied.
The stylistics of language analyses permanent or inherent stylistic The points of difference proceed from the different points of analysis.
properties of language elements while the stylistics of speech studies While lingua-stylistics studies
stylistic properties, which appear in a context, and they are called
adherent.
• Functional styles (in their development and current state).
Russian words like толмач, штудировать, соизволять or English
• The linguistic nature of the expressive means of the language,
words prevaricate, comprehend, lass are bookish or archaic and
their systematic character and their functions.
these are their inherent properties. The unexpected use of any
of these words in a modern context will be an adherent stylistic
Literary stylistics is focused on
property.

So stylistics of language describes and classifies the inherent stylistic • The composition of a work of art.
colouring of language units. Stylistics of speech studies the composition of the utterance - the arrangement, selection and distribution of
• Various literary genres.
different words, and their adherent qualities.
• The writer's outlook.

Comparative stylistics
1 . 3 . T y p e s of stylistic r e s e a r c h and b r a n c h e s of stylistics

Comparative stylistics is connected with the contrastive study of more


than one language.
Literary and linguistic stylistics
It analyses the stylistic resources not inherent in a separate language
According to the type of stylistic research we can distinguish literary but at the crossroads of two languages, or two literatures and is
stylistics and lingua-stylistics. They have some meeting points or obviously linked to the theory of translation.
links in that they have common objects of research. Consequently
they have certain areas of cross-reference. Both study the common
ground of: Decoding stylistics

1) the literary language from the point of view of its variability; A comparatively new branch of stylistics is the decoding stylistics,
which can be traced back to the works of L. V. Shcherba, B. A. Larin,
2) the idiolect (individual speech) of a writer;
M. Riffaterre, R. Jackobson and other scholars of the Prague linguistic
3) poetic speech that has its own specific laws. circle. A serious contribution into this branch of stylistic study was
also made by Prof. I.V. Arnold (3, 4). Each act of speech has the Stylistic lexicology
performer, or sender of speech and the recipient. The former does the
act of encoding and the latter the act of decoding the information. Stylistic Lexicology studies the semantic structure of the word and
the interrelation (or interplay) of the connotative and denotative
If we analyse the text from the author's (encoding) point of view meanings of the word, as well as the interrelation of the stylistic
we should consider the epoch, the historical situation, the personal connotations of the word and the context.
political, social and aesthetic views of the author.
Stylistic Phonetics (or Phonostylistics) is engaged in the study of
But if we try to treat the same text from the reader's angle of view style-forming phonetic features of the text. It describes the prosodic
we shall have to disregard this background knowledge and get the features of prose and poetry and variants of pronunciation in different
maximum information from the text itself (its vocabulary, compo- types of speech (colloquial or oratory or recital).
sition, sentence arrangement, etc.). The first approach manifests
the prevalence of the literary analysis. The second is based almost
Stylistic grammar
exclusively on the linguistic analysis. Decoding stylistics is an attempt
to harmoniously combine the two methods of stylistic research and
Stylistic Morphology is interested in the stylistic potentials of specific
enable the scholar to interpret a work of art with a minimum loss of
grammatical forms and categories, such as the number of the noun,
its purport and message.
or the peculiar use of tense forms of the verb, etc.

Stylistic Syntax is one of the oldest branches of stylistic studies that


Functional stylistics
grew out of classical rhetoric. The material in question lends itself
readily to analysis and description. Stylistic syntax has to do with
Special mention should be made of functional stylistics which is the expressive order of words, types of syntactic links (asyndeton,
a branch of lingua-stylistics that investigates functional styles, that polysyndeton), figures of speech (antithesis, chiasmus, etc.). It also
is special sublanguages or varieties of the national language such as deals with bigger units from paragraph onwards.
scientific, colloquial, business, publicist and so on.

However many types of stylistics may exist or spring into existence


they will all consider the same source material for stylistic analysis- 1.4. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines
sounds, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs and texts. That's why
any kind of stylistic research will be based on the level-forming As is obvious from the names of the branches or types of stylistic
branches that include: studies this science is very closely linked to the linguistic disci-
plines philology students are familiar with: phonetics, lexicology and Decoding stylistics in many ways borders culture studies in the broad
grammar due to the common study source. sense of that word including the history of art, aesthetic trends and
even information theory.
Stylistics interacts with such theoretical discipline as semasiology. This
is a branch of linguistics whose area of study is a most complicated
and enormous sphere - that of meaning. The term semantics is also
1 . 5 . Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring
widely used in linguistics in relation to verbal meanings. Semasiology
in its turn is often related to the theory of signs in general and deals
with visual as well as verbal meanings. Speaking of the notion of style and stylistic colouring we cannot
avoid the problem of the norm and neutrality and stylistic colouring in
Meaning is not attached to the level of the word only, or for that contrast to it.
matter to one level at all but correlates with all of them - morphemes,
words, phrases or texts. This is one of the most challenging areas of Most scholars abroad and in this country giving definitions of style
research since practically all stylistic effects are based on the interplay come to the conclusion that style may be defined as deviation from
between different kinds of meaning on different levels. Suffice it to the lingual norm. It means that what is stylistically conspicuous,
say that there are numerous types of linguistic meanings attached stylistically relevant or stylistically coloured is a departure from
to linguistic units, such as grammatical, lexical, logical, denotative, the norm of a given national language. (G. Leech, M. Riffaterre,
connotative, emotive, evaluative, expressive and stylistic. M. Halliday, R. Jacobson and others).

Onomasiology (or onomatology) is the theory of naming dealing with There are authors who object to the use of the word "norm" for various
the choice of words when naming or assessing some object or reasons. Thus Y. M. Skrebnev argues that since we acknowledge the
phenomenon. In stylistic analysis we often have to do with a transfer existence of a variety of sublanguages within a national language we
of nominal meaning in a text (antonomasia, metaphor, metonymy, should also acknowledge that each of them has a norm of its own.
etc.) So the sentence "I haven't ever done anything" (or "I don't know
anything") as juxtaposed to the sentence "I ain't never done nothing"
The theory of functional styles investigates the structure of the ("I don't know nothing") is not the norm itself but merely conforms
national linguistic space - what constitutes the literary language, the to the literary norm.
sublanguages and dialects mentioned more than once already.
The second sentence ("I ain't never done nothing") most certainly
Literary stylistics will inevitably overlap with areas of literary studies deviates from the literary norm (from standard English) but if
such as the theory of imagery, literary genres, the art of composition, fully conforms to the requirements of the uncultivated part of the
etc. English speaking population who merely have their own conception
of the norm. So Skrebnev claims there are as many norms as there of them are so frequent in every-day speech that you hardly register
are sublanguages. Each language is subject to its own norm. To them as deviations from the norm, e.g. They ready to go instead of
reject this would mean admitting abnormality of everything that They are ready to go; Joyce has fifty cent in her bank account instead
is not neutral. Only ABC-books and texts for foreigners would of Joyce has fifty cents in her bank account; My brother, he's a doctor
be considered "normal". Everything that has style, everything that instead of My brother is a doctor, He don't know nothing instead of He
demonstrates peculiarities of whatever kind would be considered doesn't know anything.
abnormal, including works by Dickens, Twain, О'Henry, Galsworthy
and so on (47, pp. 21-22). The majority of the words are neutral. Stylistically coloured w o r d s -
bookish, solemn, poetic, official or colloquial, rustic, dialectal,
For all its challenging and defiant character this argument seems to vulgar - have each a kind of label on them showing where the unit
contain a grain of truth and it does stand to reason that what we was "manufactured", where it generally belongs.
often call "the norm" in terms of stylistics would be more appropriate
to call "neutrality". Within the stylistically coloured words there is another opposition
between formal vocabulary and informal vocabulary.
Since style is the specificity of a sublanguage it is self-evident that
non-specific units of it do not participate in the formation of its style; These terms have many synonyms offered by different authors. Roman
units belonging to all the sublanguages are stylistically neutral. Thus Jacobson described this opposition as casual and non-casual, other
we observe an opposition of stylistically coloured specific elements to terminologies name them as bookish and colloquial or formal and
stylistically neutral non-specific elements. informal, correct and common.

The stylistic colouring is nothing but the knowledge where, in what Stylistically coloured words are limited to specific conditions of
particular type of communication, the unit in question is current. communication. If you isolate a stylistically coloured word it will still
On hearing for instance the above-cited utterance "I don't know preserve its label or "trade-mark" and have the flavour of poetic or
nothing" ("I ain't never done nothing") we compare it with what artistic colouring.
we know about standard and non-standard forms of English and
this will permit us to pass judgement on what we have heard or You're sure to recognise words like decease, attire, decline (a proposal)
read. as bookish and distinguish die, clothes, refuse as neutral while such
units as snuff it, rags (togs), turn down will immediately strike you as
Professor Howard M. Mims of Cleveland State University did an colloquial or informal.
accurate study of grammatical deviations found in American English
that he terms vernacular (non-standard) variants (44). He made a list In surveying the units commonly called neutral can we assert that
of 20 grammatical forms which he calls relatively common and some they only denote without connoting? That is not completely true.
If we take stylistically neutral words separately, we may call them other linguistic subjects. Stylistics does not study or describe separate
neutral without doubt. But occasionally in a certain context, in linguistic units like phonemes or words or clauses as such. It studies
a specific distribution one of many implicit meanings of a word we
their stylistic function. Stylistics is interested in the expressive potential
normally consider neutral may prevail. Specific distribution may also
of these units and their interaction in a text.
create unexpected additional colouring of a generally neutral word.
Such stylistic connotation is called occasional. Stylistics focuses on the expressive properties of linguistic units,
their functioning and interaction in conveying ideas and emotions in
Stylistic connotations may be inherent or adherent. Stylistically
a certain text or communicative context.
coloured words possess inherent stylistic connotations. Stylistically
neutral words will have only adherent (occasional) stylistic connotations acquired in a certain context.
Stylistics interprets the opposition or clash between the contextual
meaning of a word and its denotative meaning.

A luxury hotel for dogs is to be opened at Lima, Peru a city of 30.000 Accordingly stylistics is first and foremost engaged in the study of
dogs. The. furry guests will have separate hygienic kennels, top medical connotative meanings.
care and high standard cuisine, including the best bones. (Mailer)
In brief the semantic structure (or the meaning) of a word roughly
Two examples from this passage demonstrate how both stylistically consists of its grammatical meaning (noun, verb, adjective) and
marked and neutral words may change their colouring due to the its lexical meaning. Lexical meaning can further on be subdivided
context: into denotative (linked to the logical or nominative meaning) and
connotative meanings. Connotative meaning is only connected with
cuisine -> inherently formal (bookish, high-flown); extra-linguistic circumstances such as the situation of communication
-> adherent connotation in the context - lowered/humorous; and the participants of communication. Connotative meaning consists
bones -> stylistically neutral;
of four components:
-> adherent connotation in the context - elevated/humorous.
1) emotive;
2) evaluative;
1.6. Stylistic function notion
3) expressive;
4) stylistic.
Like other linguistic disciplines stylistics deals with the lexical,
grammatical, phonetic and phraseological data of the language. A word is always characterised by its denotative meaning but not
However there is a distinctive difference between stylistics and the necessarily by connotation. The four components may be all present
The verb to sneak means "to move silently and secretly, usu. for
at once, or in different combinations or they may not be found in
the word at all. a bad purpose" (8). This dictionary definition makes the evaluative
component bad quite explicit. Two derivatives a sneak and sneaky
have both preserved a derogatory evaluative connotation. But the
negative
1. Emotive connotations express various feelings or emotions. Emotions differ from feelings. component
Emotions like joy,disappears though
disappointment, in still another derivative
pleasure,
anger, worry, surprise are more short-lived. Feelings imply a more sneakers (shoes with a soft sole). It shows that even words of the
stable state, or attitude, such as love, hatred, respect, pride, dignity, same root may either have or lack an evaluative component in their
etc. The emotive component of meaning may be occasional or usual inner form.
(i.e. inherent and adherent).
3. Expressive connotation either increases or decreases the expressiveness of the message. M
It is important to distinguish words with emotive connotations from expressive components cannot be distinguished but Prof. I. A. Arnold
words, describing or naming emotions and feelings like anger or maintains that emotive connotation always entails expressiveness but
fear, because the latter are a special vocabulary subgroup whose not vice versa. To prove her point she comments on the example by
A. Hornby
denotative meanings are emotions. They do not connote the speaker's state of mind or his emotionaland R. Fowler
attitude to thewith theofword "thing" applied to a girl (4,
subject
speech. p. 113).

When the word is used with an emotive adjective like "sweet" it


Thus if a psychiatrist were to say You should be able to control feelings becomes emotive itself: "She was a sweet little thing". But in other
of anger, impatience and disappointment dealing with a child as a piece sentences like "She was a small thin delicate thing with spectacles",
of advice to young parents the sentence would have no emotive she argues, this is not true and the word "thing" is definitely expressive
power. It may be considered stylistically neutral. but not emotive.

On the other hand an apparently neutral word like big will become Another group of words that help create this expressive effect are
charged with emotive connotation in a mother's proud description of the so-called "intensifiers", words like "absolutely, frightfully, really,
her baby: He is a BIG boy already! quite", etc.

2. The evaluative component charges the word with negative, positive, 4. Finally there is stylistic connotation. A word possesses stylistic
ironic or other types of connotation conveying the speaker's attitude connotation if it belongs to a certain functional style or a specific layer of vocabulary (such as
in relation to the object of speech. Very often this component is a part jargon, etc). stylistic connotation is usually immediately recognizable.
of the denotative meaning, which comes to the fore in a specific
context.
Yonder, slumber, thence immediately connote poetic or elevated
writing. areas of their overlapping. Describe literary and common colloquial stratums of vo

Words like price index or negotiate assets are indicative of business


language. 4. How does stylistic colouring and stylistic neutrality relate to inherent and adheren

This detailed and systematic description of the connotative meaning


5. Can you distinguish neutral, formal and informal among the following groups of w
of a word is suggested by the Leningrad school in the works of Prof.
I. V. Arnold, Z. Y. Turayeva, and others.

Gaiperin operates three types of lexical meaning that are stylistically В С


A
relevant - logical, emotive and nominal. He describes the stylistic
1. currency money dough
colouring of words in terms of the interaction of these types of
lexical meaning. Skrebnev maintains that connotations only show 2. to talk to converse to chat
to what part of the national language a word belongs - one of the to chow down to eat to dine
3.
sub-languages (functional styles) or the neutral bulk. He only speaks
4. to start to commence to kick off
about the stylistic component of the connotative meaning.
5. insane nuts mentally ill

6. spouse hubby husband


Practice Section 7. to leave to withdraw to shoot off

geezer senior citizen old man


1. Comment on the notions of style and sublanguages in the opens sincere
9. veracious
national language.
10. mushy emotional sentimental

2. What are the interdisciplinary links of stylistics and other linguistic subjects such as phonetics, lexicology, grammar, and semasiology? Provide examples.
6. What kind of adherent stylistic meaning appears in the otherwise

How does stylistics differ from them in its subject-matter and neutral word feeling?
fields of study?
I've got no feeling paying interest, provided that it's reasonable. (Shute)
3. Give an outline of the stylistic differentiation of the national
English vocabulary: neutral, literary, colloquial layers of words; I've got no feeling against small town life. I rather like it. (Shute)
7. To what stratum of vocabulary do the words in bold type in There was a rapping at the bedroom door. "I'll learn that Luden Sorrels
the following sentences belong stylistically? Provide neutral or to tomcat." (Chappel)
colloquial variants for them:
9. How does the choice of words in each case contribute to the
stylistic character of the following passages? How would you
I expect you've seen my hand often enough coming out with the grub.
(Waugh) define their functional colouring in terms of technical, poetic,
bookish, commercial, dialectal, religious, elevated, colloquial,
She betrayed some embarrassment when she handed Paul the tickets, legal or other style?
and a hauteur which subsequently made her feel very foolish. (Gather) Make up lists of words that create this tenor in the texts given
I must be off to my digs. (Waugh) below.

When the old boy popped off he left Philbrick everything, except a few Whilst humble pilgrims lodged in hospices, a travelling knight would
books to Gracie. (Waugh) normally stay with a merchant. (Rutherfurd)

He looked her over and decided that she was not appropriately dressed Fo' what you go by dem, eh? W'y not keep to yo'self? Dey don' want
and must be a fool to sit downstairs in such togs. (Cather) you, dey don' care fo' you. H' ain' you got no sense? (Dunbar-Nelson)

It was broken at length by the arrival of Flossie, splendidly attired in They sent me down to the aerodrome next morning in a car. I made
magenta and green. (Waugh) a check over the machine, cleaned filters, drained sumps, swept out the
cabin, and refuelled. Finally I took off at about ten thirty for the short
8. Consider the following utterances from the point Of view of the flight down to Batavia across the Sunda straits, and found the aerodrome
grammatical norm. What elements can be labelled as deviations and came on to the circuit behind the Constellation of K. L. M. (Shute)
from standard English? How do they comply with the norms of We ask Thee, Lord, the old man cried, to look after this childt. Fa-
colloquial English according to Mims and Skrebnev? therless he is. But what does the earthly father matter before Thee? The
childt is Thine, he is Thy childt, Lord, what father has a man but Thee?
Sita decided that she would lay down in the dark even if Mrs. Waldvogel
(Lawrence)
came in and bit her. (Erdrich)
- We are the silver band the Lord bless and keep you, said the
Always popular with the boys, he was, even when he was so full he stationmaster in one breath, the band that no one could beat whatever
couldn't hardly fight. (Waugh)
but two indeed in the Eisteddfod that for all North Wales was look you.
...he used to earn five pound a night... (Waugh) I see, said the Doctor; I see. That's splendid. Well, will you please go
I wouldn't sell it not for a hundred quid, I wouldn't. (Waugh) into your tent, the little tent over there.
To march about you would not like us? Suggested the stationmaster, we
have a fine flaglook you that embroidered for us was in silks. (Waugh)
The evidence is perfectly clear. The deceased woman was unfaithful to
her husband during his absence overseas and gave birth to a child out
of wedlock. CHAPTER 2
Her husband seemed to behave with commendable restraint and wrote
nothing to her which would have led her to take her life... The deceased
Expressive Resources of the Language
appears to have been the victim of her own conscience and as the time
for the return of her husband drew near she became menially upset. I
find that the deceased committed suicide while the balance of her mind
was temporarily deranged. (Shute)
Expressive means and stylistic devices. Different classifications
I say, I've met an awful good chap called Miles. Regular topper. You of expressive means and stylistic devices from antique to modern
know, pally. That's what I like about a really decent party - you meet
times.
such topping fellows. I mean some chaps it takes absolutely years to
know, but a chap like Miles I feel is a pal straight away. (Waugh)
She sang first of the birth of love in the hearts of a boy and a girl. And
on the topmost spray of the Rose-tree there blossomed a marvellous rose, In my reading of modern French novels I
petal following petal, as song followed song. Pale was it, at first as the had acquired the habit of underlining expressions, which s
mist that hangs over the river - pale as the feet of the morning. (Wilde) general usage, and it often happened that the
underlined passages taken together seemed
to offer
He went slowly about the corridors, through the writing - rooms, smoking-rooms, reception-rooms, as though he were exploring the achambers
certain ofconsistency. I wondered if
an enchanted palace, built and peopled for him alone. it would be possible to establish a common
denominator for all or most of these deviations, could we fi
When he reached the dining-room he sat down at a table near a window. etymon or the psychological root of 'several'
individual 'traits of style' in a writer.
The flowers, the white linen, the many-coloured wine-glasses, the gay
toilettes of the women, the low popping of corks, the undulating repetitions
of the Blue Danube from the orchestra, all flooded Paul's dream with
bewildering radiance. (Cather)
Leo Spitzer: Linguistics and Literary History
2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices Stylistic devices

A stylistic device is a literary model in which semantic and structural


Expressive means features are blended so that it represents a generalised pattern.

Expressive means of a language are those linguistic forms and Prof. I. R. Galperin calls a stylistic device a generative model when
properties that have the potential to make the utterance emphatic through frequent use a language fact is transformed into a stylistic
or expressive. These can be found on all levels - phonetic, graphical, device. Thus we may say that some expressive means have evolved into
morphological, lexical or syntactical. stylistic devices which represent a more abstract form or set of forms.
A stylistic device combines some general semantic meaning with a certain linguistic f
Expressive means and stylistic devices have a lot in common but employed for an expressive purpose. For example, the interplay, interaction, or clash o
they are not completely synonymous. All stylistic devices belong to will bring about such stylistic devices as metaphor, metonymy or irony.
expressive means but not all expressive means are stylistic devices.
Phonetic phenomena such as vocal pitch, pauses, logical stress, and
drawling, or staccato pronunciation are all expressive without being
stylistic devices The nature of the interaction may be affinity (likeness by nature),
proximity (nearness in place, time, order, occurrence, relation) or
contrast (opposition).
Morphological forms like diminutive suffixes may have an expressive effect: girlie, piggy, doggy, etc. An unexpected use of the
author's nonce words like: He glasnosted his love affair with this Respectively there is metaphor based on the principle of affinity,
movie star (People) is another example of morphological expressive metonymy based on proximity and irony based on opposition.
means.
The evolution of a stylistic device such as metaphor could be seen from
four examples that demonstrate this linguistic mechanism (interplay of
Lexical expressive means may be illustrated by a special group of
dictionary and contextual meaning based on the principle of affinity):
intensifiers - awfully, terribly, absolutely, etc. or words that retain their
logical meaning while being used emphatically: It was a very special
1. My new dress is as pink as this flower: comparison (ground for
evening/event/gift.
comparison - the colour of the flower).
There are also special grammatical forms and syntactical patterns 2. Her cheeks were as red as a tulip: simile (ground for simile -
attributing expressiveness, such as: I do know you! I'm really angry colour/beauty/health/freshness)
with that dog of yours! That you should deceive me! If only I could help 3. She is a real flower: metaphor (ground for metaphor - frail/
you! fragrant/tender/beautiful/helpless...).
2.2. Different classifications of expressive means
My love is a red, red rose: metaphor (ground for metaphor -
passionateIbeautifulIstrong...).
In spite of the belief that rhetoric is an outmoded discipline it is
4. Ruby lips, hair of gold, snow-white skin: trite metaphors so
in rhetoric that we find most of the terms contemporary stylistics
frequently employed that they hardly have any stylistic power
generally employs as its metalanguage. Rhetoric is the initial source
left because metaphor dies of overuse. Such metaphors are also
of information about metaphor, metonymy, epithet, antithesis, chiasmus, anaphora
called hackneyed or even dead.
widely used terms of tropes and figures of speech.

A famous literary example of an author's defiance against immoderate


use of trite metaphors is W. Shakespeare's Sonnet 130 That is why before looking into the new stylistic theories and findings
it's good to look back and see what's been there for centuries. The
My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
problems of language in antique times became a concern of scholars
Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
because of the necessity to comment on literature and poetry. This
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
necessity was caused by the fact that mythology and lyrical poetry was
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
the study material on which the youth was brought up, taught to read
I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
and write and generally educated. Analysis of literary texts helped to
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
transfer into the sphere of oratorical art the first philosophical notions
And in some perfumes is there more delight
and concepts.
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know The first linguistic theory called sophistry appeared in the fifth century
That music hath a far more pleasing sound; 3. C. Oration played a paramount role in the social and political life
I grant I never saw a goddess go; of Greece so the art of rhetoric developed into a school.
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare. Antique tradition ascribes some of the fundamental rhetorical notions to the Greek ph
school of rhetoric whose principles were later developed by Aristotle
(384-322 В. C.) in his books "Rhetoric" and "Poetics".
The more unexpected, the less predictable is the ground for comparison the more expressive is the metaphor which in this case got
a special name of genuine or authentic metaphor. Associations suggested by the genuine metaphor are varied, not limited to any definite
number and stimulated by the individual experience or imagination. Aristotle differentiated literary language and colloquial language. This
first theory of style included 3 subdivisions:
• the choice of words;
2 . 2 . 1 . Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system
• word combinations;
Tropes:
• figures.
1. Metaphor - the application of a word (phrase) to an object
1. The choice of words included lexical expressive means such (concept) it doesn't literally denote to suggest comparison with
as foreign words, archaisms, neologisms, poetic words, nonce another object or concept.
words and metaphor.
E. g. A mighty Fortress is our God.
2. Word combinations involved 3 things:
a) order of words; 2. Puzzle (Riddle) - a statement that requires thinking over a con-
b) word-combinations; fusing or difficult problem that needs to be solved.

c) rhythm and period (in rhetoric, a complete sentence). 3. Synecdoche - the mention of a part for the whole.

3. Figures of speech. This part included only 3 devices used by the E.g. A fleet of 50 sail, (ships)
antique authors always in the same order:
a) antithesis; 4. Metonymy - substitution of one word for another on the basis
b) assonance of colons; of real connection.
c) equality of colons.
E.g. Crown for sovereign; Homer for Homer's poems; wealth for rich
people.
A colon in rhetoric means one of the sections of a rhythmical period
in Greek chorus consisting of a sequence of 2 to 6 feet. 5. Catachresis - misuse of a word due to the false folk etymology
or wrong application of a term in a sense that does not belong
Later contributions by other authors were made into the art of
to the word.
speaking and writing so that the most complete and well developed
antique system, that came down to us is called the Hellenistic Roman
E.g. Alibi for excuse; mental for weak-minded; mutual for common;
rhetoric system. It divided all expressive means into 3 large groups:
disinterested for uninterested.
Tropes, Rhythm (Figures of Speech) and Types of Speech.
A later term for it is malapropism that became current due to Mrs.
A condensed description of this system gives one an idea how much
Malaprop, a character from R. Sheridan's The Rivals (1775). This
we owe the antique tradition in modern stylistic studies.
sort of misuse is mostly based on similarity in sound.
E. g. 77гаI young violinist is certainly a child progeny (instead of E.g. Tip-top, helter-skelter, wishy-washy; oh, the dreary, dreary
prodigy). moorland.

6. Epithet - a word or phrase used to describe someone or some­ 2. Epenalepsis (polysyndeton) conjunctions: use of several conjunctions.
thing with a purpose to praise or blame.

E. g. It was a lovely, summery evening.


E. g. He thought, and thought, and thought; I hadn't realized until
then how small the houses were, how small and mean the shops.
7. Periphrasis - putting things in a round about way hi order to
(Shute)
bring out some important feature or explain more clearly the
idea or situation described.
3. Anaphora: repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two
E.g. I got an Arab boy... and paid him twenty rupees a month, about or more clauses, sentences or verses.
thirty bob, at which he was highly delighted. (Shute)
E. g. No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass, not a bird or beast, not even
8. Hyperbole - use of exaggerated terms for emphasis. a fish that was not owned!

E. g. A 1000 apologies; to wait an eternity; he is stronger than a lion. 4. Enjambment: running on of one thought into the next line,
couplet or stanza without breaking the syntactical pattern.
9. Antonomasia - use of a proper name to express a general idea
or conversely a common name for a proper one. E.g. In Ocean's wide domains
Half buried in the sands
E. g. The Iron Lady; a Solomon; Don Juan.
Lie skeletons in chains
With shackled feet and hands.
Figures of Speech that create Rhythm
(Longfellow)
These expressive means were divided into 4 large groups:

5. Asyndeton: omission of conjunction.


Figures that create rhythm by means of addition

1. Doubling (reduplication, repetition) of words and sounds. E. g. He provided the poor with jobs, with opportunity, with self-respect.
Figures based on compression
2. Paradiastola - the lengthening of a syllable regularly short (in
Greek poetry).
1. Zeugma (syllepsis): a figure by which a verb, adjective or other
part of speech, relating to one noun is referred to another. 3. Anastrophe - a term of rhetoric, meaning, the upsetting for
effect of the normal order of words (inversion in contemporary
E. g. He lost his hat and his temper, with weeping eyes and hearts. terms).

2. C h i a s m u s - a reversal in the order of words in one of two parallel E. g. Me he restored, him he hanged.
phrases.

Types of speech
E. g. He went to the country, to the town went she.

Ancient authors distinguished speech for practical and aesthetic


3. Ellipsis-omission of words needed to complete the construction
or the sense. purposes. Rhetoric dealt with the latter which was supposed to
answer certain requirements, such as a definite choice of words,
their assonance, deviation from ordinary vocabulary and employment
E.g. Tomorrow at 1.30; The ringleader was hanged and his followers
imprisoned. of special stratums like poetic diction, neologisms and archaisms,
onomatopoeia as well as appellation to tropes. One of the most
important devices to create a necessary high-flown or dramatic effect
Figures based on assonance or accord
was an elaborate rhythmical arrangement of eloquent speech that
involved the obligatory use of the so-called figures or schemes. The
1. Equality of colons-used to have a power to segment and
arrange. quality of rhetoric as an art of speech was measured in terms of
skilful combination, convergence, abundance or absence of these
2. Proportions and harmony of colons.
devices. Respectively all kinds of speech were labelled and repre­
sented in a kind of hierarchy including the following types: elevated;
Figures based on opposition flowery IfloridI exquisite; poetic; normal; dry; scanty; hackneyed;
tasteless.
1. Antithesis - choice or arrangement of words that emphasises
a contrast. Attempts to analyse and determine the style-forming features of prose
also began in ancient times. Demetrius of Alexandria who lived in
E. g. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, wise men Greece in the 3d century ВС was an Athenian orator, statesman and
use them; Give me liberty or give me death. philosopher. He used the ideas of such earlier theorists as Aristotle
and characterized styles by rhetoric of purpose that required certain Dionyssius wrote over twenty books, most famous of which are " O n
grammatical constructions. Imitation", "Commentaries on the Ancient Orators" and "On the
Arrangement of Words". The latter is the only surviving ancient study
The Plain Style, he said, is simple, using many active verbs and
of principles of word order and euphony.
keeping its subjects (nouns) spare. Its purposes include lucidity,
clarity, familiarity, and the necessity to get its work done crisply For the Romans a recommended proportion for language units in
and well. So this style uses few difficult compounds, coinages or verse was two nouns and two adjectives to one verb, which they called
qualifications (such as epithets or modifiers). It avoids harsh sounds, '<the golden line".
or odd orders. It employs helpful connective terms and clear clauses
with firm endings. In every way it tries to be natural, following
Gradually the choices of certain stylistic features in different combinations settled into
the order of events themselves with moderation and repetition as in
dialogue.
Nowadays there exist dozens of classifications of expressive means
The Eloquent Style in contrast changes the natural order of events of a language and all of them involve to a great measure the same
to effect control over them and give the narration expressive power elements. They differ often only in terminology and criteria of
rather than sequential account. So this style may be called passive in classification.
contrast to active.
Three of the modern classifications of expressive means in the English
language that are commonly recognized and used in teaching stylistics
today will be discussed
As strong assumptions are made subjects are tremendously amplified without the activity of predication further in
because inherent brief. rather than new relations are stressed. Sente
qualities
rounded, well balanced, with a great deal of elaborately connected
They have been offered by G. Leech, I. R. Galperin and Y. M. Skreb-
material. Words can be unusual, coined; meanings can be implied, oblique, and symbolic. Sounds can fill the mouth, perhaps,
nev.
harshly.

2.2.2. Stylistic theory and classification


of expresssive means by G. Leech
Two centuries later a Greek rhetorician and historian Dionysius of
st
Halicarnassus who lived in Rome in the 1 century ВС characterized
one of the Greek orators in such a way: "His harmony is natural, One of the first linguists who tried "to modernize" traditional rhetoric system was a Brit
stately, spacious, articulated by pauses rather than strongly polished contribution into stylistic theory in the book "Essays on Style
and joined by connectives; naturally off-balance, not rounded and and Language" was published in London (39). Paying tribute to
symmetrical." (43, p. 123). the descriptive linguistics popular at the time he tried to show
how linguistic theory could be accommodated to the task of According to Leech the literary work of a particular author must be
describing such rhetorical figures as metaphor, parallelism, alliteration, personification studied
and otherswith reference
in the to both
present-day - "dialect
study of scale" and "register scale".
literature.
The notion of generality essential to Leech's criteria of classifying
stylistic devices has to do with linguistic deviation.
Proceeding from the popular definition of literature as the creative
use of language Leech claims that this can be equated with the He points out that it's a commonplace to say that writers and poets
use of deviant forms of language. According to his theory the use language in an unorthodox way and are allowed a certain degree
first principle with which a linguist should approach literature is of "poetic licence". "Poetic licence" relates to the scales of descriptive
the degree of generality of statement about language. There are and institutional delicacy.
two particularly important ways in which the description of language
Words like thou, thee, thine, thy not only involve description by
entails generalization. In the first place language operates by what may
number and person but in social meaning have "a strangeness value"
be called descriptive generalization. For example, a grammarian may
or connotative value because they are charged with overtones of piety,
give descriptions of such pronouns as I, they, it, him, etc. as objective
historical period, poetics, etc.
personal pronouns with the following categories: first/third person,
singular/plural, masculine, non-reflexive, anunate/inanimate. The language of literature is on the whole marked by a number of
deviant features. Thus Leech builds his classification on the principle
Although they require many ways of description they are all pronouns
of distinction between the normal and deviant features in the language
and each of them may be explicitly described in this fashion.
of literature.
The other type of generalization is implicit and would be appropriate in
Among deviant features he distinguishes paradigmatic and syntagmatic
the case of such words as language and dialect. This sort of description
deviations. All figures can be initially divided into syntagmatic or
would be composed of individual events of speaking, writing, hearing
paradigmatic. Linguistic units are connected syntagmatically when
and reading. From these events generalization may cover the linguistic
they combine sequentially in a linear linguistic form.
behaviour of whole populations. In this connection Leech maintains
the importance of distinguishing two scales in the language. He calls Paradigmatic items enter into a system of possible selections at one
them "register scale" and "dialect scale". "Register scale" distinguishes point of the chain. Syntagmatic items can be viewed horizontally,
spoken language from written language, the language of respect from paradigmatic - vertically.
that of condescension, advertising from science, etc. The term
covers linguistic activity within society. "Dialect scale" differentiates Paradigmatic figures give the writer a choice from equivalent items,
language of people of different age, sex, social strata, geographical which are contrasted to the normal range of choices. For instance,
area or individual linguistic habits (ideolect). certain nouns can normally be followed by certain adverbs, the choice
dictated by their normal lexical valency: inches/feet/yard + away,
aeroplane
e. g. He was standing only a few feet away.
train normal inanimate neuter it
However the author's choice of a noun may upset the normal system
and create a paradigmatic deviation that we come across in literary car
and poetic language: farmyards away, a grief ago, all sun long.
Schematically this relationship could look like this aeroplane deviant animate female she

This sort of paradigmatic deviation Leech calls "unique deviation"


inches
because it comes as an unexpected and unpredictable choice that
feet normal away defies the norm. He compares it with what the Prague school of
linguistics called "foregrounding".
yards
Unlike paradigmatic figures based on the effect of gap in the expected
farmyard deviant away choice of a linguistic form syntagmatic deviant features result from
the opposite. Instead of missing the predictable choice the author
imposes the same kind of choice in the same place. A syntagmatic
The contrast between deviation and norm may be accounted for by
chain of language units provides a choice of equivalents to be made
metaphor which involves semantic transfer of combinatory links.
at different points in this chain, but the writer repeatedly makes
Another example of paradigmatic deviation is personification. In the same selection. Leech illustrates this by alliteration in the furrow
this case we deal with purely grammatical oppositions of personalI followed where the choice of alliterated words is not necessary but
impersonal; animateIinanimate; concreteIabstract. superimposed for stylistic effect on the ordinary background.

This type of deviation entails the use of an inanimate noun in This principle visibly stands out in some tongue-twisters due to the
a context appropriate to a personal noun. deliberate overuse of the same sound in every word of the phrase. So
instead of a sentence like "Robert turned over a hoop in a circle" we
As Connie had said, she handled just like any other aeroplane, except that have the intentional redundancy of "r" in "Robert Rowley rolled a
she had better manners than most. (Shute). In this example she stands round roll round".
for the aeroplane and makes it personified on the grammatical level.
Basically the difference drawn by Leech between syntagmatic and
The deviant use of she in this passage is reinforced by the collocation paradigmatic deviations comes down to the redundancy of choice in
with better manners, which can only be associated with human beings. i lie first case and a gap in the predicted pattern in the second.
This classification includes other subdivisions and details that cannot 3) rhyme (full, incomplete, compound or broken, eye rhyme,
all be covered here but may be further studied in Leech's book. internal rhyme. Also, stanza rhymes: couplets, triple, cross,
framingIring);
This approach was an attempt to treat stylistic devices with refer-
ence to linguistic theory that would help to analyse the nature of 4) rhythm.
stylistic function viewed as a result of deviation from the lexical and
grammatical norm of the language.
2. Lexical expressive means and stylistic devices

2,2.3. I. R. Galperin's classification of expressive means


There are three big subdivisions in this class of devices and they all
and stylistic devices
deal with the semantic nature of a word or phrase. However the
criteria of selection of means for each subdivision are different and
The classification suggested by Prof. Galperin is simply organised and
manifest different semantic processes.
very detailed. His manual "Stylistics" published in 1971 includes the
following subdivision of expressive means and stylistic devices based
on the level-oriented approach: I. In the first subdivision the principle of classification is the interaction of different typ
derivative, nominal, and emotive. The stylistic effect of the lexical
1. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices. means is achieved through the binary opposition of dictionary and
contextual or logical and emotive or primary and derivative meanings
2. Lexical expressive means and stylistic devices.
of a word.
3. Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices".

A. The first group includes means based on the interplay of dictionary


1. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices and contextual meanings:

To this group Galperin refers such means as: metaphor: Dear Nature is the kindest Mother still. (Byron)

1) onomatopoeia (direct and indirect): ding-dong; silver bells... tin- metonymy:


kle, tinkle;
2) alliteration (initial rhyme): to rob Peter to pay Paul; The camp, the pulpit and the law
For rich man's sons are free.
* To avoid r e p e t i t i o n in e a c h classification definitions of all stylistic devices a r e
given in t h e glossary (Shelly)
irony: It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without
II. The principle for distinguishing the second big subdivision according to Galperin
a penny in one's pocket.
based on the interaction between two lexical meanings simultaneously materialised
B. The second unites means based on the interaction of primary and special attention to a certain feature of the object described. Here
derivative meanings: belong:

polysemy: Massachusetts was hostile to the American flag, and she


would not allow it to be hoisted on her State Bouse;
simile: treacherous as a snake, faithful as a dog, slow as a tortoise.
zeugma and pun: May's mother always stood on her gentility; and Dot's
mother never stood on anything but her active little feet. (Dickens) periphrasis: a gentleman of the long robe (a lawyer); the fair sex.
(women)
C. The third group comprises means based on the opposition of
logical and emotive meanings: euphemism: In private I should call him a liar. In the Press you should
use the words: 'Reckless disregard for truth'. (Galsworthy)
interjections and exclamatory words:
hyperbole: The earth was made for Dombey and Son to trade in and
All present life is but an interjection
the sun and the moon were made to give them light. (Dickens)
An 'Oh' or 'Ah' of joy or misery,
Or a 'Ha! ha!' or 'Bah!'-a yawn or 'Pooh!'
Of which perhaps the latter is most true. III. The third subdivision comprises stable word combinations in
their interaction with the context:
(Byron)
cliches: clockwork precision, crushing defeat, the whip and carrot policy.

epithet: a well-matched, fairly-balanced give-and-take couple. (Di- proverbs and sayings: Come! he said, milk's spilt. (Galsworthy)
ckens)
epigrams: A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. (Keats)
oxymoron: peopled desert, populous solitude, proud humility. (Byron)
quotations: Ecclesiastes said, 'that all is vanity'. (Byron)
D. The fourth group is based on the interaction of logical and
nominal meanings and includes: allusions: Shakespeare talks of the herald Mercury. (Byron)

antonomasia: Mr. Facing-Both-Ways does not get very far in this world. decomposition of set phrases: You know which side the law's buttered.
(The Times) (Galsworthy)
3. Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices
chiasmus:

Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices are not paradigmatic In the days of old men made manners
but syntagmatic or structural means. In defining syntactical devices Manners now make men.
Galperin proceeds from the following thesis: the structural elements
have their own independent meaning and this meaning may affect (Byron)
the lexical meaning. In doing so it may impart a special contextual
meaning to some of the lexical units. repetition: For glances beget ogles, ogles sighs, sighs wishes, wishes
words, and words a letter. (Byron)
The principal criteria for classifying syntactical stylistic devices are:
enumeration: The principle production of these towns... appear to be
- the juxtaposition of the parts of an utterance; soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps, officers, and dock-yard men.
(Dickens)
- the type of connection of the parts;
- the peculiar use of colloquial constructions; suspense:
- the transference of structural meaning. Know ye the land where the cypress and myrtle...
Know ye the land of the cedar and vine...
Devices built on the principle of juxtaposition
'Tis the clime of the East - 'tis the land of the Sun.
inversion (several types): A tone of most extravagant comparison Miss
Tox said it in. (Dickens) (Byron)

Down dropped the breeze. (Colerigde)


climax: They looked at hundred of houses, they climbed thousands of
detached constructions: She was lovely: all of her - delightful. (Dreiser) stairs, they inspected innumerable kitchens. (Maugham)

parallel constructions: antithesis: Youth is lovely, age is lonely; Youth is fiery, age is frost.
(Longfellow)
The seeds ye sow - another reaps,
The robes ye weave - another wears Devices based on the type of connection include
The arms ye forge - another bears.

(Shelley) Asyndeton: Soams turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk,
like one standing before an open grave... (Galsworthy)
polysyndeton: The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could deemed necessary. However other attempts have been made to classify all expressive
boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. (Dickens) applied in this system do not look completely consistent and reliable.
There are two big subdivisions here that classify all devices into either
gap-sentence link: It was an afternoon to dream. And she took out
lexical or syntactical. At the same time there is a kind of mixture of
Jon's letters. (Galsworthy) principles since some devices obviously involve both lexical and syntactical features,
Figures united by the peculiar use of colloquial constructions
Ellipsis: Nothing so difficult as a beginning, how soft the chin which
bears his touch. (Byron) According to Galperin there are structural and compositional syntactical devices, de
type of syntactical connection and devices that involve a peculiar use
Aposiopesis (break-in-the-narrative): Good intentions but -; You just of colloquial constructions. Though very detailed this classification
come home or I'll... provokes some questions concerning the criteria used in placing the
group 'peculiar use of colloquial constructions' among the syntactical
Question in the narrative: Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he
means and the group called 'peculiar use of set expressions' among
did. How could it be otherwise? (Dickens) the lexical devices. Another criterion used for classifying lexical expressive means na
Represented speech (uttered and unuttered or inner represented or phenomenon' also seems rather dubious. Formulated like this it
could be equally applied to quite a number of devices placed by
speech):
the author in other subdivisions of this classification with a different criteria of identi
Marshal asked the crowd to disperse and urged responsible diggers to repetition, inversion, suspense, etc. It does not seem quite just to
place all cases of ellipsis, aposiopesis or represented speech among
prevent any disturbance... (Prichard)
colloquial constructions.
Over and over he was asking himself: would she receive him?
Transferred use of structural meaning involves such figures as
Rhetorical questions: How long must we suffer? Where is the end?
(Norris) 2.2.4. Classification of expressive means and stylistic devices
by Y. M. Skrebnev
Litotes: He was no gentle lamb (London); Mr. Bardell was no deceiver.
(Dickens) One of the latest classifications of expressive means and stylistic
Since "Stylistics" by Galperin is the basic manual recommended for devices is given in the book "Fundamentals of English Stylistics"
this course at university level no further transposition of its content is by Y. M. Skrebnev published in 1994 (47). Skrebnev's approach
demonstrates a combination of principles observed in Leech's system Paradigmatic stylistics
of paradigmatic and syntagmatic subdivision and the level-oriented
approach on which Galperin's classification is founded. At the same
time it differs from both since Skrebnev managed to avoid mechanical Looking closer into this system we'll be able to distinguish specific units and their sty
superposition of one system onto another and created a new consistent
method of the hierarchical arrangement of this material.

Skrebnev starts with a holistic view, constructing a kind of language Paradigmatic phonetics actually describes phonographical stylistic
pyramid. features of a written text. Since we cannot hear written speech but
in our "mind" writers often resort to graphic means to reproduce the
He doesn't pigeonhole expressive means and stylistic devices into phonetic peculiarities of individual speech or dialect. Such intentional
appropriate layers of language hke Leech and Galperin. Skrebnev non-standard spelhng is called "graphons" (a term borrowed from
first subdivides stylistics into paradigmatic stylistics (or stylistics of V. A. Kucharenko).
units) and syntagmatic stylistics (or stylistics of sequences). Then he
explores the levels of the language and regards all stylistically relevant I know these Eye- talians! (Lawrence) - in this case the graphon is
phenomena according to this level principle in both paradigmatic and used to show despise or contempt of the speaker for Italians.
syntagmatic stylistics.
In Cockney speech whose phonetic peculiarities are all too well
He also uniquely singles out one more level. In addition to pho- known you'll hear [ai] in place of [ei], [a:] instead of [au], they
netics, morphology, lexicology and syntax he adds semasiology (or drop "h's" and so on. It frequently becomes a means of speech
semantics). characterisation and often creates a humorous effect.

According to Skrebnev the relationship between these five levels and The author illustrates it with a story of a cockney family trying to
two aspects of stylistic analysis is bilateral. The same linguistic material impress a visitor with their "correct" English:
of these levels provides stylistic features studied by paradigmatic and
syntagmatic stylistics. The difference lies in its different arrangement. "Faiher, said one of the children at breakfast. - I want some more 'am
please".-You mustn't say 'am, my child, the correct form is 'am, -
Paradigmatic <- 1. Phonetics -> Syntagmatic retorted his father, passing the plate with sliced ham on it. "But I did
stylistics <- 2. Morphology -> stylistics say 'am, pleaded the boy". "No, you didn't: you said 'am instead-of
(Stylistics of units) <- 3. Lexicology -> (Stylistics of 'am". The mother turned to the guest smiling: "Oh, don't mind them,
<- 4. Syntax -> sequences) sir, pray. They are both trying to say 'am and both think it is 'am they
<- 5. Semasiology -> are saying" (47, p. 41).
Other graphic means to emphasise the "unheard" phonetic charecter-
and other vehicles (ship, boat, carriage, coach, car) are treated as
istics such as the pitch of voice, the stress, and other melodic features
feminine.
are italics, capitalisation, repetition of letters, onomatopoeia (sound
imitation). Another deviant use of this category according to Skrebnev is the use
of animate nouns as inanimate ones that he terms "depersonification"
E.g. I AM sorry; "Аррееее Noooooyeeeeerr" (Happy New Year);
illustrated by the following passage:
cock-a-doodle-doo.
"Where did you find it?" asked Mord Em'ly of Miss Gilliken with
Paradigmatic morphology observes the stylistic potentials of grammar
a satirical accent.
forms, which Leech would describe as deviant. Out of several va­
rieties of morphological categorial forms the author chooses a less "Who are you calling "it"?" demanded Mr. Barden aggressively. "P'raps
predictable or unpredictable one, which renders this form some you'll kindly call me 'im and not it". (Partridge)
stylistic connotation. The peculiar use of a number of grammatical
categories for stylistic purposes may serve as an ample example of Similar cases of deviation on the morphological level are given by the
this type of expressive means. author for the categories of person, number, mood and some others.

The use of a present tense of a verb on the background of a past-tense Paradigmatic lexicology subdivides English vocabulary into stylistic
narration got a special name historical present in linguistics. layers. In most works on this problem (cf. books by Galperin, Arnold,
Vinogradov) all words of the national language are usually described
E. g. What else do I remember? Let me see. in terms of neutral, literary and colloquial with further subdivision
into poetic, archaic, foreign, jargonisms, slang, etc.
There comes out of the cloud our house... (Dickens)
Skrebnev uses different terms for practically the same purposes. His
Another category that helps create stylistic colouring is that of gender.
terminology includes correspondingly neutral, positive (elevated) and
The result of its deviant use is personification and depersonification.
negative (degraded) layers.
As Skrebnev points out although the morphological category of gender
is practically non-existent in modern English special rules concern
whole classes of nouns that are traditionally associated with feminine Subdivision inside these categories is much the same with the exclusion of such group
or masculine gender. Thus countries are generally classed as feminine terms that Galperin, for example, includes into the special literary
(France sent her representative to the conference.) Abstract notions vocabulary (described as positive in Skrebnev's system) while Skrebnev claims that they
associated with strength and fierceness are personified as masculine function depending on the purpose of the utterance and the context.
while feminine is associated with beauty or gentleness (death, fear, The same consideration concerns the so-called barbarisms or foreign
war, anger - he, spring, peace, kindness - she). Names of vessels
words whose stylistic value (elevated or degraded) depends on the jargon;
kind of text in which they are used. To illustrate his point Skrebnev
gives two examples of barbarisms used by people of different social slang;
class and age. Used by an upper-class character from John Galsworthy the word chic has a tinge of elegance showing the character's
nonce-words;
knowledge of French. He maintains that Itahan words ciao and
bambino current among Russian youngsters at one time were also vulgar words.
considered stylistically 'higher' than their Russian equivalents. At the
same time it's hard to say whether they should ah be classified as Special mention is made of terms. The author maintains that the
positive just because they are of foreign origin. Each instance of use stylistic function of terms varies in different types of speech. In
should be considered individually. non-professional spheres, such as literary prose, newspaper texts,
everyday speech special terms are associated with socially presti-
gious occupations and therefore are marked as elevated. On the
Stylistic differentiation suggested by Skrebnev includes the following
other hand the use of non-popular terms, unknown to the average
stratification speaker, shows a pretentious manner of speech, lack of taste or
PositiveIelevated tact.

poetic; Paradigmatic syntax has to do with the sentence paradigm: complete-


ness of sentence structure, communicative types of sentences, word
official; order, and type of syntactical connection.

professional. Paradigmatic syntactical means of expression arranged according to


these four types include
Bookish and archaic words occupy a peculiar place among the other
positive words due to the fact that they can be found in any other Completeness of sentence structure
group (poetic, official or professional).
ellipsis;
Neutral
aposiopesis;
NegativeIdegraded
one-member nominative sentences.
colloquial;
Redundancy: repetition of sentence parts, syntactic tautology (prolepsis),
neologisms; polysyndeton.
Word order expressive means received the term based on their ability to rename:
figures of replacement.
Inversion of sentence members.
ALL figures of replacement are subdivided into 2 groups: figures of
Communicative types of sentences
quantity and figures of quality.
Quasi-affirmative sentences: Isn't that too bad? - That is too bad.
Figures of quantity. In figures of quantity renaming is based on
Quasi-interrogative sentences: Here you are to write down your age and inexactitude of measurements, in other words it's either saying
birthplace - How old are you? Where were you born? too much (overestimating, intensifying the properties) or too little
(underestimating the size, value, importance, etc.) about the object
Quasi-negative sentences: Did I say a word about the money (Shaw) = I or phenomenon. Accordingly there are two figures of this type.
did not say...
Hyperbole
Quasi-imperative sentences: Here! Quick! = Come here! Be quick!
E. g. You couldn't hear yourself think for the noise.
In these types of sentences the syntactical formal meaning of the
structure contradicts the actual meaning implied so that negative Meosis (understatement, litotes).
sentences read affirmative, questions do not require answers but are
in fact declarative sentences (rhetorical questions), etc. One commu- E.g. It's not unusual for him to come home at this hour.
nicative meaning appears in disguise of another. Skrebnev holds that
According to Skrebnev this is the most primitive type of renaming.
"the task of stylistic analysis is to find out to what type of speech
(and its sublanguage) the given construction belongs." (47, p. 100). Figures of quality comprise 3 types of renaming:

Type of syntactic connection


• transfer based on a real connection between the object of nomination and the objec
detachment;

parenthetic elements;
This is called metonymy in its two forms: synecdoche and periphrasis.
asyndetic subordination and coordination.
E. g. I'm all ears; Hands wanted.
Paradigmatic semasiology deals with transfer of names or what are
traditionally known as tropes. In Skrebnev's classification these Periphrasis and its varieties euphemism and anti-euphemism.
E. g. Ladies and the worser halves; I never call a spade a spade, 1 call E. g. "For somewhere", said Poirot to himself indulging an absolute riot
it a bloody shovel. of mixed metaphors "there is in the hay a needle, and among the sleeping
dogs there is one on whom I shall put my foot, and by shooting the arrow
into the air, one will come down and hit a glass-house!" (Christie)
" transfer based on affinity (similarity, not real connection):
metaphor. A Belgian speaking English confused a number of popular proverbs
and quotations that in reality look like the following: to look for
a needle in a haystack; to let sleeping dogs lie; to put one's foot down; I
Skrebnev describes metaphor as an expressive renaming on the basis
shot an arrow into the air (Longfellow); people who live in glass houses
of similarity of two objects. The speaker searches for associations in should not throw stones.
his mind's eye, the ground for comparison is not so open to view
as with metonymy. It's more complicated in nature. Metaphor has Other varieties of metaphor according to Skrebnev also include
no formal limitations Skrebnev maintains, and that is why this is
not a purely lexical stylistic device as many authors describe it (see Allusion defined as reference to a famous historical, literary, mytho-
Galperin's classification). logical or biblical character or event, commonly known.

This is a device that can involve a word, a part of a sentence or E. g. It's his Achilles heel (myth of vulnerability).
a whole sentence. We may add that whole works of art can be viewed Personification - attributing human properties to lifeless objects.
as metaphoric and an example of it is the novel by John Updike "The
Centaur". E.g. How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth, Stol'n on his wing
my three and twentieth year! (Milton)
As for the varieties there are not just simple metaphors like She is
a flower, but sustained metaphors, also called extended, when one Antonomasia defined as a variety of allusion, because in Skrebnev's
metaphorical statement creating an image is followed by another view it's the use of the name of a historical, literary, mythological or
linked to the previous one: This is a day of your golden opportunity, biblical personage applied to a person described. Some of the most
Sarge. Don't let it turn to brass. (Pendelton) famous ones are Brutus (traitor), Don Juan (lady's man).

Often a sustained metaphor gives rise to a device called catachresis (or It should be noted that this definition is only limited to the allusive
mixed metaphor) - which consists in the incongruity of the parts of nature of this device. There is another approach (cf. Galperin and
a sustained metaphor. This happens when objects of the two or more others) in which antonomasia also covers instances of transference of
parts of a sustained metaphor belong to different semantic spheres and common nouns in place of proper names, such as Mr. Noble Knight,
the logical chain seems disconnected. The effect is usually comical. Duke the Iron Heart.
Allegory expresses abstract ideas through concrete pictures.
One of the powerful techniques of achieving ironic effect is the
E. g. The scales of justice; It's time to beat your swords into ploughshares. mixture of registers of speech (social styles appropriate for the
occasion): high-flown style on socially low topics or vice versa.
It should be noted that allegory is not just a stylistic term, but also
a term of art in general and can be found in other artistic forms: in
painting, sculpture, dance, and architecture. Syntagmatic stylistics

• transfer by contrast when the two objects are opposed implies Syntagmatic stylistics (stylistics of sequences) deals with the stylistic
irony. functions of linguistic units used in syntagmatic chains, in linear
combinations, not separately but in connection with other units.
Irony (meaning "concealed mоскеrу", in Greek eironeia) is a device Syntagmatic stylistics falls into the same level determined branches.
based on the opposition of meaning to the sense (dictionary and
contextual). Here we observe the greatest semantic shift between the Syntagmatic phonetics deals with the interaction of speech sounds
notion named and the notion meant. and intonation, sentence stress, tempo. All these features that charac­
terise suprasegmental speech phonetically are sometimes also called
Skrebnev distinguishes 2 kinds of ironic utterances: prosodic.

- obviously explicit ironical, which no one would take at their face So stylistic phonetics studies such stylistic devices and expressive
value due to the situation, tune and structure. means as alliteration (recurrence of the initial consonant in two
or more words in close succession). It's a typically English feature
E. g. A fine friend you are! That's a pretty kettle of fish! because ancient English poetry was based more on alliteration than
on rhyme. We find a vestige of this once all-embracing literary device
- and implicit, when the ironical message is communicated against in proverbs and sayings that came down to us.
a wider context like in Oscar Wilde's tale "The Devoted Friend"
where the real meaning of the title only becomes obvious after E. g. Now or never; Last but not least; As good as gold.
you read the story. On the whole irony is used with the aim of
With time its function broadened into prose and other types of texts.
critical evaluation and the general scheme is praise stands for
blame and extremely rarely in the reverse order. However when
It became very popular in titles, headlines and slogans.
it does happen the term in the latter case is astheism.
E. g. Pride and Prejudice. (Austin)
E. g. Clever bastard! Lucky devil!
Posthumous papers of the Pickwick Club. (Dickens)
Work or wages!; Workers of the world, unite! Rhyme is another feature that distinguishes verse from prose and
consists in the acoustic coincidence of stressed syllables at the end of
Speaking of the change of this device's role chronologically we
verse lines.
should make special note of its prominence in certain professional
areas of modern English that has not been mentioned by Skrebnev. Here's an example to illustrate dactylic meter and rhyme given in
Today alliteration is one of the favourite devices of commercials and Skrebnev's book
advertising language.
Take her up tenderly,
E. g. New whipped cream: No mixing or measuring. No beating or Lift her with care,
Fashion'd so slenderly
bothering.
Young and so fair.
Colgate toothpaste: The Flavor's Fresher than ever - It's New. Improved.
(Hood)
Fortified.

Assonance (the recurrence of stressed vowels). Syntagmatic morphology deals with the importance of grammar forms
used in a paragraph or text that help in creating a certain stylistic
E.g. ...Tell this soul with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden; I
effect.
shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the angels name Lenore. (Рое)
We find much in common between Skrebnev's description of this
Paronomasia (using words similar in sound but different in meaning
area and Leech's definition of syntagmatic deviant figures. Skrebnev
with euphonic effect).
writes: "Varying the morphological means of expressing grammatical
The popular example to illustrate this device is drawn from E. A. Poe's notions is based... upon the general rule: monotonous repetition
of morphemes or frequent recurrence of morphological meanings
Raven.
expressed differently..." (47, p. 146).
E. g. And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting
He also indicates that while it is normally considered a stylistic fault it acquires special
Rhythm and meter.
describes the effect achieved by the use of morphological synonyms of the genetive wi
The pattern of interchange of strong and weak segments is called and an attributive noun (Shakespeare plays) as "elegant variation" of
style.
rhythm. It's a regular recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables
that make a poetic text. Various combinations of stressed and unstressed syllables determine the metre (iambus, dactyl, trochee, etc.).
E. g. If only little Edward were twenty, old enough to marry well and
Syntagmatic lexicology studies the "word-and-context" juxtaposition fend for himself, instead often. If only it were not necessary to provide
that presents a number of stylistic problems - especially those connected with co-occurrence of words
a dowary forofhis
various stylistic
daughter. colourings.
If only his own debts were less. (Rutherfurd)

Epiphora (opposite of the anaphora, identical elements at the end of


Each of these cases must be considered individually because each sentences, paragraphs, chapters, stanzas).
literary text is unique in its choice and combination of words. Such
E. g. For all averred, I had killed the bird.
phenomena as various instances of intentional and unintentional
That made the breeze to blow.
lexical mixtures as well as varieties of lexical recurrence fall in with
Ah wretch! Said they, the bird to slay,
this approach.
That made the breeze to blow!
Some new more modern stylistic terms appear in this c o n n e c t i o n -
(Coleridge)
stylistic irradiation, heterostylistic texts, etc. We can observe this sort
of stylistic mixture in a passage from O'Henry provided by Skrebnev:
Framing (repetition of some element at the beginning and at the end
of a sentence, paragraph or stanza).
Jeff, says Andy after a long time, quite unseldom I have seen Jit to
impugn your molars when you have been chewing the rag with me about
E.g. Never wonder. By means of addition, subtraction, multiplication
your conscientious way of doing business... (47, p. 149). and division, settle everything somehow, and never wonder. (Dickens)
Syntagmatic syntax deals with more familiar phenomena since it has Anadiplosis (the final element of one sentence, paragraph, stanza is
to do with the use of sentences in a text. Skrebnev distinguishes
repeated in the initial part of the next sentence, paragraph, stanza.
purely syntactical repetition to which he refers
E. g. Three fishers went sailing out into the West.
parallelism as structural repetition of sentences though often accompanied by the lexical repetition Out into the West, as the sun went down.

(Kingsley)
E. g. The cock is crowing,
The stream is flowing... Chiasmus (parallelism reversed, two parallel syntactical constructions
contain a reversed order of their members).
(Wordsworth)
E. g. That he sings and he sings, and for ever sings he -
I love my Love and my Love loves me!
and lexico-syntactical devices such as
(Coleridge)
anaphora (identity of beginnings, initial elements).
Syntagmatic semasiology or semasiology of sequences deals with E. g. You undercut, sinful, insidious hog. (O'Henry)
semantic relationships expressed at the lengh of a whole text. As
distinct from paradigmatic semasiology which studies the stylistic Climax (gradation of emphatic elements growing in strength).
effect of renaming syntagmatic semasiology studies types of names E. g. What difference if it rained, hailed, blew, snowed, cycloned?
used for linear arrangement of meanings. (O'Henry).
Skrebnev calls these repetitions of meanings represented by sense Anti-climax (back gradation - instead of a few elements growing
units in a text figures of co-occurrence. The most general types of in intensity without relief there unexpectedly appears a weak or
semantic relationships can be described as identical, different or contrastive element that makes the statement humorous or ridiculous).
opposite. Accordingly he singles out figures of identity, figures of
inequality and figures of contrast. E. g. The woman who could face the very devil himself or a mouse - goes
all to pieces in front of a flash of lightning. (Twain)

Figures of identity Zeugma (combination of unequal, or incompatible words based on


the economy of syntactical units).
Simile (an explicit statement of partial identity: affinity, likeness,
similarity of 2 objects). E. g. She dropped a tear and her pocket handkerchief. (Dickens)

E. g. My heart is like a singing bird. (Rosetti) Pun (play upon words based on polysemy or homonymy).

Synonymous replacement (use of synonyms or synonymous phrases E. g. What steps would you take if an empty tank were coming toward
to avoid monotony or as situational substitutes). you ? - Long ones.

E.g. He brought home numberless prizes. He told his mother countless Disguised tautology (semantic difference in formally coincidental parts
stories. (Thackeray) of a sentence, repetition here does not emphasise the idea but carries
a different information in each of the two parts).

E.g. I was trembly and shaky from head to foot.


E.g. For East is East, and West is West... (Kipling)

Figures of inequality
Figures of contrast
Clarifying (specifying) synonyms (synonymous repetition used to
characterise different aspects of the same referent). Oxymoron (a logical collision of seemingly incompatible words).
E. g. His honour rooted in dishonour stood,
And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true. Can a word connote without denoting and vice versa?
What are the four components of the connotative meaning and
(Tennyson) how are they represented in a word if at all?

Antithesis (anti-statement, active confrontation of notions used to


2. Expound on the expressive and emotive power of the noun thing
show the contradictory nature of the subject described). in the following examples:
E. g. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of
wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was Jennie wanted to sleep with me - the sly thing! But I told her I should
the era of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of undoubtedly rest better for a night alone. (Gilman)
Darkness... Hope... Despair. (Dickens)
- I believe, one day, I shall fall awfully in love.
His fees were high, his lessons were light. (O'Henry) - Probably you never will, said Lucille brutally. That's what most old
maids are thinking all the time.
An overview of the classifications presented here shows rather varied
Yvette looked at her sister from pensive but apparently insouciant eyes.
approaches to practically the same material. And even though they Is it? she said. Do you really think so, Lucille? How perfectly awful for
contain inconsistencies and certain contradictions they reflect the them, poor things! (Lawrence)
scholars' attempts to overcome an inventorial description of devices.
They obviously bring stylistic study of expressive means to an advanced She was an honest little thing, but perhaps her honesty was too rational.
th
level, sustained by the linguistic research of the 20 century that (Lawrence)
allows to explore and explain the linguistic nature of the stylistic
function. This contribution into stylistic theory made by modem So they were, this queer couple, the tiny, finely formed little Jewess with
linguistics is not contained to classifying studies only. It has inspired her big, resentful, reproachful eyes, and her mop of carefully-barbed
exploration of other areas of research such as decoding stylistics or black, curly hair, an elegant little thing in her way; and the big,
stylistic grammar that will be discussed in further chapters. pale-eyed young man, powerful and wintry, the remnant, surely of some
old uncanny Danish stock... (Lawrence)

Practice Section 3. How do the notions of expressive means and stylistic devices
correlate? Provide examples to illustrate your point.
1. What is the relationship between the denotative and connotative
4. Compare the principles of classifications given in chapter 2.
meanings of a word?
Which of them seem most logical to you? Sustain your view.
Draw parallels between Leech's paradigmatic and syntagmatic High on the hill in sight of heaven,
deviations and Skrebnev's classification. Apply these criteria to Our Lord was led and lifted up.
the analysis of the use of brethren and married in the following That willing warrior came while the world wept,
examples. Consider the grammatical category of number in And a terrible shadow shaded the sun
A and the nature of semantic transfer in B. Supply the kind of For us He was broken and gave His blood
tables suggested by Leech to describe the normal and deviant King of all creation Christ on the Rood.
features of similar character.
Comment on the kind of deviation in the nonce-word sistern in (Rutherfurd)
A and the effect it produces.
6. What types of phonographic expressive means are used in the
A. Praise God and not the Devil, shouted one of the Maker's male shills sentences given below? How do different classifications name
from the other side of the room. and place them?

The criminal lowered his eyes and muttered at his shoes:


Ah cut anybody who bruise me with Latin, goddammit. С'топ, now. I'm not bringing this up with the idea of throwing anything
back in your teeth - my God. (Salinger)
Listen to him take the Mighty name in vain, brethren and sistern! said
Reinhart. (Berger)
Little Dicky strains and yaps back from the safety of Mary's arms.
(Erdrich)
B. My father was still feisty in 1940 - he was thirty years old and
restless, maybe a little wild beneath the yoke of my mother's family. He
Why shouldn't we all go over to the Metropole at Cwmpryddyg for dinner
truly had married not only my mother but my grandmother as well, and one night?" (Waugh)
also the mule and the two elderly horses and the cows and chickens and
the two perilous-looking barns and the whole rocky hundred acres of I hear Lionel's supposeta be runnin' away. (Salinger)
Carolina mountain farm. (Chappel)
Who's that dear, dim, drunk little man? (Waugh)
5. What kind of syntagmatic deviation (according to Leech) is
No chitchat please. (O'Hara)
observed in the following instance? What is the term for this
device in rhetoric and other stylistic classifications? Where does
I prayed for the city to be cleared of people, for the gift of being
it belong according to Galperin and Skrebnev?
alone - a-l-o-n-e: which is the one New York prayer... (Salinger) ,

And in the manner of the Anglo-Saxon poetry that was its inspiration,
" Here Cwmpryddyg is a n i n v e n t e d W e l s h t o w n , a n a l l u s i o n t o t h e difficult W e l s h
he ended his sermon resoundingly: language.
Lily had started to ask me about Eunice. "Really, Gentle Heart", she
Sense of sin is sense of waste. (Waugh) said, "what in the world did you do to my poor little sister to make her
Colonel Logan is in the army, and presumably "the Major" was a soldier skulk away like a thief in the night ?" (Shaw)

at the time Dennis was born. (Follett) The green tumour of hate burst inside her. (Lawrence)

7. Comment on the types of transfer used in such tropes as She adjusted herself however quite rapidly to her new conception of
people. She had to live. It is useless to quarrel with your bread and
metaphor, metonymy, allegory, simile, allusion, personification,
butter. (Lawrence)
antonomasia. Compare their place in Galperin's and Skrebnev's
systems. Read up on the nature of transfer in a poetic image in ...then the Tudors and the dissolution of the Church, then Lloyd George,
terms of tenor, vehicle and ground: И. В. Арнольд Стилистика the temperance movement, Non-conformity and lust stalking hand in
современного английского языка. М., 1990. С. 74-82. N a m e hand through the country, wasting and ravaging. (Waugh)
and explain the kind of semantic transfer observed in the
following passages. When the stars threw down their spears,
And water'd heaven with their tears,
The first time my father met Johnson Gibbs they fought like tomcats. Did he smile his work to see?
(Chappel)
(Blake)
I love plants. I don't like cut flowers. Only the ones that grow in the
ground. And these water lilies... Each white petal is a great tear of milk.
8. As distinct from the above devices based on some sort of affinity,
Each slender stalk is a green life rope. (Erdrich)
real or imaginary, there are a number of expressive means based
I think we should drink a toast to Fortune, a much-maligned lady. on contrast or incompatibility (oxymoron, antithesis, zeugma,
(Waugh) pun, malapropism, mixture of words from different stylistic strata
of vocabulary). Their stylistic effect depends on the message and
...the first sigh of the instruments seemed to free some hilarious and intent of the author and varies in emphasis and colouring. It
potent spirit within him; something that struggled there like the Genius may be dramatic, pathetic, elevated, etc. Sometimes the ultimate
in the bottle found by the Arab fisherman. (Cather) stylistic effect is irony. Ironic, humorous or satiric effect is always
built on contrast although devices that help to achieve it may not
But he, too, knew the necessity of keeping as clear as possible
necessarily be based on contrast (e. g. they may be hyperbole,
from that poisonous many-headed serpent, the tongue of the people.
litotes, allusion, periphrasis, metaphor, etc.)
(Lawrence)
Some of the basic techniques to achieve verbal irony are: I drew a dozen or more samples of what I thought were typical examples
• praise by blame (or sham praise) which means implying the of American commercial art. ...I drew people in evening clothes stepping
opposite of what is said; out of limousines on opening nights - lean, erect, super-chic couples
who had obviously never in their lives inflicted suffering as a result of
• minimizing the good qualities and magnifying the bad ones;
underarm carelessness - couples, in fact, who perhaps didn't have any
• contrast between manner and matter, i. e. inserting irrelevant underarms. ...I drew laughing, high-breasted girls aquaplaning without
matter in presumably serious statements; a care in the world, as a result of being amply protected against such
• interpolating comic interludes in tragic narration; national evils as bleeding gums, facial blemishes, unsightly hairs, and
faulty or inadequate life insurance. I drew housewives who, until they
• mixing formal language and slang; reached for the right soap flakes, laid themselves wide open to straggly
• making isolated instances seem typical; hair, poor posture, unruly children, disaffected husbands, rough (but
slender) hands, untidy (but enormous) kitchens. (Salinger)
• quoting authorities to fit immediate purpose;
• allusive irony: specific allusions to people, ideas, situations, etc. I made a Jell- O salad. - Oh, she says, what kind? - The kind full of nuts
that clash discordantly with the object of irony; and bolts, I say, plus washers of all types. I raided Russel's toolbox for
the special ingredients. (Erdrich)
• connotative ambivalence: the simultaneous presence of incompatible but relevant connotations.
Was that the woman like Napoleon the Great? (Waugh)
Bearing this in mind comment on the humorous or ironic impact
They always say that she poisoned her husband... there was a great
of the following examples.
deal of talk about it at the time. Perhaps you remember the case? - No,
Explain where possible what stylistic devices effect the techniques said Paul - Powdered glass, said Flossie shrilly, - in his coffee. - Turkish
of verbal irony. coffee, said Dingy. (Waugh)

- Have you at any time been detained in a mental home or similar You folks all think the coloured man hasn't got a soul. Anythin's good
institution ? If so, give particulars. enough for the poor coloured man. Beat him, put him in chains; load
I was at Scone College, Oxford, for two years, said Paul. him with burdens... Here Paul observed a responsive glitter in Lady
The doctor looked up for the first time. - Don't you dare to make jokes Circumference's eye. (Waugh)
here, my man, he said, or I'll have you in the strait-jacket in less than
no time. (Waugh) In the south they also drink a good deal of tequila, which is a spirit
made from the juice of the cactus. It has to be taken with a pinch of
I like that. Me trying to be funny. (Waugh) salt. (Atkinson)
<>They could have killed you too, he said, his teeth chattering. If you 10. Why are instances of repetition in the sentences given below
had arrived two minutes earlier. Forgive me. Forgive all of us. Dolce called disguised tautology? How does it differ from regular
Italia. Paradise for tourists." He laughed eerily. (Shaw) tautology? What does this sort of repetition imply?
He was talking very excitedly to me, said the Vicar... He seems deeply
interested in Church matters. Are you quite sure he is right in the head? Life is life.
I have noticed again and again since I have been in the Church that lay There are doctors and doctors.
interest in ecclesiastical matters is often a prelude to insanity. (Waugh)
A small town's a small town, wherever it is, I said. (Shute)
So you're the Doctor's hired assassin, eh? Well, I hope you keep a firm
hand on my toad of a son. (Waugh) I got nothing against Joe Chapin, but he's not me. I'm me, and another
man is still another man. (O'Hara)
9. Explain why the following sentences fall into the category of
Well, their
quasi-questions, quasi-statements or quasi-negatives in Skrebnev's classification. What's if it can't
actualbemeaning?
helped, it can't be helped, I said manfully. (Shaw)

Milan is a city, which cannot be summed up in a few words. For Italian


speakers, the old Milanese dialect expression "Milan l'e Milan" (Milan
- I wish I could go back to school all over again. - Don't we all, he is just Milan) is probably the best description one can give. (Peroni)
said. (Shaw)
Beer was beer, too, in those days - not the gassy staff in bottles. (Dickens)
Are all women different?
Oh, are they! (O'Hara) 11. Does the term anti-climax (back-gradation) imply the opposite
I don't think no worse of you for it, no, darned if I do. (Lawrence) of climax (gradation)? What effect does each of these devices
provide? How is it achieved in the following cases:
If it isn't diamonds all over his fingers! (Caldwell)
- Philbrick, there must be champagne-cup, and will you help the men
Devil if 1 know what to make of these people down here. (Christie)
putting up the marquee? And Flags, Diana!... No expense should be
Contact my father again and I'll strangle you. (Donleavy) spared... And there must be flowers, Diana, banks of flowers, said the
Doctor with an expensive gesture. The prizes shall stand among the
Don't you ever talk to Rose? banks of flowers...
Rose? Not about Mildred. Rose misses Mildred as much as I do. We Flowers, youth, wisdom, the glitter of jewels, music, said the Doctor.
don't even want to see each other. (O'Hara) There must be a band.
- I never heard of such a thing, said Dingy. A band indeedI You'll be
having fireworks next.
- Andfireworks, said the Doctor, and do you think it would be a good
thing to buy Mr. Prendergast a new tie? (Waugh) CHAPTER 3
We needed a kind rain, a blessing rain, that lasted a week. We needed
water. (Erdrich)
Stylistic Grammar
At first there were going to be forty guests but the invitation list grew
larger and the party plans more elaborate, until Arthur said that with
so many people they ought to hire an orchestra, and with an orchestra
there would be dancing, and with dancing there ought to be a good The theory of grammatical gradation. Marked, semi-marked and
sized orchestra. The original small dinner became a dinner dance at unmarked structures. Grammatical metaphor. Types of grammatical transposit
the Lantenengo Country Club. Invitations were sent to more than three the parts of speech. Stylistic syntax.
hundred persons... (O'Hara)

Even the most hardened criminal there - he was serving his third sentence
for blackmail - remarked how the whole carriage seemed to be flooded
with the detectable savour of Champs-Elysee in early June. (Waugh) 3.1. The theory of grammatical gradation.
Marked, semi-marked and unmarked structures
Hullo, Prendy, old wine-skin! How are things with you?
Admirable, said Mr. Prendergast. I never have known them better. I
One of the least investigated areas of stylistic research is the stylistic
have just caned twenty-three boys. (Waugh)
potential of the morphology of the English language. There is quite
a lot of research in the field of syntagmatic stylistics connected with
syntactical structures but very little has been written about the stylistic
properties of the parts of speech and such grammatical categories as
gender, number or person. So it seems logical to throw some light on
these problems.

An essentially different approach of modern scholars to stylistic


research is explained by a different concept that lies at the root of this
approach. If ancient rhetoric mostly dealt in registering, classifying
and describing stylistic expressive means, modern stylistics proceeds he me to deceive, A native speaker cannot produce such a sentence
from the nature of the stylistic effect and studies the mechanism of because it disagrees with the basic rule of word order arrangement in
the stylistic function. The major principle of the stylistic effect is English. It will have to be placed at the extreme point of the pole
the opposition between the norm and deviation from the norm on that opposes correct or marked structures. This sentence belongs to
whatever level of the language. Roman Jacobson gave it the most what Chomsky calls unmarked structures.
generalized definition of defeated expectancy; he claimed that it is
Between these two poles there is space for the so-called semi-marked
the secret of any stylistic effect because the recipient is ready and
structures. These are structures marked by the deviation from lexical
willing for anything but what he actually sees. Skrebnev describes
or grammatical valency. This means that words and grammar forms
it as the opposition between the traditional meaning and situational
carry an unusual grammatical or referential meaning. In other terms
meaning, Arnold maintains that the very essence of poetic language
this is called transposition", a phenomenon that destroys customary
is the violation of the norm. These deviations may occur on any
(normal, regular, standard) valences and thus creates expressiveness
level of the language - phonetic, graphical, morphological, lexical or
of the utterance.
syntactical. It should be noted though that not every deviation from
the norm results in expressiveness. There are deviations that will
only create absurdity or linguistic nonsense. For example, you can't
normally use the article with an adverb or adjective.
3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types
of grammatical transposition
N o a m Chomsky, an American scholar and founder of the generative
linguistic school, formulated this rule in grammar that he called Some scholars (e. g. Prof. E. I. Shendels) use the term grammatical
grammatical gradation (27). He constructed a scale with two poles - metaphor for this kind of phenomena (30, 31). We know that lexical
grammatically correct structures at one extreme point of this scale metaphor is based on the transfer of the name of one object on to
and grammatically incorrect structures at the other. The first he called another due to some common ground. The same mechanism works
grammatically marked structures, the second - unmarked structures. in the formation of a grammatical metaphor.

The latter ones cannot be generated by the linguistic laws of the given Linguistic units, such as words, possess not only lexical meanings but
language, therefore they cannot exist in it. If we take the Russian also grammatical ones that are correlated with extra-linguistic reality.
sentence that completely agrees with the grammatical laws of this language Решил он меня обмануть and make a categories
Such grammatical word for word
as translation
plurality and singularity reflect the
into English we'll get a grammatically incorrect structure " Decided distinction between a multitude and oneness in the real world. Such
classifying grammatical meanings as the noun, the verb or the adjective
represent objects, actions and qualities that exist in this world. However this extra-lin
* In C h o m s k y ' s theory grammatically incorrect ( u n m a r k e d ) structures are labeled
w i t h a n asterisk.
form and meaning or deviation in the norm of use of some forms.
in a different way. The notion of definiteness or indefiniteness is grammatically expressed in English by a special class of words - the article.
The stylistic effect produced is often called grammatical metaphor.
In Russian it's expressed differently. Gender exists as a grammatical
category of the noun in Russian but not in English and so on. According to Shendels we may speak of grammatical metaphor when
there is a transposition (transfer) of a grammatical form from one
A grammatical form, as well as a lexical unit possesses a denotative type of grammatical relation to another. In such cases we deal with
and a connotative meaning. There are at least three types of denotative a redistribution of grammatical and lexical meanings that create new
grammatical meanings. Two of these have some kind of reference with connotations.
the extra-linguistic reality and one has zero denotation, i. e. there is
no reference between the grammatical meaning and outside world. Types of grammatical transposition

1. The first type of grammatical denotation reflects relations of Generally speaking we may distinguish 3 types of grammatical transposition,
objects in outside reality such as singularity and plurality.
2. The second type denotes the relation of the speaker to the first
1. The first deals with the transposition of a certain grammar form
type of denotation. It shows how objective relations are perceived into a new syntactical distribution with the resulting effect of
by reactions to the outside world. This type of denotative meaning contrast. The so-called 'historical present' is a good illustration
is expressed by such categories as modality, voice, definiteness of this type: a verb in the Present Indefinite form is used against
and indeflniteness. the background of the Past Indefinite narration. The effect of
3. The third type of denotative meaning has no reference to vividness, an illusion of "presence", a lapse in time into the
the extra-linguistic reality. This is an intralinguistc denotation, reality of the reader is achieved.
conveying relations among linguistic units proper, e.g. the
formation of past tense forms of regular and irregular verbs. Everything went as easy as drinking, Jimmy said. There was a garage just
round the corner behind Belgrave Square where he used to go every morning to watch them
was. Jimmy comes in one day with his motorbike and side-car and asks
Denotative meanings show what this or that grammatical form designates but they do notfor
show
somehow theyHe
petrol. express
comestheupsame
and relation.
looks at However a grammatical
it in the way form may carry ad
he had. (Waugh)
it can evoke associations, emotions and impressions. It may connote
as well as denote. Connotations aroused by a grammatical form are adherent subjective components, such as expressive or intensified meaning, emotive or evaluative colouring
grammatical forms appears when we observe a certain clash between 2. The second type of transposition involves both - the lexical and
grammatical meanings. The use of the plural form with a noun
whose lexical denotative meaning is incompatible with plurality
(abstract nouns, proper names) may serve as an apt example.
The look on her face... was full of secret resentments, and longings, and The contrary device - the use of plural instead of singular - as a rule
fears. (Mitchell) makes the description more powerful and large-scale.

3. Transposition of classifying grammatical meanings, that brings The clamour of waters, snows, winds, rains... (Hemingway)
together situationally incompatible forms - for instance, the use
The lone and level sands stretch far away. (Shelly)
of a common noun as a proper one.
The plural form of an abstract noun, whose lexical meaning is alien
The effect is personification of inanimate objects or antonomasia to the notion of number makes it not only more expressive, but brings
(a person becomes a symbol of a quality or trait - Mr. Know-All, about what Vinogradov called aesthetic semantic growth.
Mr. Truth, speaking names).
Heaven remained rigidly in its proper place on the other side of death,
Lord and Lady Circumference, Mr. Parakeet, Prof. Silenus, Colonel and on this side flourished the injustices, the cruelties, the meannesses,
MacAdder. (Waugh) that elsewhere people so cleverly hushed up. (Green)

Thus one feeling is represented as a number of emotional states, each


3.3. Morphological stylistics. with a certain connotation of a new meaning. Emotions may signify
Stylistic potential of the parts of speech concrete events, happenings, doings.

Proper names employed as plural lend the narration a unique gener-


3 . 3 . 1 . The noun and its stylistic potential alizing effect:

The stylistic power of a noun is closely linked to the grammatical If you forget to invite somebody's Aunt Millie, I want to be able to say I
categories this part of speech possesses. First of all these are the had nothing to do with it.
categories of number, person and case. There were numerous Aunt Millies because of, and in spite of Arthur's
and Edith's triple checking of the list. (O'Hara)
The use of a singular noun instead of an appropriate plural form
creates a generalized, elevated effect often bordering on symbolization. These examples represent the second type of grammatical metaphor
The faint fresh flame of the young year flushes formed by the transposition of the lexical and grammatical meanings.
From leaf to flower and from flower to fruit
And fruit and leaf are as gold and fire. The third type of transposition can be seen on the example of
personification. This is a device in which grammatical metaphor
(Swinburn) appears due to the classifying transposition of a noun, because nouns
are divided into animate and inanimate and only animate nouns have The emotive connotations in such cases may range from affection to
the category of person. irony or distaste.

Personification transposes a common noun into the class of proper So, although the English noun has fewer grammatical categories
names by attributing to it thoughts or qualities of a human being. than the Russian one, its stylistic potential in producing grammatical
metaphor is high enough.
As a result the syntactical, morphological and lexical valency of this
noun changes:
3 . 3 . 2 . The article and its stylistic potential
England's mastery of the seas, too, was growing even greater. Last year
her trading rivals the Dutch had pushed out of several colonies... (Rutherford)
The article may be a very expressive element of narration especially
when used with proper names.
The category of case (possessive case) which is typical of the proper
nouns, since it denotes possession becomes a mark of personification For example, the indefinite article may convey evaluative connotations
when used with a proper name:
in cases like the following one:
I'm a Marlow by birth, and we are a hot-blooded family. (Follett)
Love's first snowdrop
Virgin kiss! It may be charged with a negative evaluative connotation and diminish
the importance of someone's personality, make it sound insignificant.
(Burns)
Besides Rain, Nan and Mrs. Prewett, there was a Mrs. Kingsley, the
Abstract nouns transposed into the class of personal nouns are wife of one of the Governors. (Dolgopolova)
charged with various emotional connotations, as in the following
A Forsyte is not an uncommon animal. (Galsworthy)
examples where personification appears due to the unexpected lexico-
gramrnatical valency: The definite article used with a proper name may become a powerful
expressive means to emphasize the person's good or bad qualities.
The woebegone fragment of womanhood in the corner looked a little less
terrified when she saw the wine. (Waugh) Well, she was married to him. And what was more she loved him. Not
the Stanley whom everyone saw, not the everyday one; but a timid,
The chubby little eccentricity, (a child) sensitive, innocent Stanley who knelt down every night to say his
The old oddity (an odd old person). (Arnold) prayers... (Dolgopolova)
You are not the Andrew Manson I married. (Cronin) Not sound, not quiver as if horse and man had turned to metal.
(Dolgopolova)
In the first case the use of two different articles in relation to one
person throws into relief the contradictory features of his character. They went as though car and driver were one indivisible whole. (Dolgopolova)

The second example implies that this article embodies all the good
qualities that Andrew Manson used to have and lost in the eyes of
3 . 3 . 3 . The stylistic power of the pronoun
his wife.

The definite article in the following example serves as an intensifier The stylistic functions of the pronoun also depend on the disparity
of the epithet used in the character's description: between the traditional and contextual (situational) meanings. This is
the grammatical metaphor of the first type based on the transposition
My good fellow, I said suavely, what brings me here is this: I want to of the form, when one pronoun is transposed into the action sphere
see the evening sun go down over the snow-tipped Siena Nevada. of another pronoun.
Within the hour he had spread this all over the town and I was pointed
out for the rest of my visit as the mad Englishman. (Atkinson) So personal pronouns We, You, They and others can be employed in
the meaning different from their dictionary meaning.
The definite article may contribute to the devices of gradation or help
create the rhythm of the narration as in the following examples: The pronoun We that means "speaking together or on behalf of other
people" can be used with reference to a single person, the speaker,
But then he would lose Sondra, his connections here, and his uncle - this and is called the plural of majesty (Pluralis Majestatis). It is used in
world! The loss! The loss! The loss! (Dreiser) Royal speech, decrees of King, etc.

No article, or the omission of article before a common noun conveys And for that offence immediately do we exile him hence. (Shakespeare)
a maximum level of abstraction, generalization.
The plural of modesty or the author's we is used with the purpose
The postmaster and postmistress, husband and wife, ...looked carefully to identify oneself with the audience or society at large. Employing
at every piece of mail... (Erdrich) the plural of modesty the author involves the reader into the action
making him a participant of the events and imparting the emotions
How infuriating it was! Land which looked like baked sand became the prevailing in the narration to the reader.
Garden of Eden if only you could get water. You could draw a line with
a pencil: on one side, a waterless barren; on the other, an irrigated My poor dear child, cried Miss Crawly, ...is our passion unrequited
luxuriance. (Michener) then ?
She maintains that it is not merely the subject of writing but the
Are we pining in secret? Tell me all, and let me console you. (Thackeray)
attitude, purpose and sense of verbal tradition that establish these
distinctions in expression (41).
The pronoun you is often used as an intensifier in an expressive
address or imperative:
Employed by the author as a means of speech characterisation the
overuse of the I pronoun testifies to the speaker's complacency and
Just you go in and win. (Waugh)
egomania while you or one used in reference to oneself characterise
Get out of my house, you fool, you idiot, you stupid old Briggs. the speaker as a reserved, self-controlled person. At the same time
(Thackeray) the speaker creates a closer rapport with his interlocutor and achieves
empathy.
In the following sentence the personal pronoun they has a purely
expressive function because it does not substitute any real characters - You can always build another image for yourself to fall in love with.
but has a generalising meaning and indicates some abstract entity. - No, you can't. That's the trouble, you lose the capacity for building.
The implication is meant to oppose the speaker and his interlocutor You run short of the stuff that creates beautiful illusions. (Priestly)
to this indefinite collective group of people.
When the speaker uses the third person pronoun instead of I or we
he or she sort of looks at oneself from a distance, which produces the
All the people like us are we, and everyone else is they. (Kipling)
effect of estrangement and generalization. Here is an example from
Such pronouns as One, You, We have two major connotations: that of Katherine Mansfield's diary provided in Arnold's book Стилистика
'identification' of the speaker and the audience and 'generalization' английского языка (4, С. 187).
(contrary to the individual meaning).
I do not want to write; I want to live. What does she mean by that? It's
Note should be made of the fact that such pronouns as We, One, You hard to say.

that are often used in a generalized meaning of 'a human being' may Possessive pronouns may be loaded with evaluative connotations and
have a different stylistic value for different authors. devoid of any grammatical meaning of possession.

Speaking of such English writers as Aldus Huxley, Bertrand Russel and Watch what you're about, my man! (Cronin)
D. H. Lawrence, J. Miles writes in her book "Style and Proportion":
Your precious Charles or Frank or your stupid Ashley! (Mitchell)
The power of Huxley's general O N E is closer to Russel's WE than
to Lawrence's YOU though all are talking about human nature. The same function is fulfilled by the absolute possessive form in
structures like Well, you tell that Herman of yours to mind his own
She points out that scientists like Charles Darwin, Adam Smith and
business. (London)
many others write using O N E much in the same way as Huxley does.
The range of feelings they express may include irony, sarcasm, anger, things about her but they are always said as though she were a woman.
contempt, resentment, irritation, etc. (Hemingway)

Demonstrative pronouns may greatly enhance the expressive colouring 'n the same book he calls a huge and strong fish a he:
of the utterance.
He is a great fish and I must convince him, he thought. I must never let
That -wonderful girl! That beauty! That world of wealth and social him vam his strength. (Hemingway)
position she lived in! (London)
Such recurrent use of these pronouns throughout the novel is charged
These lawyers! Don't you know they don't eat often? (Dreiser) with the message of the old man's animating the elemental forces
of the sea and its inhabitants and the vision of himself as a part of
In these examples the demonstrative pronouns do not point at nature. In this case the use of the pronouns becomes a compositional
anything but the excitement of the speaker. device.

Pronouns are a powerful means to convey the atmosphere of informal All in all we can see that pronouns possess a strong stylistic potential
or familiar communication or an attempt to achieve it. that is realized due to the violation of the normal links with their
object of reference.
It was Robert Ackly, this guy, that roomed right next to me. (Salinger)

Claws in, you cat. (Shaw) 3 . 3 . 4 . The adjective and its stylistic functions

Through the figurative use of the personal pronouns the author may The only grammatical category of the Enghsh adjective today is that
achieve metaphorical images and even create sustained compositional of comparison. Comparison is only the property of qualitative and
metaphors. quantitative adjectives, but not of the relative ones.

When adjectives that are not normally used in a comparative degree


Thus using the personal pronoun she instead of the word "sea" in
are used with this category they are charged with a strong expressive
one of his best works The Old Man and the Sea Ernest Hemingway
power.
imparts to this word the category of feminine gender that enables
him to bring the feeling of the old man to the sea to a different, more Mrs. Thompson, Old Man Fellow's housekeeper had found him deader
dramatic and more human level. than a doornail... (Mangum)

He always thought of the sea as 'la mar' which is what people call her This is a vivid example of a grammatical transposition of the second
in Spanish when they love her. Sometimes those who love her say bad type built on the incongruity of the lexical and grammatical meanings.
In the following example the unexpected superlative adjective degree
forms lend the sentence a certain rhythm and make it even more The same effect is also caused by the substantivized use of the
expressive: adjectives.

...fifteen millions of workers, understood to be the strangest, the cun-


3 . 3 . 5 . The verb and its stylistic properties
ningest, the willingest our Earth ever had. (Skrebnev)

The commercial functional style makes a wide use of the violation of The verb is one of the oldest parts of speech and has a very developed
grammatical norms to captivate the reader's attention: grammatical paradigm. It possesses more grammatical categories that
any other part of speech. All deviant usages of its tense, voice and
The orangemostest drink in the world. aspect forms have strong stylistic connotations and play an important
role in creating a metaphorical meaning. A vivid example of the
The transposition of other parts of speech into the adjective creates
grammatical metaphor of the first type (form transposition) is the
stylistically marked pieces of description as in the following sentence:
use of 'historical present' that makes the description very pictorial,
A camouflage of general suffuse and dirty-jeaned drabness covers almost visible.
everybody and we merge into the background. (Marshall)
The letter was received by a person of the royal family. While reading
The use of comparative or superlative forms with other parts of speech it she was interrupted, had no time to hide it and was obliged to put
may also convey a humorous colouring: it open on the table. At this enters the Minister D... He sees the letter
and guesses her secret. He first talks to her on business, then takes out
He was the most married man I've ever met. (Arnold) a letter from his pocket, reads it, puts it down on the table near the other
letter, talks for some more minutes, then, when taking leave, takes the
Another stylistic aspect of the adjective comes to the fore when an
royal lady's letter from the table instead of his own. The owner of the
adjective gets substantivized and acquires the qualities of a noun such
letter saw it, was afraid to say anything for there were other people in
as "solid, firm, tangible, hard," etc.
the room. (Рое)
All Europe was in arms, and England would join. The impossible had
The use of 'historical present' pursues the aim of joining different
happened. (Aldington)
time systems - that of the characters, of the author and of the reader
The stylistic function of the adjective is achieved through the deviant all of whom may belong to different epochs. This can be done by
use of the degrees of comparison that results mostly in grammatical making a reader into an on-looker or a witness whose timeframe is
metaphors of the second type (lexical and grammatical incongruity). synchronous with the narration. The outcome is an effect of empathy
ensured by the correlation of different time and tense systems.
The combination and unification of different time layers may also be
achieved due to the universal character of the phenomenon described, So continuous forms may express:
a phenomenon that is typical of any society at any time and thus
make the reader a part of the events described. • conviction, determination, persistence:

Various shades of modality impart stylistically coloured expressiveness Well, she's never coming here again, I tell you that straight; (Maugham)
to the utterance. The Imperative form and the Present Indefinite
referred to the future render determination, as in the following • impatience, irritation:
example:
- I didn't mean to hurt you.
Edward, let there be an end of this. I go home. (Dickens) - You did. You're doing nothing else; (Shaw)
The use of shall with the second or third person will denote the
• surprise, indignation, disapproval:
speaker's emotions, intention or determination:

If there's a disputed decision, he said genially, they shall race again. Women kill me. They are always leaving their goddam bags out in the
(Waugh) middle of the aisle. (Salinger)

The prizes shall stand among the bank of flowers. (Waugh) Present Continuous may be used instead of the Present Indefinite
form to characterize the current emotional state or behaviour:
Similar connotations are evoked by the emphatic use of will with the
- How is Carol?
first person pronoun:
- Blooming, Charley said. She is being so brave. (Shaw)
- Adam. Are you tight again?
- Look out of the window and see if you can see a Daimler waiting. You are being very absurd, Laura, he said coldly. (Mansfield)
- Adam, what have you been doing? I will be told. (Waugh) Verbs of physical and mental perception do not regularly have
Likewise continuous forms do not always express continuity of the continuous forms. When they do, however, we observe a semi-
marked structure that is highly emphatic due to the incompatible
action and are frequently used to convey the emotional state of the
combination of lexical meaning and grammatical form.
speaker. Actually ah 'exceptions to the rule' are not really exceptions.
They should be considered as the forms in the domain of stylistic Why, you must be the famous Captain Butler we have been hearing so
studies because they are used to proclaim the speaker's state of mind, much about - the blockade runner. (Mitchell)
his mood, his intentions or feelings.
I must say you're disappointing me, my dear fellow. (Berger)
The use of non-finite forms of the verb such as the infinitive and The whole thing is preposterous - preposterous! Slinging accusations like
participle I in place of the personal forms communicates certain this! (Christie)
stylistic connotations to the utterance. But I tell you there must be some mistake. Splendor taking dope! It's
ridiculous. He is a nonchemical physician, among other things. (Berger)
Consider the following examples containing non-finite verb forms:
The passive voice of the verb when viewed from a stylistic angle may
Expect Leo to propose to her! (Lawrence)
demonstrate such functions as extreme generalisation and deperson-
The real meaning of the sentence is It's hard to believe that Leo would alisation because an utterance is devoid of the doer of an action and
the action itself loses direction.
propose to her!
...he is a long-time citizen and to be trusted... (Michener)
Death! To decide about death! (Galsworthy)
Little Mexico, the area was called contemptuously, as sad and filthy
The implication of this sentence reads He couldn't decide about death!
a collection of dwellings as had ever been allowed to exist in the west.
To take steps! How? Winifred's affair was bad enough! To have a double (Michener)
dose of publicity in the family! (Galsworthy)
The use of the auxiliary do in affirmative sentences is a notable
The meaning of this sentence could be rendered as He must take some emphatic device:
steps to avoid a double dose of publicity in the family! I don't want to look at Sita. I sip my coffee as long as possible. Then
I do look at her and see that all the colour has left her face, she is
Far be it from him to ask after Reinhart's unprecedented getup and
fearfully pale. (Erdrich)
environs. (Berger)
So the stylistic potential of the verb is high enough. The major
Such use of the verb be is a means of character sketching: He was not
mechanism of creating additional connotations is the transposition
the kind of person to ask such questions. of verb forms that brings about the appearance of metaphors of the
first and second types.
Since the sentences containing the infinitive have no explicit doer of
the action these sentences acquire a generalized universal character.
The world of the personage and the reader blend into one whole 3 . 3 . 6 . Affixation and its expressiveness
as if the question is asked of the reader (what to do, how to act).
This creates empathy. The same happens when participle I is used Unlike Russian the English language does not possess a great variety
of word-forming resources.
impersonally:
In Russian we have a very developed system of affixes, with eval­ definitions of the adjective Dickensian: suggesting Charles Dickens or
uative and expressive meanings: diminutive, derogatory, endearing, his writing, e. g. a the old-fashioned, unpleasant dirtiness of Victorian
exaggerating, etc. England: Most deputies work two to an office in a space of Dickensian
grimness. b the cheerfulness of Victorian amusements and customs:
Consider such a variety of adjectives малый - маленький - махонь­
a real Dickensian Christmas.
кий - малюсенький; большой - большеватый - большущий, преог-
ромнейший; плохой - плоховатенький - плохонький. There are no The suffix -ish is not merely a neutral morpheme meaning a small
morphological equivalents for these in English. degree of quality like blue - bluish, but it serves to create 'delicate
or tactful' occasional evaluative adjectives - baldish, dullish, biggish.
We can find some evaluative affixes as a remnant of the former
Another meaning is 'belonging or having characteristics of somebody
morphological system or as a result of borrowing from other languages,
or something'.
such as: weakling, piglet, rivulet, girlie, lambkin, kitchenette.
Most dictionaries also point out that -ish may show disapproval (self­
Diminutive suffixes make up words denoting small dimensions, but
ish, snobbish, raffish) and often has a derogatory meaning indicating
also giving them a caressing, jocular or pejorative ring.
the bad qualities of something or quahties which are not suitable to
These suffixes enable the speaker to communicate his positive or what it describes (e.g. mannish in relation to a woman).
negative evaluation of a person or thing.
Another suffix used similarly is-esque, indicating style, manner, or
The suffix -ianI-ean means 'like someone or something, especially distinctive character: arabesque, Romanesque. When used with the
connected with a particular thing, place or person', e. g. the pre- names of famous people it means 'in the manner or style of this
Tolstoyan novel. It also denotes someone skilled in or studying particular person'. Due to its French origin it is considered bookish
a particular subject: a historian. and associated with exquisite elevated style. Such connotations are
implied in adjectives like Dantesque, Turneresque, Kafkaesque.
The connotations this suffix may convey are positive and it is
frequently used with proper names, especially famous in art, literature, Most frequently used suffixes of the negative evaluation are: -ard,
music, etc. Such adjectives as Mozartean, Skakespearean, Wagnerian -ster, -aster, -eer or half-affix -monger, drunkard, scandal-monger,
mean like Mozart, Shakespeare, Wagner or in that style. black-marketeer, mobster.

However some of these adjectives may possess connotations connected Considering the problem of expressive affixes differentiation should
with common associations with the work and life of famous people be made between negative affixes such as in-, un-, ir-, поп-, etc.
that may have either positive or negative colouring. For instance The (unbending, irregular, non-profit) and evaluative derogatory affixes.
Longman Dictionary of the English Language and Culture gives such Evaluative affixes with derogatory connotations demonstrate the
speaker's attitude to the phenomenon while negative affixes normally I, The omission of the obligatory parts of a sentence results in ellipsis
represent objects and phenomena that are either devoid of some of various types. An elUptical sentence is a sentence with one or more
quality or do not exist at all (e. g. a non-profit organization has mostly of the parts left out. As a rule the omitted part can be reconstructed
positive connotations). from the context. In this case ellipsis brings into relief typical features
of colloquial English casual talk.
All these examples show that stylistic potentials of grammatical forms
are great enough. Stylistic analysis of a work of art among other The laconic compressed character of elliptical sentences lends
things should include the analysis of the grammatical level that a flavour of liveliness to colloquial English. In fiction elliptical
enables a student to capture the subtle shades of mood or rhythmical sentences have a manifold stylistic function. First of all they help
arrangement or the dynamics of the composition. create a sense of immediacy and local colour. Besides they may add
to the character's make up, they lead to a better understanding of
a mood of a personage.
3.4. Stylistic syntax Wish I was young enough to wear that kind of thing. Older I get the
more I like colour. We're both pretty long in the tooth, eh? (Waugh)
Syntactical categories have long been the object of stylistic research.
There are different syntactical means and different classifications. Often elliptical sentences are used in represented speech because
The classifications discussed earlier in this book demonstrate different syntactically it resembles direct speech. The use of elliptical sentences
categorization of expressive means connected with syntax. However in fiction is not limited to conversation. They are sometimes used in
there are a few general principles on which most of the syntactical the author's narration and in the exposition (description which opens
expressive means are built. The purpose of this paragraph is to a chapter or a book).
consider the basic techniques that create styUstic function on the
I remember now, that Sita's braid did not hurt. It was only soft and
syntactical level common for most styUstic figures of this type and
heavy, smelling of Castile soap, but still I yelled as though something
illustrate them with separate devices.
terrible was happening. Stop! Get off! Let go! Because I couldn't stand
The major principles at work on the sentence level are how strong she was. (Erdrich)

I. The omission or absence of one or more parts of the sentence. A variety of ellipsis in English are one-member nominal sentences.
They have no separate subject and predicate but one main part
II. Reiteration (repetition) of some parts.
instead. One-member sentences call attention to the subject named,
III. The inverted word order. to its existence and even more to its interrelations with other objects.
IV. The interaction of adjacent sentences. Nominal sentences are often used in descriptive narration and in
exposition. The economy of the construction gives a dynamic rhythm a highly dynamic pace of narration. Decomposition may be combined
to the passage. One-member sentences are also common in stage with ellipsis.
remarks and represented speech.
Him, of all things! Him! Never! (Lawrence)
Matchbooks. Coaster trays. Hotel towels and washcloths. He was sending
her the samples of whatever he was selling at the time. Fuller brushes. II. Reiteration is never a mechanical repetition of a word or structure.
Radio antennas. Cans of hair spray or special wonder-working floor It is always accompanied by new connotations. The repetition stresses
cleaners. (Erdrich) not the denotative but the connotative meaning.

Break-in-the narrative is a device that consists in the emotional The usage area of reiteration is casual and non-casual speech, prose
halt in the middle or towards the end of an utterance. Arnold and poetry.
distinguishes two kinds: suppression and aposiopesis. Suppression
Different types of reiteration may be classified on the compositional
leaves the sentence unfinished as a result of the speaker's deliberation
to do so. The use of suppression can be accounted for by a desire not principle:
to mention something that could be reconstructed from the context Anaphora is the repetition of the same element at the beginning of
or the situation. It is just the part that is not mentioned that attracts two or more successive clauses, sentences or verses.
the reader's attention. It's a peculiar use of emphasis that lends the
narration a certain psychological tension. They were poor in space, poor in light, poor in quiet, poor in repose,
and poor in the atmosphere of privacy - poor in everything that makes
If everyone at twenty realized that half his life was to be lived after a man's home his castle. (Cheever)
forty... (Waugh)
Framing is an arrangement of repeated elements at the beginning and
Aposiopesis means an involuntary halt in speech because the speaker at the end of one or more sentences that creates a kind of structural
is too excited or overwhelmed to continue. encasement.
But Mr. Meredith, Esther Silversleeves said at last, these people are He had been good for me when I was a callow and an ignorant youth;
heathens! Esther was the most religious of the family. - Surly you cannot he was good for me now. (Shute)
wish... her voice trailed off. (Rutherfurd)
Anadiplosis is such a figure in which a word or group of wqrds
Decomposition is also built on omission, splitting the sentences into completing a sentence is repeated at the beginning of a succeeding sentence. It often
separate snatches. They are the result of detachment of parts of a paragraph or text.
sentences. This device helps to throw in the effect of relief or express
My wife has brown hair, dark eyes, and a gentle disposition. Because Bang went Philbrick's revolver. Off trotted the boys on another race.
of her gentle disposition, I sometimes think that she spoils the children. (Waugh)
(Cheever)
Sometimes inversion may contribute to the humorous effect of the
Epiphora consists in the repetition of certain elements at the end of description or speech characterisation:
two or more successive clauses, sentences or paragraphs.
To march about you would not like us? suggested the stationmaster,
Trouble is, I don't know if I want a business or not. Or even if I can (Waugh)
pay for it, if I did want it. (Shute)
IV. Interaction of adjacent sentences is a compositional syntactical
III. Inversion is upsetting of the normal order of words, which is an technique.
important feature of English.
One of the major emphatic means is the use of parallel con-
By changing the logical order this device helps to convey new shades structions. They are similarly built and used in close succession.
of meaning. The denotative meaning is the same but the emotive It is a variety of repetition on the level of a syntactical mod-
colouring is different. el. Parallel constructions more than anything else create a certain
rhythmical arrangement of speech. The sameness of the structure
Galperin describes five types of inversion that are connected with
stresses the difference or the similarity of the meaning. Some-
the fixed syntactical position of the sentence members. Each type of
times parallel constructions assume a peculiar form and the word
inversion produces a specific stylistic effect: it may render an elevated
order of the first phrase is inverted in the second. The resulting
tone to the narration:
device is called chiasmus. It is often accompanied by a lexical
Of beechen green, and shadows numberless,
repetition:
Singest of summer in full-throated ease.
They had loved her, and she had loved them. (Caldwell)
(Keats)
I will make my kitchen, and you will keep your room, Work - work - work!
Where white flows the river and bright blows the broom. From weary chime to chime!
Work - work - work
(Stevenson) As prisoners work for crime!
Band, and gusset, and seam
- or make it quick-paced and dynamic: Seam, and gusset, and band...

In he got and away they went. (Waugh) (Hood)


The climax is such an arrangement of a series of clauses or 3. Consider the following sentences and comment on the function
of morphological
phrases that form an ascending scale, in which each of the sentences is stronger in intensity of expression grammatical categories and parts of speech
than the previous
one. that create stylistic function:

One night I am standing in front of Mindy's restaurant on Broadway,


We're nice people and there isn't going to be room for nice people any
thinking of practically nothing whatever, when all of a sudden I feel
more. It's ended, it's all over, it's dead. (Cheever)
a very terrible pain in my left foot. (Runyon)
Another device is the anticlimax, also called back gradation, which
It's good, that, to see you again, Mr. Philip, said Jim. (Caldwell)
is a figure of speech that consists in an abrupt and often ludicrous
descent, which contrasts with the previous rise. The descent is often Earth colours are his theme. When he shows up at the door, we see that
achieved by the addition of a detail that ruins the elevated tenor of he's even dressing in them. His pants are grey. His shirt is the same
the previous narration. colour as his skin. Flesh colour. (Erdrich)

Its main stylistic function is to give the thought an unexpected Now, the Andorrans were a brave, warlike people centuries ago, as
humorous or ironic twist. everybody was at one time or another - for example, take your Assyr-
ians, who are now extinct; or your Swedes, who fought in the Thirty
I hate and detest every bit of it, said Professor Silenus gravely. Nothing
Years' War but haven't done much since except lie in the sun and turn
I have ever done has caused me so much disgust. With a deep sigh he
brown... (Berger)
rose from the table and walked from the room, the fork with which he
had been eating still held in his hand. (Waugh) A gaunt and Halloweenish grin was plastered to her face. (Erdrich)

I walked past Mrs. Shumway, who jerked her head around in a startled
woodpeckerish way... (Erdrich)
Practice Section
She's the Honourable Mrs. Beste-Chetwynde, you know - sister-in-law
of Lord Pastmaster - a very wealthy woman, South American. (Waugh)
1. What are the basic principles of stylistic grammar? How does
grammatical metaphor correlate with lexical metaphor? ...there are two kinds of people, which we may call the hurters and the
hurtees. The first get their satisfaction by working their will on somebody
else. The
2. What is the essence of the grammatical gradation theory? Describe the types of grammatical second like and
transposition to be imposed
provide yourupon. (Burger)
own examples to illustrate each type.
To hear her was to be beginning to despair. (Jarrell)
But they domanage the building? Mrs. Doubleday said to him. (Cheever) They are allowed to have the train stoppedat every cross-roads... (Atkinson)

A band indeed! You' ll be having fireworks next. (Waugh)


4. Arrange syntactical expressive means described in Galperin's
I stare down at the bright orange capsules... I have to listen... so we
classification into four groups according to the major principles
look at each other, up and down, and up and down... Without us, they
of stylistic syntax in addition to the illustrations given in the
say, without Loise, it's the state hospital. (Erdrich)
chapter above.
Ah! That must be Aunt Augusta. Only relatives, or creditors, ever ring
5. Identify syntactical stylistic devices used in the examples below
in that Wagnerian manner. (Wilde)
and comment on their meaning in the context:
I got nothing against Joe Chapin, but he's not me. I'm me, and another
man is still another man. (O'Hara) I should have brought down a more attractive dress. This one, with its
white petals gone dull in the shower steam, with its belt of lavender and
That's not the Mr. Littlejohn I used to know. (Waugh) prickling lace at each pulse point, I don't like. (Erdrich)
I pronounce that the sentence on the defendants, Noelle Page and I begin my windshield-wiper wave, as instructed by our gym teacher,
Lawrence Douglas, shall be execution by a firing squad. (Sheldon) who has been a contestant for Miss North Dakota. Back and forth very
They are all being so formal. Let's play a game to break the ice. (Bell) slowly. Smile, smile, smile. (Erdrich)

I wondered how the Moroccan boy... could stand meekly aside and Except for the work in the quarries, life at Egdon was almost the same
watch her go off with another man. as at Blackstone.
Actors, I thought. They must divide themselves into compartments. 'Slops outside,' chapel, privacy. (Waugh)
(Shaw)
ft was for this reason the rector had so abjectly curled up, still so abjectly
Oh, I guess I love you, I do love the children, but I love myself, I love curled up before She-who-was Cynthia: because of his slave's fear of her
my life, it has some value and some promise for me... (Cheever) contempt, the contempt of a born-free nature for a base-born nature.
(Lawrence)
Let him say his piece, the darling. Isn't he divine? (Waugh)
The warder rang the bell - Inside, you two! he shouted. (Waugh)
It never was the individual sounds of a language, but the melodies behind
them, that Dr. Rosenbaum imitated. For these his ear was Mozartian. - Old man, Miles said amiably, if I may say so, I think you're missing
(Jarrell) the point.
- If I may say so, sir, Philippe said, I think I am missing nothing. What A man has a right to get married and have children, and I'd earned the
is the point? (Shaw) right to have a wife, both in work and money. A man's got a right to live
in his own place. A man has a right to make his life where he can look
You asked me what I had going this time. What I have going is wine.
after his Dad and Mum a bit when they get old. (Shute)
With the way the world's drinking these days, being in wine is like
having a license to steal. (Shaw) ...already we were operating five aircraft of four different types, and if
we got a Tramp we should have six aircraft of five types...
How kind of you, Alfred! She has asked about you, and expressed her A Tramp it would have to be, and I told them of my money difficulty.
intention - her intention, if you please! - to know you. (Caldwell) (Shute)
When one is in town one amuses oneself. When one is in the country Damrey Phong, though healthy, is a humid place. (Shute)
one amuses other people. (Wilde)
He's made his declaration. He loves me. He can't live without me. He'd
- There are lots of things I wanted to do - I wanted to climb the walk through fire to hear the notes of my voice. (Cheever)
Matterhorn but I wouldn't blame the fact that I haven't on anyone else.
- You. Clime the Matterhorn. Ha. You couldn't even climb the That's the foolest thing I ever heard. (Berger)
Washington Monument. (Cheever)

There was no Olga. I had no consolation. Then I felt desperate, desolate,


crushed. (Cheever)

- You get cold, riding a bicycle? he asked.


- My hands! she said clasping them nervously. (Lawrence)

If the man had been frightening before, he was now a perfect horror.
(Berger)

My dear fellow, the way you flirt with Gwendolen is perfectly disgraceful. It is almost as bad as the way Gwendolen flirts with you.
(Wilde)

Trouble is, I don't know if I want a business or not. Or even if I can


pay for it, if I did want it. (Shute)
Linguistic literature gives various definitions of the notion 'style' that
generally boil down to the following three meanings of this term:

Chapter 4 • A variety of the national language traditionally used in one


of the socially identifiable spheres of life that is characterised
by a particular set of linguistic features, including vocabulary,
grammar and pronunciation. These are chiefly associated with
The Theory of Functional Styles
the social and regional varieties, such as educated, colloquial, low
colloquial, dialectal, uneducated, etc. From this point of view
the most broad and well known subdivision in many national
The notion of style In functional stylistics. Correlation of style, languages today usually describes these varieties as neutral,
norm and function in the language. Language varieties: regional, literary (high) and colloquial (low): e.g. Cockney, upper-class,
social, occupational. An overview of functional style systems. educated English.
Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles of
English • Generally accepted linguistic identity of oral and written units
of discourse, such as public speech, a lecture, a friendly letter,
a newspaper article, etc. Such units demonstrate style not only in
a special choice of linguistic means but in their very arrangement,
4.1. The notion of style in functional stylistics i. e. composition of a speech act, that creates a category of text
marked by oratory, scientific, familiar or pubhcist style.
The notion of style has to do with how we use the language under
specific circumstances for a specific purpose. The notion of using • Individual manner of expression determined by personal factors,
English, for instance, involves much more than using our knowledge such as educational background, professional experience, sense
of its linguistic structure. It also involves awareness of the numerous of humour, etc.: e.g. personal style of communication, the style
of Pushkin'sand
situations in which English can be used as a special medium of communication with its own set of distinctive early poetry. features.
recognizable
The various branches of linguistics that investigate the topic, such
as sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, pragmatics, discourse analysis, Style is our knowledge how language is used to create and interpret
textlinguistics, and stylistics present a remarkable range of methodologies and emphases. We'll
texts be interested
and in how stylistic
conversational researchIt involves being aware of the
interactions.
treats of the subject. range of situations in which a language can be used in a distinctive
and predictable way and of the possibilities available to us when we
want to produce or respond to creative uses of the language.
Stylistic features relate to constraints on language use that may be only
the language as an abstract ideal system. The system provides and
temporary features of our spoken or written language. We often adopt
determines the general rules of usage of its elements, the norm is the
different group uses of language as we go through our day; we may use
actual use of these provisions by individual speakers under specific
a different style speaking with our children in the family, reporting
conditions of communication.
to our boss at work or practicing sports. We change our speaking
or writing style to make a particular effect: imitating somebody's Individual use of the language implies a personal selection of linguistic
accent when telling a story, giving a humorous account of events in means on aU levels. When this use conforms to the general laws of
an informal letter and so on. Style is first and foremost the result of the language this use wiU coincide with what is called the literary
our choice of content of our message and the appropriate range of norm of the national language.
language means to deliver the message effectively.
However the literary norm is not a homogeneous and calcified
Uses of English in numerous situations that require definite stylistic entity. It varies due to a number of factors, such as regional, social,
features are studied by the theory of functional styles. situational, personal, etc.

This theory involves consideration of such notions as norm and The norm will be dictated by the social roles of the participants of
function in their relation to style. communication, their age and family or other relations. An important
role in the selection of this or that variety of the norm belongs to
the purpose of the utterance, or its function. Informal language
4.2. Correlation of style, norm and function on a formal occasion is as inappropriate as formal language on an
in the language informal occasion. To say that a usage is appropriate is only to say
that it is performing its function satisfactorily. We shall use different
'norms' speaking with elderly people and our peers, teachers and
Any national language uses the notion of 'correct language' which
students, giving an interview or testimony in court. This brings us to
involves conformity to the grammatical, lexical and phonetic standards accepted as normative in this society. The favoured variety
the notion of the norm variation.
is usually a version of the standard written language, especially as
encountered in literature or in the formal spoken language that most
closely reflects litterary style. It is presented in dictionaries, grammars The norm of the language implies various realisations of the language structure that
and other official manuals. Those who speak and write in this way varieties.
are said to be using language 'correctly', those who do not are said to
be using it 'incorrectly'. Correct usage is associated with the notion I. V. Arnold presents these relations as a system of oppositions:
of the linguistic norm. The norm is closely related to the system of
Structure : : norm : : individual use
National norm : : dialect
4.3. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational

Neutral style : : colloquial style : : bookish style However not all texts have boundaries that are easy to identify in the
Literary correct speech : : common colloquial use of distinctive language. For example, the oratorical style has a lot.
of common features with the publicist one, which in its turn is often
Functional styles are subsystems of the language and represent comparable with the style of humanities, such as political science,
varieties of the norm of the national language. Their evolution history or philosophy.
and development has been determined by the specific factors of
The point of departure for discerning functional styles is the so-called
communication in various spheres of human activity. Each of them is
neutral style that is stylistically non-marked and reflects the norms
characterised by its own parameters in vocabulary usage, syntactical
of the language. It serves as a kind of universal background for the
expression, phraseology, etc.
expression of stylistically marked elements in texts of any functional
The term 'functional style' reflects peculiar functions of the language type. It can be rarely observed in the individual use of the language
in this or that type of communicative interaction. Proceeding from and as Skrebnev remarked, perhaps, only handbooks for foreigners
the generally acknowledged language functions Prof. I. V. Arnold and primers could be qualified as stylistically neutral (47, p. 22).
suggested a description of functional styles based on the combination
of the linguistic functions they fulfil.

Function intellectual
4.3. Language varieties:
Style communicative pragmatic emotive phatic aesthetic regional, social, occupational
oratorical + + + + +
The particular set of features, which identifies a language variety,
colloquial + + + + -
does not represent the features of the language as a whole. Variety
poetic + - + - + features depend on the presence of certain factors in a social situation.
publicist and Classifications of these factors vary, but we may group them into
newspaper + + + - -
two types according to most general dimensions: sociolinguistic and
official + + - - - stylistic factors.
scientific + - - - - Sociolinguistic factors are connected with very broad situational
constraints on language use. They chiefly identify the regional and
The table presents functional styles as a kind of hierarchy according social varieties of the language. They are relatively permanent features
to the number of functions fulfilled by each style, oratorical and of the spoken and written language, over which we have comparatively
scientific being almost complete opposites. little conscious control. We tend not to change our regional or social
age, sex and socio-economic aspects. Choice of occupation has a less
group way of speaking in every-day communication and usually we
predictable influence, though in some contexts, e. g. medicine or law
are not aware of using it.
it can be highly distinctive.
Stylistic factors relate to restrictions on language use that are much
Adopting a specific social role, such as making a congratulatory
more narrowly constrained, and identify individual preferences in
speech or conducting a panel talk, invariably entails a choice of
usage (phraseology, special vocabulary, language of literature) or
appropriate linguistic forms.
the varieties that are associated with occupational groups (lawyers,
journalists, scholars). These are features, over which we are able to Across the world attitudes to social variation differ a lot. All countries
exercise some degree of conscious control. display social stratification, though some have more clearly defined
boundaries than others and therefore more distinct features of class
As David Crystal, a famous British linguist puts it, regional language
dialect. Britain is usually said to be linguistically more class-conscious
variation of English provides a geographical answer to the question
than other English-speaking countries.
'Where are you from, in the English-speaking world?'
For example, in England one accent has traditionally dominated over
Social language variation provides an answer to a somewhat different
all others and the notion of respectable social standing is usually
question 'Who are you?' or 'What are you in the eyes of the
associated with Received Pronunciation (RP), considered to be the
English-speaking society to which you belong?' (33, p. 393). Actually
'prestige accent'.
social variation provides several possible answers, because people may
acquire several identities as they participate in the social structure. However today with the breakdown of rigid divisions between social
One and the same person may belong to different social groups classes and the development of mass media RP is no longer the
and perform different social roles. A person may at the same time prerogative of social elite. Today it is best described as an 'educated'
be described as 'a parent', 'a wife', 'an architect', 'a feminist', accent which actually has several varieties. Most educated people
'a senior citizen', 'a member of Parliament', 'an amateur sculptor', have developed an accent, which is a mixture of RP and various
'a theatre-goer'; the possibffities may be endless.
regional features that sometimes is called 'modified RP'.
Any of these identities can have consequences for the kind of This is one example that shows a general trend in modern E n g l i s h -
language we use. Language more than anything else will testify to our regionally modified speech is no longer stigmatised as 'low', it can
permanent and temporary roles in social life.
even be an advantage, expressing such social values as solidarity and
democracy. A pure RP accent, by contrast can even evoke hostility,
Some features of social variation lead to particular linguistic consequences. In many ways especially
our pronunciation,
in those choice
parts ofofBritain
words and
that have their own regional norms,
constructions, general strategy of communication are defined by the e. g. Scotland and Wales.
Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles 4.4. An overview of functional style systems

Occupational varieties of the national language are normally associat- vocabulary, and patterns of discourse. Of course, all occupations are
ed with a particular way of earning a living. They belong to the group linguistically distinctive to a certain degree. In some cases it involves
of stylistically determined varieties and differ from both regional and only special terms; in others it may be a combination of linguistic
social sublanguages. features on different levels as will be shown in the last section of this
chapter.
Features of language that identify people's geographical or social
origins, once established can hardly change over a short period of
time. It would be very difficult to change your accent if you move 4.4. An overview of functional style systems
from one part of the country to another with a different regional
norm; it is equally difficult to transform the linguistic indicators of
As has been mentioned before there are a great many classifications
our social background (vocabulary and structural expression).
of language varieties that are called sublanguages, substyles, registers
Occupational varieties are not like that. Their linguistic features may and functional styles that use various criteria for their definition and
be just as distinctive as regional or social features, but they are only categorisation. The term generally accepted by most Russian scholars
in temporary use. They 'go with the territory' - adopted as we begin is functional styles. It is also used in this course. A few classifications
work and given up as we finish it. People who cannot stop 'talking of the functional styles in modern English will be considered in this
shop' even when they are not at work are rather an exception to the chapter.
rule.
Books by I. R. Galperin on English Stylistics (1958, 1971, 1977)
Any professional field could serve as an illustration of occupation- are among most acknowledged sources of stylistic research in this
al linguistic identity. There are no class distinctions here. Factory country.
workers have to master a special glossary of technical terms and
Galperin distinguishes 5 functional styles and suggests their subdi-
administrative vocabulary (seniority labels, term of service, severance
vision into substyles in modern English according to the following
pay, fringe benefits, safety regulation) in order to carry out profes-
sional communication. To fulfil their tasks they develop jargon and scheme:
professional slang, which set them apart from outsiders. The more
1. The Belles-Lettres Style:
specialised the occupation and the more senior or professional the
position the more technical the language. Also, if an occupation a) poetry;
has a long-lasting and firmly established tradition it is likely to have b) emotive prose;
its own linguistic rituals which its members accept as a criterion c) the language of the drama.
of proficiency. The highly distinctive languages of law, government 2. Publicist Style:
and religion provide the clearest cases, with their unique grammar, a) oratory and speeches;
b) the essay; speaker's educational, social and professional background. Moreover
c) articles. we always assume some socially determined role and consciously
choose appropriate language means to perform it and achieve the aim
3. Newspaper Style: of communication.
a) brief news items;
b) headlines; Scholars' views vary on some other items of this classification. There
is no unanimity about the belles-lettres style. In fact Galperin's
c) advertisements and announcements;
position is not shared by the majority. This notion comes under
d) the editorial. criticism because it seems rather artificial especiaUy in reference to
modern prose. It is certainly true that many works of fiction may
4. Scientific Prose Style.
contain emotionally coloured passages of emotive writing that are
5. The Style of Official documents: marked by special image-creating devices, such as tropes and figures
a) business documents; of speech. These are typically found in the author's narrative, lyrical
b) legal documents; digressions, expositions, descriptions of nature or reflections on the
c) the language of diplomacy; characters' emotional or mental state.
d) military documents. At the same time many writers give an account of external events,
Prof. Galperin differs from many other scholars in his views on social life and reproduce their characters' direct speech. Sometimes
functional styles because he includes in his classification only the they quote extracts from legal documents, newspapers items, ad-
written variety of the language. In his opinion style is the result of vertisements, slogans, headlines, e. g. K. Vonnegut, J. Dos Passos,
creative activity of the writer who consciously and deliberately selects etc. which do not belong to beUes-lettres style in its traditional
language means that create style. Colloquial speech, according to meaning.
him, by its very nature will not lend itself to careful selection of
As a matter of fact, in modern works of fiction we may encounter
linguistic features and there is no stylistic intention expressed on
practicaUy any functional speech type imaginable. So most other
the part of the speaker. At the same time his classification contains
classifications do not distinguish the language of fiction as a separate
such varieties of publicist style as oratory and speeches. What he
style.
actually means is probably not so much the spoken variety of
the language but spontaneous colloquial speech, a viewpoint which In 1960 the book "Stylistics of the English Language" by M. D. Kufc-
nevertheless seems to give ground for debate. As we pointed out netz and Y. M. Skrebnev appeared. The book was a kind of brief outline
in sections two and three of this chapter individual speech, oral of stylistic problems. The styles and their varieties distinguished by
variety included, is always marked by stylistic features that show the these authors included:
1. Literary or Bookish Style: c) publicist (newspaper);
a) publicist style;
d) oratorical;
b) scientific (technological) style;
e) poetic.
c) official documents.
2. Free ("Colloquial") Style: This system presents an accurate description of the many social and
a) literary colloquial style; extralinguistic factors that influence the choice of specific language
b) familiar colloquial style. for a definite communicative purpose. At the same time the inclusion
of neutral style in this classification seems rather odd since unlike
As can be seen from this classification, both poetry and imaginative the others it's non-existent in individual use and should probably be
prose have not been included (as non-homogeneous objects) although associated only with the structure of the language.
the book is supplied with a chapter on versification.
One type of sublanguages suggested by Arnold in her classification -
Next comes the well-known work by I, V. Arnold "Stylistics of Modern publicist or newspaper - fell under the criticism of Skrebnev who
English" (decoding stylistics) published in 1973 and revised in 1981. argues that the diversity of genres in newspapers is evident to any
Some theses of this author have already been presented in this layman: along with the "leader" (or editorial) the newspaper page gives
chapter (i. e. those that concern the notions of norm, neutrality a column to political observers, some space is taken by sensational
and function in their stylistic aspect). Speaking of functional styles,
reports; newspapers are often full of lengthy essays on economics,
Arnold starts With the a kind of abstract notion termed 'neutral style'.
law, morals, art, etc. Much space is also given to miscellaneous
It has no distinctive features and its function is to provide a standard
news items, local events; some papers publish sequences of stories
background for the other styles. The other 'real' styles can be broadly
or novels; and most papers sell their pages to advertising firms. This
divided into two groups according to the scholar's approach: different
enumeration of newspaper genres could go on and on. Therefore,
varieties of colloquial styles and several types of literary bookish styles.
Skrebnev maintains, we can hardly speak of such functional style at all.

1. Colloquial Styles: Of course Arnold is quite aware of the diversity of newspaper writings.
a) literary colloquial; However what she really means is the newspaper material specific
b) familiar colloquial; of the newspaper only: political news, police reports, press reviews,
c) common colloquial. editorials.
2. Literary Bookish Styles:
In a word, newspaper style should be spoken of only when the
a) scientific;
materials that serve to inform the reader are meant. Then we can
b) official documents; speak of distinctive style - forming features including a special choice
On the whole Morokhovsky's concept is one of the few that attempt
of words, abundance of international words, newspaper cliches and
to differentiate and arrange the taxonomy of cardinal linguistic notions. According to M
nonce words, etc.
includes types of thinking differentiating poetic and straightforward
It should be noted however that many scholars consider the language language, oral and written speech, and ultimately, bookish and colloquial functional ty
of the press as a separate style and some researchers even single out of 'speech activity' connected with social stereotypes of speech behaviour. Morokhovs
newspaper headlines as a functional style. of speech behaviour or functional styles of speech activity are norms
for wide classes of texts or utterances, in which general social roles
One of the relatively recent books on stylistics is the handbook by are embodied - poet, journalist, manager, politician, scholar, teacher,
A. N. Morokhovsky and his co-authors O. P. Vorobyova, N. I. Lik- father, mother, etc." (15, p. 234).
nosherst and Z. V. Timoshenko "Stylistics of the English language"
published in Kiev in 1984. In the final chapter of the book "Stylistic
Differentiation of Modern English" a concise but exhaustive review
of factors that should be taken into account in treating the problem
of functional styles is presented. The book suggests the following style The number of stereotypes (functional styles) is not unlimited but
classes: great enough. For example, texts in official business style may be
administrative, juridical, military, commercial, diplomatic, etc. Still
1. Official business style. further differentiation deals with a division of texts into genres.
Thus military texts (official style) comprise 'commands, reports,
2. Scientific-professional style.
regulations, manuals, instructions'; diplomatic documents include
3. Publicist style. 'notes, declarations, agreements, treaties', etc. In addition to all this
4. Literary colloquial style. we may speak of 'the individual style' with regard to any kind of text.
5. Familiar colloquial style. In the same year (1984) V. A. Maltzev published a smaller book on
stylistics entitled "Essays on English Stylistics" in Minsk.
Each style, according to Morokhovsky has a combination of distinctive
features. Among them we find oppositions like 'artistic - non-artistic', His theory is based on the broad division of lingual material into
'presence of personality - absence of it', 'formal - informal situation', "informal" and "formal" varieties and adherence to Skrebnev's system
'equal - unequal social status' (of the participants of communication), of functional styles.
'written or oral form'. Morokhovsky emphasizes that these five classes
of what he calls "speech activity" are abstractions rather than realities, Prof. Skrebnev uses the term sublanguages in the meaning that is usually attributed to f
they can seldom be observed in their pure forms: mixing styles is the this term is that he considers innumerable situational communicative
common practice.
products as sublanguages, including each speaker's idiolect. Each act must observe. But the same person may change his lingual behaviour
of speech is a sublanguage. This makes the notion of functional style with the change of the environment or situation. Sometimes he is
somewhat vague and difficult to define. At the same time Skrebnev forced to abide by laws that are very different from those he regularly
recognizes the major opposition of 'formal' and 'informal' sphere of uses: speaking with children, making a speech before parliament or
language use and suggests "a very rough and approximate gradation during an electoral campaign.
of subspheres and their respective sublanguages" (47, p. 200).
The first type of speech - 'formal' - comprises the varieties that are
The formal sublanguages in Skrebnev's opinion belong exclusively used in spheres of official communication, science, technology,
to the written variety of lingual intercourse. He avoids the claim of
poetry and fiction, newspaper texts, oratory, etc. It's obvious that
inconsistency for including certain types of speeches into this sphere
many of these varieties can be further subdivided into smaller classes
by arguing that texts of some of the types can be read aloud in public.
or sublanguages. For example, in the sphere of science and technology
His rough subdivision of formal styles includes: almost each science has a metalanguage of its own. The language
of computer technology, e. g., is not so limited to the technological
a) private correspondence with a stranger; sphere as at the time of its beginnings - 'to be computer-friendly'
b) business correspondence between representatives of commercial has given rise to many other coinages like 'media-friendly', 'market-
or other establishments; friendly', 'envhonmentally friendly', etc.
c) diplomatic correspondence, international treaties;
In the informal type of speech we sh n't find so many varieties
d) legal documents (civil law - testaments, settlements; criminal as in the formal one, but it is used by a much greater number of
law - verdicts, sentences); people. The first and most important informal variety is colloquial
e) personal documents (certificates, diplomas, etc.). style. This is the language used by educated people in informal
situations. These people may resort to jargon or slang or even
The informal colloquial sphere includes ah types of colloquial vulgar language to express their negative attitude to somebody or
language - literary, non-literary, vulgar, ungrammatical, social dialects, the vernacular ofsomething.
the underworld, etc. This cannot be inventoried because of its unlimited varieties.

Uneducated people speak "popular" or ungrammatical language, be


it English or Russian.
Of course formal and informal spheres do not exist in severely
separated worlds. There is also a problem of dialects that would require special
consideration that cannot be done within this course. Dialects are
not really he
The user of the first speech type is fully aware of his social responsibility. He knows the requirements "ungrammatical"
has to meet and thetypes of a national
conventions he language, some
scholars hold, but a different language with its own laws. However
it may have been true in the last century but not now. And what f) news media English further subdivided into:
Skrebnev writes on this problem seems to be argumentative enough.
• newsreporting;
"Dialects are current in the countryside; cities are nearly untouched • journalistics;
by them. In the 19th century England some of the aristocracy were • broadcasting;
not ashamed of using their local dialects. Nowadays owing to the • sportscommentary;
sound media (radio, cinema and TV) non-standard English in Britain • advertising.
is nearly, as in this country, a sure sign of cultural inferiority, e. g. the
status of Соскnеу." (47, p. 198).
Restricted English includes very tightly constrained uses of language
In his classification of functional styles of modern English that he calls when little or no linguistic variation is permitted. In these cases
language varieties the famous British linguist D. Crystal suggests the special rules are created by man to be consciously learned and used.
following subdivision of these styles: regional, social, occupational, These rules control everything that can be said. According to Crystal
restricted and individual. (33, 34) restricted varieties appear both in domestic and occupational spheres
and include the following types:
Regional varieties of English reflect the geographical origin of the
language used by the speaker: Lancashire variety, Canadian English, a) knitwrite in books on knitting;
Cockney, etc.
b) cookwrite in recipe books;
Social variations testify to the speaker's family, education, social c) congratulatory messages;
status background: upper class and non-upper class, a political
d) newspaper announcements;
activist, a member of the proletariat, a Times reader, etc.
e) newspaper headlines;
Occupational styles present quite a big group that includes the
f) sportscasting scores;
following types:
g) airspeak, the language of air traffic control;
a) religious English; h) emergencyspeak, the language for the emergency services;
b) scientific English; i) e-mail variety, etc.
c) legal English;
d) plain (official) English; Individual variation involves types of speech that arise from the
speaker's personal differences meaning such features as physique,
e) political English;
interests, personality, experience and so on. A particular blend of
social and geographical backgrounds may produce a distinctive accent 4.5.1. Literary colloquial style
or dialect. Educational history, occupational experience, personal
skills and tastes, hobbies or literary preferences will foster the use of Phonetic features
habitual words and turns of phrase, or certain kinds of grammatical
construction. Standard pronunciation in compliance with the national norm,
enunciation.
Also noticeable will be favourite discourse practices - -a tendency
to develop points in an argument in a certain way, or an inclination for certain kinds of metaphor. Some
Phonetic people are 'good
compression of frequently used forms, e.g. it's, don't, Fve.
conversationalists', 'good story-tellers', 'good letter-writers', 'good
speech-makers'. What actually makes them so is the subject of stylistic Omission of unaccented elements due to the quick tempo, e. g. you
research. know him ?

There are also a number of cases where individuality in the use of Morphological features
English - a personal style - is considered to be a matter of particular
importance and worthy of study in its own right. Such is the study of Use of regular morphological features, with interception of evaluative
the individual style of a writer or poet: Shakespeare's style, Faulkner's suffixes e. g. deary, doggie, duckie.
style, and the like.

Syntactical features

4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major Use of simple sentences with a number of participial and infinitive
functional styles of English constructions and numerous parentheses.

Syntactically correct utterances compliant with the literary norm.


A description of five major functional styles given in this section is
based on their most distinctive features on each level of the language Use of various types of syntactical compression, simplicity of syntactical connection
structure: pnonetical (where possible), morphological, syntactical,
lexical and compositional. A peculiar combination of these features
Prevalence of active and finite verb forms.
and special emphasis on some of them creates the paradigm of what is
called a scientific or publicist text, a legal or other official document, Use of grammar forms for emphatic purposes, e. g. progressive verb
colloquial or formal speech. forms to express emotions of irritation, anger etc.
Compositional features
Decomposition and ellipsis of sentences in a dialogue (easily reconstructed from the context).

Can be used in written and spoken varieties: dialogue, monologue,


Use of special colloquial phrases, e.g. that friend of yours. personal letters, diaries, essays, articles, etc.

Lexical features Prepared types of texts may have thought out and logical composition, to a certain ex
presentations, articles, interviews).
Wide range of vocabulary strata in accordance with the register of
communication and participants' roles: formal and informal, neutral Spontaneous types have a loose structure, relative coherence and
and bookish, terms and foreign words. uniformity of form and content.

Basic stock of communicative vocabulary - stylistically neutral.


4 . 5 , 2 . Familiar colloquial style
Use of socially accepted contracted forms and abbreviations, e. g.
fridge for refrigerator, ice for ice-cream, TV for television, CD for Represented in spoken variety.
compact disk, etc.
Phonetic features
Use of etiquette language and conversational formulas, such as nice
to see you, my pleasure, on behalf of, etc.
Casual and often careless pronunciation, use of deviant forms, e. g.
Extensive use of intensifiers and gap-fillers, e.g. absolutely, definitely, gonna instead of going to, whatcha instead of what do you, dunno
awfully, kind of, so to speak, I mean, if I may say so. instead of don't know.

Use of interjections and exclamations, e. g. Dear me, My God, Use of reduced and contracted forms, e.g. you're, they've, I'd.
Goodness, well, why, now, oh.
Omission of unaccented elements due to quick tempo, e.g. you hear
Extensive use of phrasal verbs let sb down, put up with, stand sb up. me?

Use of words of indefinite meaning like thing, stuff. Emphasis on intonation as a powerful semantic and styUstic instru-
ment capable to render subtle nuances of thought and feeling. -
Avoidance of slang, vulgarisms, dialect words, jargon.
Use of onomatopoeic words, e.g. whoosh, hush, stop yodelling, yum,
Use of phraseological expressions, idioms and figures of speech. yak.
Morphological features Lexical features

Combination of neutral, familiar and low colloquial vocabulary,


Use of evaluative suffixes, nonce words formed on morphological and phonetic analogy with other nominal words: e. g. baldish,
including slang, vulgar and taboo words.
mawkish, moody, hanky-panky, helter-skelter, plates of meet (feet),
okeydoke, Extensive use of words of general meaning, specified in meaning by
the situation guy, job, get, do, fix, affair.
Extensive use of collocations and phrasal verbs instead of neutral and
Limited vocabulary resources, use of the same word in different
literary equivalents: e.g. to turn in instead of to go to bed.
meanings it may not possess, e. g. 'some' meaning good: some guy! some
game! 'nice' meaning impressive, fascinating, high quality: nice music.
Syntactical features
Abundance of specific colloquial interjections: boy, wow, hey, there,
ahoy.
Use of simple short sentences.
Use of hyperbole, epithets, evaluative vocabulary, trite metaphors and
Dialogues are usually of the question-answer type.
simile, e.g. if you say it once more I'll kill you, as old as the hills,
Use of echo questions, parallel structures, repetitions of various kinds. horrid, awesome, etc.

In complex sentences asyndetic coordination is the norm. Tautological substitution of personal pronouns and names by other
nouns, e.g. you-baby, Johnny-boy.
Coordination is used more often than subordination, repeated use of
conjunction and is a sign of spontaneity rather than an expressive Mixture of curse words and euphemisms, e. g. damn, dash, darned,
device. shoot.

Extensive use of ellipsis, including the subject of the sentence e.g.


Can't say anything. Compositional features

Extensive use of syntactic tautology, e. g. That girl, she was something Use of deviant language on all levels.
else!
Strong emotional colouring.
Abundance of gap-fillers and parenthetical elements, such as sure,
indeed, to be more exact, okay, well. Loose syntactical organisation of an utterance.
Frequently little coherence or adherence to the topic. In news items and articles: news items comprise one or two, rarely
three, sentences.
No special compositional patterns.
Absence of complex coordination with chain of subordinate clauses
4 . 5 . 3 . Publicist (media) style and a number of conjunctions.

Prepositional phrases are used much more than synonymous gerundial


Phonetic features (in oratory) phrases.

Standard pronunciation, wide use of prosody as a means of conveying Absence of exclamatory sentences, break-in-the narrative, other
the subtle shades of meaning, overtones and emotions. expressively charged constructions.

Articles demonstrate more syntactical organisation and logical arrangement of sent


Phonetic compression.

Morphological features Lexical features

Frequent use of non-finite verb forms, such as gerund, participle, Newspaper cliches and set phrases.
infinitive.
Terminological variety: scientific, sports, political, technical, etc.
Use of non-perfect verb forms.
Abbreviations and acronyms.
Omission of articles, link verbs, auxiliaries, pronouns, especially in
headlines and news items. Numerous proper names, toponyms, anthroponyms, names of enterprises, institut

Syntactical features Abstract notion words, elevated and bookish words.

In headlines: frequent use of pun, violated phraseology, vivid stylistic


Frequent use of rhetorical questions and interrogatives in oratory
devices.
speech.
In oratory speech: words of elevated and bookish character, colloquial
In headlines: use of impersonal sentences, elliptical constructions,
words and phrases, frequent use of such stylistic devices as metaphor,
interrogative sentences, infinitive complexes and attributive groups.
alliteration, allusion, irony, etc.
Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles 4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles

Use of conventional forms of address and trite phases. Syntactical features

Use of long complex sentences with several types of coordination and


Compositional features
subordination (up to 70 % of the text).

Text arrangement is marked by precision, logic and expressive power. Use of passive and participial constructions, numerous connectives.

Carefully selected vocabulary. Use of objects, attributes and all sorts of modifiers in the identifying
and explanatory function.
Variety of topics.
Extensive use of detached constructions and parenthesis.
Wide use of quotations, direct speech and represented speech.
Use of participle I and participle II as openers in the initial expository
Use of parallel constructions throughout the text.
statement.
In oratory: simplicity of structural expression, clarity of message,
A general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements
argumentative power.
into one sentence.
In headlines: use of devices to arrest attention: rhyme, pun, puzzle,
Information texts are based on standard normative syntax reasonably
high degree of compression, graphical means.
simplified.
In news items and articles: strict arrangement of titles and subtitles,
emphasis on the headline. Lexical features

Careful subdivision into paragraphs, clearly defined position of the Prevalence of stylistically neutral and bookish vocabulary.
sections of an article: the most important information is carried in
the opening paragraph; often in the first sentence. Use of terminology, e. g. legal: acquittal, testimony, aggravated larceny;
commercial: advance payment, insurance, wholesale, etc.
4.5.4. The style of official documents Use of proper names (names of enterprises, companies, etc.) and
titles.
Morphological features
Abstraction of persons, e. g. use of party instead of the name.
Adherence to the norm, sometimes outdated or even archaic, e. g. in
legal documents. Officialese vocabulary: cliches, opening and conclusive phrases.
Conventional and archaic forms and words: kinsman, hereof, thereto, 4 . 5 . 5 . ScientificIacademic style
thereby, ilk.

Foreign words, especially Latin and French: status quo, force majeure, Morphological features
persona поп grata.

Abbreviations, contractions, conventional symbols: M. P. (member of Terminological word building and word-derivation: neologism formation by affixatio
Parliament), Ltd (limited), $, etc.
Restricted use of finite verb forms.
Use of words in their primary denotative meaning.
Use of 'the author's we' instead of I.
Absence of tropes, no evaluative and emotive colouring of vocabu­
lary. Frequent use of impersonal constructions.

Seldom use of substitute words: it, one, that.


Syntactical features

Compositional features Complete and standard syntactical mode of expression.


Special compositional design: coded graphical layout, clear-cut sub­
Syntactical precision to ensure the logical sequence of thought and
division of texts into units of information; logical arrangement of
argumentation.
these units, order-of-priority organisation of content and informa­
tion. Direct word order.

Conventional composition of treaties, agreements, protocols, etc.: Use of lengthy sentences with subordinate clauses.
division into two parts, a preamble and a main part.
Extensive use of participial, gerundial and infinitive complexes.
Use of stereotyped, official phraseology.
Extensive use of adverbial and prepositional phrases.
Accurate use of punctuation.
Frequent use of parenthesis introduced by a dash.
Generally objective, concrete, unemotional and impersonal style of
narration. Abundance of attributive groups with a descriptive function.
Preferential use of prepositional attributive groups instead of the Compositional features
descriptive of phrase.
Types of texts compositionally depend on the scientific genre: mono-
Avoidance of ellipsis, even usually omitted conjunctions like 'that'
graph, article, presentation, thesis, dissertation, etc.
and 'which'.
In scientific proper and technical texts e.g. mathematics: highly
Prevalence of nominal constructions over the verbal ones to avoid
time reference for the sake of generalisation. formalized text with the prevalence of formulae, tables, diagrams
supplied with concise commentary phrases.
Frequent use of passive and non-finite verb forms to achieve objectivity and impersonality.
In humanitarian texts (history, philosophy): descriptive narration,
supplied with argumentation and interpretation.
Use of impersonal forms and sentences such as mention should be
made, it can be inferred, assuming that, etc. Logical and consistent narration, sequential presentation of material
and facts.

Lexical features Extensive use of citation, references and foot-notes.

Restricted use of expressive means and stylistic devices.


Extensive use of bookish words e. g. presume, infer, preconception,
cognitive.
Extensive use of conventional set phrases at certain points to emphasise the logical ch
Abundance of scientific terminology and phraseology. conclusion, finally, as mentioned above.

Use of words in their primary dictionary meaning, restricted use of


connotative contextual meanings. Use of digressions to debate or support a certain point,

Use of numerous neologisms. Definite structural arrangement in a hierarchical order: introduction,


chapters, paragraphs, conclusion.
Abundance of proper names.
Special set of connective phrases and words to sustain coherence and
logic, such
Restricted use of emotive colouring, interjections, expressive phraseology, phrasal verbs, colloquial as consequently, on the contrary, likewise.
vocabulary.

Extensive use of double conjunctions like as... as, either... or,


Seldom use of tropes, such as metaphor, hyperbole, simile, etc. both... and, etc.
5. Identify the functional style in each of the texts given below
Compositionally arranged sentence patterns: postulatory (at the beginning), argumentative (in the
andcentral
point part), formulative
out the (in the
distinctive conclusion).
features that testify to its specific
character.

Distinctive features described above by no means present an exhaustive II has long been known that when exposed to light under suitable
nomenclature for each type. A careful study of each functional style conditions of temperature and moisture, the green parts of plants use
requires investigation of the numerous types of texts of various genres carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen to it. These
that represent each style. That obviously cannot be done in the exchanges are the opposite of those, which occur in respiration. The
framework of this course. It is also one of the reasons why the style process is called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, carbohydrates are
of literature has not been included in this description. It is hardly synthesized from carbon dioxide and water by the chloroplasts of plant
worthwhile trying to make any generalizations about the sphere of cells in the presence of light. Oxygen is the product of the reaction.
belles-lettres style, which includes such an array of genres whether in For each molecule of carbon dioxide used, one molecule of oxygen is
prose, or poetry, or drama, let alone the peculiar styles of separate released. A summary chemical equation for photosynthesis is:
authors.
6CO 2 = 6H O2 • C H O + 6O .
6 1 2 6 2

Practice Section You was sharp, wasn't you, to catch me like that, eh? By Ga-ard,
you had me fixed proper, proper you had. Darn me, you fixed me up
proper - proper, you did.
1. What extralinguistic factors are involved in the notion of style?
I don't think no worse of you for it, no, darned if I do. Fine pluck in
How do style and personal factors correlate? What styles exist
a woman's what I admire. That I do indeed.
in any national language?
Wefetfrom the start, we did. And, my word, you begin again quick the
2. What is the literary norm of a language? What does the term 'a minute you see me, you did. Dam me, you was too sharp for me. A darn
norm variation' imply? How is each style characterised by the fine woman, puts up a darn good fight. Dam me if I could find a woman
. function it fulfils? in all the darn States as could get me down like that. Wonderful fine
3. Comment on the sociolinguistic and stylistic factors that account woman you be, truth to say, at this minute. (Lawrence)
for the use of regional, social, and occupational varieties of the Wal-Mart told to raise German prices
language. Wal-Mart's European expansion plans suffered their second blow in
4. Compare the classifications of functional styles in English described in this chapter.a week as the German competition authority ordered the retailer to raise
key prices in its German hypermarkets.
Prince to buy Kirchрау-TVstake get a whole lot more of a line on us that way than just interviewing me
Prince Al-Valeed of Saudi Arabia plans to buy a 3.2 per cent stake in in the office. I mean I'm tongue-tied when it comes to talking about my
the pay television operation of German Leo Kirch. work and my success. I mean it's better to see me out here as I am. in
my home, with my family."
Japanese debt downgraded second time
The Japanese government was struck a humiliating blow when Moody's, "But, sweetheart," said his wife, "what about Mr. Latham ?"
the US credit rating agency, downgraded Japan's domestic currency debt "Gosh! I forgot all about him! I must phone and see if I can call it off.
That's terrible!" (Lardner)
for the second time in two years.
SAP prices consultancy at top of range
6. Find texts demonstrative of each functional type and analyse
SAP, Europe's largest software group, is likely to price shares in SAP
their distinctive features on all levels as described in chapter 4.
SI, its consultancy, at the top of its book-building range.
Enel subsidiary mulls Infostrada buy
Enel, Italy's main electricity utility, expressed strong interest in its
telecommunications subsidiary, Wind, buying its Italian fixed-line rival,
Infostrada.

th
In your letter of 15 ultimo you advise us of the problem of finding
skilled personnel. In this connection we wish to state that only about
12 per cent of skilled workforce is engaged in minor industrial activity
associated with servicing the city's growth.
We enclose herewith a schedule of the work and the work progress report
thereon and we wish to state that among considerations influencing the
selection of sites is the desire to maintain residential amenity.
We wish to state that several specialized industries have been established
in terms of article 3 of the said contract.

"It certainly is great Воиrbоп!" said Bartlett, smacking his lips and
putting his glass back on the tray.
"You bet it is!" Greg agreed. "I mean you can't buy that kind of stuff any
more. I mean it's real stuff. You help yourself when you want another.
Mr. Bartlett is going to stay all night, sweetheart. I told him he could
5.1. Stylistics of the author and of the reader.
T h e notions of encoding and decoding

Chapter 5 Decoding stylistics is the most recent trend in stylistic research that
employs theoretical findings in such areas of science as information
theory, psychology, statistical studies in combination with linguistics,
.literary theory, history of art, literary criticism, etc.
Decoding Stylistics
and Its Fundamental Notions Decoding goes beyond the traditional analysis of a work of fiction
which usually gives either an evaluative explanatory commentary on
the historical, cultural, biographical or geographical background of
the work and its author or suggests a kind of stylistic analysis that
Stylistics of the author and of the reader. The notions of encoding comprises an inventory of stylistic devices and expressive means found
and decoding. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis in the text.
and types of foregrounding.
Neither of these approaches seems quite satisfactory. The first kind of
analysis is typically done by a literary critic and may tend to become
an arbitrary or judgmental reflection of his personal esthetic or other
How often with all the theoretical experience preferences and tastes. Such critiques may be detached from the text
of method accumulated in me over the years and based on the critic's inferences of what he conjectures as the
have I stared blankly quite similar to one of author's intention. Many authors resent critical analysis of this sort
my beginning students at a page that would as an attitude but not real evaluation.
not yield its magic.
The other approach tends to pursue another extreme: a formal
Leo Spitzer. Linguistic and Literary History registration of the data of the text. It divests a work of art of its magic
and poetry by a pragmatic and statistical treatment that dissects the
Чем рассказывать мне, что в данной вещи text and explains but little.
хотела дать - я, лучше покажи мне,
Decoding stylistics makes an attempt to regard the esthetic value
что сумел от нее взять - ты.
of a text based on the interaction of specific textual elements,
М. Цветаева: Поэт о критике stylistic devices and compositional structure in delivering the author's
message. This method does not consider the stylistic function of any addressee who in this case is the reader. The reader is supposed to
stylistically important feature separately but only as a part of the decode the information contained in the text of a literary work.
whole text. So expressive means and stylistic devices are treated in
their interaction and distribution within the text as carriers of the However to encode the information does not mean to have it delivered
author's purport and creative idiom. By this the stylistic study of or passed intact to the recipient. There are more obstacles here than
a literary work acquires a new, semasiological dimension in which the meet the eye. In contrast to the writer who is always concrete the
stylistic elements become signs of the author's vision of the world. reader who is addressed is in fact an abstract notion, he is any of the
thousands of people who may read this book. This abstract reader
Decoding stylistics helps the reader in his or her understanding of may not be prepared or willing to decode the message or even take
a literary work by explaining or decoding the information that may be it. The reasons are numerous and various.
hidden from immediate view in specific allusions, cultural or political
parallels, peculiar use of irony or euphemy, etc.
A literary work on its way to the reader encounters quite a number of hindrances of all
The term 'decoding stylistics' came from the application of the theory and his reader are inevitable. Readers and authors may be separated by historical epoc
of information to linguistics by such authors as M. Riffatrre, R. Ja- the author and the reader belong to the same society no reader
cobson, F Guiraud, F. Danes, Y. Lotman, I. V. Arnold and others. can completely identify himself with the author either emotionally,
intellectually or esthetically. Apart from these objective and personal factors we canno
In a rather simplified version this theory presents a creative process of art. Many of them are quite sophisticated in form and content. Some are full of impl
in the following mode. The writer receives diverse information from semantic plane and may contain understatements, semantic accretion, or open-ende
the outside world. Some of it becomes a source for his creative work. about the outcome. Others require of the reader a wide educational thesaurus and kno
He processes this information and recreates it in his own esthetic
images that become a vehicle to pass his vision to the addressee, his
readers. The process of internalizing of the outside information and
translating it into his imagery is called 'encoding'.

To encode certain information an author resorts to certain m e a n s -


meaningful units that are organized according to certain rules. The
salient feature of this information encoded by the author is called the
message.
The readers will differ not only from the author but also from each
The process of encoding will only make any sense if besides the other. They have a different life experience, educational background,
encoder who sends the information it includes the recipient or the cultural level and tastes.
All these factors often preclude easy decoding and show how difficult devices that demonstrate some stylistic function but as a part of the
it is for the message to reach the reader and be appropriately construed general pattern discernible on the background of relatively lengthy
by him. The message encoded and sent may differ from the message segments of the text, from a paragraph to the level of the whole work.
received after decoding. The underlying idea implies that stylistic analysis can only be valid
when it takes into account the overall concept and aesthetic system
So the result may be a failure on either side. The reader may complain of the author reflected in his writing.
that he couldn't understand what the author wanted to say, while the
author may resent being misinterpreted. A good illustration of the Ideas, events, characters, emotions and an author's attitudes are
problem of mutual understanding is provided in M. Tsvetaeva's essay all encoded in the text through language. The reader is expected
"Poets on Critics" in which she maintains that reading is co-creative to perceive and decipher these things by reading and interpreting
work on the part of the reader if he wants to understand and enjoy the text. Decoding stylistics is actually the reader's stylistics that is
a work of art. Reading is not so much a hobby done at leisure as engaged in recreating the author's vision of the world with the help
solving a kind of puzzle. What is reading but divining, interpreting, of concrete text elements and their interaction throughout the text.
unraveling the mystery, wrapped in between the lines, beyond the
words, she writes. So if the reader has no imagination no book stands A systematic and elaborate presentation of decoding stylistics as
a chance (29, p. 274-296). a branch of general stylistics can be found in the book of Prof. Arnold
Стилистика современного английского языка. (Стилистика декодирования)
From the reader's point of view the important thing is not what the its most general principles and concepts.
author wanted to say but what he managed to convey in the text of
his work.

That's why decoding stylistics deals with the notions of stylistics of One of the fundamental concepts of decoding stylistics is foregrounding. The notion i
the author and stylistics of the reader. linguistic circle that was founded in 1926 and existed until early 50s.
Among its members were some of the most outstanding linguists of the
th
20 century, such as N. S. Trubetskoy, S. O. Kartsevsky, R. Jacobson,
5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis V. Matezius, B.Trnka, J.Vachek, V. Skalichka and others (20). The
Prague circle represented a trend of structural linguistics and developed a number of id
and types of foregrounding
into modern linguistic theory, for example, phonology and the theory
of oppositions, the theory of functional sentence perspective, the notions of norm and c
Decoding stylistics investigates the same levels as linguastylistics -
phonetic, graphical, lexical, and grammatical. The basic difference is
that it studies expressive means provided by each level not as isolated
The Prague school introduced into linguistics a functional approach
5 , 2 . 1 . Convergence
to language. Their central thesis postulated that language is not
a rigorous petrified structure but a dynamic functional system. In
other words language is a system of means of expression that serve
Convergence as the term implies denotes a combination or accumulation of stylistic
a definite purpose in communication. Their views exerted profound
Stylistic function is not the property and purpose of expressive means
influence on stylistic research in areas of functional styles study, the
of the language as such. Any type of expressive means will make
norm and its variations in the national language, as well as the study
sense stylistically when treated as a part of a bigger unit, the context,
of poetic language, i. e. the language of literature. It was for this latter
or the whole text. It means that there is no immediate dependence
sphere that the notion of foregrounding was formulated.
between a certain stylistic device and a definite stylistic function.
Prof. Arnold has highlighted various treatments of the term by
different authors in her book on decoding stylistics but the essence of A stylistic device is not attached to this or that stylistic effect.
the concept consists in the following. Foregrounding means a specific Therefore a hyperbole, for instance, may provide any number of
role that some language items play in a certain context when the effects: tragic, comical, pathetic or grotesque. Inversion may give the
reader's attention cannot but be drawn to them. In a literary text such narration a highly elevated tone or an ironic ring of parody.
items become stylistically marked features that build up its stylistic
function. This "chameleon" quality of a stylistic device enables the author
to apply different devices for the same purpose. The use of more
Descriptive, statistical, distributional and other kinds of linguistic than one type of expressive means in close succession is a powerful
analysis show that there are certain modes of language use and technique to support the idea that carries paramount importance
arrangement to achieve the effect of foregrounding. It may be
in the author's view. Such redundancy ensures the delivery of the
based on various types of deviation or redundancy or unexpected
message to the reader.
combination of language units, etc. Arnold points out that sometimes
the effect of foregrounding can be achieved in a peculiar way by An extract from E. Waugh's novel "Decline and Fall" demonstrates
the very absence of any expressive or distinctive features precisely convergence of expressive means used to create an effect of the glamorous appearance
because they are expected in certain types of texts, e. g. the absence the high style of living, beauty and grandeur.
of rhythmical arrangement in verse.

However decoding stylistics laid down a few principal methods that


The door opened and from the cushions within emerged a tall young man
ensure the effect of foregrounding in a literary text. Among them
in a clinging dove-gray coat. After him, like the first breath of spring in
we can name convergence of expressive means, irradiation, defeated
the Champs-Elysee came Mrs. Beste-Chetwynde - two lizard-skin feet,
expectancy, coupling, semantic fields, semi-marked structures.
silk legs, chinchilla body, a tight little black hat, pinned with platinum
and diamonds, and the high invariable voice that may be heard in any lady's high social standing because hyphenated names in Britain
Ritz Hotel from New York to Budapest. testify to the noble ancestry. So the total effect of extravagant and
glamour is achieved by the concentrated use of at least eight types of
Inversion used in both sentences (...from the cushion within emerged expressive means within one paragraph.
a tall man; ...like the first breath of spring came Mrs. Beste-Chetwynde)
at once sets an elevated tone of the passage. 5 . 2 . 2 . Defeated expectancy
The simile that brings about a sensory image of awakening nature Defeated expectancy is a principle considered by some linguists (Ja-
together with the allusion to Paris - the symbol of the world's capita! cobson, Riffaterre) as the basic principle of a stylistic function. Its use
of pleasures - sustains this impression: like the first breath of spring in is not limited to some definite level or type of devices. The essence
the Champs-Ely see. A few other allusions to the world capitals and of the notion is connected with the process of decoding by the reader
their best hotels - New York, Budapest, any Ritz Hotel all symbolize of the literary text.
the wealthy way of life of the lady who belongs to the international
The linear organization of the text mentally prepares the reader for
jet-set distinguished from the rest of the world by her money, beauty
the consequential and logical development of ideas and unfolding of
and aristocratic descent.
the events. The normal arrangement of the text both in form and
The use of metonymy creates the cinematographic effect of shots and content is based on its predictability which means that the appearance
fragments of the picture as perceived by the gazing crowd and suggests of any element in the text is prepared by the preceding arrangement
the details usually blown up in fashionable newspaper columns on and choice of elements, e.g. the subject of the sentence will normally
high society life: two lizard-skin feet, silk legs, chichilla body, a tight be followed by the predicate, you can supply parts of certain set
little black hat... the invariable voice. phrases or collocation after you see the first element, etc.

The choice of words associated with high-quality life style: exotic An example from Oscar Wilde's play "The Importance of Being
materials, expensive clothes and jewelry creates a semantic field that Earnest" perfectly illustrates how predictability of the structure plays
enhances the impression still further (lizard, silk, chinchilla, platinum a joke on the speaker who cannot extricate himself from the grip of
and diamonds). A special contribution to the high-flown style of the syntactical composition:
description is made by the careful choice of words that belong to the Miss Fairfax, ever since I met you I have admired you more than any
literary bookish stratum: emerge, cushions, dove, invariable. girl... I have met... since I met you. (Wilde)

Even the name of the character - Mrs. Beste-Chetwynde - is a device The speaker is compelled to unravel the structure almost against his
in itself, it's the so-called speaking name, a variety of antonomasia. will, and the pauses show he is caught in the trap of the structure
Not only its implication (best) but also the structure symbolizes the unable either to stop or say anything new. The clash between the
perfectly rounded phrase and empty content creates a humorous Oscar Wilde, a renowned master of paradox, introduces an unexpected
effect and shows at the same time how powerful are the inherent laws element and the phrase acquires an inverted implication Divorces are
of syntagmatic arrangement. made in Heaven. The unexpected ironic connotation is enhanced by
the fact that the substitute is actually the antonym of the original
Without predictability there would be no coherence and no decoding.
element. The reader is forced to make an effort at interpreting the
At the same time stylistically distinctive features are often based on
new maxim so that it would make sense.
the deviation from the norm and predictability. An appearance of
an unpredictable element may upset the process of decoding. Even
though not completely unpredictable a stylistic device is still a low 5.2.3. Coupling
expectancy element and it is sure to catch the reader's eye. The
decoding process meets an obstacle, which is given the full force of
Coupling is another technique that helps in decoding the message
the reader's attention. Such concentration on this specific feature
implied in a literary work. While convergence and defeated expectancy
enables the author to effect his purpose.
both focus the reader's attention on the particularly significant parts
Defeated expectancy may come up on any level of the language. It of the text coupling deals with the arrangement of textual elements
may be an unusual word against the background of otherwise lexically that provide the unity and cohesion of the whole structure. The
homogeneous text. notion of coupling was introduced by S. Levin in his work "Linguistic
Structures in Poetry" in 1962 (40).
It may be an author's coinage with an unusual suffix; it may be a case
of semantic incongruity or grammatical transposition. Among devices Coupling is more than many other devices connected with the level
that are based on this principle we can name pun, zeugma, paradox, of the text. This method of text analysis helps us to decode ideas,
oxymoron, irony, anti-climax, etc. their interaction, inner semantic and structural links and ensures
compositional integrity.
Defeated expectancy is particularly effective when the preceding
narration has a high degree of orderly organized elements that create Coupling is based on the affinity of elements that occupy similar po-
a maximum degree of predictability and logical arrangement of the sitions throughout the text. Coupling provides cohesion, consistency
contextual linguistic material. and unity of the text form and content.

Paradox is a fine example of defeated expectancy. The following Like defeated expectancy it can be found on any level of the
example demonstrates how paradox works in such highly predictable language, so the affinity may be different in nature; it may be
cases as proverbs and phraseology. Everybody knows the proverb phonetic, structural or semantic. Particularly prominent types of
Marriages are made in Heaven. affinity are provided by the phonetic expressive means. They are
obviously cases of alliteration, assonance, paranomasia, as well as servants for a family of four; The Second Thursdays, and the chicken-and-waffle suppers o
such prosodic features as rhyme, rhythm and meter. Lloyd Williams were courthouse-corridor friends and fellow Republucans
but Joe was a Company man and Lloyd Williams was a Union man who
was anaphora,
Syntactical affinity is achieved by all kinds of parallelism and syntactical repetition - anadiplosis, a Republican because
framing, to be anything
chiasmus, else in Lantenengo County was
epiphora
to name but a few. futile and foolish. (O'Hara)

Semantic coupling is demonstrated by the use of synonyms and The central idea of the passage is to underline the difference between
antonyms, both direct and contextual, root repetition, paraphrase, two men who actually represent the class differences between the
sustained metaphor, semantic fields, recurrence of images, connotations or symbols. rich upper class and the lower working class. So the social contrast
shown through the details of personal life of the two characters is the
message with a generalizing power. This passage shows how coupling
The latter can be easily detected in the works of some poets who can be an effective tool to decode this message.
create their own system of recurrent esthetic symbols for certain
ideas, notions and beliefs. There is a pronounced affinity of the syntactical structure in both
sentences. The first contains a chain of parallel detached clauses
Some of the well-known symbols are seasons (cf. the symbolic connected by and (which is an adversative conjunction here). They
meaning of winter in Robert Frost's poetry), trees (the symbolic contain a number of antitheses. The contrast is enhanced by the use
meaning of a birch tree, a maple in Sergei Yesenin's poetic work, the of contextual antonyms that occupy identical positions in the clauses:
meaning of a moutain-ash tree for Marina Tsvetaeva), animals (the the miners' poolroom and the Gibbseville Club; sickening poverty and four
leopard, hyena, bulls, fish in Ernest Hemingway's works) and so on. servants for a family of four, The Second Thursdays and the Church suppers. The same dev
These symbols do not only recur in a separate work by these authors of phonetic affinity, alliteration: four servants for a family of four;
but also generally represent the typical imagery of the author's poetic courthouse-corridor, friends and fellow Republicans; futile and foolish.
vision.

An illustration of the coupling technique is given below in the passage


from John O'Hara's novel Ten North Frederick. The main organizing The passage presents an interesting case of semantic coupling through
principle here is contrast. symbols. The details of personal and class difference chosen by the
author are all charged with symbolic value. There is a definite
Lloyd Williams lived in Collieryville, a mining town three or four miles
connection between them all however diverse they may appear at first
from 10 North Frederick, but separated from the Chapins' home and
sight. They are all grouped so that they symbolize either money and
their life by the accepted differences of money and prestige; the miners'
prestige or poverty and social deprivation.
poolroom, and the Gibbsville Club; sickening poverty, and four live-in
The first group creates the semantic field of wealth and power: money, This type of analysis shows how cohesion is achieved on a less
explicit
social prestige, the Gibbsville Club (symbol of wealth, high social standing, belonging to the select levelfour
society), sometimes called for
live-in servants thea family
vertical context. Lexical elements
of four (that only rich people can afford), The Second Thursdays (traditional reception days for of this ofsort
people are charged
a certain with dinner
circle, formal implications and adherent meanings
parties for people of high standing), a Company man (a member of that establish invisible links throughout the text and create a kind of
a financially and socially influential group, political elite). The second semantic background so that the work is laced with certain kind of
semantic field comprises words denoting and symbolizing poverty and imagery.
social inferiority: miners' poolroom (a working class kind of leisure),
sickening poverty, chicken-and-waffle suppers of, the English Lutheran Lexical ties relevant to this kind of analysis will include synonymous and antonymous
Church (implying informal gatherings where people cook together of inclusion (various types of hyponymy and entailment), common semes in the deno
and share food), a Union man (a representative of the working class). words.

If a word manifests semantic links with one or more other words


The similarity of these elements' positions in this text makes the
in the text it shows thematic relevance and several links of this sort
contrast all the more striking.
may be considered a semantic field, an illustration of which was
A minor case of coupling in the passage above is the use of zeugma in offered in the previous example on coupling. Semantic ties in that
the first sentence when the word separated is simultaneously linked to example (mostly implicit) are based on the adherent and symbolic
two different objects home and life in two different meanings - direct connotations (Church meals, Club member, live-in servants, Union
and figurative. man, etc) and create a semantic field specific to the theme and
message of this work: the contrast between wealth and poverty, upper
class and working class.
5 . 2 . 4 . Semantic field
In the next example we observe the semantic field of a less complicated
Semantic field is a method of decoding stylistics closely connected nature created by more explicit means.
with coupling. It identifies lexical elements in text segments and the
whole work that provide its thematic and compositional cohesion. Joe kept saying he did not want a fortieth birthday party. He said he
To reveal this sort of cohesion decoding must carefully observe not did not like parties - a palpable untruth - and particularly and especially
only lexical and synonymous repetition but semantic affinity which a large party in honor of his reaching forty...
finds expression in cases of lexico-semantic variants, connotations At first there were going to be forty guests but the invitation list grew
and associations aroused by a specific use or distribution of lexical larger and the party plans more elaborate, until Arthur said that with
units, thematic pertinence of seemingly unrelated words. so many people they ought to hire an orchestra, and with an orchestra
there would be dancing, and with dancing there ought to be a good-size
5.2.5. Semi-marked structures
orchestra. The original small dinner became a dinner dance at the
Lantenengo Country Club. Invitations were sent to more than three
hundred persons... (O'Hara) Semi-marked structures are a variety of defeated expectancy associated with the dev
an extreme case of defeated expectancy much stronger than low expectancy encount
The thematic word of the passage is party. It recurs four times in element is used contrary to the norm so it produces a very strong
these four sentences. It is obviously related to such words used as emphatic impact.
its substitutes as dinner and dinner dance which become contextual
synonyms within the frame of the central stylistic device of this
piece - the climax. In the following lines by G. Baker we observe a semi-marked structure
on a grammatical basis:
Semantic relations of inclusion by entailment and hyponymy are
The stupid heart that will not learn
represented by such words as birthday (party), (party) in honor, (party)
The everywhere of grief.
plans, invitation (list), guests, people, persons, orchestra, dancing.

The word everywhere is not a noun, but an adverb and cannot be


The subtheme of the major theme is the scale of the celebration connected with the importance of the used with
datean- the
article
main and a preposition,
character reached thebesides griefconsidered
age of forty is an abstract
an important mi
in a man's life and career. So there is a semantic field around noun that cannot be used as an object with a noun denoting location.
However
the figure forty - its lexical repetition and morphological derivation (forty - forty-fortieth) and the theamplified
word large lines make sense byfor
throughout the poetsynonyms,
contextual and the morphological
readers who derivativ
interpret them as the poetic equivalent of the author's overwhelming
feeling of sadness and dejection.

Lexical deviation from the norm usually means breaking the laws of
semantic compatibility and lexical valency. Arnold considers semi-marked structure
unpredictable relations established between objects and phenomena
by the author.
Another type of semantic relationship that contributes to the semantic field analysis is the use of antonyms and contrastive elements
associated with the themes in question: large - small, forty - three hundred, small dinner - dinner dance, orchestra - good-sized orchestra, did
not like - untruth. The magnitude and importance of the event are If you had to predict what elements would combine well with such
further enhanced by the use of synonymous intensifiers particularly words and expressions as to try one's best to..., to like ... or what
and especially. epithets you would choose for words like father or movement you
would hardly come up with such incompatible combinations that we
observe in the following sentences:
She ... tried her best to spoil the party. (Erdrich) Practice Section
Montezuma and Archuleta had recently started a mock-seriousseparatisi
1. What is implied in the separation of the author's stylistics from
movement, seeking to join New Mexico. (Michener)
the reader's? How do the processes of encoding and decoding
Would you believe it, that unnatural father wouldn't stump up. (Waugh) differ?
2. Comment on the factors that may prevent the reader from
He liked the ugly little college... (Waugh) adequately decoding the author's imagery and message?
Such combination of lexical units in our normal everyday speech is 3. Speak on the origin and importance of the notion foregrounding
for stylistic analysis.
rare. However in spite of their apparent incongruity semi-marked
structures of both types are widely used in literary texts that are 4. There is a convergence of expressive means in the passage
full of sophisticated correlations which help to read sense into most below. Try to identify separate devices that contribute to the
unpredictable combinations of lexical units. poetic description of a beautiful young girl: types of repeti-
tion, metaphor, sustained metaphor, catachresis, aUiteration,
This chapter contains but a brief outline of decoding stylistics and , inversion, coupling, semantic field:
its basic principles and notions. As has been mentioned above more
On stylistic
detailed and extensive description of decoding analysis and its correlation with the traditional her facemethods
was thatandtender lookcanofbe
notions sleep, which a nodding flower has
found in the works of such Russian and foreign authors as M. Rif- when it is full out. Like a mysterious early flower, she was full out,
faterre, G. Leech, S. Levin, P. Guiraud, L, Dolezel, I. V. Arnold. like a snowdrop which spreads its three white wings in a flight into the
Yu. M. Lotman, Yu. S. Stepanov and others. waking sleep of its brief blossoming. The waking sleep of her full-opened
virginity, entranced like a snowdrop in the sunshine, was upon her.
(Lawrence)
The role and purpose of this trend in stylistics was appropriately
summed up by I.V.Arnold in her book on decoding stylistics: The basic principle in the next passage (that describes how only
"Modern styUstics in not so much interested in the identification of one of the two relatives became the sole heir to the old man's
separate devices as in discovering the common mechanism of tropes money) is that of contrast and the method of convergence ensures
and their effect." (4, p. 155). the ample interpretation of the author's intention. Explain the
intention and find the devices that deliver it.
th
Now, using the achievements of the 20 century linguistics, scholars
try to answer the question how styUstic function works rather than From the start Philbrick was the apple of the old chap's eye, while he
what effect it produces. couldn't stick Miss Grade at any price.
Philbrick could spout Shakespeare and Hamlet and things by the yard - The very thing, said the Doctor. Only fire into the ground, mind. We
before Grade could read "The cat sat on the mat". When he was must do everything we can to avoid an accident. Do you always carry
eight he had a sonnet printed in the local paper. After that Grade that about with you?
wasn't in it anywhere. She lived with the servants like Cinderella. - Only when I'm wearing my diamonds, said Philbrick. (Waugh)
(Waugh)
When we visited Athens, we saw the Apocalypse. (Maleska)

5. How is the effect of defeated expectancy achieved in the examples Texans, quite apart from being tall and lean, turned out to be short and
below? What are the specific devices employed in each case? stout, hospitable, stingy to a degree, generous to a fault, even-tempered,
cantankerous, doleful, and happy as the day is long. (Atkinson)

Celestine finally turned on the bench and put her hand over Dot's. 6. Explain how the principle of coupling can be used in analyzing
- Honey, she said, would it kill you to say 'yes'? the following passages. What types of coupling can you identify
- Yes, said Dot. (Erdrich) here?

St. Valentine's Day, I remembered, anniversary for lovers and massacre.


Feeding animals while men and women starve, he said bitterly.
(Shaw) It was a topic; a topic dry, scentless and colourless as a pressed flower;
- It's little stinkers like you, he said, who turn decent masters savage. a topic on which in the school debating society one had despaired of
finding anything new to say. (Waugh)
- Do you think that's so very complimentary?
- I think it's one of the most complimentary things I ever heard said You asked me what I had going this time. What I have going is wine.
about a master, said Beste-Chetwynde. (Waugh) With the way the world's drinking these days, being in wine is like
having a license to steal. (Shaw)
I think that, if anything, sports are rather worse than concerts, said
Mr. Prendergast. They at least happen indoors. (Waugh)
7. In many cases coupling relies a lot on semantic fields analysis.
...the Indian burial mound this town is named for contain the things Show how these principles interact in the following passage.
that each Indian used in their lives. People have found stone grinders,
hunting arrows and jewelry of colored bones. So I think it's no use. Even The truth is that motor-cars offer a very happy illustration of the
metaphysical distinction between 'being' and 'becoming'.
buried, our things survive. (Erdrich)
Some cars, mere vehicles, with no purpose above bare locomotion,
- Would this be of any use? Asked Philbrick, producing an enormous mechanical drudges... have definite 'being' just as much as their
service revolver. Only take care, it's loaded. occupants. They are bought all screwed up and numbered and painted,
and there they stay through various declensions of ownership, brightened This tower of energies went away then, and there was another thrust of
now and then with a lick of paint... but still maintaining their essential lightning just outside the wall. It was a less impressive display, just an
identity to the scrap heap. ordinary lightning stroke, but it lifted the three of us thrashing in midair
Not so the real cars, that become masters of men; those vital creations for a long moment, then dropped us breathless and sightless on the damp
of metal who exist solely for their own propulsion through space, for ground. (Chappell)
whom their drivers are as important as the stenographer to a stockbroker.
These are in perpetual flux; a vortex of combining and disintegrating 9. Comment on the type of deviation in the following semi-marked
units, like the confluence of traffic where many roads meet. (Waugh) structures.

8. Workings in groups of two or three try to define the themes Did you ever see a dream walking? (Cheever)
of the following text with a description of a thunderstorm.
Let each group arrange the vocabulary of the passage into Man in the day or wind at night
semantically related fields, for example: storm sounds, shapes, Laid the crops low, broke the grape's joy. (Thomas)
colors, supernatural forces, etc.
I think cards are divine, particularly the kings. Such naughty old faces!
We... looked out the mucking hole to where a tower of lightning stood. (Waugh)
It was a broad round shaft like a great radiant auger, boring into
The Maker's white coat and black visage had disappeared from the street
cloud and mud at once. Burning. Transparent. And inside this cylinder
doorway. Reinhart got a premonition of doom when he saw the color
of white-purple light swam shoals of creatures we could never have
combination with which they had been replaced: policeman's midnight
imagined. Shapes filmy and iridescent and veined like dragonfly wings
blue and Slavic-red face, but the pace helped keep his upper lip stiff.
erranded between the earth and heavens. They were moving to a music
(Berger)
we couldn't hear, the thunder blotting it out for us. Or maybe the
cannonade of thunder was music for them, but measure that we couldn't Ask Pamela; she's so brave and manly. (Waugh)
understand.
We didn't know what they were. II was Granny whom she came to detest with all her soul... her Yvette
They were storm angels. Or maybe they were natural creatures whose really hated, with that pure, sheer hatred which is almost a joy.
natural element was storm, as the sea is natural to the squid and shark. (Lawrence)
We couldn't make out their whole shapes. Were they mermaids or tigers?
Were they clothed in shining linen or in flashing armor? We saw what ...everyone who spoke, it seemed, was but biding his time to shout the
we thought we saw, whatever they were, whatever they were in process old village street refrain which had haunted him all his life, "Nigger! -
of becoming. Nigger! - White Nigger!" (Dunbar-Nelson)
To hear him speak French, if you didn't try to understand what he was But of course that wasn't the idea at all. Years ago I got off the
saying, was as good as attending "Phedre": he seemed a cloud that had mathematics train at Quadratic Equations - a neat, airy little station
divorced a textbook of geometry to marry Guillaume Apollinaire... (Jar- with trellis, ivy, roses, a sunlit platform. There was just a hint of
rell) weirdness now and then - stationmaster made clicking noises in his
throat, there was an occasional far-off harmonious humming in the sky,
10. Read the story by Paul Jennings and try to apply some of the strange bells rang; one knew the frontier was not far away,
principles of decoding to find out the real meaning and the implications of what the author encoded. Comment on the author's
use of such devices as sustained metaphor, allegory, allusions, Where the line crosses into the vast country of Incomprehensibility, the
irony and phonographical means. Can you find instances of jagged peaks of the Calculus Mountains standing up, a day's journey
semi-marked structures, defeated expectancy, convergence and over its illimitable plains.
other means of foregrounding. Speak about the theme and the
The train thundered off into those no doubt exhilarating spaces, but
message of this story.
without me. I sniffed the mountainy air a little, then I crossed the line
by the footbridge and went back in a fusty suburban train to my home
town. Contemptible Ignorance. This train had no engine; it was simply
Red-blooded 3/4 rose a train of carriages rolling gently down through the warm orchards of
There was once an article in the Observer by Dr Bronowski in which Amnesia Hill.
he said that mathematics ought to be taught as a language. At the time
The only language we speak in that town is, well, language (we're not
I had fantasies of passages like this:
mad about it like those people at Oxford; we know the world is infinite
"It is time (the Government) up to the situation. 2
and real, language is about it, it isn't it). But we have got typewriters,
and they introduce mathematics into language in their own way.
the country , , _
On > 1 issue , and unless they treat the Opposition as-
2 Even without those figures on the top row, 1 to 9 (all you need) there
in hammering out a bipartisan policy they will not get to (our troubles). is something statistical about the typewriter as it sits there. It contains
All the omens . 2 trouble in the Middle East..." * instantaneously the entire alphabet, the awful pregnant potentiality of
everything. I am certain most readers of this article will have read
* C r i b for a r t s t u d e n t s , beatniks, p e a s a n t s :
2
( T h e G o v e r n m e n t ) : t h e g o v e r n m e n t squared.
somewhere or other a reference to the odds against a monkey's sitting at
> 1: m o r e t h a n o n e . a typewriter and writing Hamlet.
=: equals.
( o u r t r o u b l e s ) : t h e r o o t o f o u r troubles. For some reason philosophical writers about chance, design and purpose
. 2: p o i n t to r e c u r r i n g . are led irresistibly to this analogy. Nobody ever suggests the monkey's
writing Hamlet with a pen, as Shakespeare did. With a pen a monkey 1 3/4 1
some V. I., /4 (on my typewriter the capital is a /4) " as the chief
would get distracted, draw funny faces, found a school of poetry of its 1 3
guest - an M. /4, or a fashionable /4 reacher (nothing so grand as the
own. There's something about having the whole alphabet in front of it, 1
/4 rime Minister, of course. Guests like that are only at real parties,
on a machine, that goads the monkey to go on, for millions of years (but 1 3
given by Top /4 eople); but at a /4 arty it is always difficult to get the
surely the evolution would be quicker?), persevering after heartbreaking 3
interesting guest to himself, to I4 in him down in an argument, because
setbacks; think of getting the whole of King Lear right until it came to 3
of the /4 rattle going on all round.
the lines over the dead body of Cornelia, which would come out:
Of course this isn't mathematical language in Dr Bronowski's sense. But
Thou'It come no more
you've got to admit it's figurative.
Never, never, never, never, ever
or, on my typewriter -
Necer, neved, lever, nexelm vrevney.

The typewriter knows very well how to mix language and mathematics,
the resources between A and Z and 1 and 9, in its own sly way. Mine likes
to put 3/4 instead of the letter p. How brilliantly this introduces a nuance,
a frisson of chance and doubt into many words that begin so well with
this confident, explosive consonant! How often is one disappointed by
3
a watery /4 ale ale! How often does some much-publicized meeting of
statesmen result in the signing of something that the typists of both sides
3 3
know is just a /4 act! How many /4 apists one knows! How many
3
people praised for their courage are not so much plucky as just /4 lucky.

Most of all, is not the most common form of social occasion to-day the
3
cocktail /4 arty? One always goes expecting a real party, but nine times
3
out of ten turns out to be а /4 arty; all the people there have some
3 3
sort of connection with the ' /4' arts such as advertising, films, news /4
3 3
apers - although there is often a real /4 ainter or two. After a few /4
3 3/4
ink gins one of the /4 ainters makes a ass at one of those strange
3
silent girls, with long hair and sullen /4 outing lips, that one always sees 9
3 3 * T h a t ' s m a t h e m a t i c s for y o u . I h a v e a n o b s c u r e feeling i t s h o u l d b e e i t h e r /16 or
at /4 arties (doubtless he thinks she will be /4 liable). There may be
11/2
anastrophe [q' nxstrqfi] n. a term of rhetoric, which means upsetting
for effect of the normal order of a preposition before a noun or
of an object after a verb, cf. inversion

Glossary for the Course of Stylistics anticlimax ['xnti'klaimqks] n. a sudden drop from the dignified
or important in thought or expression to the commonplace or
trivial, sometimes for humorous effect

antique [qn'ti:k] adj. the ancient style, esp. Greek or Roman; classical

A antithesis [an'tiTqsis] n. opposition or contrast of ideas, notions,


qualities in the parts of one sentenceor in different sentences
acoustic [q'ku:stik] adj. concerned with sound
antonomasia [qntqnq'meiSq] n. the use of a proper name in place of a
adherent [qd'hiqrqnt] adj. added shades of meaning common one or vice versa to emphasise some feature or quality

affinity [q'fmiti] n. similarity, inherent likeness apokoinu [qpq'koinu] n. a construction in which the subject of one
sentence is at the same time the subject of the second, a kind of
allegory ['xligqri] n. a story, poem, painting, etc. in which the ellipsis
characters and actions represent general truths, good and bad
qualities, etc. aposiopesis [q'pousio'pi:sis] n. a sudden breaking off in the midst of
a sentence as if from inability or unwillingness to proceed
alliteration [q,litq'reSh] n. repetition of the same consonant or sound
group at the beginning of two or more words that are close to argot ['a:gou] n. the vocabulary peculiar to a particular class of
each other people, esp. that of an underworld group devised for private
communication
allusion [q'lu:Zn] n. reference to some literary, historical, mythologi­
cal, biblical, etc. character or event commonly known Aristotle ['xristotl] n. Greek philosopher, pupil of Plato (384-382
ВС)
anadiplosis [qnqdip'lousis] n. repetition of the last word or phrase in
assonance ['xsqnqns] n. 1. resemblance of sounds 2. partial rhyme
one clause or poetic line at the beginning of the next
created by the stressed vowel sounds
anaphora [q'nxfqrq] n. repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning
astheism ['qsTi:zm] n. deprecation meant as approval
of successive clauses or lines of verse
Glossary for the Course of Stylistics

asyndeton [q'sindqtqn] n. the omission of conjunctions


couplet ['kApqt] n. two successive lines of poetry, esp. of the same
length that rhyme

В coupling ['kApliN] n. the affinity of elements that occupy a similar


position and contribute to the cohesion of the text
belles lettres ['bel'letq] n. literature or writing about literary subjects

D
С
dactyl ['dxktrl] n. a metrical foot that consists of one accented
catachresis ['kqtq'kri:sis] n. incorrect use of a word, as by misappli­ syllable followed by two unaccented ones
cation of terminology or by strained or mixed metaphor
Demetrius of Alexandria [di'metriqs qv xlig'zxndriq] n. Greek orator
and philosopher (b. 350 ВС)
chiasmus [kai'xzmqs] n. inversion of the second of two parallel
phrases or clauses denotative [di noutqtiv] [dinou'teitiv] adj. indicative of the direct
explicit meaning or reference of a word or term
cliche ['kli:Sei] n. an expression or idea that has become trite
detachment [di'txtSmqnt] n. a seemingly independent part of a
climax ['klaimqks] n. a rhetorical series of ideas, images, etc. arranged
sentence that carries some additional information
progressively so that the most forceful is last
device [di'vais] n. a literary model intended to produce a particular
colon ['kolqn] n. in Greek prosody a section of a prosodic period,
effect in a work of literature
consisting of a group from two to six feet forming a rhythmic
unit with a principal accent Dionysius of Halicarnassus [daiq'niSqs qv hxlika' nxsqs] n. Greek
st
rhetorician, critic and historian (1 cent. ВС)
connotation ['konq'teiSn] n. idea or notion suggested by or associated
with a word, phrase, etc. in addition to its denotation
E
connotative [kq'noutqtrv] ['konq'teitiv] adj. having connotations
ellipsis [q'lipsis] n. all-sorts of omission in a sentence
convergence [kqn'vq:dZqns] n. concentration of various devices and
expressive means in one place to support an important idea and emotive [i'moutiv] adj. characterised by, expressing or producing
ensure the delivery of the message emotion
empathy ['empqTi] n. ability to share in another's emotions, thoughts
F
or feelings
figure of speech n. a stylistic device of whatever kind, including tropes
enjambinent [in'dZxment] n. in prosody: the running on of a sentence
and syntactical expressive means
from one line to the next without a syntactical break
figures of contrast*: those based on opposition (incompatibility) of
enumeration [i,njume'reiSn] n. a device by means of which homo- co-occurring notions
geneous parts of a sentence are made semantically heteroge-
neous figures of co-occurrence*: devices based on interrelations of two or
more units of meaning actually following one another
epenalepsis [epqnq'lepsis] n. a term of rhetoric meaning repetitive
use of conjunctions in close succession, (cf. polysyndeton) figures of identity*: co-occurrence of synonymous or similar notions

epigram ['qpigram] n. 1. a short poem with a witty or satirical point figures of inequality*: those based on differentiation of co-occurring
2. any terse, witty, pointed statement, often with a clever twist notions
in thought.
figures of quality*: renaming based on radical qualitative difference
epiphora [q'pifqrq] n. repetition of words or phrases at the end of between notion named and notion meant
consecutive clauses or sentences
figures of quantity*: renaming based on only qualitative difference
epithet ['epiTqt] n. an adjective or descriptive phrase used to char- between traditional names and those actually used
acterise a person or object with the aim to give them subjective figures of replacement*: tropes, 'renamings', replacing traditional
evaluation names by situational ones
euphonic [ju'fonik] adj. characterised by euphony

euphony ['ju:fqni] n. a harmonious combination of sounds that create G


a pleasing effect to the ear
gap-sentence link seemingly incoherent connection of two sentences
evaluative [i:vxelju'eitiv] adj. giving judgement about the value of based on an unexpected semantic leap; the reader is supposed
something to grasp the implied motivation for such connection

explicit [iks'plisit] adj. clearly stated and leaving nothing implied * T h e s e t e r m s a n d t h e i r definitions b e l o n g t o Prof. Skrebnev.
Gorgias ['gLdZiqs] n. Greek philosopher (483-375 B.C.), founded
inherent [in'hiqrqnt] adj. existing in something or someone as a
one of the first rhetoric schools
permanent and inseparable element, quality or attribute
graphon [grq'fon] n. intentional misspelling to show deviations from
inversion [in'vq:Sn] n. a reversal of the normal order of words in a
received pronunciation: individual manner, mispronunciation,
sentence
dialectal features, etc.
irony ['airqni] n. a stylistic device in which the words express
a meaning that is often the direct opposite of the intended
H meaning

Hellenistic [hqlq'nistik] adj. of Greek history, language and culture irradiation [i,rqdi'eiSn] n. the influence of a specifically coloured
after the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) word against the stylistically different tenor of the narration

hierarchical [hai'ra:kikql] adj. arranged in order of rank, grade, class,


etc. J
hyperbole [hai'pq:boli] n. exaggeration for effect not meant to be jargon ['dZa:gqn] n. the language, esp. the vocabulary, peculiar to a
taken literally particular trade, profession or group

juridical [dZu'ridikql] adj. related to the law


I
iambus [ai'xmbqs] n. a metrical foot, consisting of one unaccented
L
syllable followed by one accented litotes [lai'touti:s] n. understatement for effect, esp. that in which an
idiolect [' idiolqkt] n. a particular person's use of language, individual affirmative is expressed by a negation of the contrary
style of expression

imagery ['imqdZqri] n. ideas presented in a poetical form; figurative


M
descriptions and figures of speech collectively
malapropism ['mxlqpropizqm] n. ludicrous misuse of words, esp.
implicit [imp'liisit] adj. implied: suggested or to be understood though through confusion caused by resemblance in sound
not plainly expressed
meiosis [mi'ousis] n. expressive understatement, litotes
metaphor ['metapho:] n. the application of a word or phrase to an oxymoron [,oksi'mo:rqn] n. a figure of speech in which opposite or
object or concept it does not literally denote, in order to suggest contradictory ideas are combined
comparison with another object or concept

metaphor sustained/extended a chain of metaphors containing the P


central image and some contributory images
paradiastola [pqrqdi'xstqlq] n. in Greek poetic texts: the lengthening
meter ['mi:tq] n. rhythm in verse; measured patterned arrangement of a syllable regularly short
of syllables according to stress or length
parallellism ['pxrqlqlizm] n. the use of identical or similar parallel
metonymy [me'tonimi] n. transfer of name of one object onto another syntactical structure in two or more sentences or t h e n parts
to which it is related or of which it is a part
paranomasia [,pqrqnq'meiZq] n. using words similar in sound but
mythology [mi'TolodZi] n. myths collectively and the beliefs that they different in meaning for euphonic effect
contain
parlance ['pa: lqns] n. a style or manner of speaking or writing

periphrasis [pe'rifrqsis] n. renaming of an object by a phrase that


N emphasises some particular feature of the object

normative ['no: mqtiv] adj. having to do with usage norms personage ['pq:sqnqdZ] n. a character in a play or book, or in history

personification [pq,sonifikeiSn] n. the attribution of personal nature


or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions
О
polysyndeton [poli'sindeton] n. the use of a number of conjunctions
onomatopoeia [,onqmqtou'pi:q] n. the formation of a word by imitat­ in close succession
ing the natural sound; the use of words whose sounds reinforce
their meaning or tone, esp. in poetry prosody ['prosqdi] n. 1. the science or art of versification, including
the study of metrical structure, stanza form, etc. 2. the stress
oratorical [,orq'torikql] n. characteristic of or given to oratory patterns of an utterance

oratory ['oretri] n. the art of an orator; skill or eloquence in public proximity [pro'ksimiti] n. nearness in place, time, order, occurrence
speaking or relation
publicist ['pAblisist] n. referring to writing and speaking on current sophistry,['sofistri] n. in ancient Greece: the methods or practices
public or political affairs of the sophists, any group of teachers of rhetoric, politics,
philosophy, some of whom were notorious for their clever
R specious arguments. 2. misleading but clever, plausible and
subtle reasoning
recur [п'кэ:] v. to happen or occur again, appear at intervals
stanza ['stxnzq] n. a group of lines in a repeating pattern forming a
recurrence [n'kvrans] n. the instance of recurring, return, repetition division of a poem

rhetoric ['retorik] n. 1. the art or science of all specialized literary- suspense [sqs'pens] n. a compositional device that consists in with­
uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech holding the most important information or idea till the end of
2. the art of using language effectively in speaking or writing 3. the sentence, passage or text
artificial eloquence
syllepsis [si'lepsis] n. a term of rhetoric: the use of a word or
rhetorical [n'torikal] adj. using or characterised by rhetoric expression to perform two syntactic functions, cf. zeugma

rhyme [raim] n. a regular recurrence of corresponding sounds at the synecdoche [si'nekdoki] n. a figure of speech based on transfer by
ends of lines in verse contiguity in which a part is used for a whole, an individual for
a class, a material for a thing or the reverse of any of these; a
rhythm [ п б т ] n. 1. a regular recurrence of elements in a system
variety of metonymy
of motion: the rhythm of speech, dancing music, etc. 2. an
effect of ordered movement in a work of art, literature, drama,
etc. attained through patterns in the timing, spacing, repetition,
accenting, etc. of the elements 3. in prosody: a metrical (feet)
or rhythmical (iambus, trochee, etc.) form
tautology [tL'tolqdZi] n. needless repetition of an idea in a different
word, phrase or sentence; redundancy; pleonasm

terminology ['tq:mi 'nolqdZi] n. the system of terms used in a specific


simile ['simili] n. a figure of speech in which two unlike things are science, art or specialised subject
explicitly compared by the use of like, as, resemble, etc.
trochee ['trouki:] n. in prosody: a foot of two syllables, a stressed
solemn ['solam] adj. arousing feelings of awe, very impressive followed by an unstressed one
transfer [traens'fb:] v. to convey, carry, remove or send from one
position, place or person to another

transfer ['traensfa:] n. the act of transferring


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