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HT.NO 2122-09-672-019

1. Introduction
2. Industry Profile
3. Company – Overview
4. Literature Review
5. Theoretical Aspects
6. Research Methodology and Design
7. Data collection- Analysis and Interpretations
8. Findings
9. Recommendations
10. Biblography
11. Annexure.

The Management Thesis study helps the student to check whether the theory and
practice actually matches. Organizational exposure helps the student to know how
effectively they performed in the market.

The primary objectives of the study is,

To study the relationship between various promotional strategies on sales volume.

To study how sales promotional tools helps to increase sales and retain customers.

To understand the promotional activities for VIJAY ELECTRIACALS ENGG.CO

To gain knowledge about the basic principles and concepts of sales promotion.

Today, for any organization or firm to survive in this competitive world depends on
its ability to be dynamic and be different from the competition to be unique in the
industry. Customer Satisfaction helps every organization to keep the existing
customer and to build new customer. This research is aimed at profiling the standard
customer with an aim to increase the network and improve company-customer
relations. The information gathered through this research can be used by the company
to improve its services and became more customers friendly. This can increase the
goodwill of the company and its overall performance.
Thus this study is aimed to provide the management with some knowledge about its
status in market both in terms of sales and customer awareness. The research also
aims to provide some ideas to improve the company’s present condition.
Vol. 15, No. 4, Fall 1996, pp. 379-394
DOI: 10.1287/mksc.15.4.379
This Article
Asymmetric Promotion Effects and Brand Full Text (PDF)
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Bart J. Bronnenberg, Luc Wathieu Alert me if a correction is posted
University of Texas at Austin
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Several studies have shown that promotions of Email this article to a friend
national brands yield more effect than those of store Similar articles in this journal
brands (e.g., Allenby and Rossi 1991, Blattberg and Alert me to new issues of the journal
Wisniewski 1989). However, the evolution of price-
quality data available from Consumer Reports over Download to citation manager
the last 15 years seems to reveal a reduction of the
quality gap between store brands and national Citing Articles
brands, while price differences remain substantial.
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we study whether we can maintain a view of the
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whereas store brands are relatively ineffective in
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We analyze consumer reactions to price discounts in
a parsimonious preference model featuring loss aversion and reference-dependence along
dimensions of price and quality (Hardie, Johnson, and Fader 1993, Tversky and Kahneman
1991). The key result of our analysis is that, given any two brands, there is an asymmetric
promotion effect in favor of the higher quality/higher price brands if and only if the quality gap
between the brands is sufficiently large in comparison with the price gap. Thus, the direction of
promotion asymmetry is not unconditional. It depends uniquely on the value of the ratio of
quality and price differences compared to a category specific criterion, which we call . If the
ratio of quality and price differences is larger than this criterion, the usual asymmetry prevails;
if such is not the case, the lower quality/lower price brands promote more effectively.
More precisely, our model predicts that cross promotion effects depend on two components of
brand positioning in the price/quality quadrant. First, we define a variable termed "positioning
advantage" that indicates whether, relative to the standards achieved by another brand, a
given brand is underpriced (positive advantage) or overpriced (negative advantage). Promotion
effectiveness is increasing in this variable. Second, cross promotion effects between two
brands depend on their distance in the price/quality quadrant. This variable impacts promotion
effectiveness negatively and symmetrically for any pair of brands. "Positioning advantage" and
"brand distance" are orthogonal components of brand positioning, irrespective of the degree of
correlation between available price and quality levels in the market.
Empirically, we investigate the role of brand positioning in explaining cross promotion effects
using panel data from the chilled orange juice and peanut butter categories. We compute the
independent positioning variables, "positioning advantage" and "brand distance," from readily
available data on price and quality positioning after obtaining our estimates of . We next
measure promotion effectiveness by estimating choice share changes in response to a price
discount, using a choice model that does not contain any information about quality/price
ratios. Finally, we test the relation between the two positioning variables and the promotion
effectiveness measures.
The data reveal that in the orange juice category lower quality/lower price brands generally
promote more effectively than higher quality/higher price brands. In the peanut butter data
the opposite asymmetry holds. In both cases, inter-brand promotion patterns are well
explained by the positioning variables. An attractive feature of our model is that, in addition to
the direction of promotion asymmetries, it also explains the extent of those asymmetries.
A further interesting aspect of this approach is that we go beyond a categorization of brands
into price tiers. For instance, lower tier brands in our data may promote more effectively than
one national brand but less effectively than another. Consistent with our theoretical
predictions, the data presented here seem to confirm that such cases occur because the lower
tier brand offers a favorable trade-off of price and quality differences compared with one
national brand and a less favorable trade-off compared with the other.
The content of this paper is potentially relevant for brand managers or retailers concerned with
predicting the impact of their promotions. The paper is of particular interest to marketing
scientists who study the performance of store brands versus national brands and may also
appeal to those who wish to explore the marketing implications of behavioral decision theory.
Finally, our investigation does not reject Blattberg and Wisniewski’s (1989) finding, shared by
Allenby and Rossi (1991) and Hardie, Johnson, and Fader (1993), that national brands have a
principle advantage in promotion effectiveness. Rather, it formalizes when this principle
advantage is overruled by positioning disadvantages of such brands.
Key Words: promotion; brand choice; brand positioning; loss aversion; reference-dependence

The impact of promotion/advertising expenditures on citrus sales

Authors: Pagán J.; Sethi S.; Soydemir G. A.
Source: Applied Economics Letters, Volume 8, Number 10, 1 October 2001 , pp. 659-663(5)
Publisher: Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group
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This study analyses the impact of advertising expenditures on citrus sales from the Texas Rio
Grande Valley. A bivariate vector autoregressive model is estimated using weekly data on the dollar
value of advertising expenditures and carton equivalent shipments for the 1993–1999 growing
seasons. The estimated impulse response functions show that a one-time increase in advertising
expenditures leads to increases in orange sales with a one-month lag. However, the impact of
advertising on grapefruit sales is more immediate and relatively large. Carton shipments remain
high for about three weeks after a one-time advertising shock. There is also no evidence of causality
from sales to advertising. The results suggest that Federal Marketing Order regulations that
facilitate funds for the promotion and advertising of citrus are effective in increasing the domestic
consumption of oranges and grapefruit.

Language: English
Document Type: Research article

The impact of tobacco promotion at the point of sale: A systematic review

Introduction: Tobacco promotion increases the likelihood that adolescents will start smoking.
Much of the tobacco industry's promotional budget is spent on point of sale (PoS) promotion in
many jurisdictions. Consequently, tobacco is an eye-catching feature at the PoS in many places.
Methods: We reviewed the evidence that PoS tobacco promotion influences key smoking-related
behaviors and beliefs, increases susceptibility to smoking in youth, undermines smokers' quit
attempts, and promotes relapse among ex-smokers.
Results: We found 12 peer-reviewed studies, 10 of which were focused on children. Seven of 8
observational studies found statistically significant associations between exposure to tobacco
promotion at the PoS and smoking initiation or susceptibility to smoking. Two experimental studies
of children found statistically significant associations between exposure to PoS tobacco promotions
and beliefs about ease of getting tobacco and smoking prevalence among their peers. An
experimental study with adults found that a picture of collected tobacco pack elicited cravings for
cigarettes among smokers. A cross-sectional study found that 25% of adult smokers reported
impulse purchasing and a third of recent ex-smokers reported urges to start smoking after seeing
tobacco displayed.
Discussion: More prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal relationship between
exposure to PoS tobacco and outcome. However, given the addictiveness of tobacco, the severity of
the health hazards posed by smoking, the evidence that tobacco promotion encourages children to
start smoking, and the consistency of the evidence that PoS promotion influences children's
smoking, we believe that ample justification exists for banning PoS advertising and displays of
smoked tobacco products.

• © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for
Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

Am J Public Health. 1984 February; 74(2): 147–149. PMCID: PMC1651402

Copyright notice
Health promotion for educators: impact on health behaviors,
satisfaction, and general well-being.
S N Blair, T R Collingwood, R Reynolds, M Smith, R D Hagan, and C
L Sterling
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
A random sample of 117 teachers in three treatment schools and one control school participated in a
health survey at the beginning and end of the spring semester. Teachers in the treatment schools
participated in a 10-week health promotion program which emphasized exercise, stress
management, and nutrition. Comparison of pre- and post-survey data indicated that teachers in the
treatment schools increased their participation in vigorous exercise, improved their physical fitness,
lost weight, lowered their blood pressure, reported a higher level of general well-being, and were
better able to handle job stress.
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