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A PROJECT REPORT ON

“SALADS’’

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

“CHEF.SUMIT DARYANANI”

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY


OF MUMBAI.

SUBMITTED BY 'VAIBHAV KIRAN PATIL'

ENROLLMENT NO:

COLLEGE: TRAINING SHIP RAHAMAN


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SALADS

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CERTIFICATE BY THE STUDENT

Certified that the Project Report entitled ‘SALADS’ submitted by me is own work duly

done as per the guideline of my guide CHEF.SUMIT DARYANANI.

To the best of my knowledge and belief, this work is not presented/ submitted in any

university or board fulfilling the criteria of any hospitality related course.

Signature of VAIBHAV KIRAN PATIL.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. PAUL KOSHY, principal, “ABDUL RASHID

ACADEMY OF CULINARY ARTS AND MARITIME HOSPITALITY” who permitted me to

undertake this study. I would like to thank CHEF SUMIT DARYANANI Chef in ARACAMH, and

my research guide, for giving me this opportunity to do this research on topic “ SALADS”.

VAIBHAV KIRAN PATIL.

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Certificate by project guide

Certified that the project report entitled ‘SALADS’ in submitted by VAIBHAV KIRAN PATIL in

his and has been done under my supervision. It is recommended that this project be placed

before the examiner for evaluation.

Signature of CHEF.SUMIT DARYANANI

NAME : CHEF. SUMIT DARYANANI


Position :
Institute :Training Ship Rahaman
Regional center : Mumbai
Date:
Place :Nhava, Panvel

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OBJECTIVES

After studying this project, you will be able to

1) Recognize the different purpose of salads serve on menu

2) Classify different types of salads

3) Execute the preparation of salads

4) Study different dressings

5) Recall standard procedures that will ensure both sanitation and quality in salad
preparation.

6) We will learn some decorations of salad

7) Learn about salad bar and its history

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Introduction

A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables. Salads are

typically served at room temperature or chilled, with notable exceptions such as south

German potato salad which is served warm. Salads may contain virtually any type of ready

-to-eat food.

Garden salads use a base of leafy greens like lettuce, arugula, kale or spinach; they are

common enough that the word salad alone often refers specifically to garden salads. Other

types include bean salad, tuna salad, fattoush, Greek salad, and Japanese sōmen salad (a

noodle-based salad). The sauce used to flavor a salad is commonly called a salad dressing;

most salad dressings are based on either a mixture of oil and vinegar or a fermented milk

product.

In a professional kitchen ,salads and dressings represents a large part of the work assigned to

the garde manger or cold station. This area may also be called the pantry. Salads take a

starring role in trend towards lighter eating. No longer just an appetizer, many salads can be

served as main courses and sides. With a nearly limitless list of ingredients and dressing,

salads possibilitiescan go as far as imaginations and good taste will carry them.

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Salads on the Menu
Salads are a popular part of diet and can serve a number of purposes.

Appetizer Salads

The traditional purpose salads have served on the menu is as an appetizer before the main

course of a meal. Salads are light and refreshing and therefore a good lead-in for the more

substantial foods that follow. The quick preparation of salads also makes them an easy way

to keep diners satisfied while their main courses are being prepared.

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Main Course Salads

A traditional Slovak fish salad of cod in mayonnaise

Main course salads (also known as "dinner salads"[12] and commonly known as "entrée

salads" in North America) may contain grilled or fried chicken pieces, seafood such as grilled

or fried shrimp or a fish steak such as tuna, mahi-mahi, or salmon or sliced steak, such as

sirloin or skirt. Caesar salad, Chef salad, Cobb salad, Chinese chicken salad and

Michigan salad are dinner salads.

Salads have gained an even more important purpose on the menu with the rising

popularity of main course salads. Green salads paired with portions of cooked chicken,

seafood, or meat are a great way for chefs to create lighter entrées. One common example

of a main course salad is a Caesar salad topped with grilled chicken breast extremely

popular on lunch menus, these main course salads may combine hot and cold elements on

the same plate.

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Dessert salads

Dessert salads are dishes made with jellos, whipped toppings, fruits, vegetables, mayonnaise,

and various other ingredients. These salads are served at some buffet and cafeterias, and are

also served at potlucks and parties. They can be prepared ahead of time and are

transportable. They include sweet ingredients, but are not always served as desserts, and are

sometimes considered more generally in the salad grouping and served with the main meal

rather than as a dessert. The fruit and vegetable ingredients are often canned, but fresh

ingredients can also be used

Dessert salads rarely include leafy greens and are often sweet. Common variants are made

with gelatin or whipped cream; e.g. jello salad, pistachio salad, and ambrosia. Other forms of

dessert salads include snickers salad, glorified rice, and cookie salad popular in parts of the

Midwestern United States.

Few examples of dessert salad are Raspberry-Mandarin Whip,Strawberry Pretzel

Salad,Orange Cream Fruit Salad,Judy's Strawberry Pretzel Salad

Ambrosia salad

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Types of salads

Different types of salad and salad dressings are a staple in the culinary world.

There are many types of salads to master, some easy and some difficult. While

there are some basic guidelines to follow, types of salads and salad dressings are

largely left up to interpretation. Indeed, there are many classic types of salad such

as a Nicoise, Cobb or Caesar, salads on the whole were born from the creativity

and infinite combinations that can be used. The best types of salad and salad

dressings in the world have yet to be discovered. Understanding what defines the

many types of salad and what types of dressings there are, your options and

horizons widen. No longer will you have to pick up dressings from the store when

you can make your own!

There is quite a bit to cover when it comes to salad. From composed salad to salad

greens to salad dressings, knowing and being familiar with each type of even the

basic ingredients can take a long time to experience. We’ll start off this article with

the identification and labeling of the various types of salad greens.

A salad can be composed (with the ingredients specifically arranged) or tossed (with the

ingredients placed in a bowl and mixed).

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A green salad

A green salad or garden salad is most often composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce

varieties, spinach, or rocket (arugula). If non-greens make up a large portion of the salad it

may be called a vegetable salad instead of a green salad. Common raw vegetables (in the

culinary sense) used in a salad include cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, onions, carrots,

celery, radishes, mushrooms, avocado, olives, artichoke hearts, heart of palm, watercress,

parsley, garden beets, and green beans. Nuts, berries, seeds, and flowers are less common

components. Hard-boiled eggs, bacon, shrimp, cheeses, and croutons may be used as

garnishes, but large amounts of animal based foods would be more likely in a dinner salad.

A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce (such as iceberg) halved or quartered,
with other ingredients on top

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Tossed Salads

Chicken Caesar Salad

Tossed salads is the most common salad and is prepared by tossing the greens and garnishes

(Such as tomatoes, onions, or cucumber) in a dressing. A tossed salad uses leafy vegetables

such as lettuce, spinach or watercress. It is important to remember that the greens be well

dried before tossing. If the leaves are wet, the dressing won’t properly adhere to the greens

causing the dressing to become watered down and generally unenjoyable. They can be

garnished with many different ingredients such as nuts, cheese, fruits and vegetables. All

kinds of dressings can be used including a light oil and vinegar dressing to a hearty hot bacon

dressing.

Always remember to combine the dressing with the greens at the last possible second. Acid

causes most greens to wilt and become soggy.

Matching dressings and salad greens

There is a rule when dressing salads: The more delicate the texture and flavor of the greens,

the lighter and more subtle the dressing should be. Mayonnaise-based dressings should be

used for more stronger flavored greens while a vinegar-oil dressing should be used for lighter

greens.

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Composed Salads

Composed types of salad are inspired and a properly composed salad tells of that inspiration.

A composed salad is one of order and detail. A composed salad is also built from the ground

up, and is carefully arranged to produce a beautifully crafted salad. There are 4 layers to a

composed salad: Base, Body, Garnish, and Dressing.

The Base is more often than not salad greens that line or anchor the plate where the salad

will be served.

The Body is the main ingredient and can consist of other greens, vegetables, another salad

made from cooked ingredients such as chicken.

The Cobb Salad

The Garnish is added to the salad for color, texture and flavor. A good example is grilled

chicken on a Caesar salad. It can also be simple with chopped herbs. It can be warm or cold

as well. There are many options to use, but always use a garnish that compliments the flavor

of the salad.

The Dressing, while sounding simple, should always compliment the salad rather than

masking it. A composed salad is often served with the dressing on the side or by having it

ladled over the top before serving. You may also dress the individual ingredients before
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composing the salad.

Preparing a Basic Composed Salad

1. Gather all your ingredients and be sure to wash, cut, trim or otherwise prepare them

as necessary

2. Arrange your ingredients on the plate, dressing them if needed and keeping in mind

the 4 layers

3. Before serving, cook any items that are required to be served hot and add them to

the salad

Bound Salads

Bound types of salad are one that is made by combining cooked meats, fish, shellfish and/or

legumes with a dressing and garnishes. A bound salad literally means each of the ingredients

are bound together in one mass. The binding agent is usually mayonnaise based, but can

include thicker vinaigrettes as well. Trying to standardize the proportions of a bound salad

is difficult due to the many different types of bound salads out there, each with their own

varying amounts.

Bound salads can also be used as the body for composed salads (For example, salmon salad

on a bed of sorrel)

Farinaceous Salads

You probably haven’t heard of these types of salad but no doubt you have seen them

before. A farinaceous salad is a salad that is made with potatoes, pasta or grains. A

farinaceous salad differs from a bound salad in that many farinaceous salads are not bound.

Many pasta salads use combinations of light dressing and flavorful ingredients to bring it

together. A farinaceous salad is almost always tossed, but can be used as the body for a

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composed salad. A famous and popular farinaceous salad include potato salad.

Mixed salads

Unlike simple salads, they are made by combination of more than one type of ingredient.

These are also dressed with an apt dressing. Dressing helps in binding the ingredients

together. Coleslaw salad with mayonnaise is this type of salad. These salads are also

referred to as mixed salad sometimes.

Salads may also fit in one or more categories mentioned below –

Composed Salads

The ingredients of the composed salad are not mixed and tossed. However, it is the

arrangement of ingredients which plays a vital role in this type of salad. After a suitable

arrangement of the ingredients, the dressing is poured over it or is served separately. Salad

nicoise and Cobb salads are examples of a composed salad.

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Classical salads

It covers all those salads which have been around since a long time. They also cover many

ethnic or cultural salads as they tend to be famous in counter other than the ones in which

they originated. These salads are popular for their classic styles of preparation. Thai beef

salad is a classical salad.

Vegetable Salads

It refers to all those salads in which only vegetable ingredients are used. It is served with a

suitable dressing. A simple vegetable salad can be made by arranging string beans, corn,

beets and asparagus on lettuce. It is often served with Russian dressing.

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Fruit salads

These salads are made of fruits only. They may contain one or different types of seasonal

fruits. Fruits are chopped and then they are usually tossed in a syrup or juice. It acts as a

superb dessert which takes very less time to prepare. Fruit salads which are mixed with

sugar and alcohol are also known as fruit cocktail.

Warm Salads

This salad contain a warm or cooked item as one of its ingredient. For example a salad

containing cooked meat will be known as a warm salad. The presence of warm ingredients

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makes these salads desirable during winters. Warm potato salad and char grilled lamb salad

are two such examples.

Candle salad

Candle salad is a vintage fruit salad that was popular in America during the 1920s through

1960s. The salad is typically composed of lettuce, pineapple, banana, cherry, and

either mayonnaise or, according to some recipes, cottage cheese. Whipped cream may also

be used. The process is as follows: First arrange a few leaves of lettuce on a plate or

decorative napkin. This forms the salad's base. Then stack pineapple rings on top of the

lettuce, providing a niche for inserting one whole (or more often half) peeled banana. For

garnish the banana is topped with choice of cream and a cherry.

The Food Timeline History website states that "The earliest print reference we find for

Candle Salad is dated 1916. It was presented in this socialite menu; no description or recipe

was included: "Fruit Cocktail, Chicken a la King, Mashed Potatoes, Buttered Peas, Rolls,

Olives, Candle Salad, Cheese Straws, Fancy Cakes, Nut Ice Creams, Candies and Nuts,

Coffee."---Oelwein Daily Register [IA] April 5, 1916 (p. 4)." The site lists several other

references to the salad in cookbooks and newspapers throughout the 1920s.

Candle salad was known as an easy way to get kids to eat fruit because of its unusual

appearance. It was also considered a child-friendly introduction to cooking because of its

simple construction

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.

Chef salad (or chef's salad)

Chef salad is an American salad consisting of hard-boiled eggs; one or more varieties of

meat, such as ham,turkey, chicken, or roast beef; tomatoes; cucumbers; and cheese; all

placed upon a bed of tossed lettuce or other leaf vegetables. Several early recipes also

include anchovies. A variety of dressings are used with this salad.

Food historians do not agree on the history and composition of chef salad, much less who

assembled the first one. Some trace this salad's roots to Salmagundi, a popular meat and

salad dish originating in 17th century England and popular in colonial America. Others

contend chef's salad is a product of early twentieth century, originating in either New York

or California. The person most often connected with the history of this salad is Louis Diat,

chef of the Ritz-Carlton in New York City during the 1940s. While food historians

acknowledge his recipe, they do not appear to be convinced he originated the dish, which is

more popularly attributed to either chefVictor Seydoux at the Hotel Buffalo, a Statler Hotel

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in Buffalo, New York or chef Jacques Roser[1] at the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City.

Roser worked in various culinary positions in Paris before being invited to become head

chef at the prestigious 1920s Hotel Pennsylvania, where he worked for over fifteen

year. Seydoux first learned his craft in Montreux, Switzerland, and continued his studies

in France and England before coming to work in the United States.

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Etymology

Green leaf salad with salmon and bread

The word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata

(salty), from sal (salt). In English, the word first appears as "salad" or "sallet" in the 14th

century. Salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty

oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times.[3] The phrase "salad days", meaning a "time

of youthful inexperience" (based on the notion of "green"), is first recorded by Shakespeare

in 1606, while the use of salad bar, referring to a buffet-style serving of salad ingredients,

first appeared in American English in 1976.[3]

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HISTORY OF SALADS

Food historians tell us salads (generally defined as mixed greens with dressing) were enjoyed

by ancient Romans and Greeks. As time progressed, salads became more complicated

Recipes varied according to place and time. Dinner salads, as we know them today, were

popular with Renaissance folks. Composed salads assembled with layers of ingredients were

enjoyed in the 18th century. They were called Salmagundi. Today they are called chef's

salad.

The basis for the word salad is 'sal', meaning salt. This was chosen because in ancient times,

salt was often an ingredient in the dressing. Notes here:

"Salad, a term derived from the Latin sal (salt), which yielded the form salata, 'salted things'

such as the raw vegetables eaen in classical times with a dressing of oil, vinegar or salt. The

word turns up in Old French as salade and then in late 14th century English as salad or

sallet."

The Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens with dressing. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A

Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow

Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens

covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles, chervil, and slices of hard-boiled eggs.

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Oil used on salads can be found in the 17th century colony of New Netherland (Later called

New York, New Jersey and Delaware). A list of common items arriving on ships and their

designated price when appraising cargo, "a can of salad oil at 1.10 florins" and "an anker of

wine vinegar at 16 florins". In a 1665 letter to the Director of New Netherland from the

Island of Curacao there is a request to send greens, "I request most amicably that your

honors be pleased to send me seed of every sort, such as cabbage, carrots, lettuce, parsley,

etc. for none can be acquired here and I know that your honor has plenty,...".

At the tail end of the 19th century (in the United States) the domestic science/home

economics movement took hold. Proponnents of this new science were obsessed with

control. They considered tossed plates of mixed greens "messy" and eschewed them in

favor of "orderly presentations." Salad items were painstakenly separated, organized, and

presented. Molded gelatin (Jell-O et al) salads proliferated because they offered maximum

control.

"Salad greens, which did have to be served raw and crisp, demanded more complicated

measures. The object of scientific salad making was to subdue the raw greens until they

bore as little resemblance as possible to their natural state. If a plain green salad was called

for, the experts tried to avoid simply letting a disorganized pile of leaves drop messily onto

the plate...This arduous approach to salad making became an identifying feature of

cooking-school cookery and the signature of a refined household...American salads

traditionally had been a matter of fresh greens, chicken, or lobster, but during the decades

at the turn of the century, when urban and suburban middle class was beginning to define

itself, salads proliferated magnificently in number and variety until they incorporated nearly

every kind of food except bread and pastry...Salads that were nothing but a heap of raw

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ingredients in dissaray plainly lacked cultivation, and the cooking experts developed a

number of ingenious ways to wrap them up...The tidiest and most thorough way to package

a salad was to mold in in gelatin."

Candle salad
The ingredients and presentation of classic Candle Salad (aka Candlestick, Candlette, Night

Cap) suggest it was a dish of the 1920s. That is when creative fruit salads of all sorts were

created and pineapples were actively promoted to American cooks.

Chef's salad
Food historians can't quite agree on the history and composition of chef's salad much less

who assembled the first one. Some trace this salad's roots to Salmagundi, a popular meat

and salad dish originating in 17th century England and popular in colonial America. Others

contend chef's salad is a product of early twentieth century, originating in either New York

or California. The Brown Derby's popular Cobb Salad might have provided inspiration.

Chicken salad
Culinary evidence (old cookbooks, menus etc.) confirms minced cooked meat and

mayonnaise-type salads were popular in America from colonial times present. These were

culinary traditions brought to our shores by European (especially German) settlers. Primary

evidence suggests early 19th century meat salads were composed as primary dishes, not a

thrifty mode for repurposing leftovers. Of course, cookbooks only tell part of the story.

Salads, including layered and dressed salads, were popular in Europe since the Greek and

Roman imperial expansions. Salads are sold in supermarkets, at restaurants and at fast food

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chains. In the US market, restaurants will often have a "Salad Bar" laid out with salad-making

ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were

earning more than $300 million in 2014. At-home salad consumption in the 2010s was rising

but moving away from fresh-chopped lettuce and toward bagged greens and salad kits, with

bag sales expected to reach $7 billion per year

Identifying Greens
There are many different types of salad greens to choose from, and chances are you already

know a fair share of them. While tasting is the best method to fully acquaintance yourself

with them, this guide will help you get a good head start.

Lettuce

Boston Lettuce

Boston: Boston and bibb are among the most popular types of salad known as butterleaf

lettuces. They are soft, pliable and have pale green leaves with a buttery texture and flavo

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r. They are excellent for creating cups for holding other foods and provide great presentation

appeal.

Iceberg

Probably the most popular types of salad in restaurants and food chains, iceberg is

inexpensive and neutral in flavor. Many people prefer iceberg due to these qualities and

mixes well with almost anything. It is almost nutritionally devoid when compared to other

types of salad and eating iceberg promotes the use of more dressing due to the lack of

flavour present.

Leaf

These types of salad lettuce grows in bunches and is a great choice for salad bases. It comes

in both red and green variety and is easily damageable. Loved for its mild flavor and

awesome deep color, leaf lettuce is a staple in gourmet salads.

Romaine:

Strongly flavored, romaine is probably the more well known types of salad for its use in the

classic Caesar salad. It has semi-firm and crisp leafs that are packed in a loose head. Romaine

is also known as “cos”. Due to its strong flavor, romaine is well suited and can stand up to

strong dressings such as garlic and Parmesan cheese. Look for a head with crisp, dark green

leaves free of blemishes or yellowing.

Baby Lettuce:

These types of salad lettuces are harvested before they reach maturity and give a delicate,

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mild flavor compared to their mature counter-parts. They are often used for composed

salads. Some varieties of baby lettuce include Lola Rosa, Brune d’hiver, Baby Red Bibb, Micro

Greens, Red Sails, Pirate.

Chicory

The types of salad known as Chicory comes in a wide variety of color, flavor, shapes and sizes.

Almost all are bitter in flavor and are hardy, allowing for such cooking methods as braising or

grilling.

Belgian Endive

Small and grown in tight heads, the Belgian Endive types of salad are the shoot of a chicory

root. The small sturdy leaves are great for using as cups/bases for presentation and can be

filled with many different foods. They are usually grilled or braised and served with poultry

or meats.

Belgian Endive

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Curly Endive

Sometimes referred to as its categorical name, Chicory, or it’s french name, frisee, the curly

endive has a bitter flavor the darker the leaves are. The strong flavor goes well with strong

cheeses, game and citrus. Often used in a mixture with other less strong greens.

Escarole

This chicory is often called broadleaf endive and has a slight bitter flavor with thick leaves.

These types of salad is a very sturdy green and is often mixed with other greens for texture.

The strong flavor stands up to full-flavored dressings and is a good compliment to meats and

poultry.

Radicchio:

Small head and tightly packed, the red-leafed radicchio has a very strong bitter flavor and is

usually grilled or braised and served as a side dish. Its attractive color makes it popular in

cold salads. Due to its strong flavor, it should be used sparingly. It is quite expensive.

Other Types of Salad Greens

There are many other types of salad greens out there that you can incorporate into your

salads. Many of these greens can’t be categorized into the above but are unique enough to

warrant mention.

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Radicchio

Arugula

This type of salad is spicy green and has a strong peppery flavor that is actually a member of

the cabbage family. Use of this green is rarely done alone due to its strong flavor, and it

should be used in conjunction with other greens.

Dandelion

You will be familiar with this type of salad green as being known as most prolific weed in the

world. Its leaves are harvested while young and are slightly bitter. Older leaves can be

cooked and served as a vegetable side.

Sorrel

Sometimes referred to as sourgrass, this green has leaves that look similar to spinach in color

and shape. It has a very tart, lemonly flavor that goes exceptionally well with fish and

shellfish and should be used sparingly and combined with other less strong greens in a salad.
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Spinach

Spinach can be cooked or used in a salad and is similar to sorrel. A popular method of

preparing this green is using a dressing of hot bacon fat and pouring it over the spinach which

will wilt it slightly. It has a rich, tender texture. A good quality spinach should be deep green

and fairly crisp. Avoid wilted or yellowed bunches.

Watercress Bunch

Watercress

You can identify these types of salad watercress by its tiny penny-sized leaves and

substantial stem. It has a peppery flavor that gives a good kick to salads. Buy dark green

watercress with no yellowing. Watercress must be kept very cold and moist and is usually

packed with ice. Individual leaves are plucked and washed before serving.

Sprouts

While sprouts aren’t salad greens, they are often used in salads, sandwiches and as a

garnish. Sprouts are very young alfalfa, daikon, sunflower, radish or mustard plants.

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Edible Flowers

There are many edible flowers that you can use as garnish. They offer beautiful color and

presentation. Flowers you can use are nasturtiums, calendulas and pansies. Caution must be

used when selecting flowers to be used. Many blossoms are toxic and some flowers have

pesticides that can be harmful if ingested. Use only specially-grown flowers grown to be

eaten from reputable sellers.

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Salad herbs

Herbs are used in salads to provide flavour, aroma (smell) and texture (feel). If you put in too
much, it may take over the taste of the main ingredients of the salad.
Here are some popular herbs used in salads.

Chives

Curley leaf
parsley

Coriander Vietnamese mint

Basil Mint

Italian parsley
Dill

Other herbs may include:

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thyme marjoram oregano
rosemary fennel spearmint

tarragon

Fruit and vegetables

Fruits and vegetables can also be used in salads, including:

carrots capsicum beans cucumber


pears apples oranges avocado
mangoes.

They add different flavours, crunch, texture and colour.


Also, simple fruit salad can be served during a meal or as a sweet after a meal. You can use a
range of fruit in season.

Other ingredients
You can use a range of other ingredients in salads, including:

Meat, Fish, Seafood, Eggs, Pasta , Rice, Nuts , Cheese, Olives

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Can salads be a good source of nutrients?
While according to Gertrude Stein "a rose is a rose is a rose", at the World's Healthiest Foods,

we could not say that the same thing goes for salads since "a salad is not a salad is not a

salad". That is because to many people salads are thought of as more of an accompaniment

or afterthought for a meal. Additionally, they oftentimes don't feature foods that are

nutrient rich. But, salads can be thought of as meals, as dishes where you combine the

unique tastes and textures of various foods, and as such salads can be nutritional

power houses.

Salads — the old paradigm

Unfortunately, in some food traditions within the U.S., salad is considered to be merely a

"side dish". To make matters worse in terms of salad's reputation, oftentimes salads in

restaurants may consist of nothing more than a small bowl of iceberg lettuce with artificially

-colored French dressing on the top.

Such a "salad" would not be a good source of nutrients; in a half-pound of iceberg lettuce,

you won't find any vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, folate, biotin, D, E, K, nor any chromium,

copper, magnesium, manganese, selenium, or zinc. (You won't find any of these nutrients in

two tablespoons of most French salad dressings either, although you will find 120 calories.)

At the World's Healthiest Foods, however, we would not consider this "side dish" to have

qualified as a salad.

The range of salads at the World's Healthiest Foods


At the World's Healthiest Foods, you'll find Black Bean Salad, Broiled Halibut Salad, Broiled

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Salmon Salad, Chinese Cabbage Salad, Creamy Caesar Salad, Seaweed Salad, Garlic Shrimp

Salad, Greek Garbanzo Salad, Ground Lamb Salad, Mediterranean Salad, Romaine and

Avocado Salad, Seared Tuna Salad, Shrimp and Avocado Salad, Soy Bean and Fennel Salad,

and Warm Quinoa Salad! Many of these salads contain more protein than a slab of steak,

and twice as many nutrients as a traditional "entree" plus two "side vegetables."

Salads can be complete nutritional meals


There is absolutely no nutrient that cannot be obtained from a salad. In fact, a salad

containing a wide variety of vegetables - including root vegetables, green leafy vegetables

, stalks, stems, and flowers - will often be closer to a "complete meal" than many other food

possibilities.

The use of seeds, nuts, and beans in salads is extremely helpful in contributing protein, fiber,

minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids to the meal. Small amounts of "garnish" type ingredients –

like a tablespoon of pumpkin seeds or a sprinkling of walnuts — are a very worthwhile

addition in terms of nutrients. Trace minerals and small amounts of high-quality omega-3

fats are nutrients that most U.S. adults don't get nearly enough, and it doesn't take many

pumpkin seeds or walnuts to bring at least some of these vital nutrients into the day's meal

plan.

1. Eat Salads for the Fiber

It's hard to believe that something we can't even digest can be so good for us! Eating a high-

fiber diet can help lower cholesterol levelsand prevent constipation.

Not only that, says Barbara Rolls, PhD, author of The Volumetrics Eating Plan,

36
eating more fiber can help you feel fuller, eat less, and ultimately lose weight.

2. Eat Salads for the Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables

Many experts agree that Americans need to eat more fruits and vegetables (especially dark

green and orange vegetables) and legumes -- all popular salad ingredients. David Jacobs, PhD,

professor of Public Health at the University of Minnesota, says in an email interview that

there is plenty of evidence that nutrient-rich plant foods contribute to overall health.

If you frequently eat green salads, you'll likely have higher blood levels of a host of

powerful antioxidants (vitamin C and E, folic acid, lycopene, and alpha- and beta-carotene,)

especially if your salad includes some raw vegetables. Antioxidants are substances that help

protect the body from damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals.

For years, researchers have noted a link between eating lots of fruits and vegetables and

lower risks of many diseases, particularlycancer. A recent study from the

National Cancer Institute suggests that people whose diets are rich in fruits and vegetables

may have a lower risk of developing cancers of the head and neck -- even those who smoke

and drink heavily. Foods found to be particularly protective include beans and peas, string

beans, peppers, tomatoes, carrots, apples, nectarines, peaches, plums, pears, and

strawberries.

37
3. Eat Salads to Cut Calories and Increase Satisfaction

If losing weight is your goal, you may want to start your meals with a green salad. Studies

have shown that eating a low-calorie first course, like a green salad of 150 calories or less,

enhances satiety (feelings of fullness) and reduces the total number of calories eaten during

the meal.

Rolls, lead researcher of the study, suggests that "bigger is better" as long as the salad is

bigger in volume, not in calories - which means more veggies and less dressing and other

fatty add-ons.

"We saw reductions in consumed calories when people ate salads that were 1 1/2 cups and 3

cups in volume but around 100 total calories," she says. The 3-cup, 100-calorie salad reduced

the total calories consumed at the meal by about 55.

4. Eat Salads to Get Smart Fats

Eating a little good fat (like the monounsaturated fat found in olive oil, avocado and nuts)

with your vegetables appears to help your body absorb protective phytochemicals, like

lycopene from tomatoes and lutein from dark green vegetables.

A recent study from Ohio State University measured how well phytochemicals were absorbed

by the body after people ate a salad of lettuce, carrot, and spinach, with or without 2 1/2

tablespoons of avocado. The avocado-eaters absorbed eight times more alpha-carotene and

38
more than 13 times more beta-carotene (both of which are thought to help protect

against cancer and heart disease) than the group eating salads without avocado.

If you dress your salad with a little olive oil, there may even be some additional years in it for

you. Italian research on people aged 60 and older has suggested that a diet that includes

plenty of olive oil and raw vegetables is linked to reduced mortality.

39
 The three keys to ensuring a quality salad are:
 The freshness of ingredients
 Having all the ingredients blend together in harmony
 Making sure the salad is appealing to the eye
 The four basic parts to most salads are:
 The base of a salad is usually a layer of salad greens that line the plate or bowl in
which the salad will be served.
 The body of the salad consists of the main ingredients.
 Garnish enhances the appearance of the salad while also complementing the overall
taste.
 Salad dressings are liquids or semi-liquids used to flavor salads.

Garnish – chives

Base – lettuce Dressing – yoghurt

Body – lamb

40
THE BASE OF YOUR SALAD

The ingredient that forms the bulk of your salad is the base. And when we hear the word

‘salad’, lettuce is often the first ingredient that comes to mind because it is used as a base

for so many salads. The most common type of lettuce in the UK is the round lettuce, with its

small crunchy core and floppy leaves. Iceberg lettuce is another popular variety. It is

crunchy, quite watery and has a very mild flavour. Oakleaf, cos or romaine lettuce, and little

gem lettuces, also make great salad bases, as do chicory, radicchio, rocket, watercress, baby

spinach, tiny red-veined chard leaves, mustard leaves, pea shoots and sorrel.

But plenty of salads don’t have any lettuce in them at all. You can make beautiful salads

using cooked new potatoes, couscous, lentils, shredded cabbages or any other robust

interesting vegetable. Use your imagination and you’ll never be bored.

PREPARING AND WASHING SALAD LEAVES

Wash your salad leaves before using them. Make sure your sink is clean then fill it with cold

water. Gently wash the salad leaves in the water until they are clean, and then transfer

them to a salad spinner and spin dry. If you don’t have a salad spinner, put them into a clean

tea towel, gather the edges up, then nip outside and spin it around your head. Make sure

they’re properly dry – if they aren’t, the salad dressing won’t cling to them. Keep them in a

fridge or bowl under a damp cloth until you’re ready to use them.

41
WHAT ELSE CAN YOU ADD TO A SALAD?

Raw crunchy veggies, like carrots or radishes, are great in salads. But they can be quite hard
if they’re in big pieces, so slice them finely or shave them into ribbons with a speed peeler.
Raw beetroots, spring onions, cucumber, courgettes and celery all work well like this.

Cooked vegetables are also fantastic in salads. Peas, broad beans, asparagus and corn,
cooked very quickly so they are tender, add flavour and colour. Grilled slices of courgette or
pepper, or even chunks of sticky roasted squash or pumpkin also make salads much more
interesting.
Tearing in soft herbs at the last minute adds loads of extra flavour. Basil, coriander, parsley,
dill, mint or even thyme or marjoram tips are all great choices.

It’s also nice to add a bit of protein to a salad, especially if you’re having it as a main meal.
Use your imagination; there are really no limits to what you can include. Try a few slices of
smoked salmon, shredded roast chicken, cooked prawns, hard-boiled eggs, buffalo
mozzarella, crispy bacon, cannellini beans, lentils or crumbled goats’ cheese.

For a bit of crunch, try adding a few nuts or seeds. Toasted or flaked almonds,

pumpkin seeds, pine nuts, crumbled walnuts and chopped cashews all work well.

42
Guidelines for constructing salads
These things are important when you are constructing a salad.

43
Store prepared salads

Salads should be made as close as possible to the time of service.

Most salad ingredients are not cooked so it is important to store them properly until
service.

Kitchens and serving areas can be humid, hot and stuffy, and this can make salads spoil
more quickly.

Salads should be stored:

 in containers covered with plastic wrap, on in containers with a fitted lid

 at 1ºC-5ºC

 away from raw or cooked meat or seafood.

 This stops germs growing and stops the salad drying out on top.

Present salads

Salads can be served plated up in single portions, or they can be prepared and served in
bulk
amounts to provide multiple serves, e.g. at a buffet.

You can use a range of different bowls or other containers to serve salads. Glass bowls are
attractive because you can see the ingredients

44
Salad bar

A salad bar is a buffet-style table or counter at a restaurant or food market on

which salad components are provided for customers to assemble their own salad plates.

Most salad bars provide lettuce, chopped tomatoes, assorted raw, sliced vegetables (such

as cucumbers, carrots, celery, olives and green or red bell peppers), dried

bread croutons, bacon bits, shredded cheese, and various types of salad dressing. Some

salad bars also have additional food items such as cooked cold meats, (turkey, chicken, ham,

or tuna), cooked beans (e.g., chick peas, garbanzo beans or kidney beans),

boiled eggs, cottage cheese, cold pasta salads, tortilla chips, bread rolls, soup, and fresh cut

fruit slices.

The concept has been extended to additional foods beyond salad and toppings. For

instance, hot food bars offer a selection of hot foods and dessert bars offer a selection

of desserts.

History

There was a dispute over which restaurant first introduced the salad bar. The Freund's Sky

Club Supper Club in Plover, Wisconsin is believed to be the very first salad bar. According to

Russell Swanson of Swanson Equipment, In 1950 in the small town of Stevens Point, WI who

had specialized in the manufacturing of bars for taverns had said "I'm most proud of

designing and building that first salad bar." The Sky Club is still managed by Eric & Patrick

45
Freund. Also, a 1951 Yellow Pages listing refers to the "salad bar buffet" at

Springfield, Illinois restaurant The Cliffs. Hawaiian restaurant Chuck's Steak House claims to

have had the first salad bar in the 1960s. Rax Restaurants – a Midwestern fast food chain

similar to Arby's – claims to have pioneered the salad bar in the mid-1960s.

The New York Times claims that salad bars first began appearing in the late 1960s "in

midprice restaurants like Steak and Ale, featuring bona fide salad fixings to keep customers

busy and happy until the real food came. "[1] Restaurant entrepreneur Norman Brinker has

been credited with inventing and popularizing the salad bar. Other accounts, however, have

the Salad Bar making its debut in 1964 at Andy's Mini-Diner, a South Florida Seafood

restaurant. Owner, Angelo "Andy" Gangi claimed to have come up with the idea for the salad

bar while observing military men in the chow lines at the officer's club of the Homestead Air

Force Base, an eatery Gangi managed during the late 50's.[2][3][4]

In the 1970s, Lettuce Entertain You Enterprises was based on salad bar-style food. In the

early 1970s, Rich Melman's Chicago restaurant and singles bar R. J. Grunts featured an all-

you-can-eat salad bar with over 40 items.[1] The Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th

edition, claims that the term originated circa 1973.[5]

Types

Salad bars may be "all-you-can-eat", where the customer may make unlimited plates or

bowls of salad during the meal, or be limited to a single serving. Paying by weight of the

materials in the salad is also possible; this option is particularly common for carry-out sales.

Many supermarkets also include a salad bar (for which customers pay by weight) in the

produce or delicatessen section.

46
Name Image Origin Type Description

Made from yardlong


beans, carrots and cabbage
Indonesia,
which are pickled in
Brunei, Vegetable
Acar vinegar and dried chili
Malaysia, and salad
peppers. The vegetables
Singapore
are then tossed in ground
peanuts.

Prepared with the primary


ingredients of tomato,
Vegetable
Afghan salad Afghanistan cucumber, onion, carrot,
salad
cilantro, mint and lemon
juice

Mixed with sour cream


and/or sweetened whipped
cream, miniature
marshmallows, pineapple,
Ambrosia United States Fruit salad
mandarin oranges and
coconut. Variations include
raspberries and
strawberries.

Italian salami, Italian cheese,


Meat
Antipasto Italy lettuce, olives, Italian
salad
dressing

Combines many diferent


Vegetable vegetables and spices, and
Arab salad Arab cuisine
salad often served as part of
amezze

47
A pickled (through brined or
vinegared) vegetable or fruit
dish, commonly found in
Indonesia. The vegetable
asinan is preserved
vegetables served in a thin,
Vegetable
hot, peanut sauce with
Asinan Indonesia or fruit
vinegar, topped with
salad
peanuts and krupuk. The
fruit asinan is preserved
tropical fruits served in
sweet, hot and sour vinegar
and chili sauce, sprinkled
with peanuts.

Banana salad South African Composed of condensed


[1]
cuisine [1] Fruit salad milk, mayonnaise and mild
curry powder.

Mainly composed of cooked


pole beans (green beans
and/or yellow wax beans) ,
cooked chickpeas (garbanzo
beans), cooked kidney
Bean salad Bean salad beans and sliced or diced
fresh beetroot. The beans
are marinated in an
oil/vinegar vinaigrette,
sometimes sweetened with
sugar.

A papaya salad. Herbs added


to the salad either as
Bok l'hong ingredients or garnishes
Cambodia Fruit salad
bok lahong might include kantrop, lime
leaves andbasil . The
dressing may include fish

48
sauce, shrimp paste, dried
shrimp, preserved crabs,
crushed peanuts and/or lime
juice. Other vegetables used
may include diced tomatoes
and shredded carrots.

Caesar salad Mexico Green Romaine lettuce and


salad croutons dressed with
parmesan cheese, lemon
juice, olive oil, egg,
Worcestershire sauce,
anchovies, and black peppe
r

Seafood and vegetables


over hard tack arranged
Cappon Seafood
Genoa, Italy into a decorative
magro salad
pyramid and dressed
with a rich sauce

American
(cuisine).
Celery hearts simmered in a
Invented in
veal or chicken stock, chilled
1910 by Victor
Vegetable (often in a citrus or vinegar
Celery Victor Hertzler[2] who
salad marinade), tossed with mild
is also credited
peppers, then served
by some for
Romaine lettuce
inventing crab
Louis.[3]

49
a salad consisting of grated
Cheese
Cheese slaw cheese, grated carrot and a
salad
mayonnaise dressing. [4]

Usually made with hard-


boiled eggs, strips of ham or
another cold cut (such as
roast beef, turkey, or
chicken), croutons,
Vegetable tomatoes, cucumbers, and
Chef salad and meat cheese (often crumbled), all
salad placed upon a bed of
tossedlettuce or other
leaf vegetables. Several
early recipes also include
anchovies. It may be served
with a variety of dressings.

Any salad that comprises


chicken as a main
ingredient. Other common
Chicken salad Worldwide Meat salad
ingredients include boiled
eggs, mayonnaise, and a
variety of mustards.

Contains tomato, onion,


Vegetable coriander and olive oil, and
Chilean salad Chilean cuisine
salad sometimes with chili
peppers

A salad with chicken


Chinese American flavored by Chinese
Meat salad
chicken salad Chinese cuisine seasonings, popular in the
United States.

50
A combination of finely
chopped tomatoes,
cucumbers, onions, green
Çoban Vegetable
Turkey peppers and flatleaf parsley.
salatası salad
The dressing consists of a
simple mix of lemon juice,
extra virgin olive oil and salt.

Cobb salad United States Vegetable The original recipe


salad contained: lettuce (head
lettuce, watercress, chicory,
and

romaine), tomatoes, crisp


bacon, Chicken breast,
hard-cooked eggs,
avocado, roquefort
cheese, chives and
vinaigrette.

Coleslaw, sometimes is a
type of salad consisting
Coleslaw Worldwide Cabbage primarily of shredded raw
cabbage. It may also include
shredded carrots.

A salad from the U.S. state


of Minnesota made with
buttermilk, vanilla pudding,
whipped cream, mandarin
oranges, and
Dessert
Cookie salad Minnesota fudge stripe shortbread
salad
cookies. It is popular with
children and forpotlucks .
Berries can also be added.
The salad is also prepared
in other areas of the

51
Midwestern United States.

A typical Crab Louie salad


consists of crab meat, hard
boiled eggs, tomato,
asparagus, cucumber and
is served on a bed of
Seafood
Crab Louie United States Romaine lettuce with
salad
aLouie dressing based on
mayonnaise, chili sauce
and peppers on the side.
Some recipes include
olives and scallions.

A lightly fermented cabbage


Curtido Central America Cabbage
relish.

Diced, salted herring


Herring covered with layers of
Dressed and grated, boiled vegetables
Russia, Ukraine
herring vegetable (potatoes, carrots, beet
salad roots), chopped onions, and
mayonnaise.

Egg salad is often used as


asandwich spread, typically
made of chopped
Egg salad Ukraine Egg salad hardboiled eggs,
mayonnaise, mustard,
minced celery or onion, salt,
pepper and paprika.

52
A bread salad made from
toasted or fried pieces of
Bread
Fattoush Levant pita bread (khubz 'arabi)
salad
combined with mixed greens
and othervegetables .

A traditional Guatemalan
salad eaten on November 1
and 2, to celebrate theDay
of the Dead (Día de los
Fiambre Guatemala Meat salad Difuntos) and the All Saints
Day (Día de los Santos) . It is
a salad, served chilled, and
may be made up from over
50 ingredients.

Name Image Origin Type Description

Made from yardlong


beans, carrots and cabbage
Indonesia,
which are pickled in
Brunei, Vegetable
Acar vinegar and dried chili
Malaysia, and salad
peppers. The vegetables
Singapore
are then tossed in ground
peanuts.

Prepared with the primary


ingredients of tomato,
Vegetable
Afghan salad Afghanistan cucumber, onion, carrot,
salad
cilantro, mint and lemon
juice

53
Mixed with sour cream
and/or sweetened whipped
cream, miniature
marshmallows, pineapple,
Ambrosia United States Fruit salad
mandarin oranges and
coconut. Variations include
raspberries and
strawberries.

Italian salami, Italian cheese,


Meat
Antipasto Italy lettuce, olives, Italian
salad
dressing

Combines many diferent


Vegetable vegetables and spices, and
Arab salad Arab cuisine
salad often served as part of
amezze

A pickled (through brined or


vinegared) vegetable or fruit
dish, commonly found in
Indonesia. The vegetable
asinan is preserved
vegetables served in a thin,
Vegetable
hot, peanut sauce with
Asinan Indonesia or fruit
vinegar, topped with
salad
peanuts and krupuk. The
fruit asinan is preserved
tropical fruits served in
sweet, hot and sour vinegar
and chili sauce, sprinkled
with peanuts.

54
Banana salad South African Composed of condensed
[1]
cuisine [1] milk, mayonnaise and mild

Fruit salad curry powder.

Mainly composed of cooked


pole beans (green beans
and/or yellow wax beans) ,
cooked chickpeas (garbanzo
beans), cooked kidney
Bean salad Bean salad beans and sliced or diced
fresh beetroot. The beans
are marinated in an
oil/vinegar vinaigrette,
sometimes sweetened with
sugar.

A papaya salad. Herbs added


to the salad either as
ingredients or garnishes
might include kantrop, lime
leaves andbasil . The
Bok l'hong dressing may include fish
Cambodia Fruit salad
bok lahong sauce, shrimp paste, dried
shrimp, preserved crabs,
crushed peanuts and/or lime
juice. Other vegetables used
may include diced tomatoes
and shredded carrots.

55
Caesar salad Mexico Green Romaine lettuce and
salad croutons dressed with
parmesan cheese, lemon
juice, olive oil, egg,
Worcestershire sauce,
anchovies, and black peppe
r

Seafood and vegetables


over hard tack arranged
Cappon Seafood
Genoa, Italy into a decorative
magro salad
pyramid and dressed
with a rich sauce

American
(cuisine).
Celery hearts simmered in a
Invented in
veal or chicken stock, chilled
1910 by Victor
Vegetable (often in a citrus or vinegar
Celery Victor Hertzler[2] who
salad marinade), tossed with mild
is also credited
peppers, then served
by some for
Romaine lettuce
inventing crab
Louis.[3]

a salad consisting of grated


Cheese
Cheese slaw cheese, grated carrot and a
salad
mayonnaise dressing.

56
Usually made with hard-
boiled eggs, strips of ham or
another cold cut (such as
roast beef, turkey, or
chicken), croutons,
Vegetable tomatoes, cucumbers, and
Chef salad and meat cheese (often crumbled), all
salad placed upon a bed of
tossedlettuce or other
leaf vegetables. Several
early recipes also include
anchovies. It may be served
with a variety of dressings.

Any salad that comprises


chicken as a main
ingredient. Other common
Chicken salad Worldwide Meat salad
ingredients include boiled
eggs, mayonnaise, and a
variety of mustards.

Contains tomato, onion,


Vegetable coriander and olive oil, and
Chilean salad Chilean cuisine
salad sometimes with chili
peppers

A salad with chicken


Chinese American flavored by Chinese
Meat salad
chicken salad Chinese cuisine seasonings, popular in the
United States.

57
A combination of finely
chopped tomatoes,
cucumbers, onions, green
Çoban Vegetable
Turkey peppers and flatleaf parsley.
salatası salad
The dressing consists of a
simple mix of lemon juice,
extra virgin olive oil and salt.

Cobb salad United States Vegetable


salad The original recipe
contained: lettuce (head
lettuce, watercress, chicory,
and

romaine), tomatoes, crisp


bacon, Chicken breast,
hard-cooked eggs,
avocado, roquefort
cheese, chives and
vinaigrette.

Coleslaw, sometimes is a
type of salad consisting
Coleslaw Worldwide Cabbage primarily of shredded raw
cabbage. It may also include
shredded carrots.

A salad from the U.S. state


ofMinnesota made with
buttermilk, vanilla pudding,
whipped cream, mandarin
Dessert
Cookie salad Minnesota oranges, and
salad
fudge stripe shortbread
cookies. It is popular with
children and forpotlucks .
Berries can also be added.

58
The salad is also prepared
in other areas of the
Midwestern United States.

A typical Crab Louie salad


consists of crab meat, hard
boiled eggs, tomato,
asparagus, cucumber and
is served on a bed of
Seafood
Crab Louie United States Romaine lettuce with
salad
aLouie dressing based on
mayonnaise, chili sauce
and peppers on the side.
Some recipes include
olives and scallions.

A lightly fermented cabbage


Curtido Central America Cabbage
relish.

Diced, salted herring


Herring covered with layers of
Dressed and grated, boiled vegetables
Russia, Ukraine
herring vegetable (potatoes, carrots, beet
salad roots), chopped onions, and
mayonnaise.

59
Egg salad is often used as
asandwich spread, typically
made of chopped
Egg salad Ukraine Egg salad hardboiled eggs,
mayonnaise, mustard,
minced celery or onion, salt,
pepper and paprika.

A bread salad made from


toasted or fried pieces of
Bread
Fattoush Levant pita bread (khubz 'arabi)
salad
combined with mixed greens
and othervegetables . [11]

A traditional Guatemalan
salad eaten on November 1
and 2, to celebrate theDay
of the Dead (Día de los
Fiambre Guatemala Meat salad Difuntos) and the All Saints
Day (Día de los Santos) . It is
a salad, served chilled, and
may be made up from over
50 ingredients.

Fruit salad Worldwide Fruit salad Made with various types


offruit , served either in
their own juices or asyrup
. Also known as a
fruit cocktail.

60
A traditional dish in
Indonesian cuisine, and is a
Vegetable
Gado-gado Indonesia vegetable salad served with
salad
apeanut sauce dressing,
eaten as a main dish.

Made with lettuce such as


iceberg, romaine or mesclun
greens. Other toppings may
Green
Garden salad Worldwide include: tomatoes, carrots,
salad
onions, cucumbers,
mushrooms,bell peppers
.

Prepared with glasswort,


Glasswort
Turkey lemon juice, olive oil and
salad
garlic

Made from rice, crushed


pineapple, egg, sugar,
Glorified rice United States Fruit salad vinegar, flour and whipped
cream. It may be decorated
with maraschino cherries.

Made with Neverita didyma,


(a sea snail) , dried shredded
squid or dried Alaska
pollack, vegetables such as
Golbaengi sliced cucumber, and
Korea Fish salad
muchim shredded scallions, and
mixed with a hot and spicy
sauce. The sauce is generally
made with gochujang (chili
pepper paste), chili pepper

61
powder, vinegar, sugar, salt,
minced garlic, and sesame
oil.

62
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DRESSING

A good salad dressing is the key to making a

salad absolutely delicious, meaning you

want to eat it rather than feel you have to.

Another great thing about dressings is that

they help us get the most from the salad:

the oil and the acid in the dressing actually

help our body absorb far more of the

nutrients from the vegetables.”

Think of your salad dressing as the link that

brings all the ingredients in your salad together. There are loads of ready-made bottled

dressings available in the shops, but it’s so easy to make your own so try and get into the

habit of doing that rather than buying them. Shop-bought dressings are likely to contain lots

of hidden ingredients and may be high in calories. Plus if you make your own, you can tweak

it every time to suit the other ingredients in your salad.

JAM JAR DRESSINGS

The easiest way to make your salad dressing is in a clean jam jar. Just add all of your

63
ingredients, pop the lid on and give it a good shake!

Most salad dressings contain an oil element – such as extra virgin olive oil, groundnut oil or

sesame oil – and an acid element, such as balsamic vinegar, red wine vinegar, or lemon or

lime juice. Aim for a ratio of 3 parts oil to 1 part acid then add any other ingredients you

fancy. Half a teaspoon of Dijon mustard or some finely chopped fresh herbs or chilli can add

loads of beautiful flavour. If you want a slightly creamy dressing, try stirring a spoonful of

natural yoghurt into the dressing.

DRESSING YOUR SALAD

Once dressed, salad leaves can wilt after a few minutes, so always add your dressing right

before serving. If you want to ensure a really good even coating, using clean hands, quickly

toss everything together. Just make sure you don’t add all of the dressing at once; add a little,

mix it up then have a taste before deciding whether you need to add more. You can always

add more, but you can’t take it away.

64
. Dressings

Without dressings, salads just wouldn’t be salads. There are many things to learn about when

it comes to dressings, and this article will get you up to speed. Many of the methods taught

here are used in many other capacities in cooking.

Emulsification

An emulsified sauce or dressing is unique. An emulsion is the uniform combination of two

liquids which are unmixable, such as water and oil. By forcing these two liquids together with

the help of lecithin. Lecithin is a protein that is also unique in that it has the property of being

able to combine with both water and oil. The most common source of lecithin is egg yolks.

The most common emulsion is a mayonnaise. By whipping egg yolks until frothy, you slowly

add oil drop by drop while whisking vigorously. Once the emulsion begins to form, the oil is

added in more quantity. The fastest way to prepare mayonnaise is to make it in a Robocoupe,

or food processor while slowly adding the oil. It is recommended to start with a whisk so you

gain an understanding of the process.

The higher the proportion of oil to water in an emulsification, the thicker the emulsion will

be. The higher the proportion of water to oil will produce a thinner emulsion.

65
An Emulsified Mayonnaise

Vinaigrette Dressings

A vinaigrette is a simple dressing, and comes from the classic French Dressing. Not to be

confused with the North American commercially-available dressing that is creamy, tart/sweet

and red-orange in color, a classic French dressing is 3 parts oil, 1 part vinegar, salt and

pepper. When using stronger flavored oils, using less oil will help offset the strength. Some

dressing recipes call for citrus juice ot be used in place of all or part of the vinegar, in which

case it will take more than 1 part to balance the acidity.

There are countless ingredients to add to a vinaigrette dressing. The classic nature of a

vinaigrette opens itself up to a lot of interpretation. Items such as garlic, fruit, and different

types of vinegar can be used.

66
Because oil and water do not combine without the help of a emulsifier, it is important to

whisk them as close to serving as possible.

Mayonnaise-Based Dressings

If you’re looking for hearty, a mayonnaise-based dressing is sure to provide it. Mayonnaise by

itself is a pretty heavy product, and using it in a dressing will require some robust greens that

can withstand it. In order to make a mayonnaise dressing work, you’ll have to play around

with it. There probably aren’t many people who would toss a salad with mayonnaise, but

adding different ingredients to change the texture, color and flavor is definitely a plus. Dairy

products are especially popular and include buttermilk and sour cream. This will help lighten

the mayonnaise a bit. You can add vinegars, fruit juices, vegetables that are pureed or

minced, tomato paste, garlic, onions, herbs, spices, capers, anchovies, boiled eggs. The list

goes on and on.

Emulsified Vinaigrette Dressings

As we learned earlier about emulsification, an emulsified vinaigrette is simple a basic

vinaigrette that is thickened by emulsification. Using the proportional guidelines above for

oil/water, we can get the desired thickness easily. Being thinner and lighter than a

mayonnaise dressing, the emulsified vinaigrette is excellent for delicate flavors and textures.

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How To Prepare Emulsified Dressings

1. Gather all ingredients, hold at room temperature (Room temp. ingredients emulsify

easier)

2. Whip eggs until frothy

3. Add dry ingredients and flavorings such as herbs, garlic, shallots.

4. Add small amount of liquid from recipe. Whip until incorporated.

5. With your stand mixer on high or by whisking vigorously, slowly add the oil in a steady

stream.

6. Once the emulsion forms, add the oil a bit faster.

7. Alternate between oil and liquid a few times until all the oil is used. The dressing will

be much thinner than the mayonnaise. If you find your dressing too thick, thin it out

using a little water, vinegar or lemon juice.

We have covered the basics in salad preparation and identification, and you have also

learned how to properly make an emulsified dressing. Much of what we learn here when it

comes to dressings will be applied in more advanced cooking as you progress. For example a

hollandaise sauce is an emulsification that requires the use of many other skills.

Mayonnaise

A smooth, creamy, semi-solid emulsified dressing consisting of vegetable oil (65%) and eggs,

acidified with vinegar or lemon juice and delicately spiced. No other emulsifiers are allowed

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in this product. Often used as a base for other dressings.

Salad Dressing (Mayonnaise-type)

Much like mayonnaise in appearance, but with a cooked base. Salad dressing contains a

minimum of 30% vegetable oil, 4% egg yolk ingredient, vinegar or lemon juice, and spices.

The taste is more piquant than mayonnaise and also is often used as a base for other salad

dressings.

Blue Cheese/Roquefort

Blue and/or Roquefort cheese is added in crumbles, chunks or granulated form to a creamy

base. Other optional ingredients may include Worcestershire sauce, spices, sweeteners,

vinegar, salt and pepper, resulting in a sharp, pungent salad dressing with a rich thick

consistency.

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Buttermilk

A creamy, mildly seasoned salad dressing with a buttermilk base. It has a smooth, thick

consistency and is often the basis for "house salad dressings". Many varieties are available,

such as bacon, chive, onion, etc. Occasionally sour cream is added.

Caesar

Oil and vinegar seasoned with Romano cheese and garlic, often with the added distinctive

flavoring of anchovy.

Cole Slaw

Sweeteners and mild spices give this creamy, pourable salad dressing a "sweet/tart" taste.

This salad dressing absorbs excess moisture from slaw without thinning.

Creamy Cucumber

A smooth, creamy combination of oil, vinegar, and sour cream flavored with cucumber juice,

onion, and black pepper.

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French * (Separating)

Tangy, zesty and spicy, flavored by tomato and/or paprika products added to oil (35%

minimum) and vinegar.

French * (Non-separating)

The creamy French differs from the separating French primarily in its thicker consistency and

slightly sweeter taste.

Green Goddess

A thick, creamy pourable salad dressing flavored with anchovy and herbs such as tarragon,

garlic and chives.

Italian (Separating)

Red pepper, garlic and other optional ingredients usually associated with Italian dishes (such

as oregano, Parmesan cheese, etc.) are added to vinegar and oil, resulting in a zesty, tangy

flavor with an easily pourable consistency.

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Italian (Non-separating)

Creamy Italian utilizes the same flavoring as the separating Italian but is of thicker

consistency.

Oil and Vinegar

Contains the "natural" flavors of vegetable oil and a mellow vinegar. Subtly seasoned with

herbs.

Red Wine Vinegar and Oil

Has the full-bodied flavor of red wine vinegar combined with oil and herb seasonings.

Russian

Thick, but pourable consistency derived from a combination of vinegar, oil, and tomato with

optional flavorings such as honey, steak sauce or chili sauce, for a heavy, sweet-tasting salad

dressing.

Thousand Island

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Pickle relish and other optional flavorings such as pimiento, paprika, chopped egg, onion,

garlic, tomato products or chili sauce are added to a creamy base. Thousand Island salad

dressing is thick and sweet-tasting, as opposed to tart and spicy.

Reduced Calorie Salad Dressings

Come in many of the flavors and types listed above but contain at least one third less calories

than their unaltered counterparts. Low calorie products contain no more than 40 calories per

reference amount (2 Tablespoons). Reduced calorie foods contain 25% fewer calories than

regular salad dressings per serving.

Dry Mixes

Also come in many flavors and are prepared by mixing with vegetable oil, mayonnaise, sour

cream, buttermilk or other base ingredients, as the package directs. Are also useful as

seasonings in dips, casseroles, etc.

CONDIMENTS: MUSTARDS

Dijon-Style Mustard

A smooth blend including brown mustard seed, vinegar and other acidulants, water, white

wine, and seasonings such as salt and tarragon. Characteristic of Dijon-style mustard is a

smooth appearance resulting from the removal of the mustard bran by passing the product

through a screening device, and a pungent flavor from the brown seed.

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Hot Mustard

Sharp-flavored mustard seeds (brown or oriental) are added to vinegar, water and other

seasonings such as allspice, tarragon or shallots. Chinese, English and some German varieties

fall into this category with tastes ranging from sharply pungent to very hot.

Yellow Mustard (Prepared mustard)

A smooth paste of yellow mustard seed, (mildest of all mustard varieties) vinegar, water,

tumeric, and seasonings such as salt, clove and coriander.

Coarse-Ground Mustard (Country style, brown, old fashioned)

A blend, including brown mustard seed, that is coarsely ground, vinegar, water, salt and a

variety of spices and flavorings. Characteristic of coarse ground mustard is the presence of

highly visible specks of mustard bran and a pungent flavor from the brown seed.

Spicy Brown-Style Mustard (Spicy brown, German-style, Dusseldorf-style)

A blend including brown mustard seed that is finely ground, vinegar, water, salt and a variety

of spices and flavorings. Characteristic of spicy brown mustard is a uniform brown color, with

or without visible specks of mustard bran, and a pungent flavor from the brown seed.

NOTE: The definitions above are only to be used as a general reference. Mustard does not

have a standard of identity, and therefore there are many varieties and formulations of

mustard available.

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SAUCES
Barbecue Sauce

A thick tomato-based sauce containing a variety of spices and flavorings. Can be "hot", smoky

or sweet.

Ketchup*

Catsup, ketchup, or catchup is a thick tomato-based sauce with the addition of salt, sugar,

vinegar and spices.

Cocktail Sauce

A sauce similar to ketchup. Less sweetener is used and more pepper spices are added in the

form of fresh red peppers, crushed and ground sweet peppers, paprika or cayenne.

Horseradish and/or chili sauce may also be part of the formula.

Horseradish (Prepared)

The basic formula is ground and/or disintegrated horseradish root mixed with distilled

vinegar to stabilize the "heat". Spices and other ingredients such as salt, sugar, cream or

vegetable oil may then be added to this mixture. A number of horseradish products are

available including cream-style prepared horseradish, horseradish sauce and beet

horseradish. Horseradish is also used as an ingredient in cocktail sauce, specialty mustards,

and many other products.

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Horseradish Sauce

A mayonnaise- or cream-based sauce with added horseradish (or other heat sources), spices

and other ingredients which may include sugar, salt, garlic and onion.

Dehydrated Horseradish

A dry powder derived from horseradish root.

Hot Sauce

A mixture of hot pepper, vinegar and salt - "eye watering" hot.

Picante Sauce and Salsa

A group of traditionally spicy sauces that may consist of tomatoes, peppers, onions, salt,

sugar, garlic and herbs and spices such as oregano, cilantro and basil. While there is no

standard of identity for these products, the generally accepted view is that picantes are

thinner with fewer particulates than salsas. Salsas will normally be composed of large pieces

in a thicker base.

Taco Sauce

An easily pourable tomato sauce flavored by hot red chili peppers, green pepper, onion,

vinegar, salt, and garlic. Can range from "mild" to "hot" varieties.

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Steak Sauce

A thick, slightly sweet-tasting tomato sauce, or often with the distinctive flavor of fruit such

as raisin and/or orange, plus herbs and such spices as garlic and onions.

Soy Sauce

A soybean and wheat protein extract combined with water and salt. May be processed by

fermentation or chemical hydrolysis.

Worcestershire

A thin, spicy dark brown sauce which may include cider vinegar, malt vinegar, anchovies,

onions, soy sauce, molasses and other ingredients resulting in a slightly sweeter taste than

soy sauce.

Tartar Sauce

A mayonnaise or salad dressing-based sauce with added pickle relish and possibly chopped

capers.

CONDIMENTS: THE GRAND SAUCES

Demi-glace, velouté, béchamel, tomato, and hollandaise – were once referred to as the

mother sauces, to indicate that from these basic sauces many others were created. Although

they may not be relied upon as heavily as in years past, the grand sauces are still important in

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a contemporary kitchen.

Demi-Glace

Based on a brown veal stock, a demi-glace should have the flavor of roasted veal. In color, it

will be a deep brown color, translucent and highly glossy. The flavor will be full, and rich with

a pleasant roasted or caramel aroma.

Velouté

As a velouté is based on veal, chicken or fish stock, it’s flavor will reflect the stock used in its

preparation. It is pale in color, almost ivory, translucent with a definite sheen. Made with a

roux, a slight hint of nuttiness may be detected, but will have the aroma of it’s base stock.

Béchamel

Originally béchamel called for an amount of lean veal, however, modern practice rarely

includes it. A white sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and simmering with

aromatics, a béchamel will have a creamy flavor, reflecting its base liquid of milk. It is the

color of heavy cream, slightly off-white, opaque with a definite sheen and has the aroma of

cream with a slight nuttiness.

Tomato

The tomato sauce is slightly coarser than any other of the grand sauces because of the

degree of texture that remains even after pureeing and straining tomatoes. The sauce will

have a deep, rich tomato flavor, with no trace of bitterness or acidity, yet not overly sweet.

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There will be hints of supporting flavors from the stock and aromatics. Tomato sauce will

have a clear tomato smell with no sour, acid, bitter or overly sweet (caramel) aromas.

Hollandaise

A hollandaise is predominantly the flavor of butter, with egg yolks contributing a great deal of

flavor as well. Reduction ingredients, i.e. vinegar and peppercorns, give the sauce a balanced

taste, as do the lemon juice and any additional seasonings. It will be a pale lemon color,

opaque, but with a luster not appearing oily. The basic sauce and its variations should have a

buttery-smooth texture, almost frothy, and an aroma of good butter.

Types of oils

You can use oils with different flavours in salad dressings.


Some oils have a light flavour and aroma (smell), e.g. sunflower oil and canola oil.
Others have a stronger flavour and aroma, e.g. olive oil, sesame oil and walnut oil.
Oils may be flavoured by adding spices, herbs and things such as peppercorns, garlic or
chilli.

Choose the oil to suit the salad. If the flavour of the oil is too strong, it can dominate (take
over) the flavour of the salad.

Types of vinegars

Vinegar is an acidic (sharp or tart tasting) liquid made from wine, cider, sherry and other
similar ingredients.

The sourness of the vinegar brings out the flavour of the ingredients used in salads. The acid

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cuts through the fattiness of the oil or dairy product, so the salad can be tasted more clearly.

The acid can also help you digest the salad.

There are many different types of vinegars available. Some vinegars are flavoured, e.g. with

herbs.

You can also use other acidic liquids in a dressing instead of vinegar , e.g. verjuice

(unfermented grape juice), or lemon, lime or orange juices.

Storing dressings and ingredients

Store oils and vinegars in the dry store. However flavoured oils should be kept in the

refrigerator.

Eggs and dairy products must be stored in the refrigerator.

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Salad decoration

We have variety of vegetables available for showing the art of decorating the salad. Salad

decoration with vegetables can be done by using some available vegetable which you like and

eat almost daily. I will help you in guiding by providing some amazing idea for decorating the

salad by vegetables. Your guest and kids will enjoy your this kind of preparation.

Salad is mainly prepared by using different type of fruits and vegetables. We eat them along

with our main dish at dinner or lunch. But sometimes we want to ignore them due to some

personal reasons and even kids don’t want to eat them. If we decorate our salad in so many

different ways, then we and our kids as well love to eat them and also may be they will help

you in creating that decoration with you.

Fish salad

Fish salad is really so easy to decorate and create. You will need radish, carrot and lettuce.

Arrange the vegetable in a circular plate in the shape of fish as shown in the pic.

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Peacock vegetable salad

Peacock vegetable salad is prepared by using tomato, olive and cucumber. They have given

the shape of the feather of peacock and big cucumber piece is used for his head and nose is

made by small piece of tomato.

Fruit and vegetable peacock salad

In this salad, so many fruits and vegetables are used such as cucumber, lettuce, onion,

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beetroot, corn, eggplant, carrot, radish, kiwi, orange and olive. Check the pic and you will get

the complete idea of preparing it.

Tomato salad

Tomato salad can be prepared in removing the liquidy fluid from tomato. Bolied peas and

corn can be placed in the empty space of tomato along with cottage cheese. Carrot can be

used for dressing the plate.

Heart salad

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Heart salad requires cabbage, cucumber, tomato and eggplant. Arranging all the sliced

cucumber in a heart shape and then placing the chopped cabbage in the heart. Eggplant is

sliced to create a small hearts.

Mix capsicum salad

Mix capcium salad is made by using all 3 types of capsicum along with cucumber, lettuce,

asparagus, carrot and small tomatoes and given a shape of peacock.

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Tomato cucumber salad

As from the name, you know what you want. Sliced cucumber and tomatoes will be arranged

in circular way as shown in the pic.

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