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Anatomy and Physiology

THE CELL

A cell is the basic , living structure and functional unit of the body . Cells are composed of characteristic
parts, the work of which is coordinated in a way the enables each type of cell to fulfill a unique
biochemical or structural role. Cells perform myriad chemical reactions to create life processes. They do
so by compartmentalization , isolation of specific kinds chemical reactions within specialized structures
inside the cell. The isolated reaction are coordinated with one another to maintain life in a cell, tissue,
organ, system,and organism.

FUNCTIONS AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL

ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL FUNCTION

In general, the cell consist of internal structure called ORGANELLE suspended in a semifluid
CYTOPLASM and surrounded by CELL MEMBRANE . Each organelle and each enzyme in the
cytoplasm perform a specific function and the cell membrane defines the boundaries of a cell ad
regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell .

The processes whereby food molecules and oxygen are used to capture energy in adenosine
triphosphate take place in cells .All cells need adenosine triphosphate to maintain themselves and to
carry out their roles in the overall functions of the body .

Nearly all chemical reactions that take place in the body are controlled by cellular enzymes .

Many cells of the body undergo Cell division as the body grows, and new individuals are produces from
the union of specialized cells called eggs and sperm ; thus, all body functions depend on processes that
occur at the cellular level.

STRUCTURE OF THE CELLS

The cell is composed of two basic parts:

A. THE CYTOPLASM

The substance surrounding the nucleus .

It contains many discreate structures.

a. Organelles
Enclosed by a membrane and contain enzymes that participate in cellular metabolic activity .
They are permanent component of cytoplasm.
b. Incusions
Generally temporary components of certain cells and usually are accumulation of pigment ,
lipid, protein or carbohydrate that may or may not be enclosed in a membrane. They do not
participate directly in cellular metabolism .
c. Other components
Cannot be classified as either organelle or inclusion and have different strutures and
functions. They are not enclosed by a membrane and they do not participate directly in cell
metabolism .

It also contains small particles suspended in a thick .fluid called CYTOSOL. It consist of dissolved
substances , enzymes, and several kinds of granule-most of which contain glycogen or fat. The cytosol
and dissolved subtances make up INTRACELLULAR FLUID.

a. ORGANELLES
These are the functional units of a cell .these are specialized structures that have caracteristics
shapes and that perform specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance , and reproduction .
Each type of organellehas its own characteristics set of enzymes that carry out specific reaction,
and each is a functional compartment where specific physiological processes.

a.1. MITOCHONDRIA
The mitochondria are frequently called the “powerhouse” of the cell , are the sites of the most of
the oxidative reactions that transform energy into a form usable by cells.
are major sites of the most of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE PRODUCTION within cells. ATP is
the major energy source for most endergonic chemical reactions within the cells, with lower
energy equipment.
Structurally , a mitochondrion is composed of an outer smooth membrane and an inner folded
membrane , each of which has a typical membrane structure. CRISTAE, Folds in the inner
membrane , contain enzymes and other molecules that capture and stores energy in ATP . The
MATRIX of a mitochondrion contains enzymes that break down fatty acids and pyruvic acids so
enzymes in the cristae can capture energy from these important nutrient molecules.
a.2. GOLGI APPARATUS
The golgi apparatus is a collection of membrane-enclosed sacs, and is involved in final
processing as well as packaging of proteins prior to secretion of these proteins via exocytosis.
Processing can include removal of a segment of a protein , the addition of carbohydrate or lipid
to the protein, and the wrapping of the product in a membranous envelop. The products of this
processing are extruded from the cells when a vesicles of the golgi apparatus fuses with the
plasma membrane. The golgi apparatus also packages certain enzymes into organelles called
lysosomes.
a.3. LYSOSOMES
A Membrane bound organelle that contains many different hydrolytic enzymes that function as
intracellular digestive system. The enzymes are released into vacuoles or into dead or injured
cells .
a.4. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Is an extensive network of interconnected flattened vesicles and tubules bounded by
membranes of the same basic structure a the plasma membrane. Tubules of the ER serve as a
transport system for proteins and possibly for other large molecules synthesized by a cell.
a.4.1. ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(Granular)
Coated with the granules called the ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of
the membrane.These ribosomes serves as sites for protein synthesis.
a.4.2. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (Agranular)
they do not contain granules but is involved in steroid synthesis and detoxification.
Lipid and cholesterol synthesis and some lipid breakdown occur.
a.5. RIBOSOMES
These are small bodies, lacking membranes, found on the surface of the rough endoplasmic
reticulum or free in the cytosol where they serve as sites of protein synthesis.
Some ribosomes, called free ribosomes, are unattached to any structure in the cytoplasm.
Primarily , free ribosomes synthesize proteins used inside the cell . Other ribosomes, called
Membrane –bound ribosomes, are attached to the nuclear membrane and rough endoplasmic
reticulum. These ribosomes synthesized proteins destined for insertion in the plasma membrane
or for export from cell.

a.6. PEROXISOMES
Are membrane-covered organelles. It contains OXIDATIVE enzymes that destroys certain
toxins. Some reaction release hydrogen peroxide , which is broken down to oxygen and water by
peroxisomes enzymes catalase.

b. INCLUSION
Accumulation of pigments, lipids, proteins, or carbohyrates that may not be enclosed in a
membrane. They do not participate directly In cellular metabolism.

c. OTHER COMPONENTS
c.1. CYTOSKELETON
Gives the cell rigidity and allows movement of whole cells and particles within the cells . It
consist of a complex network of microtubules and microfilaments, both which consist of proteins
devoid of any membrane covering.
The network appears to hold the nucleus in place in a cell and to provide binding sites to anchor
protein molecules , organelles , and other cellular particles once thought to be randomly
distributed in the cytosol.

c.1.1. MICROTUBULES

Hallow fibers of protein TUBULIN

Provide motility and internal support for cells.

c.1.2. MICROFILAMENTS

very thin, solid structure made mainly of the protein ACTIN

Account for motility and contractility of cells

c.2. CENTROSOMES
The centrosomes is found near the nucleus, and is made up of two centrioles arranged at right angle
to each other. The centrosomes are organizing centers for microtubules and form the poles of the mitotic
spindles during cell division.

c.2.1. CENTRIOLES

Are paired structure always oriented at right angles to which other in non-dividing cells.

During cell division, they duplicate and new pairs , which consist of one new and one old centriole, move
to opposite sides of the cells. As the centriole move, microtubule bundles associated with them elongate
by the addition of tubulin to form the mitotic spindle along which chromosomes move.

C.3.CILIA

Short hair like projection that beat in waves and are found on the surface of some cells such as those that
move mucus along passageways in the respiratory tract .

C.4.FLAGELLA

Cytoplasmic projection, are longer than cilia but similar in structure . They usually cause movement of
entire cells, such as human sperm.

B. THE NUCLEUS
As the control center of the cell , the nucleus is essential for a cell to survive and divide . it is
surrounded by a folded, double layer of membrane called the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE. Extending
through this envelop are many large pores that can be closed by a protein associated with them.
Opening and closing pores (NUCLEAR PORES) allows RNA to leave the nucleus and certain
complex molecules to enter it. The neucloplasm in the nucleus include the nucleolus and the
chromosomes.
1. NUCLEULUS
It lack membrane , and has an irregular shape that changes as the cell goes through stages of
growth and division. It is the site of assembly of organelles called ribosomes.

2. CHROMOSOMES
The body’s genetic material in the form of large double chains of molecules of
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA). The DNA acts as template for each protein synthesized
within the cell.
The functional subunits of chromosomes are called genes, each of which corresponds to about
1000 pairs of nucleotide.

Human cells contain 46 chromosomes-22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and 2 sex


chromosomes (XX in female and XY in male).

Chromosomes are known o consist of DNA wrapped around a protein core with surface protein in
certain locations

DNA is important in two cellular processes. First, it dictates the nature of RNAs and proteins that
a cell can synthesize and thereby controls the function of the cells. Second,it transmits
information for cellular control from one generation to the next –from parents to offspring in eggs
and sperm.
The transfer of genetic information from nuclear DNA to the site where proteins are synthesized
in the cytoplasm in the function of the RNA . The formation of RNA is controlled by genes in the
DNA .

DNA → RNA → Proteins

C. THE CELL MEMBRANES (PLASMA MEMBRANE)


It is the outermost component which defines the boundaries of a cell. It encloses the cytoplasm
and forms a boundary between the material inside the cell and material outside the cell.

Extracellular substances
Materials outside the cell.
Intracellular Substances
Materials inside the cell.

The primary function of the plasma membrane is to control the passage of substances into and
out of the cell, and both of its lipids and proteins participate in this process. It regulates the
environment within the cells and helps to maintain the intracellular hemeostasis.

The cell membrane processes te following physico- chemical properties:


1. It is a lipoprotein complex.
2 Types of Membrane Proteins

1.1 Intrinsic Proteins (integral)


They are insoluble in water.
Provide specialized mechanisms for movement of certain substances across the
membrane.
Enhance combination of extracellular proteins and receptor sites.

1.2. Extrinsic Proteins (peripheral)


They are water soluble and can be removed from the cell without damage.

2 Types of Membrane Lipids

2.1. Phospholipids
These enhances flexibility of the cell membrane.

2.2.Cholesterol
This increases the fluid state of the membrane.

2. It possesses the property of semi-permeability.


Allows substances of small molecular size to pass through the cell membrane.

3. It possesses the property of selective permeability.


Ability of the cell membrane to allow movement of large molecules across it.
4. It behaves as a core conductor.
Ability of the cell membrane to allow the spread of excitation from one part of the cell
membrane to the rest of the membrane.

5. It acts as a condenser.
Allow the cell membrane to store large amount of energy (in the form of ATP) within it.

6. It serves as a rectifier.
Ability to the cell membrane to go back to its original state after excitation.

7. It acts as a resistor
Limits the movement of substances across the membrane because of inherent friction offered
by the membrane.

8. Some modifications of the cell membrane serve as receptor sites.

TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE

A living cell is dynamically entity with sustances constantly moving in and out of it across the plasma
membrane. Understanding how these movements occur is essential to understanding how cell functions.
Polar substances, such as water and small ions, are believed to move across membranes by passing
through channels composed of MEMBRANE PROTEINS. Nonpolar substances, such as lipids and other
uncharged particles, dissolve in the MEMBRANE LIPIDS and diffuse through them. Still other substances
are moved through the membrane by CARRIER MOLECULES.

The manner of movement of an ion or molecule across a membrane is determined by a combination of


the following factors:
1. Particle size
2. Electrical charge
3. Relative concentrations of the substance on the two sides of the membrane
4. Lipid solubility
5. Availability of carrier molecules in the membrane

The mechanism by which substances move across menbranes include:

A. PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES


Involves movements of substances down a concentration gradient, that is, from a region of
higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, without cells supplying energy.

1. SIMPLE DIFFUSION
The net movement of the molecules from their region of higher concentration to their region
of lower concentration.

A concentration gradient is a measure of the difference in the concentration of a solute in a


solvent between two points.

Occurs because of random motion of molecules (Brownian movement) in a liquid or gas. The
net movement of molecule is down the concentration gradient. At equilibrium when a gradient
no longer exist, random movement continues but no net movement occurs.
The time required to reach equilibrium by diffusion increases with molecule SIZE and the
DISTANCE between the region of high and low concentration.

FACTORS AFFECTING DIFFUSION ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE


1. Concentration of the substance
2. Membrane permeability
3. Size and charge of the diffusing particles
4. Size and charge of the membrane channels

2. FACILITATED DIFFUSION
Diffusion of a substance across a membrane with the assistance of a carrier(proteins)
molecules. It generally involves larger molecules which are unable to pass through the
pores.
Involves movement down a concentration gradient without energy expenditure.
The following re characteristics of this type of transport process:

1. CARRIER SATURATION
Occurs when all the available carrier molecules are transporting their specific substances
as rapidly as possible, and there is no further increase in the amount of molecule
transported.

2. COMPETITION
Occurs between the substances normally transported and another substance with similar
shape, charge and affinity for the carrier.

3. It is faster then those molecules that pass through the pores, and faster than lipid
soluble molecules.

4. COUNTER TRANSPORT
It may be associated with the transport of structural analog in the opposite direction.

5. SPECIFICITY
Carriers possess a high degree of specificity in that they transport only a particular
substance and no other.

B. ACTIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS

1. ACTIVE RANSPORT
Move substance against concentration gradient from regions of lower concentration. It
requires the cell to use energy from ATP. It also requires membrane proteins that are both
enzymes and carrier. Carriers have specificity in that each binds to and transport a single
substances or a few closely related ones.

Example: Sodium- Potassium Pump

C. SOLVENT TRANSPORT PROCESSES

1. OSMOSIS
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher
water concentration to one of lower water concentration.

OSMOTIC PRESSURE
Pressure necessary to prevent the movement of water from higher concentration to
lower concentration.

2. FILTRATION
This refers to movement of solvent across a semipermeable membrane as a result of a
difference in hydrostatic pressure on the two sides of the membrane.
Is a passage of a solution through a membrane in response to a mechanical pressure
difference.

3. BULK FLOW
This refers to a movement of large amount of water in any given direction.

D. TRANSPORT IN BULK PROCESSES

1. EXOCYTOSIS
Visicles inside the cell fuse with the plasma membrane and extrude their contents from the
cell.
The secretory vesicles move to the plasma membrane where the vesicle membrane fuses
with the cell membrane, and the content of the vesicle is eliminated from the cell.

2. ENDOCYTOSIS
Refers to the bulk uptake of material through the plasma membrane by the formation of
vesicles.
Vesicles are formed by invagination of a cell membrane to surround substances on the
outside of the cell. Such vesicles pinch off from the plasma membrane and enter the cytosol.

Endocytosis has the following features:

1. Substances are enclosed in membrane bound vesicles and discharged into the cytosol
in a manner of seconds to minutes.
2. Large amount of plasma membrane enter the interior of the cell by endocytosis.
3. Plasma membrane taken into the cell usually is returned to the cell surface. Cell appear
to have sorting mechanisms that return membrane segments to the particular sites from
which they came.
4. Endocytosis can serve to accumulate substances in the cytosol, in larger vacuole by the
fussion of smaller vacuoles, in lysosomes, or in the golgi apparatus.

Three different types of endocytosis have been identified:

3.1. PHAGOCYTOSIS
Means cell eating and applies to endocytosis when solid particles are ingested.
It is an important means by which white blood cells take up and destroy harmful
substances that have entered the body.

3.2. PHINOCYTOSIS
Means cell drinking.
It is distinguished from phagosytosis in that much smaller vesicles are formed,
they contain liquid rather than particles, and the cell membrane invaginates to
form the vesicles that are taken into the cell.

3.3. ADSORPTIVE ENDOCYTOSIS (Receptor- Mediated endocytosis)


Specific substances binds selectively to plasma membrane receptors and are
transported into the cell in vacuoles, probably by the action of some kind of
carrier.
This process allows the cell concentrate a substance against the concentration
gradient.

3. TRANCYTOSIS
This involves transfer of substances across the cell, i.e., from one side of cell to the other.

4. SOLVENT DRAG
This accompanies bulk flow of water.

THE CELL DIVISION

The ability of cells to divide and produce new cell is essential property of living things. Without this ability,
even a small cuts scratches would not heal, and fertilized eggs would never develop into new individuals.
A. MITOSIS

1. DNA REPLICATION
Begin as a segments of the nucleotide strands of each double helix of DNA separate and expose
strands of unpaired bases. Each strands is replicated separately and a small segment of RNA
primer starts the process.

2. MITOSIS

STAGE EVENTS
INTERPHASE
G1 Metabolism, no known events related to cell
division

S Synthesis of DNA to replicate chromosomes


and replication of kinetochores

Metabolisms, no known events related to cell


G2 division

PROPHASE Chromosomes condense and become shorter


and thicker
Nucleulus and nuclear envelope disappear
Centrioles divide and each pair move to
opposite side of the cell
Spindle fibers form between centrioles

METAPHASE Chromosomes move to center of spindle


Kinetochores of each chromatid attach to
spindle fibers

ANAPHASE A force developed by spindle fibers pulls on


kinetochores; the chromatids separate and
move toward opposite ends of the spindle
Chromatids are now called chromosomes

TELOPHASE One of each kind of chromosome arrives at


each of the poles of the cell
Nucleulus and nuclear envelope reappear
Spindle fibers disappear
Chromosomes unfold and become longer and
thinner

3. CYTOKINESIS
Occurs concurrently with anaphase and telophase
Cytoplasm becomes furrowed between the two nuclei
Growth of plasma membrane completes separation of new cells
B. MEIOSIS
This is the process of cell division that occurs in the formation of reproductive cells
(gametes- the ova and spermatozoa). The ova grow to maturity in the ovaries of the
female and the spermatozoa in the testes of the male. During meiosis the pairs of
chromosomes separate and one from each pair moves to opposite poles of the “parent”
cell. When it divides, each of the daughter cell has only 23 chromosomes. This means
that when the ovum is fertilized the resultant zygote has the full complement of 46
chromosomes, half from the father and half from the mother.

Determination of sex depends upon one pair of chromosomes, the sex chromosome. In
the female both sex hormones are the same size and shape are called X-chromosomes.
In the males there is one X chromosome and a slightly smaller Y chromosome. When the
ovum is fertilized by an X bearing spermatozoon the child is female and when by a Y
bearing spermatozoon the child is male.

Sperm X + ovum X= Child XX ------ Female


Sperm Y + ovum X= Child XY ------ Male