Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263655243

Modelling and Simulation of Glycol Dehydration


Unit of a Natural Gas Plant

Article · January 2013

CITATIONS READS

0 153

3 authors, including:

Jackson Akpa
Rivers State University of Science and Technology
26 PUBLICATIONS 35 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Designing bioreactor for treatment of petroleum sludge View project

DESIGN OF AN ABSORBER FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT USING A PACKED BED REACTOR WITH
ACTIVATED CARBON FROM PERIWINKLE SHELL View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Jackson Akpa on 05 July 2014.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


International Journal of Engineering and Technology Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

Modelling and Simulation of Glycol Dehydration Unit of a


Natural Gas Plant
Akpa, Jackson Gunorubon1, Igbagara, Princewill W2.
1
Department of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering
Rivers State University of Science and Technology,
Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
2
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT
Mathematical models for the prediction of water content, gas and solvent temperatures of the absorber of a natural gas glycol
dehydration facility were developed. The models developed contain contributions from bulk and diffusion flows, however
only the effect of diffusion on the process occurring in the absorber was studied. The developed models were second order
partial differential equations. The Laplace transform technique was applied to obtain analytical solutions of the model
equations. The models were validated using the plant data from an SPDC TEG unit in Gbaran Ubie, Bayelsa State. The
results showed a reasonable agreement between the model predictions and industrial plant data. The model predicted the
amount of water in the gas stream at the end of the absorption process very accurately with a deviation of 0%., the gas and
solvent temperatures with deviations of 1.584% and 2.844% respectively. These results show that diffusion alone can be use
to accurately model the absorption process. The effects of certain process variables such as residence time, gas inlet water
content, mass and thermal Diffusivities of the gas on the performance of the absorber was studied

Keywords: modeling, simulation, absorption unit, dehydration, natural gas, water content, Triethylene glycol.

NOMENCLATURE
CAg Concentration of water vapour in the gas stream, mol/m3
DA Mass diffusivity of water vapour, m2/s
KG Thermal diffusivity of TEG, m2/s
KL Thermal conductivity of TEG, KW/m2K
KT Thermal diffusivity of water vapour, m2/s
Mi Molar mass of component i, kg/kmol
s Laplace transforms variable
t Residence time, s.
Tg Gas temperature, °C
TL Liquid (TEG) temperature, °C
V1 Molar volume of water vapour, m3/kmol
Vg Gas velocity, m/s
2 Solvent association parameter for TEG
xA Water content, weight %
yA Water content, mole %, mole fraction or lb H2O/MMscf
yA Water content in the Laplace domain
z Packing height, m
μ2 Viscosity of TEG, Pa.sec
π Pi
ρi Density of component i, kg/m3

ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 736
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

1. INTRODUCTION Parish, (2006), Manning and Thomson, (1991), Gas


Processors Suppliers Association, (2004)). The treatment
Raw natural gas can be obtained from oil wells, gas wells method used is expected to reduce the amount of water in
and condensate wells (Ikoku, 1992). It is “associated gas” the natural gas to levels required for safe gas transmission
when it is obtained from oil wells and can exist separate by pipelines and that do not cause any damage to
from the crude oil (as free gas) or dissolved in the oil (as equipment.
dissolved gas); it is “non-associated gas” when obtained To achieve this, the dehydration unit or plant has to be
from gas or condensate wells; in this form it is found with properly designed. Modeling and simulation of the
little or no crude oil (Guo and Ghalambork, 2005). absorber gives insight into the performance of the
Natural gas is composed almost entirely of methane. absorber at varying operating conditions and provides
However, whatever its source, natural gas commonly sufficient data required for proper design. Modeling of the
exists in a mixture with other hydrocarbons, principally absorber could be performed via a thermodynamic or
ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes. In addition, raw fundamental model.
natural gas also contains water vapor, hydrogen sulphide,
carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen and other trace Thermodynamic models involve the selection of a suitable
compounds ( Spieight, 2007). thermodynamic model and software simulator while
fundamental models involve the use of conservation
Natural gas from the well has to be transported via principles to develop mathematical equations of the
pipelines to where it is processed and to end users or process. Works on thermodynamic models abound
buyers. Natural gas to be transported by pipelines or (Kazemi and Hamidi, (2011), Peyghambarzadeh and
processed, must meet certain specifications. Such Jafarpour (2006)); where the thermodynamic behavior of
specifications include delivery pressure, rate, temperature, the system (TEG-Water) were represented by means of
allowable concentrations of contaminants such as carbon the Peng and Robinson equation of state or the cubic
dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), cleanliness equation of state while software simulators commonly
(allowable solid content), minimum heating value and used includes Aspen-Hysys, Chemcad and Pro II.
maximum water content (water dew point) (Kazemi and Thermodynamic modelling of the TEG-water system is
Hamidi, 2011) . still being reported (Kazemi and Hamidi, 2011) to be
rather inaccurate.
Water vapour is the most common undesirable impurity
found in natural gas and is usually present in Fundamental models are derived from mass, energy and
concentrations in the range of 400-600 lbH20/MMSCF of momentum balances of the process, these abound for
gas (Ikoku, 1992). In the course of transmission and similar systems with vary complexities; Gomez et al.,
processing, change in temperature and pressure of the (2003) modeled only bulk flow contribution while Ahmed
natural gas occur. These changes in temperature and et al., (2007) and John, (2009) modeled bulk and diffusion
pressure condense the natural gas vapor altering its contributions. The contribution of the diffusion term to
physical state from gas to liquid and or liquid to solid. the absorption process and the efficiency of the absorber
These changes in state result in diverse problems for the have not been investigated. The effects of diffusion on the
transmission lines and processing facilities such as mathematical models for gas absorption are therefore
plugging of transmission lines (pipelines) and equipment investigated in this work.
such as valves by hydrates formed by the physical
combination of water and natural gas/molecules of 2. PROCESS DESCRIPTION
hydrocarbon, corrosion by acidic solutions formed by the
dissolution of water in hydrogen sulphide and or carbon Figure 1(a) shows a simplified TEG absorber with the
dioxide contained in natural gas, low flow efficiency and inflow and outflow streams, while in Figure 1(b), an
corrosion due to slugging flow conditions by liquid water elemental packed height is shown, with its associated
in natural gas and decrease in the heating value due to the inflow and outflow streams.
water content in the natural gas. To avoid these problems
water vapor in the natural gas must be reduced to
acceptable industrial levels typically in the range of 4 to 7
lb per MMSCF (Ikoku, 1992 and GPSA, 2004). Hence
natural gas treatment is essential.

Methods for water treating of natural gas includes:


adsorption (Kohl and Riesenfeld, 1974), absorption
(Campbell et al., 1982), membrane process (Shell, 1982.),
methanol process (Minkkinen, 1992.) and refrigeration
(Kindnay and Parish, 2006). Amongst these methods
absorption using liquid solvent (triethylene glycol TEG)
Figure 1(a): Absorber
as absorbent remains the most popular (Kindnay and
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 737
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

Packed column is used, the absorber is well-lagged, hence


Secondary heat effects (heat losses and heat of mixing)
are negligible, there is no reaction occurring, hence the
reaction term is not considered, the effect of change in
total flow rate in the column is ignored, and an average
constant value is assumed (McCabe et al., 2005), Since
the water vapour is the only diffusing component, the
diffusion term was not considered for the liquid phase.
The diffusion term is accounted for using the Flicks’ law.
The glycol loses some amount of heat (Q) to the gas phase
by conduction which will be accounted for by Fourier’s
law. Plug flow conditions prevail.

MATERIAL BALANCE
Figure 1 (b): Balance on Element Z
With these assumptions water vapor component mole
In Figure 1(a), G is the molar flow rate of the gas stream, balance and energy balance (for the gas and liquid phases)
y0 its initial water content, CAog, the inlet water vapor for a differential element of the absorber as shown in
concentration, G, y and CAG are respectively the dry gas Figure 1b results in the following equations:
parameters. For the TEG stream, L, x0 and CA0L represent
the inlet flow rate, initial water content and water
concentration respectively, similarly, L, x and C AL are (1)
their respective rich TEG parameters. Fig. 1(b) shows a
material balance on the elemental packing height (ΔZ). Where Vg is the gas velocity in m/s
The component balance for component A (water vapor) is
taken across the elemental packing height (ΔZ). Energy Balance for Gas Phase

2.1 TEG-Dehydration Process (2)


A typical TEG-dehydration process can be divided into
two major parts, gas dehydration and solvent (triethylene Equation (2) is simplified to give:
glycol, TEG) regeneration. In the dehydration, water is
removed from the gas using TEG and in the regeneration,
water is removed from the solvent (TEG). Natural gas (3)
enters the unit at the bottom of the absorber tower and
rises through the tower were it intimately contacts the Energy Balance for Liquid Phase
TEG solution flowing from the top of the absorber
downward across the trays or structured packing. Through
this contact, the gas gives up its water vapor to the TEG. (4)
The water laden TEG is circulated in a closed system,
where the water is boiled from the TEG. The regenerated Where KG, KT are the thermal diffusivity of the liquid and
TEG is then re-circulated to the contacting tower. water vapor, Cpg and Cpl are the specific heat of the water
3. METHODOLOGY vapor in the gas stream and liquid stream, Tog and Tg are

3.1 MODEL DEVELOPMENT the inlet and outlet temperatures of the gas stream, A is
the cross-sectional area of the packed section, T L is the
Mathematical models that could predict the performance temperature of the liquid stream, CAg is the concentration
of the absorber were developed using the principle of of water vapor in the gas stream.
conservation of mass and energy. The models would
predict the amount of water vapor removed from the gas Neglecting the contribution from bulk flow, the model
stream and the temperature progression along the packing equations for adsorption by diffusion only with the
height of the absorber for the gas and liquid (TEG) appropriate boundary conditions are as follows:
phases. Gas water content:
3.2 Model Assumptions
(5)
The following assumptions were made in the development
of the model equations:
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 738
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

(6) The solution of the characteristic equation of equation


(15) gives:
(7)
(17)
Gas Temperature progression:

(8) Substituting equation (17) into equation (16) gives:

(9) (18)

(10) Where A and B are the constants of integration.


According to Stephenson (1986), to obtain a bounded
TEG Temperature progression: solution for y A ( z, t ) , y A ( z, s) should be bounded.
Accordingly, the constant A in equation (18) is taken to
(11) be zero and substituting the initial condition, equation (7);
the solution of equation (18) is:
(12)
(19)
(13)
Equation (19) is inverted to the time domain to yield:
4. SOLUTION TECHNIQUE OF MODEL
EQUATION (20)
The model equations developed were 2nd order partial
differential equations. The transform method which Using appropriate series expansion, equation (20) is
reduces a given partial differential equation and its written finally as:
boundary conditions to an ordinary differential equation
by applying the integral transform with respect to one of (21)
the independent variables (Stephenson, 1986), in this case
time (t) was adapted for the solution of the model The same procedure was followed to solve the other
equations. The Laplace transform was used to transform model equations to yield:
the differential term with respect to the independent
variable (t) in the model equations, thus converting the
(22)
equations to 2nd order ordinary differential equations in
the independent variable, z. The resultant 2nd order
differential equations were then solved analytically; the (23)
results being in the s domain were inverted back to the t
domain using inverse Laplace transform and finally given 5. OPERATING PARAMETERS
in a suitable form using appropriate mathematical
manipulations. To use the final model equations of the absorber (eqns.
(21), (22) and (23)) require the determination of certain
Applying this procedure to equation (5); the Laplace constants, physical properties and compositions of natural
transform of eqn. (5) with respect to time gives: gas, water vapor and triethylene glycol. These properties
(14) were determined as follows:

Substituting the boundary condition, equation (6) into 5.1 Mass Diffusivity (DA)
equation (14) gives:
The mass diffusivity of water vapour in triethylene glycol
(TEG) was obtained using equation given by Perry et al
(15)
(1999):
The solution of equation (15) is:
(24)
(16)
where  2 is the solvent viscosity at temperature T in Pa
sec, V1 is the solute molar volume at the normal boiling
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 739
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

point in m3/kmole, x2 is the solvent association parameter


and M2 he solvent molecular weight. Physical Properties of Gas and Glycol (TEG)
5.2 Thermal Diffusivity (KT) The physical properties of the wet gas and glycol were
The thermal diffusivity of water vapor was obtained online obtained from Perry et al (1999) and tabulated as shown
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/thermal_diffusivity. in Table 1.

Table 1: Physical properties of components (Perry et al, 1999)


Property TEG H2O Gas
Molar mass 150.17 18.02 19.83
Molar volume, m3/kmol 0.01813
Mass diffusivity, m2/s 3.80x10-10
Thermal diffusivity, m2/s 2.338x10-5
Density, kg/m3 1125 1000
Solvent Viscosity (Pa sec.) 0.01355515

Data from a Shell Petroleum Development Company gas dehydrating unit at Gbaran Ubie in Bayelsa State are given in Table
2 (SPDC Plant data, 2007).
Table 2: Plant Data showing inlet conditions (SPDC, 2007)
COMPONENT GAS STREAM (Weight %) GLYCOL STREAM (Weight %)
INPUT OUTPUT INPUT OUTPUT
TEG - - 99.51 95.36
H2O 0.17 0.01 0.49 4.64
GAS 99.83 99.99 - -
TOTAL 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
TEMP 50.00 51.30 55.00 51
Absorber height 0.004m

6. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS stream and temperature of the gas and solvent streams as
predicted by the models developed. The results obtained
6.1 Model Validation were tabulated in Table 3 with the outlet values of these
parameters from the SPDC gas absorption unit in Gbaran
The input data in Table 2 were used in equations (21), Ubie for comparison.
(22) and (23) to obtain the amount of water in the gas

Table 3: Comparison of model result and plant data


Parameter Plant data Model result % Deviation
Gas water content, mole 0.00011 1.0717x10-14 0
fraction
Gas temperature, °C 51.3 50.4874 1.584
TEG temperature, °C 51 49.5497 2.844

The results showed a reasonable agreement between the of 0%. The results also showed that the models accurately
model predictions and industrial plant data. The model predicted the gas and solvent temperatures with deviations
predicted the amount of water in the gas stream at the end of 1.584% and 2.844% respectively. These trends are
of the absorption process very accurately with a deviation shown in Figures 2 and 3 respectively.

ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 740
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

0.002
water content of gas from bottom of column,
0.0018
0.0016
0.0014
0.0012
yA(z,t)

0.001
0.0008
0.0006
0.0004
0.0002
0
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
column height, z ( m)

Figure 2: Variation of water content of gas with column height

56

55 TL(z,t), °C, Tg(z,t), °C


Temperature of stream (OC)

54

53

52

51

50

49
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
Column Height (m)

Figure 3: Temperature progression of gas and liquid streams along the Absorber.

The temperature of the gas stream increased gradually and developed were investigated. The effects of varying each
very slightly as the gas flows up the column while that of of these parameters on performance of the absorber are
the solvent decreased as it flows down the column. From presented.
the ideal gas law, as temperature increases, the volume of
a gas also increases; therefore, at higher temperatures, less Effects of Natural Gas Residence Time on the
gas is absorbed due its larger volume. This trend is seen in Absorber Performance (Outlet Water
Figure 2 from the very slow rate of absorption after the
initial high rate as the gas temperature increased slightly. Content of Natural Gas)

6.2 Model Simulation The effects of residence time on the water content of the
gas along the column height are shown in Figure 4 below.
The effects of residence time, gas inlet water content,
mass and thermal Diffusivities of the gas on the models

ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 741
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

100
water content of gas from bottom of column, yA(z,t),

80
t= 20 sec

60 t= 40 sec
lb H₂O/ MMscf gas

t = 60 sec

40 t = 80 sec

t =120 sec

20

0
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
column height, z ( m)

Figure 4: Variation of water content of gas along column height

There was a reduction in the water content of gas stream Effects of Gas and Solvent Residence Time
as the gas flows along the column height from bottom to on the Gas and Solvent Temperature
top for all residence time considered. However, the lower
the residence time of the gas in the column the lower the The effects of the gas and solvent residence time on the
amount of water in the gas stream at the exit of the gas and solvent outlet temperatures are shown in Figures
column, that is the lower the residence time the higher the 5 and 6 respectively.
rate of absorption of water vapor, the more efficient the
absorber and vice versa.
50.6
t= 20 sec t = 40 sec t = 60sec t = 80 sec t = 120 sec
Temperature of gas stream from bottom of

50.5

50.4
column, Tg(z,t), °C

50.3

50.2

50.1

50

49.9
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
column height, z ( m)
Figure 5: Variation of the temperature of the gas stream with residence time

ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 742
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

56

TEG temperature from top of


t= 20 sec t= 40 sec t= 60 sec t= 80 sec t= 120 sec
55

column, TL(z,t), °C
54
53
52
51
50
49
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
column height, z ( m)
Figure 6: Variation of temperature of solvent (TEG) with residence time

These Figures showed that the temperature of the gas Temperature has also been found to affect solubility
stream increased as the gas flows up the column while (Gomez and Schbib, 2003), as temperature increases the
that of the solvent decreased as the solvent flows down amount of gas that can be absorbed by a liquid decreases.
the column for all residence time considered. The Figures That is, solubility decreases with temperature. This trend
also showed that the outlet temperature of the gas stream the model predicts accurately in Figure 4 as the outlet
decreased while that of the solvent increased with water quantity in the gas stream increased at higher
increase in gas and solvent residence time. residence times indicating a reduction in absorption rate
hence, a reduction of the gas solubility in the solvent as
The residence time is the duration a component (gas or the gas temperature (Figure 3) increase and in Figure 6
solvent) spends in the absorber. Higher residence times where this reduction in gas solubility results in higher
can be achieved by a reduction of the component flow outlet temperatures of the solvent.
rate and vice versa. Reduction of the component flow rate Effect of Mass Diffusivity on Absorber
results in a reduction in the pressure of the column. From Performance (Outlet Gas Water Content)
the ideal gas law, the reduction in column pressure will
result in a decreased gas temperature. Hence the higher The mass diffusivity was varied with respect to the value
the gas residence time the lower the outlet gas calculated for water vapor. The mass diffusivity of water
temperature. At higher residence time less gas and solvent vapor was calculated using equation (24). The effects of
flows into the absorber. The quantity of water from the the mass diffusivity of water vapor on the absorber
gas stream is less hence the amount of water absorbed by performance indicated by the outlet gas water content are
the solvent is also reduced (smaller). This reduced shown in Figure 8.
quantity of water absorbed by the solvent results in higher
temperatures of the solvent.

0.002
0.0018
water content of gas from
bottom of column, yA(z,t)

0.0016 yA(z,t), DA E-
4
0.0014 yA(z,t), DA E-
5
0.0012 yA(z,t), DA E-
6
0.001 yA(z,t), DA E-
0.0008 7
yA(z,t), DA E-
0.0006 8
yA(z,t), DA E-
0.0004 9

0.0002
0
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
column height, z ( m)
Fig. 8: Variation of water content of gas at different mass diffusivities at t= 20 seconds
ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 743
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

The mass diffusivity of a material determines the rate at keeping that of TEG constant, the higher the diffusivity of
which a given component is transferred across a TEG with respect to that of water vapor, then the faster
concentration gradient. Water vapor is transferred from the water vapor diffuses into the TEG solvent. This trend
the gas stream to the liquid solvent stream. The observed the developed model predicted accurately as shown in
effect of mass diffusivity on the rate of water vapor Figure 8 where the rate of absorption of water vapor
transfer from the gas stream to the solvent liquid stream is increases as the mass diffusivity decreases (higher
shown in Figure 8. diffusivity of TEG relative to that of water vapor). Mass
diffusivity increases with increasing temperature and
Figure 8 showed that the rate of absorption of water vapor decreases as pressure increases. The pressure of the
(the rate of transfer of water vapor to the triethylene column can be increased by increasing the component
glycol stream) decreases as the gas flows up the column flow rate and vice versa, hence increasing flow rate
for all values of mass diffusivity investigated. Figure 8 decreases the mass diffusivity and vice versa.
also showed that the water content in the gas stream at the
outlet of the absorber reduced as the mass diffusivity was Effect of Thermal Diffusivity on Absorber
reduced (lower values of mass diffusivity). That is, the
rate of absorption of water vapor increases as the mass Performance (Solvent (TEG) Temperature)
diffusivity decreases. At lower values of mass diffusivity
the rate of absorption was higher. The effects of the thermal diffusivity of water vapor on
the absorber performance indicated by the outlet
The higher the diffusivity (of one substance with respect temperature of solvent (Tri ethylene glycol) are shown in
to another), the faster they diffuse into each other Figure 9.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/thermal_diffusivity). That is,
if the mass diffusivity of the water vapor is decreased
60
TL(z,t), °C, KA E-4
TEG temperature from top of column,

50
TL(z,t), °C, KA E-5

40 TL(z,t), °C, KA E-6


TL(z,t), °C

30 TL(z,t), °C, KA E-7

TL(z,t), °C, KA E-8


20
TL(z,t), °C, KA E-9
10
TL(z,t), °C, KA E-10

0
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
column height, z ( m)
Fig. 9: Variation of temperature of TEG at different thermal diffusivities at t= 20 seconds

Figure 9 showed that the temperature of the solvent triethylene glycol stream as predicted by the model in
(triethylene glycol) decreases down the column at a given Figure 9.
thermal diffusivity. This decrease is faster as the thermal
diffusivity decreases. Figure 9 also showed that the outlet 7. CONCLUSION
temperature of the solvent decreases as the thermal
diffusivity decreases. Thermal diffusivity is the property Mathematical models of the absorber of a glycol
of a material which describes the rate of heat flow through dehydration facility was developed using the principles of
the material. A high thermal diffusivity means a higher conservation of mass and energy. The model predicted the
conductivity compared to heat capacity. This means that water content of natural gas (in mole fraction) across an
the material conducts more heat rather than stores it. absorber column. Similar models were developed for the
Therefore the higher the thermal diffusivity of the gas, the variation of the gas and liquid (TEG) temperatures across
more heat it conducts out which is absorbed by the the packing height of the absorber. The models developed
triethylene glycol stream. Hence an increase in the contain contributions from bulk and diffusion flows. The
thermal diffusivity increases the temperature of the effect of diffusion on the process occurring in the

ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 744
International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) – Volume 3 No. 7, July, 2013

absorber was studied in this work. The models were [8] John, N. (2009), Development of a Model for Wet
validated using the plant data from an SPDC TEG unit in Scrubbing of Carbon Dioxide by Chilled Ammonia,
Gbaran Ubie, Bayelsa State. The results showed a Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund
reasonable agreement between the model predictions and University, Lund, Sweden.
industrial plant data. The model predicted the amount of
water in the gas stream at the end of the absorption [9] Kazemi, P. and Hamidi, R. (2011), Sensitivity
process very accurately with a deviation of 0%. The Analysis of a Natural Gas Triethylene Glycol
results also showed that the models accurately predicted Dehydration Plant In Persian Gulf Region, Petroleum
the gas and solvent temperatures with deviations of & Coal 53(1) 71-77.
1.584% and 2.844% respectively. Results showed that
diffusion alone can be used to model the absorption [10] Kindnay, A. J. and Parish, W. R. (2006),
process. The effects of certain process variables such as Fundamentals of natural gas processing, Taylor and
residence time, gas inlet water content, mass and thermal Francis Group.
Diffusivities of the gas on the performance of the absorber
was studied, thus provides new range of operating [11] Kohl, A. L. and Riesenfeld, F. C. (1974), Gas
conditions to meet stringent industry and environmental purification, Gulf Publishing Co.
concerns.
[12] Manning, F. S. and Thomson, R. E. (1991), Oilfield
REFERENCES processing of petroleum-vol. 1, Natural gas, 1st ed.,
Pennwell Publishing Co.
[1] Ahmed, A., Paitoon T. and Raphael I. (2007),
applications of new absorption kinetics and [13] Minkkinen, A. (1992), Methanol gas-treating scheme
vapor/liquid equilibrium models to simulation of a offers economics, versatility, Oil and Gas J., 65, June
pilot plant for carbon dioxide absorption into high issue.
co2-loaded, concentrated monoethanolamine
solutions, chemindix, ccu/09, International Test [14] McCabe, W. L., Smith, J. and Harriott, P. (2005),
Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture (ITC), Faculty of Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th ed.,
Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S McGraw Hill International Edition, New York, pp
0A2, Canada. 576-578.

[2] Campbell, J. M., Maddox, R. N., Sheerar, L. F. and [15] Perry, R. H. and Green, D. W. (1999), Perry’s
Erbar, J., H. (1982), Gas Conditioning and Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 7th ed., McGraw
Processing, Volume 3, Campbell Petroleum Series Hill companies Inc, New York, sections 1, 2 and 14.
Norman Oklahoma. Pp. 10-1, 10-33.
[16] Peyghambarzadeh, S. M. and Jafarpour, M. (2006),
[3] Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA), Impact of Thermodynamic Model on the Simulation
(2004): Engineering Data Book, 12th Edition, p. 20- of Natural Gas Dehydration Unit, 6th National-
23 20-29. Student Chemical Engineering Congress, University
of Isfaham, pp 1-10.
[4] Gómez, C., Borio, D. O. and Schbib, N. S. (2003),
Simulation of an Industrial Packed Column for [17] Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) of
Reactive Absorption of co2, Latin American Applied Nigeria, (2007), Gbaran Ubie Integrated Oil & Gas
Research, Vol. 33, Argentina, pp 201-205. Development Project, Gas Dehydration & Glycol
Regeneration Packages Operating Manual.
[5] Guo, B. and Ghalambork, A. (2005), Natural Gas
Engineering Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, p. [18] Shell, W. J. (1982), Spirall-wound permeators for
123 - 147. purification and recovery, CEP, 33, Oct. issue.

[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/thermal_diffusivity, [19] Speight, J. G. (2007), Natural Gas: A Basic


retrieved on 16/01/2013 by 12:35 pm. Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Engineering
(2nd Edition), Elsevier.
[7] Ikoku, C. U. (1992), Natural Gas Production
Engineering, Reprint ed., Kreiger Publishing [20] Stephenson, G. (1986), Partial Differential Equations
Company, Malabar, Florida, USA, pp 20, 133-171. for Scientists and Engineers, 3rd ed., Longman Inc.,
New York, pp 89-134.

ISSN: 2049-3444 © 2013 – IJET Publications UK. All rights reserved. 745

View publication stats