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Properties of Matter

You have already looked at the difference between

physical changes and chemical changes.

A chemical change occurs when a substance changes
into a new substance with different chemical
properties e.g. iron rusting or burning charcoal.

Chemical reactions involve many chemicals, as in

explosions of dynamite, bathroom cleaners
working on a stain or as in the growth of your

Chemists use a word equation to represent these

types of reactions…it tells us what reacts and
what is produced.
The starting materials in a chemical change are called
reactants and the new materials made are called

Iron + oxygen makes rust or iron (III) oxide

Fe + O2 makes Fe2O3

Reactants Products
Equation format:

All the reactants All the products

Reactants and products can be separated by a (+) sign

Reactant 1 + Reactant 2 Product 1 + Product 2


hydrogen + oxygen water

Conserving Mass
The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in a
chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants
is always equal to the total mass of the products.

This is because during the chemical reaction the

individual atoms that make up the reactants are
simply rearranged into new patterns or products, no
matter is lost or added during the process.

hydrogen + oxygen water

25 g 10 g ?g

Skeleton Equations

A skeleton equation is representation of a

chemical reaction in which the formulas of the
reactants are connected to the formulas of the
products by an arrow.

methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

(word equation)

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H20

(skeleton equation)

Skeleton Equations-
The problem with a skeleton equation is that it does not follow the Law
of Conservation of Mass. By looking at the # of atoms on each side of
the above equation we can see that they are not the same on both sides
of the equation.

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H20 (skeleton equation)

1C + 2O 1C + 2H

4H 2O 1O

16g 32g 44g 18g

48g 62g (mass is not the same)

To make the equation follow the Law of Conservation of
Mass we must rewrite it as a balanced equation.

To do this we will use multipliers at the front of each

chemical formula . These multipliers are called
coefficients. These allow us to get the same number of
atoms on each side of the equation.

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H20

1C + 4O 1C + 4H

4H 2O 2O

16g 64g 44g 36g

80g = 80g (mass is now the same)

Balancing Equations
Wednesday, March 10, 2010
Read between the lines Settle down

Merry go round

Strawberry shortcake Square dance

Homework Check/Review

2 questions from balancing equations

Balancing Equations

Finish balancing equations sheet

from yesterday
How to balance an Equation

1) write the word equation for the reaction

Lead (II) Nitrate + Potassium Iodide Lead(II) Iodide + Potassium Nitrate

2) Write the skeleton equation by replacing each name

with the correct formula

Pb(NO3)2 + KI PbI2 + KNO3

3) Count the # of atoms of each type in the reactants and

Pb(NO3)2 + KI PbI2 + KNO3

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
N: 2 N: 1
K: 1 K: 1
I: 1 I: 2
O: 6 O: 3

*** Use the ECHO rule : Count and balance the atoms in this
order Element (all) then Carbon Hydrogen and finally Oxygen
4) multiply each of the formulas by the appropriate
coefficients to balance the number of atoms

Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 KNO3

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
N: 2 N: 1 2
K: 1 2 K: 1 2
I: 1 2 I: 2
O: 6 O: 3 6

We now have the same number of each element on both

sides so the equation is balanced.

Balancing Equations
Thursday, March 11, 2010
Homework Check

Balancing Equations Worksheet

Better safe than sorry Beginning of the end

No where in sight

All hands on deck

Growing old
Housekeeping Items

• Lab Write-Ups: admin. detention

• Lab Tomorrow- Room 321

Polyatomic short cut : if you can see a polyatomic ion group
that is unchanged in the reaction you could balance it as a
group rather than as individual atoms

Pb(NO3)2 + KI PbI2 + K(NO3)

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
K: 1 K: 1
I: 1 I: 2
NO3: 2 NO3: 1
Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 K(NO3)

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
K: 1 2 K: 1 2
I: 1 2 I: 2
NO3: 2 NO3: 1 2

Finish Balancing Equations

Sheet (from yesterday)

New Balancing Equations

Monday, March 15, 2010
Homework Check

Balancing equations worksheet #2

Waterfall Partly cloudy Vitamin A deficiency

No two ways about it Pour down Open & closed case

Lab Review
• Chemical reactions observed

• Lab reports due by WEDNESDAY

• Previous lab reports- admin. detention


• Edline
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Try to understand
Split second timing

Red in the face Line up alphabetically

Housekeeping Items
Labs due tomorrow (latest)

Admin detention- anyone spoken to

yesterday who still has not given me their
last lab

Library- Thursday

Test- Friday (this will end Chem. unit)

Homework Review

Balancing equations questions (7)

Balancing Equations- Review
Balance each of the following equations:

1. Al + O2  Al2O3

2. NaOH + HBr  NaBr + H2O

3. Mg + N2  Mg3N2

4. Co + Cl2  CoCl

5. Ca + OH  Ca(OH)2
Wednesday, March 17, 2010
Once in a blue moon Two left feet

Small talk

Jack in the box Robin hood

Housekeeping Items

Labs due

Library- Tomorrow

Test- Friday (this will end Chem. unit)

Test Outline

• Difference between physical & chemical changes

• Characteristics of Chemical Reactions

• Skeleton Equations (from word equations)

• Balancing Equations

• Identify types of Chemical Reactions


Types of Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions :
Synthesis or Combination Reaction (putting things together)
Involves the combination of smaller atoms or molecules
becoming larger molecules.

A + B AB

Element + Element Compound

2H2 + O2 2H2O

Compound + Compound Compound

HCl + NH3 NH4Cl
Decomposition Reaction (taking things apart)
Involves the breaking apart of a larger molecule into
smaller molecules
AB A + B

Compound Element + Element

2H2O 2H2 O2

Compound Compound + Compound

Single Displacement Reaction

Involves the displacement of one element in a compound by

another similar element, metals will replace metals and
nonmetals will replace nonmetals .

element + compound element + compound

A + BC B + AC
metal + compound metal + compound

Fe + AlCl3 Al + FeCl3
Double Displacement

Involves the displacement of an element in one compound for

a similar element in another compound

Compound + Compound Compound + Compound

Lead(II) Chloride + Potassium Iodide Potassium Chloride + Lead(II) Iodide

PbCl2 + 2 KI 2 KCl + PbI2

In the above example the metals switched places


One of the most common and useful chemical

reactions is combustion (burning of a fossil fuel).

Fuel + oxygen oxides + energy

For a fuel to burn we need oxygen and since the Earth’s atmosphere is
21% oxygen, combustion can occur very easily. It is combustion that
gives us heat energy for our homes, electricity, and allows is to run our

The most important fuels that we burn are hydrocarbons or fuels made
of hydrogen and carbon like gasoline (C8H18), natural gas (CH4), and even
candles (C25H52).
The word equation for the combustion of a hydrocarbon is :

Hydrocarbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + water

Complete Combustion Incomplete Combustion

Examples of combustion reactions (choose one of the
following boxes and copy it into your notes):

Gasoline + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + energy

C8H18 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy

Methane + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + energy

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy

Candle Wax + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + energy

C25H52 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy

Friday, March 19, 2010
Half hearted
Moral support


Turn the other cheek Green with envy