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Properties of Matter

You have already looked at the difference between


physical changes and chemical changes.

Remember:
A chemical change occurs when a substance changes
into a new substance with different chemical
properties e.g. iron rusting or burning charcoal.
Equations

Chemical reactions involve many chemicals, as in


explosions of dynamite, bathroom cleaners
working on a stain or as in the growth of your
body.

Chemists use a word equation to represent these


types of reactions…it tells us what reacts and
what is produced.
The starting materials in a chemical change are called
reactants and the new materials made are called
products.

Iron + oxygen makes rust or iron (III) oxide

Fe + O2 makes Fe2O3

Reactants Products
Equation format:

All the reactants All the products

Reactants and products can be separated by a (+) sign

Reactant 1 + Reactant 2 Product 1 + Product 2

Example:

hydrogen + oxygen water


Conserving Mass
The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in a
chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants
is always equal to the total mass of the products.

This is because during the chemical reaction the


individual atoms that make up the reactants are
simply rearranged into new patterns or products, no
matter is lost or added during the process.

hydrogen + oxygen water

25 g 10 g ?g

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wwmsy4huZQ0
Skeleton Equations

A skeleton equation is representation of a


chemical reaction in which the formulas of the
reactants are connected to the formulas of the
products by an arrow.

e.g.
methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

(word equation)

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H20

(skeleton equation)
Worksheet

Skeleton Equations-
Homework
The problem with a skeleton equation is that it does not follow the Law
of Conservation of Mass. By looking at the # of atoms on each side of
the above equation we can see that they are not the same on both sides
of the equation.

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H20 (skeleton equation)

1C + 2O 1C + 2H

4H 2O 1O

16g 32g 44g 18g

48g 62g (mass is not the same)


To make the equation follow the Law of Conservation of
Mass we must rewrite it as a balanced equation.

To do this we will use multipliers at the front of each


chemical formula . These multipliers are called
coefficients. These allow us to get the same number of
atoms on each side of the equation.

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H20

1C + 4O 1C + 4H

4H 2O 2O

16g 64g 44g 36g

80g = 80g (mass is now the same)


Balancing Equations
Activity
Wednesday, March 10, 2010
Read between the lines Settle down

Merry go round

Strawberry shortcake Square dance


Homework Check/Review

2 questions from balancing equations


Balancing Equations

Finish balancing equations sheet


from yesterday
How to balance an Equation

1) write the word equation for the reaction


Lead (II) Nitrate + Potassium Iodide Lead(II) Iodide + Potassium Nitrate

2) Write the skeleton equation by replacing each name


with the correct formula

Pb(NO3)2 + KI PbI2 + KNO3


3) Count the # of atoms of each type in the reactants and
products

Pb(NO3)2 + KI PbI2 + KNO3

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
N: 2 N: 1
K: 1 K: 1
I: 1 I: 2
O: 6 O: 3

*** Use the ECHO rule : Count and balance the atoms in this
order Element (all) then Carbon Hydrogen and finally Oxygen
4) multiply each of the formulas by the appropriate
coefficients to balance the number of atoms

Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 KNO3

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
N: 2 N: 1 2
K: 1 2 K: 1 2
I: 1 2 I: 2
O: 6 O: 3 6

We now have the same number of each element on both


sides so the equation is balanced.
Worksheet

Balancing Equations
Thursday, March 11, 2010
Homework Check

Balancing Equations Worksheet


Better safe than sorry Beginning of the end

No where in sight

All hands on deck


Growing old
Housekeeping Items

• Lab Write-Ups: admin. detention

• Lab Tomorrow- Room 321


Polyatomic short cut : if you can see a polyatomic ion group
that is unchanged in the reaction you could balance it as a
group rather than as individual atoms

Pb(NO3)2 + KI PbI2 + K(NO3)

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
K: 1 K: 1
I: 1 I: 2
NO3: 2 NO3: 1
Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 K(NO3)

Pb: 1 Pb: 1
K: 1 2 K: 1 2
I: 1 2 I: 2
NO3: 2 NO3: 1 2
Worksheet

Finish Balancing Equations


Sheet (from yesterday)
Worksheet

New Balancing Equations


Sheet
Monday, March 15, 2010
Homework Check

Balancing equations worksheet #2


Waterfall Partly cloudy Vitamin A deficiency

No two ways about it Pour down Open & closed case


Lab Review
• Chemical reactions observed

• Lab reports due by WEDNESDAY

• Previous lab reports- admin. detention


tomorrow

• Edline
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Try to understand
Split second timing

Red in the face Line up alphabetically


Housekeeping Items
Labs due tomorrow (latest)

Admin detention- anyone spoken to


yesterday who still has not given me their
last lab

Library- Thursday

Test- Friday (this will end Chem. unit)


Homework Review

Balancing equations questions (7)


Balancing Equations- Review
Balance each of the following equations:

1. Al + O2  Al2O3

2. NaOH + HBr  NaBr + H2O

3. Mg + N2  Mg3N2

4. Co + Cl2  CoCl

5. Ca + OH  Ca(OH)2
Wednesday, March 17, 2010
Once in a blue moon Two left feet

Small talk

Jack in the box Robin hood


Housekeeping Items

Labs due

Library- Tomorrow

Test- Friday (this will end Chem. unit)


Test Outline

• Difference between physical & chemical changes

• Characteristics of Chemical Reactions

• Skeleton Equations (from word equations)

• Balancing Equations

• Identify types of Chemical Reactions


Handout

Types of Chemical Reactions


Types of Chemical Reactions :
Synthesis or Combination Reaction (putting things together)
Involves the combination of smaller atoms or molecules
becoming larger molecules.

A + B AB

Element + Element Compound

2H2 + O2 2H2O

Compound + Compound Compound


HCl + NH3 NH4Cl
Decomposition Reaction (taking things apart)
Involves the breaking apart of a larger molecule into
smaller molecules
AB A + B

Compound Element + Element


2H2O 2H2 O2

Compound Compound + Compound


NH4Cl NH3 HCl
Single Displacement Reaction

Involves the displacement of one element in a compound by


another similar element, metals will replace metals and
nonmetals will replace nonmetals .

element + compound element + compound


A + BC B + AC
metal + compound metal + compound

Fe + AlCl3 Al + FeCl3
Double Displacement

Involves the displacement of an element in one compound for


a similar element in another compound

Compound + Compound Compound + Compound

AY + BZ BY + AZ
Lead(II) Chloride + Potassium Iodide Potassium Chloride + Lead(II) Iodide

PbCl2 + 2 KI 2 KCl + PbI2

In the above example the metals switched places


Combustion

One of the most common and useful chemical


reactions is combustion (burning of a fossil fuel).

Fuel + oxygen oxides + energy

For a fuel to burn we need oxygen and since the Earth’s atmosphere is
21% oxygen, combustion can occur very easily. It is combustion that
gives us heat energy for our homes, electricity, and allows is to run our
cars.

The most important fuels that we burn are hydrocarbons or fuels made
of hydrogen and carbon like gasoline (C8H18), natural gas (CH4), and even
candles (C25H52).
The word equation for the combustion of a hydrocarbon is :

Hydrocarbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + water

Complete Combustion Incomplete Combustion


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F54rqDh2
mWA
Examples of combustion reactions (choose one of the
following boxes and copy it into your notes):

Gasoline + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + energy

C8H18 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy

Methane + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + energy

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy

Candle Wax + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + energy

C25H52 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy


Friday, March 19, 2010
Half hearted
Moral support

Matinee

Turn the other cheek Green with envy