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The Philippine Environment

The Philippines: A Tropical Country

 Has an astronomical location of 4 023′ − 210 25′ North latitude and 1160 − 1270 East longitude
 Located above the equator, Northern Hemisphere
 Situated at the Torrid Zone, has a tropical climate with a mean annual temperature of about 27⁰C

The Philippines: The Crossroads of the Pacific

 lies off the southeast coast of Asia
 North: Taiwan
 South: Celebes Sea , Indonesia and Malaysia
 East: Pacific Ocean
 West: South China Sea and Vietnam

The Philippines: A Tropical Country

 Has two seasons:
Dry (December- April) when the wind blows from the northeast (Amihan) and
Wet (May- November; typhoon occurs in the month of June-October) when the wind blows from the
southwest (Habagat)

The Philippines: An Archipelago

 The term archipelago is derived from Greek word “pelagos” meaning sea.
 It has been defined as a sea or part of a sea studded with islands, often synonymous with island groups
or as a large group of islands in an extensive body of water, such as sea.
 It includes both sea and islands which geographically may be considered as an independent whole. (De
Leon, 2008)

The Philippines: An Island Group

 Estimated to have 7,641* islands (according to the National Mapping and Information Resource
Authority) covering an area of about 300,000 km²
 Have the world’s third longest coastline (36, 289 km) after Canada (56,453 km) and Indonesia (91, 053
km); longer than the coastline of Great Britain and USA
 Three Major Geographical Groups:
Luzon- 141, 395 km²
Mindanao- 101, 999 km²
Visayas- 56, 606 km²
 Northernmost point: Y’Ami Isle (78 miles from Taiwan)
 Southernmost point: Saluag Isle (34 miles east of Borneo)

The Philippines: A Country of Biodiversity

 Has a variety of ecosystems: Forests, grasslands, valleys, plains, ponds, rivers, and seas

Luzon’s highest mountain

Mt. Pulag - towers about 2,922 meters above sea level
-3rd highest mountain in the country

Visayas’ highest mountain

Mt. Kanlaon- also called “The Sacred Volcano of Sugar Island”
-towers about 2,435 meters above sea level

Mindanao’s highest mountain

Mt. Apo -towers about 2,954 meters above sea level
-Philippines’ highest mountain; located at Davao and South Cotabato
-Historically, the first recorded climb was on Oct. 10, 1880 by Don Joaquin Rajal

Longest mountain range

Sierra Madre - extends along the Pacific coast from Northern to Central Luzon

Longest river
Cagayan River - 353 km in length
-largest river by discharge volume of water (53, 943 million cubic meters)

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Largest river
Rio Grande de Mindanao-3,034 km in length
-2nd largest river in the Philippines

Largest lake
Laguna De Bay- has an area of 911.7 km²

Philippines’ largest lake above sea level

Lake Lanao -situated just south of Marawi.
-2nd largest lake in the Philippines

Other Ecosystems
Agusan Marsh, Agusan del Sur -Asia’s most important transit points for wildbirds
-has a good number of saltwater and Philippine
Laog Fish pond in Pantabangan, Nueva Ecija -fish supplier in Pantabangan, Nueva Ecija
Leyte Sab-a Marsh in Leyte -its water supply came from the rainfall and the number of
springs and small rivers
-consists of heron, egret, rails and plants like coconut and
rice plant
Estuary de Maypad -drains water from Manila, Navotas and Caloocan
-pumps water to Navotas river

The Philippines: A Country of Wonders

The following are some of the natural wonders that each region has.

Region I Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan

Hundred Islands, Pangasinan -numbers 124 at low tide and 123 at high tide
-have an island called “Marcos Island” named after former
President Ferdinand Marcos and a cave called “Imelda”, named after
________________________ his wife Imelda Marcos

Region II Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino

Palaui Island, Cagayan -made up of volcanic debris, lying between South China Sea
and the Pacific ocean

Region III Zambales, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan
The Mt. Pinatubo - eruption of 1991 was the second largest eruption of the 20th century
-towers about 1,486 meters above sea level
Pampanga River- 2nd largest river in the island of Luzon next to Cagayan river

Region IV-A Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon

Cabag Cave - found in Silang, Cavite
-has an about 50 m-underground river

Region IV-B Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Marinduqe, Romblon, Palawan,

Twin Lagoon, Palawan –its name came from a legend of twins, one wicked and one

Region V Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, Catanduanes, Sorsogon, Masbate

Mayon -a classic stratovolcano with a small central summit crater; its cone is
considered the most perfectly formed volcano for its symmetry, which was
formed through layers of lava flows and pyroclastic surges from past eruptions
and erosions

Region VI Aklan, Antique, Capiz, Iloilo, Guimaras, Negros Occidental

Mt. Majaas - a dormant volcano adorned with several lakes and showcases more
than a dozen scenic waterfalls
-home to many different species of flora and fauna, like rare orchids, wild deer and boar

Region VII Negros Oriental, Cebu, Siquijor, Bohol

Mactan Island Beach -considered as “Diving Mecca of the South” because it has dive
spots around the islands and many more just across the sea to
the other islands

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Pulang Bato Falls (Literally translated as Red Rock Falls)
-its natural red rocks are the reason that the waterfalls is named such; the rocks are yellowish when
dry but when they are touched by the water, they turn red; the water has a slightly rusty smell and
your clothes and skin will be stained if it touches the red rocks

Region VIII Northern Samar, Biliran, Samar, Eastern Samar, Leyte, Southern Leyte
Tinago Falls - means “hidden” as it is likened to a hidden treasure
-offers a breath taking spectacle of water and rock surrounded by the vast forests
and green vegetation. (Caibiran, Biliran)

Region IX Zamboanga Del Norte, Zamboanga Del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay

Pink Sand Beaches - has a pink sand beach, because of the crashed red corals
known as organ pipe corals that blend well with the white sand

Region X Camiguin, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Lanao Del Norte, Bukidnon
White Island - located off the volcanic island of Camiguin
- generally horseshoe-shaped
- has no trees or shelter of any kind and composed solely of white sands

Region XI Davao Del Norte, Compostella Valley, Davao Oriental, Davao Del Sur
Talicud Island - a smaller island situated at the back side of Island Garden of Samal
or literally “sa likod”
-bears fine beaches with white crystal clear water, fine white sand, colorful underwater
-located at Davao del Norte

Region XII South Cotabato, North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani

Asik Asik Falls - (Dulao Falls for the locals) situated in Sitio Dulao of Brgy. Dado,
Almada, North Cotabato
-nested in the lower slope of Mt. Ragang (Mt. Piapayungan/ Blue Mountain), an active
_____________stratovolcano that sits in the boundary of Lanao del Sur and North Cotabato

Region XIII Surigao Del Norte, Agusan Del Norte, Surigao Del Sur, Agusan Del Norte
Agusan River - the third largest river basin of the country
- originates from the slopes of Davao Oriental, traverses northward through
____________Compostella Valley, Agusan Marsh in Agusan del Sur, and Agusan del Norte, before
____________draining into Butuan Bay

CAR Apayao, Abra, Kalinga, Mt. Province, Ifugao, Benguet

Sumaguing Cave - has the largest chambers of all the caves found in Sagada, thus earning its
_______________nickname the “Big Cave”

ARMM Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi

Bulingan Falls in Lamitan, Basilan -a beautiful clear stream of water cascading 21 ft. high into its
____________________________unusual rectangular block rocks

NCR Metro Manila

Masasa, Beach - the sand here isn’t as pearly white but the brightness of its sand is what makes up
______________by the vibrance of waves

The Philippine Flora and Fauna

Philippines’ largest Flower

Rafflesia- found in Nueva Ecija,
-plant with no leaves, no roots, no stem and is the biggest flower in the world
-can grow 3 m across
Philippine Forests
-Lowland rainforest
-Montane rainforest
-Mossy rainforest
-Pine Forest
-Karst or limestone Forest
-Mangrove Forest

Philippine Native Trees

Tanguile, Yakal, Mahogany, Kamagong, Molave, Narra
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Philippine Fauna
Philippine Eagle or Monkey-eating eagle
-largest bird in the world
-living in Luzon, Samar and Leyte provinces, Mindanao island
Pandaka Pygmaea
-endemic in the rivers of Malabon, Metro Manila, Rizal Province and Palawan
-colorless and nearly transparent species
Giant Moth (Attacus atlas)
-25 cm long
-originally this species is from Southeast Asia
Pilandok (Tragulus)
- smallest deer in the Philippines
- endemic to Balabac and nearly smaller islands in southwest of Palawan
Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis)
- small stockey buffalo
- endemic in the Philippine Islands, particularly in Mindoro

Some of the Philippine Endangered Species

1. Palawan Peacock pheasant
-lives in pairs
2. Luzon Bleeding Heart Dove
- shy birds and secretive species of dove
- endemic to the island of Luzon
- got its name from a splash of vivid red on their white breast which resembles bleeding wound
3. Sulu Hornbill
- found in Jolo, Sulu and Tawi-tawi
4. Philippine Eagle
-massive lost of habitat because of deforestation
5. Golden Capped Fruit Bat (largest fruit bat in Philippines)
- named after the patch of golden-tipped hairs on top of the head
- endemic in the Palawan, Batanes and Babuyan Island
6. Calamian Dear
-found in Calalamians, Busuanga, Calauit and Culion
-endangered due to hunting and human settlement and agricultural expansion
7. Philippine Freshwater Crocodile
- endangered due to loss of habitat brought about by increasing human population
- can be found in Philippine particularly in Mindoro, Busuanga, Palawan, Masbate,
Negros, Samar, Mindanao
8. Leather Back Sea Turtle
- 6 ft. long, weighing 636 kg.
- largest pelagic turtle with soft shell
9. Dugong
- commonly known as “sea cows”
- share a similar plump appearance with manatees
Benham Rise
-recognized by the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in 2012 as part of the
_______Philippines’ extended continental shelf
-largely an unexplored underwater plateau which some scientist believed to have large natural gas
-first discovered by an American surveyor, Adm. Andrew Ellicot Kennedy Benham

Department of Environment and Natural Resources

Mandate (E.O. 192, s. 1987)

 The department is the primary agency responsible for the conservation, management, development,
and proper use of the country’s environment and natural resources, specifically, forest and grazing
lands, mineral resources, including those in reservation and water shed areas and lands of the public
domain as well as the licensing and regulation of all natural resources as may be provided for by law in
order to ensure equitable sharing of the benefits derived therefrom for the welfare of the present and
future generations of Filipinos.

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 Assure the availability and sustainability of the country’s natural resources through judicious use and
systematic restoration or replacement whenever possible;
 Increase the productivity of natural resources in order to meet the demands for forest, mineral and land
resources in a growing population;
 To accomplish this mandate, the department shall be guided by the following objectives:
 Assure the availability and sustainability of the country’s natural resources through judicious use and
systematic restoration or replacement whenever possible;
 Increase the productivity of natural resources in order to meet the demands for forest, mineral and land
resources in a growing population;

VISION: A nation enjoying and sustaining its natural resources and clean and healthy environment
MISSION: To mobilize our citizenry in protecting, conserving, and managing the environment and natural
resources for the present and future generations
DEVELOPMENT GOAL: Human well-being and environmental quality and sustainability ensured

Article XII:
National Economy and Patrimony
 It refers primarily to the natural resources of our country which under the Constitution include “all lands
of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum and other mineral oils, all forces of potential
energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna,” and “all marine wealth in its archipelagic
waters, territorial sea, and exclusive marine zone.”(Sec. 2, pars.1, 2)
 Our cultural heritage (Art. XIV, Secs. 15-16) including historical landmarks (e.g. Intramuros in Manila)
form part of our national patrimony.

Regalian Doctrine
 This doctrine holds that all minerals, coal, etc. found either in public lands or in private lands belong to
the state.
 The adoption of this doctrine was considered a necessary premise for the recognition of the power of
the state to control the exploration, development and utilization of our natural resources.

 To ensure natural resources’ conservation for Filipino posterity;
 To serve as an instrument of national defense, helping prevent the extension into the country of foreign
control through peaceful economic penetration; and
 To prevent making the Philippines a source of international conflicts with the consequent danger to its
internal security and independence

Lands of Public Domain:

 Agricultural—land devoted principally to the raising of crops such as rice, sugar, tobacco, coconut, etc.
 Forest or Timber—land producing wood, or able to produce wood, or if agricultural crops on the same
land will not bring the financial return that timber will, or if the same land is needed for protection
 Mineral—land in which minerals exist in sufficient quantity or quality to justify the necessary
expenditures to be incurred in extracting and utilizing such minerals; and
 National parks—land maintained by the national government as a place of beauty or of public
recreation, like the Rizal Park, or forested land reserved from settlement and maintained in its natural
state for public use (as by campers or hunters) or as wildlife refuge.

The Philippines: A Mega Diverse Country

 One of the world’s 17 mega-diversity counties which together host more than 70% of the words
 Hosts more than 52, 177 described species of which more than half if found nowhere else in the world
 In 1999, the country was identified as one of the 25 global hotspots (high number of threatened
 With the government rationalization program under EO 366, Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau
(PAWB) to Biodiversity Management Bureau (BMB)
 BMB, through its advocacy efforts and forging partnerships, it has introduced new campaign on
biodiversity conservation with a slogan, “kung wala ‘yun, wala nito.”

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De Leon, H. S. (2008) Textbook on the Philippine Constitution. Quezon City: REX Book Store, Inc.
https:// cmsCOP12.ph

Prepared by Group 7

Nardo, Ma. Mirasol R.

Domondon, Danna C.
Aquitania, Karen P.
Gurtiza, Jeric F.

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