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DEVELOPING BATIK MOTIF USING

COMPUTATION METHOD OR ALGORITHM


AND MATHEMATICAL EQUATION
Dyah Rizki Hujairha Laitupa 1
Collage Student, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Telkom University, Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract Now has been known batik making techniques


with a sequence of program code that implements the
The art of coloring the cloth with the coloring blocking
algorithm and also computational methods to create and
technique using the night is one of the ancient art forms.
also develop a varied batik motif. In making traditional
And batik is one of the art of coloring cloth that has
batik from making motif to batik cloth will usually take a
developed in Indonesia since Majapahit Kingdom. The
long time with this computational technique can shorten the
process of making batik traditionally takes a long time.
process of making batik.
From the length of the process of making batik there are
stages that usually takes quite a long time called Computation method is one useful tool to modify
scratching/menyorek is to draw a motive either on paper or traditional pattern. Some studies in computer science have
directly on the cloth. This is because at the stage of scraping been done to explore Batik pattern [2]. Rangkuti has
batik should think of ideas after getting new ideas batik will studied batik pattern classification based on the content of
apply it. The process of getting this idea make the process the pattern [3] and one of them used wavelet transform and
longer in making batik. With the development of fuzzy neural network [4]. The other studies have made
technology and science today, it can shorten making the modification by extracting geometric features of the
motif by using an algorithm or computation method. original patterns and then made some modifications in
geometric features position [5] or in pattern complexity [2].
Keywords: Batik motif, Scratching/ Menyorek,
Computation Method Kusuma has made modification in traditional
regular pattern based on cellular automata model [6,7]. One
of them implemented pedestrian dynamic method [7].
INTRODUCTION These studies explored regular pattern because of its
simplicity so it can be easier to be made by computer
Batik is an art form of staining cloth with a barrier program [6,7]. The modifications have been done by
technique using wax where the technique is an ancient art adding some uncertainties to enrich the regular pattern
form. The discovery of a mummy wrapping cloth coated [6,7]. One of them implemented fully stochastic method [6]
wax to form a pattern in Egypt shows that this technique and the other implemented combination between stochastic
has been known since the 4th century BC. In Asia, similar and deterministic method [7]. The new model is proposed
techniques of batik were also applied in China during the to improve the occupied cell ratio problem. This model is
T'ang Dynasty (618-907) and in India and Japan during the developed by combining the modified interaction force and
Nara Period (645-794). In Africa, techniques such as batik random walk [2]. Interaction force method acts as collision
are known by the Yoruba Tribe in Nigeria, as well as the avoidance part. In its origin, interaction force is a part of
Soninke and Wolof Tribes in Senegal [1]. social forces model that is used to avoid collision between
persons [8-10]
Batik motif has uniqueness and beauty that
become one of the character forming of Indonesia that Develop fibrous root pattern in batik pattern
distinguish us with other nation so that can become identity generation by combining L-system and random walk. This
and national identity. Batik is a downward art that has research proposes realistic and simple root growth model.
become a tradition in Indonesia. So that the motifs of batik Then, this model is implemented to generate batik pattern.
that can be recognized from certain areas and also to date This model must be realistic so people still recognize that
can show the status pemaikanya because some traditional the pattern is root pattern. This model must be simple so
motifs are only used by the family palace. the computation still light because this basic root pattern
will be added into batik pattern generation application. In
this research, the type of the root that is modeled is fibrous detail in smaller scale. In Self Affine an object has detail
root [12]. which resembles the object, although not necessarily be
similar in every aspect. The process of batik in producing
All of them are built based on cellular automata
batik motifs which has fractal characteristic. The initial
model, fix iteration, and multi agent system. The problem
Hypothesis of this research is that batik has fractional
in the previous works is by using the small number of
fractal dimension, which means that batik is Fractal.
agents, the occupied cell ratio was still below 50 percents.
It is because the agents cannot move anymore before the The hypothesis’ background is the making of isen
iteration stops [6,7]. So, increasing the number of occupied in batik motifs. Isen itself is the process of filling the space
cells ratio to above 50 percents with same number of agents left by main motifs with ornamentations. The measurement
by extending travelling distance is still challenging. of fractal dimension itself is useful for analyzing in
different fields. Such as heart failure detection ( Teich et
Explores the potential ability of evolutionary
al ), river flows (Szustalewicz et al), transportation
computation in Batik design. We investigate the use of
(Dorfman), brain tumor detection (Marsh), fish’s neuron in
algorithm or computation method in our system, with the
brain ( Isaeva ), retinal eye scan (Ewe et al). The paper thus
goal of enhancing user’s creativity to generate innovative
explores the possibility of creating batik through
Batik-like patterns. We focus mainly on two crucial aspects
Generative Arts. If batik is indeed fractal, then it is
of the system. First, a new representation is proposed to
appropriate to produce batik motifs using the same
capture the features in Batik and create innovative patterns
means[13]. The algorithm is as follow:
through evolutionary processes. Second, an out-breeding
mechanism is applied to our system, in order to sustain
user’s interest for a longer period. Our system can search a
much larger design space than other systems and can avoid
being trapped in a local optimum. We describe the system
in detail and the methodology we have adopted in the
system. Our experimental results have shown that our
newly developed system is effective and has great
potentials in evolving novel Batik design [11].

BATIK AND FRACTAL DIMENSION


Figure 1 Algorithm of Creating Batik Motif Using Fractal
There are two main topics in defining batik: as a
process and as motif. Process is the technic in
craftsmanship to produce batik by resist-dye technique.
The motifs itself is the ornaments found in batik, which are
classified as parang, geometry,banji, spreading plants,
water plants, flowers and animal. Batik is not an ordinary
textile art. Inside we found functional value. This value
creates different batik motifs. For example the motifs
between peasant and noble, coastal and interior, everyday
and ritual are not similar to represent the difference of each
value.

In aesthetic side, the quality is not based on the


judgment of being good or bad, but in its effort to obey the
Figure 2 Design Motif Batik Fractal (1)
pakem rule. As a form of decorative art, the ornament or
isen is not merely to fill the space left from the batik motifs,
but rather as to give specific value. Indeed, to understand
the batik motif it is not enough to disentangle the motifs to
just merely dots, line, colour or shape, but also its meaning
behind it. In Complexity Theory, the emergent of Chaos are
marked by the presence of fractal. Fractal stands between
order and chaos, in which case are known as in Edge of
Chaos. [13]

Fractal can be seen by its characteristic, which is


Self-Similarity and Self-Affine. In Self-Similarity an
object has geometrical form which resembles the object’s Figure 3 Design Motif Batik Fractal (2)
In figure 2 and figure 3 below is the process of Based on this simple method, L-system then was
making batik motifs using fractal, first step we made the used, modified, and combined with other method to model
main motif and then the main motifs are duplicated and more specific plant growth. Suhartono combined L-system
processed in such a way from the color, the slope or the size and Fuzzy Mamdani to model Zinnia Elegans growth [17].
of the motif. After we arranged in such a way the motif will Castellanos used L-system to model plant death process
be added motifs isen to be an additional ornament on the simulation [18]. Meng used L-system to model to model
batik motif. wheat rooting [20]. Hamon used L-system to model 3D
virtual plant simulation [21].
LINDENMAYER SYSTEM

L-System is a formal rule arranged as


grammatical in the form of axioma, where symbols used
represent growth of plants, parallel changes in symbols and
stimulants occur at each stage [14]. The main concept of L-
System itself is rewriting. With the rewrite technique we
will get a complex object by rewriting based on the defined
rule (rewriting rule). For example the application of
rewriting L-System snowflake curve in 1905 by von Koch
[14]. The process involved involves the generator on the
initiator, then applying the generator to the final output and
so on [15].

Symbol- symbol are used as representations of the


growth of plant parts in parallel and simultaneous ones is
turtle graph, which can move in various directions, towards
the front, towards the right or towards the left, can be Figure 4 Example of Simple L-System Algorithm
exemplified there are 3 symbols namely F, + and -, diamana
for the symbol F states a long part of the plant moving in
various directions, clock rotation is expressed as + symbol
and reverse direction as symbol [14].

FIgure 6 Graph of Direction Figure 5 Visualization Example of Simple L-System

There are many techniques in modeling plant RANDOM WALK


growth. One of them is L-system that was introduced by
Lindenmayer. This method varies from simple to complex Random Walk is a mathematical object known as a
form [16]. This method has been used to model root [17], stochastic process that starts at a certain point and moves to
branch, leaf, and flower. This method also has been a randomly selected neighbor, from which the same process
improved and combined with other method [17-20]. L- will be executed. The direction of movement or
system was also used to develop plant like model. The displacement will be determined by the probability value.
other method is random walk. The other method is random The basic example of a random path is a random walk on
walk that was used with the assumption that plant growth an integer line, ℤ, which starts at 0 and on every move move
is stochastic and the plant behavior cannot be predicted +1 or -1 with the same probability. The term random walk
exactly even many parameters have been used. Other was first introduced by Karl Pearson in 1905 [22]. They are
method used complex biological mechanism such as used to model different phenomena in mathematics and
elongation, mortality, and gravity. physics that are widely applied in areas such as economics,
ecology, biology, computer science, and others.
There are many traditional decorative patterns in technique with natural science to create new art pattern or
Indonesia. Some of them are regular pattern. The advantage to renew traditional pattern.
of regular one is its simplicity and easiness to be built by
iterative algorithm. The disadvantage is it is monotonous.
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