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EECS 16B Designing Information Devices and Systems II

Fall 2017 Miki Lustig and Michel Maharbiz Homework 2


This homework is due September 12, 2017, at 11:59AM.

1. Two Inductors
Consider the circuit below, assume that when t < 0, the circuit has reached steady state (V1 = 0, V2 = 0). At
t = 0, the switch connected to Vs closes. Assume Vs = 5V, R1 = R2 = 1kΩ, and L1 = L2 = 0.1H.
t =0 R1 R2
I3 (t) I2 (t)

I1 (t)

+ V
− s t =0 + +

V1 (t) L1 V2 (t) L2

− −

Figure 1: Two Inductor Circuit with Voltage Source

(a) First, use Kirchoff’s Laws and the inductor equation ( V = L dI dt ) to find the second order differential
equation for this system in terms of I2 (t), L1 , L2 , R1 , and R2 .
Solution:

From KCL we get

−I3 = I1 + I2 (1)

Using Ohm’s law with R1 , we can say


V1 −Vs
I3 = (2)
R1
Plugging the inductor equation into V1 , we get

L1 dI1 Vs
I3 = − (3)
R1 dt R1
dI1
To get I1 and dt in terms of I2 , we can use Ohm’s law with R2 to say

V1 −V2
I2 = (4)
R2

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 1


Rearranging and using the inductor equations to plug into V1 and V2

dI1 dI2
R2 I2 = L1 − L2 (5)
dt dt
Leading to

dI1 R2 L2 dI2
= I2 + (6)
dt L1 L1 dt
To get I1 in terms of I2 we can integrate both sides with respect to time
R2 L2
Z
I1 = I2 dt + I2 (7)
L1 L1
Plugging (3), (6), and (7) back into (1), we get

Vs R2 L2 dI2 R2 L2
Z
− I2 − = I2 dt + I2 + I2 (8)
R1 R1 R1 dt L1 L1
Rearranging the equation we get

R2 L2 R2  L2 dI2 Vs
Z 
I2 dt + 1 + + I2 + − =0 (9)
L1 L1 R1 R1 dt R1
To get it into the standard diff. eq. format, we take the derivative of both sides and make the coefficient
of the second derivative term 1
L
d 2 I2  R1 + R2 + L21 R1  dI2 R1 R2
+ + I2 = 0 (10)
dt 2 L2 dt L1 L2

(b) Now cast this second order differential equation into the following form:

d~i
= A~i
dt
where
" #
I2 (t)
~i = dI2 (t)
dt

Plug in values to get a numerical matrix.


Solution:
 
d~i  0 1
= R1 +R2 + L2 R1 ~i
L
dt − RL11 LR22 − L2
1

" #
d~i 0 1 ~i
=
dt −100, 000, 000 −30, 000

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 2


(c) Find the eigenvalues of A. Are they real or complex?
Solution:

λ 2 + 30, 000λ + 100, 000, 000 = 0


λ = −26180.3, −3819.7

(d) Using the initial conditions, what is the solution to the differential equation?
Solution: Initial conditions at the time of switching is

I1 = I2 = 0

since current cannot change instantaneously through inductors. However, after switching, V1 and V2
must go to Vs . Otherwise, there would be current flowing through R1 and R2 , which is not possible.
2 (0)
Our initial conditions become I2 (0) = 0 and dIdt = L52 = 50. We know that the solution is of the form
I2 (t) = c1 eλ1t + c2 eλ2t , so using our initial conditions, we can solve for c1 and c2 :

I2 (0) = 0 = c1 + c2
dI2 (0)
= 50 = λ1 c1 + λ2 c2
dt
50
c1 = = −0.00224
λ1 − λ2
c2 = −c1 = 0.00224
I2 (t) = −0.00224e−26180.3t + 0.00224e−3819.7t

(e) Sketch the current vs time plots of I1 (t) and I2 (t).


Solution:
L2 R2
Z
I1 (t) = I2 (t) + I2 (t)dt
L1 L1
R2  c1 eλ1t c2 eλ2t 
I1 (t) = c1 eλ1t + c2 eλ2t + + +K
L1 λ1 λ2
K is a constant from the integration of I2 (t). To find the value, we use our boundary condition that
I1 (0) = 0. Using this, we find K=0.005. Note that we didn’t care about it when finding the differential
equation in part (a) because we took the derivative of the integral, which would eliminate the constant.

I1 (t) = −0.00224e−26180.3t + 0.00224e−3819.7t + 0.000854e−26180.3t − 0.00585e−3819.7t + 0.005

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 3


2. Complex numbers
A common way to visualize complex numbers is to use the complex plane. Recall that a complex number z
is often represented in cartesian form.

z = x + jy with real(z) = x and imaginary(z) = y

See the Figure 2 for how z looks like in the complex plane.
In this question, we will derive the polar form of a complex number and use this form to make some
interesting conclusions.

(a) Calculate the length of z in terms of x and y as shown in Figure 2. This is the magnitude of a complex
number and is denoted |z| or r. Hint. Use the Pythagoras theorem.
Solution: p
r= x2 + y2 = |z|

(b) Represent the real and imaginary parts of z in terms of r and θ .


Solution:
x = r cos(θ ) and y = r sin(θ )

(c) Substitute for x and y in z. Use Euler’s formula to conclude that,

z = re jθ

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 4


Figure 2: The complex plane
Solution:

z = r cos(θ ) + jr sin(θ )
= r(cos(θ ) + j sin(θ ))
= re jθ

(d) In the complex plane, draw out all the complex numbers such that |z| = 1. What are the z values where
the figure intersects the real axis and the imaginary axis? Why do you think the figure is called a Unit
circle?
Solution:
(e) If z = re jθ , prove that z∗ = re− jθ . Recall that the complex conjugate of a complex number z = x + jy
is z∗ = x − jy.
Solution:

z∗ = (r(cos(θ ) + j sin(θ )))∗


= r(cos(θ ) − j sin(θ ))
= r(cos(−θ ) + j sin(−θ ))
= re− jθ

(f) Show that,


r2 = zz∗

Solution:
zz∗ = re jθ re− jθ = r2 e jθ − jθ = r2 e0 = r2

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 5


(g) Intuitively argue that,
3−1

∑ ej 3 k =0
k=0

Do so by drawing out the different values of the sum making an argument based on the vector sum.
Solution: The three vectors are of the same magnitude and are equally spaced from each other in

a way that sums to zero. Intuitively, this is because we have three directions pointing perfectly away
from each other. This can also be verified with Euler’s (if you did that, give yourself full credit), but
an intuitive argument based on the direction of the vectors is sufficient.

3. RLC circuit

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 6


Now consider the circuit shown below:

t =0 Rs

is +

+ V Vout
− s t =0 C L

iC
− iL

(a) Assuming the circuit reaches steady state for t < 0, find the differential equation for Vout for t ≥ 0
Solution:
is = ic + il
Using ic = C dVdtout and Ohm’s law:
Vs −Vout dVout
=C + il
Rs dt
Substituting Vout = L di
dt
l

Vs L di d2i
= + LC 2 + il
Rs Rs dt dt
Vs 1 di d 2 i il
= + 2+
Rs LC RsC dt dt LC
Since we have Vout = L dil
dt , we take the derivative of both sides to get an equation in the form of Vout

1 d2i d3i 1 dil


0= 2
+ 3+
RsC dt dt LC dt
d 2Vout 1 dVout 1
0= 2
+ + Vout
dt RsC dt LC

(b) What are the initial conditions at t = 0 for this differential equation?
Solution:
We know that at t = 0 Vout = 0, ic = 0, and il = 0. We also know that the voltage on a capacitor and
the current through an inductor can’t change instantaneously, so it follows that
Vout (0) = 0
il (0) = 0
Consequentially
Vs
is (0) =
Rs
Vs
ic (0) =
Rs
(0)
from ic (0) = C dVout
dt
dVout (0) Vs
=
dt RsC

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 7


(c) Solve the differential equation. Consider all cases (underdamped, critically damped, overdamped)
Solution: The general solution to the transient equation of this form is

Vout (t) = K1 eλ1t + K2 eλ2t

where q
λ1 = −α + α 2 − ω02
q
λ2 = −α − α 2 − ω02
In this case,
1
α=
2RsC
1
ω0 = √
LC
dvout (0)
Now to find the constants K1 and K2 , we use the initial conditions for vout (0) and dt and set the
general solution to these values:
dvout (0) Vs
= = K1 λ1 + K2 λ2
dt RsC
vout (0) = 0 = K1 + K2
Vs
= −K2 λ1 + K2 λ2
RsC
Vs
K2 =
RsC(λ2 − λ1 )
Vs
K1 = −
RsC(λ2 − λ1 )
Finally, plugging back into the general solution:
Vs Vs
Vout (t) = − eλ1t + eλ2 t
RsC(λ2 − λ1 ) RsC(λ2 − λ1 )
For the λ1 = λ2 , which happens in a critically damped system, the general solution is:

Vc = K1 eλt + tK2 eλt

and
dVc
= K1 λ eλt + K2 eλt + tK2 λ eλt
dt
so when plugging our initial conditions into these equations

Vout (0) = 0 = K1
dVc (0) Vs
= = K1 λ + K2
dt RsC
Vs
K2 =
RsC
K1 = 0
Vs
K2 =
RsC

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 8


4. General RLC response types
Consider the following circuit assume this circuit has reached steady state for t < 0:

10nF 100µH
t =0 R
i
+ − +
VR − + VL −
VC
+ V
− s t =0

(a) Find the differential equation that describes this circuit for t ≥ 0 and solve it in terms of Vs , L, R and C.
Solution: We recognize this is a series RLC circuit, so it is described by the following diff eq:

d 2Vc R dVc 1
+ + Vc = 0
dt 2 L dt LC
We know that the general solution of this form for non repeated eigenvalues is:

Vc = K1 eλ1t + K2 eλ2t

where q
λ1 = −α + α 2 − ω02
q
λ2 = −α − α 2 − ω02
and
1
ω0 = √
LC
R
α=
2L
Our initial conditions are
Vc (0) = Vs
dVc (0)
=0
dt
so plugging into our equations
Vs = K1 + K2
0 = K1 λ1 + K2 λ2
Vs
K1 =
1 − λλ12
Vs
K2 = Vs −
1 − λλ21

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 9


For the λ1 = λ2 , which happens in a critically damped system, the general solution is:
Vc = K1 eλt + tK2 eλt
and
dVc
= K1 λ eλt + K2 eλt + tK2 λ eλt
dt
so when plugging our initial conditions into these equations
Vc (0) = Vs = K1
dVc (0)
= 0 = K1 λ + K2
dt
K2 = −λVs
K1 = Vs
K2 = λVs
(b) At what frequency is this circuit going to oscillate? Your answer should be in terms of R.
q
Solution: If this system is underdamped, it will oscillate with a frequency of ωD = ω02 − α 2
r
R2 108
ωD = 1012 −
4
r
ωD 104 R2
f= = 104 −
2π 2π 4
(c) Sketch the transient response of Vc (t) for t ≥ 0 when R = 100Ω
Solution:
1
ω0 = √ = 106
LC
R
α= = 5 ∗ 105
2L

α < ω0 so this is an underdamped system, and it will decay with oscillations. If your graph looks
something like this, it is okay:

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 10


(d) Sketch the transient response of Vc (t) for t ≥ 0 when R = 200Ω
Solution:
α = 106
α = ω0 , so this is a critically damped system, and it will decay with no oscillations. If your graph
looks something like this, it is okay:

(e) Sketch the transient response of Vc (t) for t ≥ 0 when R = 1kΩ


Solution:
α = 5 ∗ 106
α > ω0 , so this is an overdamped system, and it will decay with no oscillations, but decay slower than
the critically damped system. If your graph looks something like this, it is okay:

Contributors:

• Kyle Tanghe.

• Siddharth Iyer.

EECS 16B, Fall 2017, Homework 2 11