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HW #1

Problem : 1 - Mass, Force, Density and Acceleration - 4 pts 6-Apr-11

A closed system consists of 0.5 lbmole of liquid water and occupies a volume of 0.145 ft3. Determine the weight of the system, in lbf, and

the average density, in lbm/ft3, at a location where the acceleration of gravity is g = 30.5 ft/s2.

Read : The key ideas here are the meaning of lbmole, the use of gc in Newton's 2nd Law of Motion and the definition of density.

V 0.145 ft3 gc 32.174 lbm-ft/lbf-s2

MW 18.016 lbm/lbmole

b.) ??? lbm/ft3

Diagram : None.

2- Density of the water is uniform.

Solution :

Part a.) The key here is the ralationship between mass and force, in this case weight, given by Newton's 2nd Law of Motion.

gc F m a Eqn 1 gc W m g Eqn 2

g

Wm Eqn 3

gc

The next step in determining the weight of the water is to convert from the given number of moles to mass using:

m n MW Eqn 4

Now, we can plug values into Eqn 3 to evaluate the weight of the water.

W 8.539 lbf

m

Eqn 5

V

Since we determined m in part (a) and the volume of the water was given, all we need to do is plug values into Eqn 5.

62.12 lbm/ft3

Verify : None of the assumptions made in the solution of this problem can be verified based on the given information.

W 8.54 lbf 62.12 lbm/ft3

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 1.7E - Mass, Weight and Acceleration - 3 pts 6-Apr-11

A man weighs 210 lbf at a location where g = 32.10 ft/s2. Determine his weight on the moon where g = 5.47 ft/s2.

Read : The keys to this problem are to understand that mass does not depend on location, but weight does and how to apply

Newton's 2nd Law of Motion.

2

Given : W Earth 210 lbf gmoon 5.47 ft/s

2

gearth 32.10 ft/s gc 32.174 ft-lbm/lbf-s2

Diagram : None.

Assumptions: None.

Solution : The key here is the ralationship between mass and force, in this case weight, given by Newton's 2nd Law of Motion.

gc F m a Eqn 1 gc W m a Eqn 2

We can now apply Eqn 2 to the object when it is on the moon and again to the object when it is on the surface of the Earth.

The key is that gc and the mass of the object are constants. So, if we take the ratio of Eqn 3 to

Eqn 4, these terms will cancel !

g c Wmoon m g moon

Eqn 5

g c WEarth m g Earth

Wmoon g

This leaves us with : moon Eqn 6

WEarth g Earth

g moon

Wmoon WEarth Eqn 7

g Earth

Plugging values into Eqn 7 yields : Wmoon 35.79 lbf

Verify : None.

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 1.11E - Specific Heat: Unit Conversions - 4 pts 6-Apr-11

The constant-pressure specific heat of air at 25oC is 1.005 kJ/kg-oC. Express this value in kJ/kg-K, J/g-oC, kcal/kg-oC, and

Btu/lbm-oF.

Read : This problem is an exercise in unit conversions. The key to the problem is to recognize that the temperature unit in the heat

capacity corresponds to a change in temperatureof a magnitude of one with the given units.

o

b.) CP ??? J/g- C d.) CP ??? Btu/lbm-oF

Assumptions: None.

Solution :

Part a.) The only unit we need to convert in this part is the temperature unit. We need to get from oC to Kelvins. This is an easy one

since a change in T of 1o Celsius is the same as a change in T of 1o Kelvin. So, here is the conversion factor.

o

1 C = 1 K Eqn 1

kJ 1C

CP = 1.005 ⋅ Eqn 2

kg ⋅ C 1 K

CP 1.005 kJ/kg-K

Part b.) In this part, we need to convert units of both energy and mass. We need to get from kJ to J and from kg to g. Here are the

conversion factors.

1 kJ = 1000 J Eqn 3

1 kg = 1000 g Eqn 4

kJ 1 kg 1000 J

CP = 1.005 ⋅ ⋅ Eqn 5

kg ⋅ C 1000 g 1 kJ

CP 1.005 J/g-oC

Part c.) In this part, we only need to convert units energy. We need to get from kJ to kcal. Here is the conversion factor.

4.184 kJ = 1 kcal Eqn 6

kJ 1kcal

CP = 1.005 ⋅ Eqn 7

kg ⋅ C 4.184 kJ

CP 0.2402 kcal/kg-oC

Part d.) In this part, we need to converat all three units from SI to AE. Here are the conversion factors.

1 kg = 2.2046 lbm Eqn 9

o o

1 C = 1.8 F Eqn 10

kJ 1 kg 0.94782 Btu 1 C

CP = 1.005 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Eqn 11

kg ⋅ C 2.2046 lbm 1 kJ 1.8 F

CP 0.2400 Btu/lbm-oF

Verify : None.

b.) CP ??? J/g-oC d.) CP ??? Btu/lbm-oF

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 1.37E - Temperature Conversions - 2 pts 6-Apr-11

What is the temperature of heated air at 150oC in oF and in oR ?

Rzero F = 459.67 oR

T(oR) = ???

Assumptions: None.

Solution :

Part a.) The key here is the relationship between the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales.

T o F T o C 1.8 32 Eqn 1

o

T F 150

o o

C 1.8 o

F

C

32 o F T= 302 o

F

Part b.) There are seveal ways to solve this part of the problem.

One is to use the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Rankine temperature scales.

o

T o

R T F 1

o

o

R

F

459.67 o R Eqn 2

R

Verify : None.

T= 302 F T= 762 R

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 1.41E - Temperature Change - 3 pts 6-Apr-11

The temperature of water changes by 10oF during a process. Express this temperature change in Celsius, Kelvin and Rankine units.

Read : It is very important to understand that a change in temperature is not the same as a value of the temperature. It seems

obvious, but it is common point of confusion.

Given : T 10 oF

C c.) T ??? o

R

b.) T ??? K

Assumptions: None.

Solution :

Part a.) A change in temperature of 1 oC is equal to a change in temperature of 1.8oF.

Ratio = 1.8 oF / oC

10F

Therefore : DT = Eqn 1

1.8 F / C

T 5.56 o

C

RatioKC = 1 K / oC

Part c.) One way to do this part of the problem is to use the result from part (b) and the converion factor for Kelvins and degrees

Rankine.

RatioRK = 1.8 oR / K

o

T o

R T K 1.8

R

K

Eqn 3

R

Of course, it would be even easier to recognize that a change in temperature of 1 oF is exactly the same as a change in

temperature of 1 oR.

o

T F T

o o

R 1 o

F

R

Eqn 4

R

Verify : None.

C c) T 10 o

R

b.) T 5.6 K

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 1.78 - Differential, Multi-Fluid Manometer - 6 pts 6-Apr-11

Fresh water and seawater flowing in

parallel, horizontal pipelines are

connected to each other by a double u-

tube manometer, as shown in the figure. 1

between the two pipelines in kPa. h4 =

Assume the density of seawater to be

1035 kg/m3. Can the air column be = h3

ignored in this analysis ?

2

h2 =

4

3

Read : This problem requires the careful application of the Manometer Equation.

By working from one pipe to the other we can determine the difference in the pressure between the two pipes.

The key is that none of the fluid in the manometer tubes is moving.

h2 0.10 m SW 1035 kg/m3

h3 0.70 m Hg 13590 kg/m3

h4 0.40 m

2- The density of the mercury is uniform.

3- The density of the water is uniform.

4- The density of the air is negligible. Therefore, P1 = P2.

5- None of the fluids inside the tubing are moving.

Solution : Let's use the Manometer Equation to work our way around from the seawater pipe to the fresh water pipe.

g

PSW P1 SW h Eqn 1

gc 4

Because the density of air is three orders of magnitude smaller than the density of liquid water or mercury :

P2 P1 Eqn 2

g

P3 P2 Hg h Eqn 3

gc 2

Because the elevation at points 3 and 4 is the same, the manometer fluid is not moving and points

3 and 4 are connected by a tube filled with mercury only: P4 = P3.

g

P4 PFW FW h Eqn 4

gc 1

Combining Eqns 1 & 2 yields :

g

PSW P2 SW h Eqn 5

gc 4

g g

P2 P3 Hg h P4 Hg h Eqn 6

gc 2 gc 2

g g

PSW P4 Hg h 2 SW h Eqn 7

gc gc 4

g

g g

PSW PFW FW h1 Hg h 2 SW h Eqn 8

gc

gc gc 4

g g g

PSW PFW FW h Hg h SW h Eqn 9

gc 1 gc 2 gc 4

Now, we can plug values into Eqn 9 to complete the solution of this problem.

2

PSW-PFW -3383 N/m PSW-PFW -3.383 kPa

Verify : None of the assumptions made in the solution of this problem can be verified based on the given information.

Answers : PSW-PFW -3.38 kPa

Could you have guessed just by looking at the fluid levels and fluid densities where the pressure was higher, in the fresh or salt

water pipe ? I could have. Think about it. Look at the diagram and the equations.

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : WB-2 - Absolute and Gauge Pressures - 5 pts 6-Apr-11

Tank A lies inside of Tank B, as shown in

the figure. Pressure gauge A is located

inside Tank B and reads 1.4 bar. Both

tanks contain air. The manometer

connected to Tank B contains mercury (

= 13.59 g/cm3). The manometer reading 1

is h = 20 cm, atmospheric pressure is

101 kPa and g = 9.81 m/s2. Determine

the absolute pressures inside Tank A

and Tank B in kPa.

3

2

The key is that a pressure guage indicates the difference between the pressure inside the pipe or

vessel to which it is attached and the pressure outside of the pressure gauge.

In this case, the pressure gauge indicates PA - PB, where PA and PB are absolute pressures.

Hg 13.59 g/cm3 g 9.81 m/s2

h 20 cm gc 1 kg-m/N-s2

2- The density of the mercury is uniform.

3- The density of the air is negligible. Therefore, the pressure inside

each tank is uniform.

4- The mercury in the manometer is not moving.

Solution : Let's use the Manometer Equation to work our way around from point 1 on the diagram all the

way to the inside of tank A.

Because the manometer tube is open at the end, P1 = Patm. P1 101 kPa

g

gc

z up z down Eqn 1

g

P2 P1 Hg h Eqn 2

gc

Because the elevation at points 2 and 3 is the same, the manometer fluid is not moving and points 2 and 3 are connected by a

tube filled with mercury only: P3 = P2.

Now, because the density of the air in Tank B is negligible, PB = P3 = P2 ! Therefore :

g

PB Patm Hg h Eqn 3

gc

PB 101kPa 13.59 3

3 2

20 cm 3 Eqn 4

cm 1000 g 1m 1kg m / N s 100 cm 10 N / m2

PB 127.66 kPa

But in this problem the pressure on the outside of the gauge is not atmospheric, but PB instead. Also, the Pabs that we are

looking for here is PA. As a result, the form of Eqn 5 that we need to use here is :

PA PA ,gauge PB Eqn 6

100 kPa

PA 1.4bar 127.66kPa PA 267.66 kPa

1bar

Verify : None of the assumptions made in the solution of this problem can be verified based on the given information.

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 3.26 - Steam Table Fundamentals - 4 pts 6-Apr-11

Complete the following table for water.

200 0.7

140 1800

950 0

80 500

800 3162.2

Read : This problem is designed to test how well you understand how to use tables of thermodynamic properties.

It also tests your understanding and ability to use quality, x.

Finally, it makes you think about the relationship between the data tables and the physical system (phases) that they represent.

Given : Two pieces of data for each part, (a) through (e).

Find : Complete the table.

Assumptions: The system is in an equilibrium state.

Solution :

Part a.) Since we are given the quality, x = 0.7, we know that vapor and liquid are both present in the system at equilibrium.

Because both vapor and liquid are present at equailibrium, the temperature must be equal to the saturation temperature at P =

200 kPa. We can find this temperature in the Saturation Pressure Table of the steam tables.

(kPa) (oC) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

200 120.21 504.71 2706.3

T = Tsat 120.21 oC

Because both saturated liquid and saturated vapor are present in the system at equilibrium, we must use the quality to evaluate

the overall average specific enthalpy, as follows.

The key equation that relates the specific enthalpy of the system to the specific enthalpy of the saturated liquid and of the

saturated vapor is:

ˆ

H ˆ ˆ

mix vap liq

Eqn 1

Part b.) The first step here is to use the given T to obtain data from the Saturation Temperature table.

This will allow us to compare the given value of H to the values of Hsat liq and Hsat vap in order to determine the phase or phases

present in the system at equilibrium.

(oC) (kPa) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

140 361.53 589.16 2733.5

ˆ H ˆ H

ˆ the system contains a saturated mixture and the pressure must be equal to the

Since :

H sat sat

liq vap saturation pressure.

Last, we must use the given value of the enthalpy to determine the quality of the water in the system. The key equation is:

ˆ H

H ˆ

x

sat liq

Eqn 2

ˆ

H H ˆ

sat vap sat liq

Part c.) Because the quality is zero, we immediately know the system contains a saturated liquid.

This tells us that T = Tsat , H = Hsat liq and Psat = P = 950 kPa (given).

So, we can look up 950 kPa in the Saturation Pressure table.

(kPa) (oC) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

950 177.66 752.74 2775.2

T = Tsat 177.66 C o H = Hsat liq 752.74 kJ/kg

Part d.) Here we are given both the T and P. Let's use the given P, and the Saturation Pressure table, to determine the Tsat associated

with P. Then, we can determine the phases present by comparing the given T to Tsat(P).

Tsat(500 kPa) = 151.83 oC

Since T = 80oC is less than Tsat, we can conclude that the sytem contains a subcooled or compressed liquid. The quality is

undefined ! So, we need to look at the Subcooled Liquid tables.

Here things get a bit difficult because the first pressure table in the Subcooled Liquid tables is associated with 5 MPa. Our given

P of 500 kPa is less than this value, so it seems we do not have 2 values to interpolate between to determine H.

This is not true. It just means that we must interpolate between the saturated liquid state at T = 80oC and the subcooled liquid

state at 80oC and 5 MPa. Here is the relevant data from the Steam Tables, arranged in a convenient way.

Temp. Pressure H

(oC) (kPa) (kJ/kg)

80 47.414 335.02 (saturated liquid)

80 500 ??? (subcooled liquid)

80 5000 338.96 (subcooled liquid)

Now, we can determine H from this table by interpolation. H 335.38 kJ/kg

Part e.) The first step here is to use the given P to obtain data from the Saturation Pressure table.

This will allow us to compare the given value of H to the values of Hsat liq and Hsat vap in order to determine the phase or phases

present in the system at equilibrium.

Here is the relevant data : Pressure Temp. H (kJ/kg)

(kPa) (oC) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

H 3162.2 kJ/kg 800 170.41 720.87 2768.3

ˆ H

ˆ the system contains a superheated vapor, quality is undefined and we must use the

H sat Superheated Vapor Table to determine T.

Since : vap

We are fortunate that one of the Superheated Steam tables is associated with a P of 800 kPa.

Pressure Temp. H

(kPa) (oC) (kJ/kg)

800 300 3056.9

800 350 3162.2 T 350 oC

800 400 3267.7

Verify : None of the assumptions made in the solution of this problem can be verified based on the given information.

Answers : T (oC) P (kPa) H (kJ/kg) x (kg vap/kg) Phase Description

120.21 200 2045.82 0.7 Sat'd Mixture (VLE)

140 361.53 1800 0.565 Sat'd Mixture (VLE)

177.66 950 752.74 0 Sat'd Liquid

80 500 335.38 N/A Subcooled Liquid

350 800 3162.2 N/A Superheated Vapor

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 3.29E - R-134a Table Fundamentals - 4 pts 6-Apr-11

Complete the following table for R-134a.

T P H x

(oF) (psia) (Btu/lbm) (lbm vap/lbm) Phase Description

80 78

15 0.6

10 70

180 129.46

110 1.0

Read : This problem is designed to test how well you understand how to use tables of thermodynamic properties.

It also tests your understanding and ability to use quality, x.

Finally, it makes you think about the relationship between the data tables and the physical system (phases) that they represent.

Given : Two pieces of data for each part, (a) through (e).

Find : Complete the table.

Assumptions: The system is in an equilibrium state.

Solution :

Part a.) P 80 psia H 78 Btu/lbm

The first step here is to use the given P to obtain data from the Saturation Pressure table.

This will allow us to compare the given value of H to the values of Hsat liq and Hsat vap in order to determine the phase or phases

present in the system at equilibrium.

Here is the relevant data : Pressure Temp. H (Btu/lbm)

(psia) (oF) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

80 65.89 33.394 112.20

ˆ H ˆ H

ˆ the system contains a saturated mixture and the temperature must be equal to the

H sat sat

Since : liq vap

saturation temperature.

T = Tsat 65.89 oF

Last, we must use the given value of the enthalpy to determine the quality of the water in the system. The key equation is:

ˆ H

H ˆ

x

sat liq

Eqn 1

ˆ

H H ˆ

sat vap sat liq

o

Part b.) T 15 F x 0.6 lbm vap/lbm

Because the quality lies between 0 and 1, we immediately know the system contains a saturated

mixture.

This tells us that T = Tsat = 15oF (given) and P = Psat .

So, we can look up 15oF in the Saturation Temperature table.

Here is the relevant data : Temp. Pressure H (Btu/lbm)

(oF) (psia) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

15 29.759 16.889 105.27

P = Psat 29.76 psia

Because both saturated liquid and saturated vapor are present in the system at equilibrium, we must use the quality to evaluate the

overall average specific internal energy, as follows.

The key equation that relates the specific internal energy of the system to the specific internal energy of the saturated liquid and of

the saturated vapor is:

ˆ

H ˆ ˆ

mix vap liq

Eqn 2

o

Part c.) T 10 F P 70 psia

Here we are given both the T and P. Let's use the given P, and the Saturation Pressure table, to determine the Tsat associated with

P. Then, we can determine the phases present by comparing the given T to Tsat(P).

Tsat(70 psia) = 58.30 oF

Since T = 10oF is less than Tsat, we can conclude that the sytem contains a subcooled or compressed liquid. The quality is undefined

! So, we need to look at the Subcooled Liquid tables.

Here things get a bit difficult because (1) CB did not give you a subcooled liquid table for R-134a and (2) the first pressure table in the

LT Subcooled Liquid tables is associated with 100 psia. Our given P of 70 psia is less than this value, so it seems we do not have 2

values to interpolate between to determine H.

This is not true. It just means that we must interpolate between the saturated liquid state at T = 10oF and the subcooled liquid state

at 10oF and 100 psia. Here is the relevant data from the R-134a Tables, arranged in a convenient way.

Temp. Pressure H

(oF) (psia) (Btu/lbm)

10 26.646 15.259 (saturated liquid)

10 70 ??? (subcooled liquid)

10 100 15.169 (subcooled liquid)

Now, we can determine H from this table by interpolation.

H 15.21 Btu/lbm

Part d.) P 180 psia H 129.46 Btu/lbm

The first step here is to use the given P to obtain data from the Saturation Pressure table.

This will allow us to compare the given value of H to the values of Hsat liq and Hsat vap in order to determine the phase or phases

present in the system at equilibrium.

Here is the relevant data : Pressure Temp. H (Btu/lbm)

(psia) (oF) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

180 117.69 51.497 117.96

ˆ H

H ˆ the system contains a superheated vapor, quality is undefined and we must use the

sat

Since : vap Superheated Vapor Table to determine T.

We are amazingly fortunate that one of the Superheated R-134a tables is associated with a P of 180 psia and H = 129.46 Btu/lbm at

T = 160oF !

o

T 160 F

o

Part e.) T 110 F x 1.0 lbm vap/lbm

Because the quality is 1.0, we immediately know the system contains a saturated vapor.

This tells us that T = Tsat = 100oF (given), H = Hsat vap and P = Psat .

So, we can look up 110oF in the Saturation Temperature table.

(oF) (psia) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

110 161.07 48.698 117.23

P = Psat 161.07 psia H = Hsat vap 117.23 Btu/lbm

Verify : None of the assumptions made in the solution of this problem can be verified based on the given information.

Answers : T P H x

(oF) (psia) (Btu/lbm) (lbm vap/lbm) Phase Description

65.89 80 78 0.566 Sat'd Mixture (VLE)

15 29.76 69.92 0.6 Sat'd Mixture (VLE)

10 70 15.21 N/A Subcooled Liquid

160 180 224 N/A Superheated Vapor

110 161.07 117.23 1.0 Saturated Vapor

ChemE 260 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 3.37E - Expansion of R-134a in a Spring-Loaded P&C Device - 5 pts 6-Apr-11

A spring-loaded piston-and-cylinder device is initially filled with 0.2 lbm of a vapor-liquid mixture of R-134a at -30oF and a quality of 80%. The

spring constant in the spring force relation F = k x is 37 lbf/in, and the piston diameter is 12 in. The R-134a undergoes a process that increases

its volume by 40%. Calculate the final temperature and enthalpy of the R-134a.

Read : The key to this problem is that the mass of R-134a inside the cylinder remains constant.

The initial state of the R-134a is fixed because we know both T1 and x1. This will allow us to determine the specific volume and

then the total volume in the initial state.

We can then determine the total volume and specific volume in the final state.

Once we know the total volume in the final state, we can use the spring constant to determine P2.

Finally, knowing P2 and V2, we will be able to determine all the other intensive properties for state 2, including T2 and H2 that we

need to answer the question.

o

T1 30 F D 12 in

x1 0.8 kg vap/kg V2 / V1 1.4

o

Find : T2 ??? F

Assumptions: - Both the initial and final states are equilibrium states.

Solution : Lets begin by determining the total volume of the R-134a in the initial state.

We know the mass, so if we can determine the specific volume, we ˆ

can determine the total volume using: V1 = m ⋅ V 1

Eqn 1

We can determine the initial specific volume because we know both T1 and x1.

Here is the relevant data from the Saturation

Temperature table for R-134a. Temp. Pressure V (ft3/lbm)

(oF) (psia) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

sat x Vsat 1 x Vsat

ˆ

V ˆ ˆ

Eqn 2 30 40.813 0.01234 1.153

mix vap liq

Next, we can determine V2 because we know it is 40% larger than V1.

V2 1.295 ft3/lbm V2 0.259 ft3

Now, we need to determine P2. We can accomplish this using the linear spring equations given in the problem statement.

As the R-134a expands, the pressure increases because the spring exerts additional force opposed to the expansion. The key to

the relationship between the force exerted by the spring and the pressure inside the cylinder is the cross-sectional area of the

piston, Across.

Fspring k ⋅ (h2 - h1 )

P2 = P1 + = P1 + Eqn 3

A cross A cross

p 2 V

Where : A cross = D Eqn 4 h= Eqn 5

4 A cross

We don't how much force the spring exerts on the piston in the initial state, but that is not a problem. What we need to know is

how much additional force the spring exerts on the pistons as the R-134a expands.

2

Plugging values into Eqns 4, 5 & 3 yields : Across 0.7854 ft

2

1 ft 12 in 113.1 in

1 ft2 = 144 in2 h1 2.83 in

h2 3.96 in

Be very careful with ft and in units when using Eqn 3 ! P2 41.18 psia

Now, we know the values of two intensive variable for the final state: V2 and P2, so we can determine the values T2 and H2 by

interpolation on the R-134a tables.

Here is the relevant data from the Saturation Pressure Temp. V (ft3/lbm)

Temperature table for R-134a. (psia) (oF) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

40 29.01 0.01232 1.1760

45 34.86 0.01242 1.0497

Since V2 is greater than Vsat vap even at the lower P of 10 psia, we can conclude that the R-134a is a superheated vapor in the

final state. So, we need to look at the Superheated table for R-134a.

Because there is no table for 11.29 psia in the Superheated R-134a table and our value of V2, 4.965 ft3/lbm, does not appear in

both the 10 psia and 15 psia tables, double interpolation is required to solve this problem.

o

T( F ) 40 41.18 50

This double interpolation is a little different 60 1.2768 1.244280 1.0019

because V2 is known and T2 is unknown. I 76.7385 1.295263

chose to interpolate on pressure first and 80 1.3389 1.305197 1.0540

then to interpolate on volume. I don't think

you can do this problem in using a different T2 76.74 o

F

interpolation order.

o

T( F ) 40 41.18 50

I chose to interpolate on pressure first and 60 113.79 113.71 113.11

then to interpolate on temperature. If you do 76.7385 117.33 117.26 116.73

the interpolations in the opposite order, you 80 118.02 117.95 117.43

will get a slightly different answer. Either

method is satisfactory. H2 117.26 Btu/lbm

Verify : None.

Answers : T2 76.7 o

F H2 117.3 Btu/lbm

Notes: The reason I changed T1 from -30oF to +30oF was to reduce the error that is an unavoidable problem in all interpolations, but

especially in double interpolations.

o

The correct answers for this problem using T1 = 30oF are: T2 79.08 F

H2 117.72 Btu/lbm

As you can see, the errors due to interpolation are significant, but not disasterous.

If we had used T1 = -30oF, the errors would have been disasterous !

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 3.53 - Isobaric Expansion of Water - 6 pts 6-Apr-11

A piston-and-cylinder device contains 0.005 m3 of liquid water and 0.9 m3 of water vapor in equilibrium at 600 kPa. Heat is added to the water at

constant pressure until the temperature reaches 200oC.

a.) What is the initial temperature of the water in the cylinder in oC ?

b.) What is the total mass of the water in the cylinder in kg ?

c.) Calculate the final volume in m3.

d.) Show the process on a completely labeled PV Diagram. Be sure to include the two-phase envelope.

Read : The keys to this problem are that the process is isobaric and that the cylinder is a closed system. The mass in the system is the

same in the initial and final states.

We can determine the mass of water in the system in the initial state using the given T, P and V.

Because the process is isobaric, state 2 is a saturated vapor at 300 kPa and we can lookup all of its properties in the saturation

pressure table.

o

V1,sat vap 0.9 m3 T2 200 C

o

Find : a.) T1 ??? C

b.) m ??? kg

c.) V2 ??? m3

d.) Construct a fully labeled PV diagram of this process.

2- The intial and final states are equiibrium states.

Diagram :

2

1

P1, V1, T1

Isobaric P2 = P1

Heating V2 > V1

T2 > T1

Solution :

Part a.) In the initial state, liquid and vapor exist in equilibrium at 600 kPa. Therefore the initial temperature must be equal to the saturation

temperature at 600 kPa. We can look this value up in the saturated steam pressure table.

C

Part b.) We know the volume of the saturated liquid and the volume of the saturated vapor in the cylinder, so we can determine the mass of

each from the specific volume using :

msat vap Eqn 1 msat liq Eqn 2

V̂sat vap V̂sat liq

We can look up the specific volumes of the saturated liquid and saturated vapor in the saturated steam pressure table and then

use Eqns 1 & 2 to determine the mass o f each phase in the initial state.

(kPa) (oC) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap m1,sat vap 2.852 kg

600 158.83 0.001101 0.31560 x1 0.386 kg vap/kg

The total mass is the sum of the masses of the sat'd liquid and sat'd vapor : m 7.393 kg

Part c.) We can determine V2 if we can first determine the final specific volume. Since we know both T2 and P2, we can look up the final

specic volume in the steam tables. Because T2 > Tsat(600 kPa), we will need to look in the superheatd steam tables.

V2 msat vap V

ˆ

2 Eqn 3 V2 0.35212 m3/kg

V2 2.603 m3

Part d.)

Verify : None of the assumptions made in the solution of this problem can be verified based on the given information.

Answers : T1 o

a.) 158.83 C

b.) m 7.39 kg

c.) V2 2.60 m3

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 3.66 - R-134a Table Fundamentals - 4 pts 6-Apr-11

A 0.5 m3 vessel contains 10 kg of R-134a at -20oC. Determine…

a.) The pressure in kPa

b.) The total internal energy in kJ

c.) The volume occupied by the liquid phase in m3

Read : Parts (a) and (b) are just a review of how to use thermodynamic data tables.

The key is to use the given volume and mass to calculate the overal specific volume.

Part (c) requires you to USE the liquid specific volume and vapor specific volume to determine how much of the mass is in the

liquid and vapor phases.

Given : Vtotal 0.5 m3 T -20 o

C

mtotal 10 kg

Find : a.) P ??? kPa

b.) Utotal ??? kJ

c.) Vliq ??? m3

Assumptions : - The system exists in an equilibrium state.

Solution :

Part a.) We know T, but we need to know the values of 2 intensive variables.

So, lets use V and m to calculate the overall specific volume.

Vtotal

V̂ Eqn 1 V 0.05 m3/kg

m total

Next, we neeed to use the given T to obtain data from the Saturation Temperature table.

This will allow us to compare the given value of H to the values of Hsat liq and Hsat vap in order to determine the phase or phases

present in the system at equilibrium.

(oC) (kPa) Sat. Liq Sat. Vap Sat. Liq Sat. Vap

-20 132.82 7.3620E-04 0.14729 25.39 218.84

ˆ Vˆ V

ˆ the system contains a saturated mixture and the pressure must be equal to the

Since : Vsat sat saturation pressure.

liq vap

Part b.) We need to know the specific internal energy of the system or vapor-liquid mixture so we can calculat the total internal energy in

the system. The key equation is:

U total m total U

ˆ Eqn 2

We could determine the specific internal energy using the following equation, if we only knew the quality !

ˆ

U ˆ ˆ

Eqn 3

mix vap liq

We can determine the quality from the specific volume of the mixture using :

ˆ V

V ˆ

x

sat liq

Eqn 4

ˆ

V V

sat vap

ˆ

sat liq

Plugging values into Eqns 4, 3 & 2, in that order yields :

x 0.3361 kg vap/kg

U 90.42 kJ/kg Utotal 904.2 kJ

Part c.) We know the specific volume of the saturated liquid in the system. So, we could determine the volume occupied by the saturated

liquid using :

ˆ

sat liq

Eqn 5

This is not difficult because we know the quality ! The equation we need to use is :

Now, we can plug values into Eqns 6 & 5, in that order, to complete the solution of this problem.

3

msat liq 6.639 kg Vsat liq 4.8873E-03 m

4.887 L

Verify : None of the assumptions made in the solution of this problem can be verified based on the given

information.

Answers : a.) P 132.8 kPa

b.) Utotal 904 kJ

c.) Vliq 4.887 L

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : 3.83 - Inflating an Automobile Tire - 6 pts 6-Apr-11

The pressure in an automobile tire depends on the temperature of the air in the tire. When the air temperature is 25oC, the pressure gauge

reads 210 kPa. If the volume of the tire is 0.025 m3 , determine the pressure rise in the tire when the air temperature rises to 50oC. Also

determine the amount of air that must be bled off to restore pressure to its original value at this temperature (in kg and in L at Patm and

25oC). Assume atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. Assume that the air in the tire behaves as an ideal gas, but then check the validity of this

assumption

Read : The keys to this problem are that the air is to be treated as an ideal gas and that the volume of the air in the tire remains

constant throughout both processes: heating and pressure relief.

o

Given : V 0.025 m3 T2 50 C

o

T1 25 C Patm 100 kPa

P1,gauge 210 kPa R 8.314 J/mol-K

P1,abs 310 kPa MW 29 g/mol

Find : a.) P2 - P1 ??? kPa b.) m2-3 ??? g

Vamb ??? L

Assumptions : - The air in the tire is an ideal gas throughout both processes: heating and pressure relief.

Solution : The first thing we need to do is determine the number of moles of air initially inside the tire. We can use the Ideal Gas EOS

Part a.) directly because we were given the values of P1, V and T1 in the problem statement. Be sure to use the absolute pressure !

PV

PV nRT Eqn 1 n Eqn 2

RT

No air leaves the tire during the heating process, so : n1 = n2 = 3.126 moles

Now, we know n2, V, T2, so we can apply the Ideal Gas EOS to state 2 (at the end of the heating process) to determine P2.

n 2 R T2

P2 Eqn 3 P2 336.0 kPa

V

The rise in pressure for the heating process is: P2 - P1 26.0 kPa

Part b.) Lets start by determining the mass of air initially inside the tire. We know the number of moles and the MW of air, so this

should not be too difficult.

m = n * MW Eqn 4 m1 90.67 g

Next, lets determine how many moles of air must be in the tire at 50oC when the pressure is 210 kPa (gauge). This is the final

state, state 3. We can do this by applying Eqn 2 to state 3.

n3 2.885 moles

Next, we apply Eqn 4 to determine the mass of air in the tire in state 3. m3 83.65 g

Now, we can determine the mass of air that must be bled off from the tire and the volume this air would occupy at ambient T

and P.

Now, we can solve Eqn 1 for V to determine the volume that the air removed from the tire would occupy at 100 kPa and 25oC.

Vamb

n 2 n 3 R Tamb

Eqn 6 Vamb 6.00 L

Pamb

Verify : We need to verify the validity of the Ideal Gas EOS by determining the molar volume of the air in the tire in both the initial and

final states.

If we consider air to be a diatomic gas, then the

criterion for ideal gas behavior is : 20 L / mole

V

Use the fact that the molar volume is V/n and rearrange

RT

V Eqn 7

Eqn 1 to obtain : P

Note that the molar volume in state 2 is the same as the molar volume in state !

The molar volume is too small. It is not accurate to treat the air in the tire as an ideal gas. The error in doing so may exceed

1%.

Vamb 0.006 m3

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : WB-3 - An Application of Equations of State - 8 pts 6-Apr-11

A 0.016773 m3 tank contains 1 kg of R-134a at 110oC. Determine the pressure of the refrigerant using:

b.) The Compressibility Factor EOS

c.) The R-134a Tables

d.) The van der Waal EOS

e.) The Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS

Given : m 1 kg Tc 374.25 K

o

T 110 C Pc 4.067E+06 Pa

383.15 K 0.32684

3

V 0.016773 m MW 102.03 g / mol

R 8.314 J/mol-K

PV Eqn 1

RT

Solve Eqn 1 for pressure : P Eqn 2

V

We must determine the molar volume before we can use Eqn 2 to answer the question.

V Eqn 3

n

m

Where : n Eqn 4

MW

3

Now, plug values back into Eqns 3 & 2. V 1.711E-03 m /mol

Be careful with the units.

P 1.86E+06 Pa P 1861 kPa

Part b.) Compressibility EOS : Given TR and the ideal reduced molar volume, use the compressibility charts to evaluate either PR or

the compressibility, Z

PV T

Z Eqn 5 TR Eqn 6

RT Tc

V

Definition of the ideal reduced molar volume : ideal

V Eqn 7

R

R Tc / Pc

PR 0.39 Z 0.865

P

We can use the definition of PR to calculate P : PR

Pc

Eqn 8

P PR Pc

Eqn 9

Plugging values into Eqn 9 yields : P 1586 kPa

RT IG

Or, we can use Z and its definition to determine P : PZ ZV Eqn 10

V

Part c.) The R-134a Tables provide the best available estimate of the pressure in the tank.

Because T > Tc, the properties of the R-134a in the tank must be obtained from the superheated vapor table, even though the

water is actually a supercritical fluid in this system.

At this point we can make use of the fact that we have a pretty good idea of what the actual pressure is in the tank (from parts a-d)

or we can scan the superheated vapor tables to determine which two pressures bracket our known value of the specific volume.

V

molar volume into a specific volume : V̂ Eqn 11

MW

3

Using the MW of R-134a yields : v 1.677E-05 m /g

3

v 1.677E-02 m /kg

The Superheated R-134a Table gives us : At P = 1.6 MPa

3

v= 0.016773 m /kg

Fortunately, no interpolation is required : P 1600 kPa

RT a

Part d.) van der Waal EOS : P 2

Vb V Eqn 12

We can determine the values of a and b, which are constants that depend only on the chemical species in the system, from the

following equations.

27 R 2 Tc2 b

R Tc

a Eqn 13 Eqn 14

64 Pc 8 Pc

2 6 3

a 1.0043 Pa-mol /m b 9.56E-05 m /mol

Now, we can plug the constants a and b into Eqn 12 to determine the pressure.

P 1629 kPa

RT a

P

Part e.) Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS : Vb V

V

b Eqn 15

We can determine the values of a, b and , which are constants that depend only on the chemical species in the system, from the

following equations.

R 2 Tc2 R Tc

a 0.42748 Eqn 16 b 0.08664 Eqn 17

Pc Pc

2

1 m 1 TR

T

Eqn 18 TR Eqn 19

Tc

Eqn 20 Where : 0.327

2 6

TR 1.0238 a 1.01762 Pa-mol /m

3

m 0.9756 b 6.629E-05 m /mol

0.97707 P 1610 kPa

Answers : P (kPa)

a.) The Ideal Gas EOS 1861

b.) The Compressibility Factor EOS 1586

c.) The R-134a Tables 1600

d.) The van der Waal EOS 1629

e.) The Soave-Redlich-Kwong EOS 1610

ENGR 224 - Thermodynamics Baratuci

HW #1

Problem : WB-4 - Relative Humidity and Fogged Glasses - 5 pts 6-Apr-11

On entering a dwelling maintained at 20oC from the outdoors where the temperature is 10oC, a person's eye-glasses are observed not to

become fogged. A humidity gauge indicates the relative humidity in the dwelling is 55%. Can this reading be correct? Provide supporting

calculations.

Read : The key to this problem is to assume that the glasses are at 10oC when they come in from the outdoors and to recognize that if

the dew point of the indoor air is GREATER THAN 10oC, then when the humid air hits the cold glasses, water will condense

onto the glasses and they will "fog". Since the glasses did not actually fog, we know that the dew point temperature of the

humid air in the house is LESS THAN 10oC. So, we can calculate Tdew of indoor air at hr = 55% and compare to 10oC to see

if the 55% relative humidity is possibly correct in light of the fact that the glasses did not fog.

Tin o

Given : 20 C

Tout o

10 C

hr 55%

Find : Can the humidity gauge be correct if the glasses do not fog ?

Assumptions : 1- The humid air behaves as an ideal gas.

2- The glasses are at a temperature of 10oC when they enter the house.

Solution : The water in the humid air in the house will condense on the glasses if 10oC is less than or equal to the dew point temperature

of the air in the house.

So, we can determine whether the humidity gauge is correct by comparing the dew point of the humid air in the house to 10oC.

If Tdew > 10oC, then the glasses SHOULD have fogged and we can conclude that the humidity gauge is not correct. If Tdew <

10oC then we cannot determine whether the humidity gauge is correct

Pw

hr

Pw* T

Relative humidity is defined by : Eqn 1

We know the relative humidity of the indoor air and we can look up the vapor pressure of water at the indoor T of 20oC, so we

can solve Eqn 1 for the partial pressure of water in the indoor air and evaluate it.

Pw 1.2866 kPa

The key to solving this problem is that the mole fraction of water in the humid indoor air remains constant as it approaches the

surface of the cold glasses. The total pressure in the room also remains constant. So, if the indoor air is an ideal gas, then

the partial pressure of water in the indoor air also remains constant because :

Pw y w Ptotal Eqn 3

Now, let's consider what happens when the humid indoor air is cooled down to its dew point.

At the dew point temperature, the relative humidity is 100%. Pw Pw* Tdew Eqn 4

Since the partial pressure of water in the humid indoor air is constant, we can use Eqn 4 to evaluate the vapor pressure of

water at the dew point temperature.

P*w (Tdew) 1.2866 kPa

Now, we can go back to the saturation temperature tables and interpolate to detemine the T at which the vapor pressure is

1.2866 kPa. This T is the dew point !

(oC) (kPa)

10 1.2281

Tdew 1.2866

15 1.7057

Tdew 10.61 oC

Verify : We need to verify the validity of the Ideal Gas EOS by determining the molar volume of the humid air in both the indoor and

outdoor states.

20L / mole

V

the criterion for ideal gas behavior is :

RT

PV Eqn 5 RT

V Eqn 6

P

R 8.314 J/mol-K

Plugging values into Eqn 6 yields : V1 24.05 L/mole

V2 23.23 L/mole

Since the molar volume of both the indoor and outdoor air exceed 20 L/mole, it is accurate to 2 significant figures to treat the

air as an ideal gas.

Answers : Since Tout < Tdew, the glasses SHOULD have fogged when they came into the house if the humidity were really 55%.

However, since the glasses did not fog, we can conclude that the actual relative humidity was less than 55% and the

humidity gauge is not correct.

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