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PCB 4123 Advanced Well Testing

Semester January 2015, Credit hour 3


Duration 14 weeks Lecture + 2 Weeks Study & Exam
Lecture 35 hours + Lab/Tutorial 14 hours
1

Instructor
AP. Dr. Muhannad Talib Shuker
2 Course Content

– Types and Purposes of Well Testing


– Application of Type Curves
– Phase Separation
– Fractured Wells
– Horizontal Wells
– Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
– Special Well Tests and Concepts

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER


3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the course, students should be able to


– Apply type curves to well test data of homogeneous oil and gas reservoirs
– Interpret fractured wells, horizontal and limited entry wells
– Analyse naturally fractured reservoirs using double porosity models
– To assess special well test methods and concepts

Main Reference
1. Lee W. J., Rollins J. B. and Spivey J. P., Pressure Transient Testing, SPE Textbook Series Vol
9 (2003)
Additional Ref:
1. Lee J., Well Testing, SPE Textbook Series Vol 1 (1982)
2. Chaudhury A., Oil Well Testing Handbook, Elsevier (2004)
3. Horne R. N, Modern Well Testing- A Computer Aided Approach, Petroway (1990)
4. Sabet, Well Test Analysis, Gulf (1991)
5. SPE papers (can be found in OnePetro)

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER


4 Lecture Outline

– Types and purposes of Well tests


– Discussion on common types of tests

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER


5 Purpose of Well Testing

– Reservoir Evaluation: Need to know a reservoir’s deliverability, properties & size


– kh product (reservoir conductivity): governs how fast fluid can flow to
the well
– Reservoir pressure: how much potential energy is there
– Reservoir limits: how much fluid is there
– Near wellbore condition: damaged or stimulated
– Reservoir Management: Monitor performance
– Changes in average reservoir pressure
– Select candidates for work over
– Reservoir description: Detect faults, barriers, inter well & inter-layer connectivity,
compartments

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Types of Well Tests: 1. Drawdown Test
6
– Procedure: A well that is static, stable, and shut in is opened
to flow. Flow rate is measured at surface, while pressure is
measured at down hole. Ideally, the flow rate should be
constant. The pressure versus time data is analyzed together
with other reservoir and well parameters to interpret the test.
– Information obtained: k, s, reservoir limit (drainage area),
properties of natural and induced fractures
– Advantage: No revenue loss due to shut in
– Difficulties
– Difficult to maintain constant flow rate
– Unstabilized conditions before the test interfere with the
pressure response
– ’True reservoir response’ may be distorted by near
wellbore effects such as wellbore storage, skin, fractures
etc, and by boudary effects
– Average reservoir pressure cannot be obtained
– Interpretation
– Semilog plot of pwf versus t: k, s
– log-log plot of Δp versus t.: twbs, Cs
– Type curves: k, s, Cd
Types of Well Tests: 2. Buildup Test
7
–Procedure: A well which is already flowing (ideally at a
constant rate) is shut in, and downhole pressure is
measured. The pressure versus time data is analyzed
together with other reservoir and well parameters to
interpret the test.
– Information obtained: same as PDD, plus average reservoir
pressure
–Advantage:Constant flow rate is easily obtained (during the
shut in period- ‘0’ is also a rate!)
–Difficulties
– Difficult to obtain constant rate prior to shut in
– Rate fluctuation must be addressed by either super-position of
multi rates, or by pseudo producing time
– Data distortion similar to PDD
– revenue loss due to shut in
–Interpretation
–Semilog plot of pwfsversus Horner time ratio (tp+Δt/ Δt ) :
k, s
–log-log plot of Δp versus Δt .: twbs, Cs
–Type curves: k, s, Cd

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER


Types of Well Tests: 3. Injection Test
8
– Procedure: Fluid injected into reservoir at a constant rate
while pressure is recorded. The pressure versus time data
is analyzed together with other reservoir and well
parameters to interpret the test.
– Information obtained: Conceptually identical with PDD
test, with a –ve flow rate. Estimate k, s, reservoir limit
(drainage area), properties of natural and induced
fractures, mobility of fluid banks
– Advantage: Easier to control rate
– Difficulties
– ’True reservoir response’ may be distorted by near
wellbore effects such as wellbore storage, skin,
fractures etc, and by boudary effects
– Multiphase effects unless injected and reservoir fluids
are almost identical
– Interpretation
– Semilog plot of pwf versus t: k, s
– log-log plot of Δp versus t.: twbs, Cs
– Type curves: k, s, Cd

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER


Types of Well Tests: 4. Falloff Test
9
– Procedure: The pressure versus time data is recorded after
injection is stopped. Then pressure versus time data is
analyzed together with other reservoir and well
parameters to interpret the test.
– Information obtained: Conceptually identical with PBU
test, with a ‘0’ flow rate. Estimate k, s, reservoir limit
(drainage area), properties of natural and induced
fractures, mobility of fluid banks
– Advantage: Easier to control rate
– Difficulties
– ’True reservoir response’ may be distorted by near
wellbore effects such as wellbore storage, skin,
fractures etc, and by boudary effects
– Multiphase effects unless injected and reservoir fluids
are almost identical
– Interpretation
– Semilog plot of pwf versus t: k, s
– log-log plot of Δp versus t.: twbs, Cs
– Type curves: k, s, Cd

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER


Types of Well Tests: 5. Interference Test
10
– Procedure: One well is produced (active well), pressure is
measured at a different well (observation well)
– Information Obtained: Inter well connectivity, directional
permeability, φct
– Advantage:
– Useful to estimate reservoir properties over a greater length
scale
– Regardless of pressure change induced at the active well
(PBU, PDD, Injection, FO)
– Difficulty: Needs sensitive instruments, longer time
– Interpretation: Type Curve
Types of Well Tests: 6. Pulse Test
11
– Procedure: Coded signal is sent from active to
observation well. Signal is generated by alternating
flow and shut-in periods
– Information Obtained: Inter well connectivity,
directional permeability, φct
– Advantage: Useful to estimate reservoir properties over
a greater length scale
– Limitation: Needs sensitive instruments, longer time
– Interpretation: Special graphs and figures

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER


12 Lecture Summary

– Well testing is an important technique to estimate various reservoir/well


parameters such as k, s, pavg, reservoir limit (drainage area), distance to
boundaries, inter well connectivity, etc.
– These information are used at various stages of a reservoir development.
– There are different types and descriptions for well testing.
– For this course, we are focused on the “Pressure Transient” family of testing.

AP DR MUHANNAD TALIB SHUKER