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WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN PUBLIC MARKET USING EXTERNAL

MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

A Seminar Paper

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Course

Industrial Waste Management and Control

By

Jan Cecilia A. Bautista

May 2017
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

May 2017

ENGR. CEASAR P. LLAPITAN

Instructor

Chemical Engineering Department

Cagayan State University-Carig Campus

Dear Engr. Llapitan:

I am herewith submitting my report entitled “Wastewater Treatment in Public Market using

External Membrane Bioreactor” in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Course Industrial

Waste Management and Control.

The main objective of this report is to design a wastewatertreatmentfacilityfor public markets.

This study shows the membranebioreactorparameters and calculations needed for the design.

I hope that this will merit your approval

Very Truly Yours,

Jan Cecilia A. Bautista

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Table of Contents

Title Page

Letter of Transmittal ................................................................................................................................... i

Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................... ii

Chapter I: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1

A. Aim and Objectives .............................................................................................................1

B. Sources of Wastewater .........................................................................................................2

C. Public market .......................................................................................................................2

D. Wastewater Treatment Plant ................................................................................................3

E. Legal Basis of Wastewater Treatment .................................................................................4

F. Tuguegarao Public Market ...................................................................................................5

Chapter II: PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND SELECTION....................................................6

A. Market Wastewater ..............................................................................................................6

B. Treatment of Market Wastes ................................................................................................7

C. Membrane Filtration ...........................................................................................................7

D. Membrane Bioreactor ................................................................................................................... 9

1. Configurations of Membrane Bioreactor .......................................................................9

Chapter III DESIGN ............................................................................................................................. 12

A. Wastewater Characteristics ........................................................................................................ 12

1. Raw Wastewater Characteristics ..................................................................................1

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B. Process Flow and Information ...........................................................................................13

C. Component of the Designed MBR Facility .......................................................................14

1. Anoxic Tank..............................................................................................................15

2. Activated Sludge Tank ...............................................................................................15

D. Operational Parameters ......................................................................................................16

E. Design Calculations ...........................................................................................................17

1. Screening ....................................................................................................................17

2. Equalization Tank.......................................................................................................18

3. Activated Sludge Tank ...............................................................................................22

4. Oxygen Requirements ................................................................................................24

5. Sludge Wasting...........................................................................................................25

6. Membrane Design ......................................................................................................26

Chapter IV CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................27

REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 28

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CHAPTER1

INTRODUCTION

Nature has an amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution,

but it would be overwhelmed if we treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage

produced every day before releasing it back to the environment. (T.Subramani, Porkodi, &

Jayalakshmi, 2014)

We consider wastewater treatment as a water use because it is so interconnected with

the other uses of water. Much of the water used by homes, industries, and businesses must be

treated before it is released back to the environment. (Rakesh Kumar, 2006)

Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food scraps,

oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets,

washing machines and dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute their share of

used water that must be cleaned.

Wastewater also includes storm runoff. Although some people assume that the rain that

runs down the street during a storm is fairly clean, it isn't. Harmful substances that wash off

roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes.

A. Aim and Objectives

Treating wastewater has the aim to produce an effluent that will do as little harm as

possible.

The objectives of the study is to design a wastewater treatment facility that discharges

an effluent complying with the standards stated in DENR Administrative Order (DAO) No. 35.

1
And to reuse the highly treated wastewater as water supply for the public market for human

recreation, i.e. washing meat, fish, fruits, and vegetables; flushing, and bathing.

B. Sources of wastewater

a.) Domestic Sewage

This includes all wastewater generated by home dwellings, public restrooms,

hotels, restaurants, motels, resorts, schools, places of worship, sports stadiums,

hospitals and other health centers, apartments and the like. They all produce high

volumes of wastewater.

b.) Non-Sewage

These include water from floods (stormwater), runoff (rain water running

through cracks in the ground and into gutters), water from swimming pools, water from

car garages and cleaning centers. They also include laundromats, beauty salons,

commercial kitchens, energy generation plants and so on.

Wastewater is also generated from agricultural facilities. Water used for cleaning in

animal farms, washing harvested produce and cleaning farm equipment.

C. Public market

Public markets in the Philippines generate high in strength wastewater and in effect,

may pollute the nearby bodies of water destroying aquatic life and as well as the whole water

body. Wastewater from these establishments is generated from different sources and activities.

Sources of these are meat, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables that are sold. Food stalls and

public restrooms are also present contributing to the wastewater. These sources are able to

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generate wastewater containing high levels of organic material, suspended solids, fats, oils, and

grease that contains about two to three times the organic matter and solids typically found in

domestic wastewater.

The construction of a MBR treatment facility is very important and can be very useful

to the public market. The facility can contribute to the sustainable development and can treat

wastewater to the extent that it can be reused again as a water supply for commercial and

domestic purposes for the market area. The MBR facility can also reduce the level of organic

material, suspended solids and other particles that comprises the wastewater up to the point

that the effluent will be meeting the quality of effluent standards (Lazaro, Miura, & Perez,

2014).

D. Wastewater Treatment Plant

Wastewater treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater,

primarily from household sewage. There are numerous processes that can be used to clean up

wastewaters depending on the type and extent of contamination. Wastewater can be treated

in wastewater treatment plants which include physical, chemical and biological treatment

processes to remove these contaminants and produce environmentally safe treated wastewater

(or treated effluent).

One type of aerobic treatment system is the activated sludge process, based on the

maintenance and recirculation of a complex biomass composed of micro-organisms to be able

to absorb the organic matter carried in the wastewater. Anaerobic wastewater treatment

processes (UASB, EGSB) are also widely applied in the treatment of industrial wastewaters

and biological sludge. Some wastewater may be highly treated and reused as reclaimed water.

Wastewater collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state and federal

regulations and standards.

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Treating wastewater has the aim to produce an effluent that will do as little harm as

possible when discharged to the surrounding environment, thereby preventing pollution

compared to releasing untreated wastewater into the environment.

E. Legal Basis of Wastewater Treatment

In the Philippines, Republic Act 9275, otherwise known as the Philippine Clean Water

Act of 2004, is the governing law on wastewater management. It states that it is the country's

policy to protect, preserve and revive the quality of our fresh, brackish and marine waters, for

which wastewater management plays a particular role.

The table below are the Significant Effluent Quality Parameters for Water Supply;

Sewerage, Waste Management and Remediation Activities based from (DAO, 2016).

Industry Category Significant Parameters

Water collection, treatment and supply pH, Total Suspended Solids, Chloride,
(except those intended to prevent pollution) Fluoride,Iron

Sewerage (operation of sewer systems or BOD, Fecal Coliform, Ammonia, Nitrate,


sewage treatment facilities that collect, treat, Phosphate, Oil and Grease, Surfactants
and dispose of sewage)

Treatment and disposal of non-hazardous Color, Temperature, pH, COD, Total


waste Suspended Solids, Total Coliform,
Ammonia, Nitrate, Phosphate, Sulfate,
Chloride, Oil and Grease

Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste Color, Temperature, pH, COD, Total
Suspended Solids, and other parameters
depending on the nature of their activities

Remediation activities and other waste Color, Temperature, pH, COD, Total
management services Suspended Solids, and other parameters
depending on the nature of remediation
activity

Table 1: Significant Effluent Quality Parameters (DAO, 2016)

4
F. Tuguegarao Public Market

Don Domingo Tuguegarao Public Market, located along Balzain East, Tuguegarao

City. it is the second public market in the city after the old Pamilihang Bayan ngTuguegarao

which is now Mall of the Valley. However at present, it has no existing wastewater treatment

plant. Thus, the construction of a MBR treatment facility is very important and can be very

useful to the public market.

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CHAPTER 2

PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND SELECTION

Conventional wastewater treatment is currently widely used globally, however it has

limitations since its scale is predominantly large and more capital investment is needed. As

cited by Cele, 2014, it requires skill to operate which hinders its success in developing

countries. Its implementation in remotely developed residential complexes is difficult since

more capital investment is required; rural areas also experience a disadvantage from this

technology since inhabitants are scattered.

Amongst the technologies that have been developed for wastewater treatment is

membrane bioreactors (MBRs). MBRs are increasingly being specified as a viable alternative

for the reclamation of wastewater for reuse.

According to Alibardi, 2015, Municipal wastewaters are, currently, mainly treated by

the use of activated sludge systems which, although effective, require a great deal of energy.

As a result, anaerobic technologies have been widely investigated for the treatment of

municipal wastewater.

A. Market Wastewater

As cited by Lazaro et al., 2014, wastewater from public markets is generated from

distinct sources and activities. These include: meat, poultry, fish preparation and sales, fruit

and vegetable sales prepared food stalls, and public restrooms.

When combined into a common outfall, the resulting wastewater mixture typically

contains high levels of organic material, suspended solids, fats, oils and grease. It commonly

contains two to three times the organic matter and solids typically found in residential

wastewater, classifying market sources as “high strength.”

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To effectively manage high-strength wastewater, treatment infrastructure must be

designed and sized not only to address hydraulic loading in terms of volume (cubic meters per

day), but also organic loading, which is expressed in terms of kilograms of BOD (Biochemical

Oxygen Demand) per day, and solids loading, which is expressed in terms of Total Suspended

Solids (TSS).

B. Treatment of Market Wastes

Market wastewater containing high levels of organic material, suspended solids, fats, oils,

and grease can be treated using the activated sludge process. Like the conventional process,

wastewater will be passing through physical and biological treatment processes.

 Physical Treatment

Coarse screens, particularly, mechanical bar screens, are used for screening

large solids to lessen the labor costs and improve the flow conditions of the wastewater.

It will also serve as the preliminary treatment for the wastewater before entering the

primary sedimentation tank.

 Biological Treatment

Biological treatment process in an MBR begins after screening the wastewater. The

biological process takes place involving vigorous agitation, coming from air bubbles

generated from a blower system. This acts to scour and clean the surface of the membrane

to prevent buildup of a material and also to provide sufficient oxygen concentration for

biological action that supports the growth of bacteria.

C. Membrane Filtration

Membrane separation is currently used as support or replacement for traditional water

and wastewater treatment technologies such as physical filtration or biological and chemical

7
treatment. It is rapidly gaining acceptance throughout the world as the most effective and

economical water treatment method available (Fraunhofer MOEZ).

Membrane filtration, according to USEPA, involves the flow of wastewater containing

pollutants across a membrane. Water permeates through the membrane into a separate channel

for recovery (Figure 2.C). Because of the cross-flow movement of wastewater and the waste

constituents, materials left behind di not accumulate at the membrane surface but are carried

out of the system for later recovery or disposal. The water passing through the membrane is

called permeate, while the water with the more-concentrated materials is called the concentrate.

Membranes are constructed of cellulose or other polymer material, with a maximum

pore size set during the manufacturing process. The requirement is that the membranes prevent

passage of particles the size of microorganisms, or about 1 micron (0.001 millimeters), so that

they remain in the system. This means that the MBR systems are good for removing solid

material, but the removal of dissolved wastewater components must be facilitated by using

additional treatment steps.

Figure2.C: Membrane Separation

D. Membrane Bioreactor

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Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is the combination of a membrane process like

microfiltration or ultrafiltration with a suspended growth bioreactor, and is now widely used

for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment with plant sizes up to 80,000 population

equivalent (i.e. 48 million liters per day).

Membrane bioreactor technologies are those technologies that provide biological

treatment with membrane separation. This is more appropriately applied to processes in which

there is a coupling of these two elements, rather than the sequential application of membrane

separation downstream of classical bio-treatment. Conventional treatment of municipal

wastewater (sewage) usually proceeds through a three stage process: sedimentation of gross

solids in the feed water followed by aerobic degradation of the organic matter and then a second

sedimentation process to remove the biomass. An MBR can displace the two physical

separation processes by filtering the biomass through a membrane. As a result the product water

quality is significantly higher than that generated by conventional treatment, obviating the need

for a further tertiary disinfection process (Judd,2008).

Some advantages of MBRs over conventional processes include small footprint, easy

retrofit and upgrade of old wastewater treatment plants.

It is possible to operate MBR processes at higher mixed liquor suspended

solids (MLSS) concentrations compared to conventional settlement separation systems, thus

reducing the reactor volume to achieve the same loading rate.

1. Configurations of Membrane Bioreactor

Two MBR configurations exist: internal/submerged, where the membranes are

immersed in and integral to the biological reactor; and external/sidestream, where

membranes are a separate unit process requiring an intermediate pumping step.

a.) Internal/submerged

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The filtration element is installed in either the main bioreactor vessel or in a

separate tank. The membranes can be flat sheet or tubular or combination of both, and

can incorporate an online backwash system which reduces membrane surface fouling

by pumping membrane permeate back through the membrane. In systems where the

membranes are in a separate tank to the bioreactor, individual trains of membranes can

be isolated to undertake cleaning regimes incorporating membrane soaks, however the

biomass must be continuously pumped back to the main reactor to limit MLSS

concentration increase. Additional aeration is also required to provide air scour to

reduce fouling. Where the membranes are installed in the main reactor, membrane

modules are removed from the vessel and transferred to an offline cleaning tank.

b.) External/sidestream

The filtration elements are installed externally to the reactor, oftenin a plant

room. The biomass is either pumped directly through a number of membrane modules

in series and back to the bioreactor, or the biomass is pumped to a bank of modules,

from which a second pump circulates the biomass through the modules in series.

Cleaning and soaking of the membranes can be undertaken in place with use of an

installed cleaning tank, pump and pipework.

Bioreactor 10
Effluent
influent
Treatedwater
Sidestream
Bioreactor membrane
Effluent
influent
Treated water
wastewater

Recirculation

Airsparging(Aeration)

Figure 2.D.1. Internal MBR (top) and External MBR (bottom)

CHAPTER 3

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DESIGN

The design of wastewater treatment plants is usually based on the need to reduce

organic and suspended solids loads to limit pollution of the environment. Pathogen removal

has very rarely been considered an objective but, for reuse of effluents in agriculture, this must

now be of primary concern and processes should be selected and designed accordingly.

A. Wastewater Characteristics

An understanding of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of wastewater is

very important in design, operation, and management of collection, treatment, and disposal of

wastewater. The nature of wastewater includes physical, chemical, and biological

characteristics which depend on the water usage in the community, the industrial and

commercial contributions, weather, and infiltration/inflow (Shun Dar Lin, 2007).

Market wastewaters are known to be high in organic content. They are also high in

protein content from fish, poultry, and meat processing activities. These characteristics identify

market wastewater from domestic wastewater. Desirable treatment must be conducted in order

to decrease the organic content of the water before discharge or reuse.

1. Raw Wastewater Characteristics

The ff. data on the characteristics of the market wastewater are obtained through tests

for the BOD5, COD, and TSS. The Average Design Flow is taken through estimation based on

existing data of different wastewater flow of several public markets in the Philippines. The

temperature is set to a standard of 200C (as cited by Lazaro et al., 2014).

Raw Wastewater Characteristics

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BOD5 1314 mg/L

COD 2240 mg/L

TSS 700 mg/L

Wastewater Temp. 20 0C

Average Design Flow 52.3 m3 /day

Table 3.A: Market Wastewater Characteristics

B.Process Flow and Information

The MBR Facility is installed after the process of Activated Sludge Tank to perform

the separation volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. The facility is a tool designed to

remove biological and chemical waste products from water, thereby permitting the treated

water to be used for other purposes. The proposed project will be placed at the Public Market.

The MBR facility is a treatment process consisting of the following:

Screening is applied to remove the large inorganic and organic particles to prevent

clogging of pipe lines and pumps. Since the wastewater contains high nitrogen content,Anoxic

Tank isapplied to denitrify wastewater where the electron donor is carbon from domestic

sewage and electron acceptor is nitrate. By denitrifying bacteria, nitrate will be converted to

nitrogen gas which able to escape from the tank. Sludge will conveys to Activated Sludge Tank

whichinvolves mixing air with the wastewater to provide the suitable condition for

microorganisms to digest organic matter and nutrients to sustain their life process. To sustain

the food to microorganism ratio, the treatment of domestic wastewater in the treatment facility

was also included. During this phase, flocculation will take place by the slime layer of the

bacteria, glycocalyx, and cause to bind them together with the wastewater. Biomass then

conveys to the external MBR to separate and remove pathogens particularly fecal coliform and

13
E. coli without applying disinfectant. Part of the biomass will return to the reactor. A high flow

recirculation pump used for External MBR facility to utilize the membrane.

Feed

MechanicalScreening

AnoxicTank

ActivatedSludgeTank

MBRFacility

Effluent

Figure 3.B: Process Flow of Wastewater Treatment

C. Component of the Designed MBR Facility

This section explains the required design parameter of the proposed project(Figure3.C).

Each treatment phase is briefly explained to complete the facility. This component covers the

idea of the designed MBR Facility from the start up to the ending conclusion.

14
Figure 3.C: Proposed MBR Facility

1. Anoxic Tank

An anoxic tank is a tank after primary screening where raw untreated wastewater

enter and is being mixed for the equalization of sludge under the absence of oxygen. The

size of the tank can be determined by the daily flow rate of sewage into the tank. The

volume wastewater sample collected would be constant and its time would be variable. A

sample will be collected on an hourly interval for 24 hours for the accuracy of the

dimensions of the tank. This method is also applicable for solving the volume of an

Equalization Tank.

2. Activated Sludge Tank

In order to determine of size of the activated sludge tank, the flow rate of sewage in

the public market must be identified. The Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLT) will then be

solved. HLT is expressed as rate of flow in cubic meters per second over the surface area

of the wet tank. This value is used to prevent the overflow of incoming wastewater in the

aeration tank.

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The Food to Microorganism Ratio (F/M) depends on the country’s climate.

According to the stated standards, Philippines which lies under warm climate regions, the

range generally lies between 5 days in warmer climates to 10 days in temperate ones. In

this climate, nitrification is desired along with good BOD removal, and complete mixing

systems are employed. Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) assumed to have a value

of 2500 mg/l due to high level of MLSS clogging of membrane filter preventing the passage

of permeate leading to failure and degradation of the effectiveness in the system treatment

process. Furthermore, the volume of MLSS concentration will determine the HRT, or the

number of hours that wastewater stay in the aeration tank to perform a complete aeration

process.

D. Operational Parameters

Parameters of the wastewater during and after treatment should always be considered

in the design and operation as a guide in the design calculation and specifications of the

treatment facility and equipment.

According to DAO 35, effluent standards of Class B water must not be greater than 30 mg/L

and 50 mg/L of BOD and Total Suspended Solids (TSS), respectively. These standards make

the water suitable for bathing and cleaning.

The table below is the Operational Parameters to be followed for the Design based from

Shun Dar Lin, 2007.

Operational Parameters

Effluent BOD ≤ 30 mg/L


Effluent TSS ≤ 50 mg/L
Design Mean Cell Residence Time (θc) 5 days

16
MLVSS 3000 mg/L
Yield Coefficient (Y ) 0.5
Decay Constant (kd) 0.06 / day
BOD u 0.67
BOD 5

MLVSS 0.8
MLSS
Table 3.D: Operational Parameters

Assume:

 BOD and TSS removal in screening are 15% and 25%, respectively.

 BOD and TSS removal in Equalization Tank are 30% and 55%, respectively.

 Air weights 1.202 kg/m3 and contain 23.2% oxygen by weight

 Oxygen transfer efficiency for air diffuser is 8% and safety factor of 2 is used to

determine the actual volume for sizing the blowers.

 S.G. of raw market wastewater is less than 2.65 and 4.5% of solid content

 Oxygen consumption is 1.45 mg per mg of cell oxidized

E. Design Calculations

1. Screening

Screening is first operation that the wastewater will be undergoing for treatment.

It is a physical unit operation that removes large particles, such as paper, plastics, rags,

that contributes to the clogging of pipes. It also helps in preventing damage to the

equipment, piping, and other appurtenances downstream.

The calculation of BOD and TSS entering the equalization tank is taken from

the removal rate of the screen basket. With the aid of screens, about 15% and 25% of

BOD and TSS is removed, respectively. (Lin 2007)

Removal rate of BOD and TSS in screening:

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BOD Loading:

BOD loading = BOD5 Qave 


 1000 L 
BOD loading  1314
mg

1 kg
 3 

52.3 m 3 / day 
 L 1,000,000 mg 1 m 
BOD loading = 68.72 kg/day

TSS Loading:

TSS loading = TSS Qave 


 1000 L 
TSS loading  700
mg

1 kg
 3 

52.3 m 3 / day 
 L 1,000,000 mg 1 m 
TSS loading = 36.61 kg/day

BOD removal:

BOD removed = BOD loading 15% removed 


 
)0.15
kg
BOD removed  (68.72
 day 
BOD removed = 10.31 kg/day

TSS Removal:

TSS removed = TSS loading 25% removed 


 
)0.25
kg
BOD removed  (36.61
 day 
BOD removed = 9.15 kg/day

2. Equalization Tank

After passing through the wire mesh basket, the wastewater enters an

equalization tank. The equalization tank, from the term itself, equalizes the volume of

wastewater entering the activated sludge tank and as well as the proceeding treatment

processes. It prevents the passage of wastewater in the activated sludge tank in order

not to disrupt the wastewater being aerated and also not to agitate the settling particles

during the sedimentation process.

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An effective size of the tank must be strategically computed. Having a daily

flow of 52.3 m3 per day and very small area for the tank, the volume of wastewater per

treatment cycle must be able to contain. The average hourly flow rate is computed for

12 hours of market operation per day. The treatment facility can accommodate two (2)

cycles of treatment per date having a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 12 hours.

HRT is the number of hours the wastewater is being retained or held in the equalization

tank.

Given:

Wastewater Influent 52.3 m3/day

Market Operation 12 hrs

Cycles of Treatment per Day 2 cycles per day

Hydraulic Retention Time 12 hrs

 Average hourly flow rate during operation:

m3
52.3
day m3
 4.36
12 hrs. hr.

 Since the MBR treatment operation takes 12 hrs

V  Qt
 
V  4.36 m 3 / hr. 12 hrs. 
V  52.32 m 3

 Let the depth be 3m with a free board of 0.6 m , and the length and width to

have a ratio of 3:1. Calculate the width and depth:

19
V  L WD
Length  3Width 
52.32 m 3  3W W 3m 
52.32 m 3
3W 2 
3m

W = 2.4 m
L= 7.2 m

 Calculate the depth with freeboard of 0.6 meters

D = 0.6 m (free board) + 3 m

D = 3.6 m

L × W × D = 7.2 m × 2.4 m × 3.6 m

 Calculate for the remaining BOD and TSS from screening entering the

equalization tank.

 BOD Remaining:

BOD remaining = 68.72 kg/day - 10.31 kg/day

BOD remaining = 58.41 kg/day

 TSS Remaining:

TSS remaining = 36.61 kg/day - 9.15 kg/day

TSS remaining = 27.46 kg/day

According to the Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual, 30% of BOD and

55% of the COD entering the equalization tank is retained. The other percentage of

these values passes through and enters the activated sludge tank. The sludge flow rate

(SFR) is also subtracted since it will also be retained in the equalization tank. The SFR

20
is the amount of sludge that has settled on the bottom of the equalization tank. The

sludge that settled below the tank is pumped out with the use of a sludge pump.

 BOD Removal:

BOD removed = (58.41 kg/day)(30%)

BOD removed = 17.53 kg/day

BOD remaining = BOD loading-BOD removed

BOD remaining = 40.89 kg/day

 TSS Removal:

TSS removed = (27.46 kg/day)(55%)

TSS removed = 15.10 kg/day

TSS remaining = TSS loading-TSS removed

TSS remaining = 12.36 kg/day

 Sludge Flow Rate:

TSS Removed
SFR 
S.G  D water  %solid content
15.10 kg/day
SFR 
2.65  1000 kg/m 3  0.045
SFR  0.13 m 3 /day

3. Activated Sludge Tank

The activated sludge tank is where the wastewater is converted into its reusable

form and decanted into a water tank for storage and reuse. The entire process of

aeration, settling, and membrane filtration takes place in this tank.


21
 Dimensions of the Tank

The computations below must be followed in order to come up with the

volume and dimensions of the tank.

 Flow of the BOD and TSS in Activated Sludge Tank

Q in  Q ave - SFR
Q in  52.3m 3 /day - 0.13m 3 /day
Q in  52.17 m 3 /day 50% will only proceed 
Q in  26.09 m 3 /day

 BOD Loading - BOD removed 


BOD in  50%  
 Q in 
 58.41 kg/day - 17.53 kg/day 
BOD in  50%  
 26.09 m 3 /day 
BOD in  0.7834kg/m 3
BODin = 783.44mg/L
So = 783.44mg/L

 TSS Loading - TSS removed 


TSS in  50%   equalizati on
 Q in 
 27.46 kg/day - 15.10 kg/day 
TSS in  50% 
 26.09 m 3 /day 
TSS in  0.23687kg/ m 3
TSSin=236.87mg/L

 Estimation of Soluble BOD5 that will enter to the membrane.

To estimate, determine the BOD5 of the effluent suspended solids

assuming 85% biodegradable solids and 1.45 mg of oxygen is consumed

per mg of cell oxidized.

Biodegradable Effluent Solids = (Effluent BOD5)(% biodegradable)

= (30 mg/L)(85%)

= 25.5 mg/L

22
BODu of Bio. Eff. Solids = (25.5mg/L)(1.45 mg O2/ mg cell)

= 36.98 mg/L

BOD5 = 0.67 (BODu)

= 0.67 (36.98 mg/L) = 24.8 mg/L

COD = 2 (BOD5) ←approx. twice the BOD5

= 2 (24.8 mg/L)

= 49.6 mg/L

Effluent BOD = influent soluble BOD + BOD of eff. suspended solids

30 mg/L= S + 24.8 mg/L

S = 5.22 mg/L

 Dimensions of the Aeration Tank

A minimum depth of 3 meters was set. But since the rate of flow is very

low, the value must be accepted. A free board of 0.6 m is also added and the

length to width ratio must be 2:1.

 Calculating the width and depth

V  L WD
Length  2Width 
26.09 m 3  L W D 
26.09 m 3  2W W 3
W = 2.1 m
L = 4.2 m

 Calculate the depth with free board of 0.6 m

D = 3 m + 0.6 m

D = 3.6 m

23
L × W × d = 4.2 m × 2.1 m × 3.6m

V = 31.752 m

 Hydraulic Retention Time

V
HRT 
Q in
31.75m 3
HRT 
52.3m 3 /day
HRT  0.6 day

HRT ≈𝟏𝟐𝐡𝐫𝐬

4.Oxygen Requirements

Calculating the oxygen requirements gives the amount of air needed to be

injected per day of aeration. Its theoretical requirements are taken from the BOD5 and

the concentration of microorganisms that should be present in the wastewater per day.

For the theoretical air requirements, the biomass yield observed and the sludge

production per day must be calculated.

 Q S - S
BOD used   in o 
 0.67 
 26.09m 3 /day 783.44mg/L - 5.22mg/L  1000 L  1kg 
BOD used    3 
 6 
 0.67  1m  10 mg 
BOD used  30.3kg/day

5. Sludge Wasting

Sludge wasting is very essential in activated sludge treatment. It is the amount

of sludge that is removed per day in the tank. The tank must contain a sufficient amount

of sludge to support the growth of microorganisms. The following steps are to be

followed in calculating for the sludge wasted.

24
 Sludge Wasting Flow Rate

c  
 V MLVSS  

 Q SW MLVSS   Q O X E  

5days  
 
31.75m 3 3000mg/L  

 QSW 3000mg / L   26.09 m /day(50mg/ L  0.8 
3

Q SW  6.0m 3 /day

 The increase in mass of MLSS (Py) from the increase of MLVSS production

(Px=7.81 kg/day) as computed.

Px 7.81 kg/day
Py  
0.80. 0.80.
Py  9.76 kg / day

 Calculate TSS lost in the effluent (PL)

PL= (Qin−Qsw)(Effluent TSS)

= ( 26.09 m3/day− 6.00 m3/day)(50mg/L)

PL= 𝟏.𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟓𝐤𝐠/𝐝𝐚𝐲

 Estimate the quantity of sludge to be wasted daily.

Wastewater sludge= Py−PL

Wastewater sludge= 9.76 kg/day−1.0045 kg/day

Wastewater sludge= 𝟖.𝟕𝟔𝐤𝐠/𝐝𝐚𝐲

6. Membrane Design

Assuming the Design Flow is 20 L/hr-m2 and the Standard Filter Area is 25 m2.

 Computing for daily permeate flow per cycle:

 L 1 m3 12 hr 
Q P  20    25 m 2  5 cassetes 
 hr  m 1000 L 1 cycle
2

= 30 m3/cycle

25
CONCLUSION

The study entitled “Wastewater Treatment in Public Market using External Membrane

Bioreactor” is able to design an advanced treatment facility for discharging an effluent

complying with standards as stated in DAO 35. Different biological and physical treatments

applied to the wastewater resulted to an effluent passing the standards for bathing, cleaning and

etc.

Membrane Bioreactors provides an advanced level of wastewater treatment making it

sufficient for reuse. Since the expected effluent quality is water classification class C, the

treatment provided an effluent overly meeting the said requirement with the production of class

B water. As to this, the public market can therefore, use the treated water as a water supply for

human recreation.

The construction of the facility would be of great benefit for the market and in the

promotion of sustainable development, and a healthy and pollution free environment for

everybody.

26
REFERENCES

 Alibardi, N. Bernava, R. Cossu, A. Spagni, (2015).Anaerobic dynamic membrane

bioreactor for wastewater treatment at ambient temperature, Chemical Engineering

Journal

 Cele, Mxolisi Norman,2014.Development and Evaluation Of Woven Fabric Immersed

Membrane Bioreactor For Treatment Of Domestic Waste Water For Re-Use.

 DAO, D. A. (2016, March 30). Water Quality Guidelines and General Effluent

Standards of 2016. Department of Environment and Natural Resources , pp. 1-25.

 FraunhoferMoez.Membrane Technologies for Water and Wastewater Treatment on the

European and Indian Market

 Judd, Simon,2008. The status of membrane bioreactor technology.

 Lazaro, L. S., Miura, A. R., & Perez, I. C. (2014). Design of a Membrane BioReactor

(MBR) Facilityfor Treating Market Wastewater Using Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration

Membrane. Mapúa Institute of Technology, 20.

 Rakesh Kumar, R. N. (2006). Municipal Water and Waste Water Treatment. The

Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).

 ShunDarLin,2007.Water and Wastewater Calculation Manuals 2nd Ed.

 T.Subramani, Porkodi, D., & Jayalakshmi, J. (2014). Sewage Treatment In Salem

District. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), 08-13.

27
TERM PAPER PRESENTATION

In

Industrial Waste Management and Control

(Written Report)

TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________________________________

PRESENTER: ___________________________________________

Unacceptable Marginal Exceptional


Criteria Score
(1) (3) (5)

Organization Little or no structure or organization; no Material are generally organized well, but Organizes written materials in a logical
subheadings or proper paragraph structure paragraphs combine sequence to enhance
&
Used multiple thoughts or sections and the reader's comprehension
Style subsections are not identified clearly
(paragraphs, subheading, etc.)
(2)

No grasp of information. Clearly Uncomfortable with content. Only basic Demonstration of full knowledge of the
Content
concepts are demonstrated and interpreted. subject with explanations and elaboration.
no knowledge of subject matter. No
&
questions are answered. No interpretation
Knowledge made.

(3)

29i
Application of No application of engineering and/or Serious deficiencies in proper selection and Critical selection and application of
scientific principles use of engineering principles. engineering principles ensuring
Engineering
reasonable results.
Principles

(4)

Design is done Incompletely without the Design is done, but procedures and Supports design procedure with
Documentation proper equations and equations are not documented or
(2) referenced documentation and references
without references

Outside Seeks no extra information other than Seeks information from a few sources - Seeks information on problems from
what is provided by instructor mainly from the textbook or the instructor multiple resources
Resources

(2)

Use of Supporting Graphs, tables or diagrams are used, but Uses graphs, tables, and diagrams, but only Uses graphs, tables, and diagrams to
no reference is made to them in a few instances are they applied to support points-to explain, interpret, and
Graphs, Tables, support, explain or interpret information assess information
etc (3)

Spelling & Several spelling and grammatical errors. Minor misspellings and/or grammatical Negligible misspellings and/or grammatical
errors. errors.
Grammar

(1)

Figure No figures or graphics are used at all Figures are present but are flawed-axes Figures are all in proper format
mislabeled, no data
Formatting
points, etc
(1)

30
Inadequate list of references or references Minor inadequacies in references. Reference section complete and
References
in text. Inconsistent or Consistent referencing system. comprehensive. Consistent and logical
(2) referencing system.
illogical referencing system.

TOTAL

Rater: ____________________________________

Signature: _________________________________ Date: _____________________________

31
TERM PAPER PRESENTATION

In

Industrial Waste Management and Control

(Oral Presentation)

TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________________________________

PRESENTER: ___________________________________________

Unacceptable Marginal Exceptional


Criteria Score
(1) (3) (5)

Talk is poorly organized, e.g. no clear Presents key elements of an oral presentation Plans and delivers an oral presentation
Delivery
introduction or summary of talk is adequately, but "tell them" not clearly applied effectively; applies
(2)
Presented the principle of "(tell them)" –well organized

Length and Presentation is inappropriately short or Presentation contains excessive or insufficient Presentation has enough detail appropriate
excessively long; omits key results during detail for time allowed or and technical content for the time constraint
Detail presentation and the audience
level of audience
(3)

Major difficulties with the mechanical aspects Has some minor difficulties with the Presents well mechanically. Makes eye contact
Mechanics of the presentation. No eye contact. Difficult mechanical aspects of the presentation. Eye Can be easily heard. Speaks comfortably with
to hear or understand speaking. Reads from contact is sporadic. Occasionally difficult to minimal prompts (notecards). Does not block
(4)
prepared hear or understand speaking. Overuses screen. No distracting nervous habits
prompts or does not use prompts enough

32
Script. Blocks the screen. Distracting nervous occasionally stumbles or loses place; appears
habits (um, ah, clicking to

pointer, etc.) have memorize presentation. Occasionally


blocks screen Some nervous habits (um, ah,
clicking pointer, etc.)

Dialect Uses poor English Occasionally uses an inappropriate style of Uses proper American English
English-too conversational
(2)

Visual Aides Multiple slides are unclear or Visual aides have minor errors or are not Uses visual aids effectively
incomprehensible always clearly visible
(2)

Appearance Inappropriate attire, slovenly or too revealing Appearance is too casual for the Professional appearance
(3) circumstances

Listening Does not listen carefully to questions, does Sometimes misunderstands Listens carefully and responds to questions
not provide an appropriate appropriately; is able
and questions, does not respond appropriately to
answer, or is unable to answer questions the audience, or has some trouble answering to explain and interpret results for various
Response to about presentation material audiences and purposes
questions
Questions

(4)

TOTAL

Rater: ____________________________________

Signature: _________________________________ Date: _____________________________

33