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TRIANGEL TEST AND

DUO TRIO

Dr. Hardoko
FAKULTAS PERIKANAN DAN ILMU KELAUTAN
UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA
® Triangle test
- Panelist receives three coded samples
- 2 of the samoles ::-: , 1 different
- Task: identify the odd sample
- often used for selecting panelist
- analysis of result based on probabiety ¢ P-
odd sample 1 /3 if no detectable diff.
- Count the number of correct replies ~
refer to Table 1 •
- levels of siqniticance s q not indicate that
the diff. is > but that there is less
probability of saying there is a diff. when in
~ r fact there is none.

- A sample of the questionnaire:

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR
TRIANGLE TEST
Name Da~
Product ---
-----
/nstructions:
Two of these three samples are identical,
the third is different. Taste the samples in
the order indicated and identify the odd
sample.
Code Check odd sample
314
628
542

- Prepare equal number of the six possible
comb. ABB,BAA,AAB,BBA, ABA and BAB
~ present at random
Examples: ·
A triangle test was used to determine if
there was a detectable diff. b/w fish-potato
flakes processed under 2 diff. sets of cond.
I: judge== 12
Number of samples required:
Treatment A <>Code 314: 6
Code 542: 12 ............
Treatment 8 <> Code 628: 12
Code 14Sr. 6 ~
- Result: 9 judges correctly identify the odd
sarnples e Tablet= significant diff. at 1%
level
APPENDIX II
-
STATISTICAL CHART 1

Triangle lest
Two-11ample re sr , diHerence analysis.
Number number o( concurring choices number o( correct answers
o( necessary 10 catnblish ncccssar)· 10 c•tobl i11t.
1a11tere •ignificanc<e sisniflcance
• •• ••• • •• • ••
1
2
3 3
4 4
5 5 5
6 6 5 6
7 7 5 6 7
8 8 8 6 7 8

9 -a 9 6 -' 8
9
10 9 10 7 8
1I 10 II II -8
I 8 10
10
12 10 lI 12 9
13 II 12 13 8 9 l1
14 12 I'3 14 9 10 II
15 12 13 12
1-l 9 10
I5 9 ll 12
16 10 II 13
12 13
17
I7
10
II ,, I4
18 II !3 I4
19 12 13 15
19 12 l .• 15
20 12 I I 16
21 13 15 16
21
..
13
22 17 18
23 I7 19
2-l 18 19
2.5 18 20
26 19 "0 "'" 15 17
Second method for triangle :
• Used Chart 2. Triangle test
 X = No. corect judgments - 9
n = No judgment / panelist  12
 Value from chart (x,n) = 0.004
 0.004 <  = 0,01  Sign diff
Statistical Chort 2 Trlanglo test, probobility or :r or more correct judgments in 11 trll\ls (onc·t11Ued, p : 113)"

•,
• 0

C!CI
001
~:
00,
~
co,
01:
Oil
~
(Ill
~,
6H
011
O'II

·~
111
13.I M:
Sl t'<>I
C.."'l ~I
::!O CC: 001
::I.)
:a, 003 001
00\$ 001 001

- - -· ....
-
• Jn,tlal dt(1mal J>('int hrut ll~•n omi•tcd
.. ·' ,,,_,.
...... ,
@ Duo-trio test
- 3 samples are presented, 1 is labeled R
(reference) and the other two are coded.
- One coded sample is identical with R and
the other is different.
- Panelist is asked to identify the odd
sample.
- Duo-trio test has the same appf ication as
the triangle-test but is less efficient m,.. P of
selecting correct sample by chance is
50°/o.
- often used when tasting samples that have
strong flavor ~ fess tasting req. ,
- it can be used in place of the paired comp.
test if no char. is specified.
* simple paired comp. test:
? sample has more of some specified
char.
* triangle or duo-trio test:
judgment based on any diff. he can
detect
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR
DUO-TRIO TEST
Name Date
------ ------
Product -----
Instruction:
On your tray you have a marked control
sample (R) and two coded samples. One
sample is identical with R and the other is
different. Which of the coded samples is
different from R?
Samples Check odd sample
432
701

- Example:
.A duo-trio test was used to determine if
· methional could be detected when added to
cheddar cheese in amounts of 0.125 ppm
and 0.250 ppm.
Duo-trio was used in preference to the
triangle test<> less tasting to form a
judgment, important when tasting a
substance with a Hngering aftertaste, ex.
· methional.
.
Each tray: 1 R, one coded samples with
methional added and one with no methional.
Test was performed on 2 successive days
using Jl,jf.dges. .
Each day o presented 2 trays·
a. 1 sample with 0.125-Pr:?W"m~thional, 2 RCodtd
b. 1 sample with 0~50 PPm methional, 2 .R: c.o"'1d
Total judgments ={If 6
o.. 125 ppm = ·1 O out of 16 correct
0.250 ppm = 14 out of 16 correct
Consult Table 1. + 14 correct judgments are
t/, significant at the 1 % level, but 10 correct
· judqrnents are not sign. even at 5% level.
So, methional added can be detected at the
· 0.250 ppm level. -
•®) ••@
~l ~ ~ (,//e'
I •

1 .
~)(·_..

~ If. I I

).'"'
11
[tl ortcpS.doc in uph ~ fiJ!i. ~ 60

I
l}!) - - - o, }J ~ o~
,I,
70 ,()~
J, ..
(...., ~

,._,
s;t"- b-1 r
·~
I
.~
t,1bF ft"°· t:P ff ·
Teble G.6.e. ~1fnimum Number• ol Correct
Judsments £:scabllsh S,g.nlrtcance
•O •• V•rlou.s
ProbabllltyLevels for Pai.rod·Comperison and
Duo-Trio Tcsr• (onc·t•slcd. p - \,IS,)
.. ,ob4,b• .. '.., ... "9 ••

. .. .,.. ,''"'
No of
0 °," 0 04 0 03
,
o.o:,
,
001
,
0005 0 001
----
,
• ..
7

•..
7
• • .•. •
1•
10
• • • 10 0 10

1 1 .. • 10 ,o 10 • 1 • 1
1,
L)
14
15
1e
,o
,o
,••
,,
,o
•1
1 1
.,.
,2
10
•1
I 1
1,
13
10
•1
12
,2
13
1 •
12
12
l3
14
1 1
1,
1 :l
1 ::,
14
.
12
•3
14
1S
:,

•• ••
.... •7

.
1, 13
,3
1 ::, 13 1• ,s
t4

,
•• 1 .. 1 ..
15
,s
•& IS
,s ,s 16

•• •• •• .
:o
,, 115

,
.•.• •e
•• 15
18 t7
••
1a

••
.. . ..
,,
2, ,a •• ••
1'
..
17 18 13 :o
23 1G
e ,, ,, 20 21

. ..
:t4
17 ,e •• 19 20

,. 18
•• 11> 1 ;,
...
20 20 22

, • ••
:78 10 ::o
70 20 2, 22

, .
,a ,e 18 111

27
20 21 2, 23
,0
,o
,, ,, ,
:79 20 ,1 71 :!':>' -:,2 24
, ,,
30
20
2, .-2 23
,,
3. 21 2, 22 :>• 25

32 22 22 ,:,
2• 24 28

,.
33 22 23 23 23 2• :,5 ::re

38 :74 :74 2
:,5 25

, ,, ,..
,.
35 23 :.•
,,. ,,
,..
24

S 2S 27 28
37 26 ::PG 2G

30 ,s
78 26 "~ ""

.3..0, ::re 26 28 28 :,o

,..
28 27
,.
:, 7 -
27
,.. ,c
X>
:,::r

:JO

41 :;7 27 27 2a 29 ,o :, 1
42 27 28
3 28 ::re :a 1 >2
..... 20 :JO

28 29 29 30 31 :a 1 :a:a
...
•8
45
:o
29
30
30
21>
30
:JO
:JO
31
31
:,o
31
:J2
31
32
33
>2
33
3•
34
35
48 31 31 31 32 3:J >• 38
49 31 32 :J2 33 34 3• 38
50 3:7 32 33 33 34 35 37
••
00

80 ...
37 38
49
38
49
39
so
•o

"" 52
•3

...
55

urce: E. e: A.oc-s•Jcr ct a1 .. Jou,.rrol of Food Sc.r'l!nt41. -

70 43 •3 44 45 4G 47 49
90 54 &4 55 &G 57 sa
100 59 GO 60 81 83 8•
So

1978. 43. 940·94 7. Copyrl,hl C) by 1,1.,,,,,,,0 or Food

Technoto-.is-ts. Rop,lntc.d '-With pc,mu.:st-on or .1u rho,- on.d
publisher.
Stotistlcru Chart 4 1\vo·snmplc tcM, probob,laty of x or n,orc eorreet judgmcn~ inn trials (o:tc·toilcd,p = l 21•

•\ 0 2 3 .C 6 (. 1 .. " I\J 11 I! :3 I• 1~ II 11 18 t"J :.v z. !':' 11 =• 2\$. ~ r. ~ :t )ft 31 ~ 3J 3t 3S

6
,
e
a9
JO
11
12
ll
14
16
II
17
ta

"
20
21
:.l
~
21
;;5
31

~-
:l1
2'
30
31
llZ
»
:IS
:36.,
I

39
40
41
.,
42

,••S,
•,•1
IO

• ln,tial ,.ILc,m~• 1 nin\ luul been omm~tJ.

Sour«. frorn E.B. I. ~11lor OL al 1978. J. food Sci. 49(:1):912-:i.1~ "ln,1,uu• o( fooJ ·r«111,rlo,:!au. R'"?rintcd w,th pcrm, .. icn ,>f th~publlsl
@ "A" not "A" test
- Objective: to determine whether a sensory
diff. exists b/w two products+- particularly
when duo-trio or ~-test can't be used, ex.
comparison of products with strong flavor
and/or lingering flv., differ slightly in
appearance etc.
- Use it in preference ot S•mp4e comparison
test Wfilen one of ttltle two products has
lmoortance as a stoocdafloJ, is familiar to the
panels, or is essential tG tf1le project.
- Effective to determine whether an overall
d4ff. exists, screening p>anelist, to
determine sensory t:fil,reshok:I
-Procedure :

1. Famjfiarize the panelist with sample "A".

2. Present 1 or more samples to be
eva~uated~ some "A" and some not "A"
samples.
3. For each sample, panelist judges whether
it is "A" or not "A".
4. Analys.s: tabulate the data and refer to •
Two-sided table. l T.w, 2) or ~· f'Ntin,,
- Generally, time limitation applied.
... A" - "Not A .. TEST
Te.t Code

Tast-.r No. Name: Date:

Typo of Sample: SwM!enod tle\lef21C14t

Instructions
1. Bofore laking this tost. familiariz.o yoursGU
with th• flavor of the sample\$ •A• and ·Nol A•
which are av:.na.ble from the •ttondant.

2. Taste tne test samples from left 10 right. Attor

oach sample, record your respon.so below, rinse
your palate with waler, a.nd wait ono full minute,
botwoon samplos. ..
~ YCM.I .,,..,. ,,_...,ed ~)rcuJm81ely equal numt,.,. of.,... 81,d

"Nol ,..,. a&r'l!IP91

Sample
.,.,.
The sample Is: Sample
.,.,.
Tho sample ts:

No. 9Not ,._. No. Codo •Not A•

, ~

0 D 6 0 0
2 D 0 7 0 0
3 8 D 0
0 0
9
4
a D 0 D
5 D a 10 a D

Comment•:
An:llyie mutts - In the t.able below, the columns show how the samples were presented and
the rows. how the subjects identified them:

Subjcd
A ot A Total

Sllbp:s s11d A 60 3S 9S
NOlA 40 6.5 IOS
Tow 100 100 200

x = (60-47 .5)2 + (35- 47.5) + (40- s2.5)2 + (65- s2.s)2 = 12.53

1
47.S 47.5 52.S 52.5

which is greater than the value m Table T5 (df = I. a-risk= 0 05. z1= 3.84), i.e., a significant
difference exists.
@ Two-o.ut-of-ilive test
-Use this method when only a small number
of panelist is avatlable (ex. 10)
-More effic·ieftlt stat,istica~,~ ( 1 : 10)
-P rocedare:
1. Present to each panelist five coded
samples.
2. lns(lr-wct panelist that two sampfes belong
to one type afilai ttilr-ee to another
Or Chart 5.
St.at.is<.ical Chari.. 5 l">robability or x or 01orc correct. judgm#'nt.s
a ... n t.rinls
.. ,, x
l
or a t.wo-o ... t-of'"-Civc t.csl.

2 3 1 r,
-c
(one-tailed, P =

7 8 ~ IQ
fl.J.}'"

I I 12 I:\$

2 1:>0 010
3 271 0?8 001
4 344 052 004
5 410 081 009
6 4b9 I 14 016 001
7 522 J.50 026 003
8 57n 187 038 005
9 6J3 ?.25 053 008 001
10 651 26-4 070 013 002
I J 696 303 090 019 003
12 7.18 341 l. .l I 026 oo: 001
13 746 379 134 034 006 001
14 77t ! J5 158 Q44 009 001
J.S 794 451 184 056 OJ~ 002
If; 815 485 211 068 017 o~ 001
•7 833 518 238 083 022 OC?!, 001
18 850 550 2GG 098 028 006 OOJ.
19 865 580 296 115 035 009 002
~o S78 608 323 13S 043 0-1 J. 002
21. 891 635 352 152 052 014 003 001.
22 S02 661 380 172 (162 OHJ C04 001
23 !I I 1 6\$5 408 193 073 023 006 001
:i:4 920 708 436 214 085 028 007 002
25 928 729 463 236 098 033 009 002
26 !>35 749 489 ~9 1!2 040 012 ocs OQI
27 942 167 515 262 127 047 015 004 OOJ
:es 948 785 54 l 305 162 1)55 018 0<>5 001
29 953 801 565 3!!9 1SIJ OC4 1)22 006 002
30 :::,59 816 589 353 175 073 OZG 008 ~2
31 962 830 611 S76 19:'\ 083 03l_ 010 003 001
!,2 Sfi6 844 633 400 2:ti u94 036 0-12 003 001
33 969 856 C-54 423 230 IOo 042 014 OC4 001
34 972 867 674 446 250 119 048 Ol.7 005 001
35 975 878 694 469 263 J:,2 oss 020 006 002
36 S77 St>7 7!.2 49l 289 145 Ot?3 02<1 008 002 001
37 980 8:)6 730 fi14 309 160 07l 027 009 003 00-1
38 982 905 7.C:::6 535 ~o 175 080 032 011 003 001
39 984 912 762 SSG 350 190 089 037 01.S 004 001
40 985 920 777 :';77 371 206 100 042 015 005 001
4J 987 926 791 597 392 223 1: 1.0 o-se 038 006 002
42 988 9~2 805 616 412 240 121 ()!'.;< 02?. 007 002 OCJ
43 989 938 818 635 433 257 13S 051. 024 009 OC3 001
44 990 943 830 653 453 27< 146 068 028 010 003 oo•
45 991 948 841 671 473 292 159 076 032 OJ.2 004 001
4n 992 952 852 688 49',S 310 -172 084 036 014 005 002
47 993 956 862 70-1 5,2 329 186 093 04.l. 016 OOG 002 ('10 I
48 99< 960 871 720 531 3'17 200 102 C\.C:::6 0-19 007 002 00 I
4~ .994 963 880 ";'35 550 365 216 l. J.2 052 022 008 003 001
50 9:)5 966 888 750 569 384 zao 1:..:2 0513 025 009 003 001
-----
• .ln.lt.i'Ll dec.,mu.1po:nc._ he.a beon omi\..tAd.
Two-out-of-Five Test T-Codit

~ ...... Date.
Type ol Sa,nple
Type OI 0,11 .,•nce

Instructions

I E.um.ne ll'te ~ff on IM o,de, l.ated below. Two a,e

of
~
on• type and lh• oo..< 1hr•• ol anotno,.
-u- fino.n o, paltn ol hand.
F•••
U'le aura~

2 ldel'll,ty the two aamp!es thlll ,_, tho aarno by placang

an X "'U.. co,,•~"'O boitff.

Cod•• x Commont•
0
0
0
0
0

Anal)'?e results - or the 12 subjects. 9 were able to correctly group the fabric samples.
Reference 10 Table Tl4 shows Lhat the difference in surface feel was detectable al a level of
significance of a~ 0.00 I.
Interpret results - 'The fabric manufacturer is informed lhat a d1ffe1ence in surface feel
between the two fabric types is easily detectable.
TABL( T14
Critical Number of Correct Response in a Two-out-of-Five Te t
(Cntrie are x ,.,.)
C!nuics are 1hc n11n1mum 1111mN:r of cotrcc1 rc~pon~ rc:,qc1t-:J fo, ,11nrhc;JJ1ce at 1hc swcd tJ l~el (1 e .• colu11¥1) foe 1hc
cone1pond1ni nu~ of rc,pundulu, 11 (1 e • row) RtJ«I the anumpuoo of "no d1frucn«" 1( L~ number of COfTC(t
~pun1es ~ ,iu1cr ll'.m or eqi:i! 10 lhc tabled vlllue

a a
n 0.4C O.JO 0.20 0.10 o.os 0.01 0.001 n 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 o.os 0.01 0.001
JI 4 s s 6 7 8 10
32 4 s 6 6 7 9 10
J "- 2 2 3 3 33 s s 6 7 7 9 II
2 )4
., .•, 3 J 4 5 6 7 7 9 II
.-,
~ 2 3
, 3 4 3~
5'
5 6 7 8 9 11
6 ?
- • .) 3 4 5 36 s 6 7 g 9 11

7 2 2 2 3 ) 4 s 37 s 6
s
8 2 2 2 ) 6 7 8 9 II
3 4
9 2 l 3 3 4 4
) s 6 6 7 8 10 11 s
39 5 6 6 7 8 10 12
10 2 2 J 3 4 5 6 40 s 6 7 1 8 10 12
II '2 3 3 3 4 s 6 41 s 6 7 10 12
12 2 3 3 4 4 s 6 42 6 6 7 g' 6
9 10 12
@ DtJal s.taroaard test

'>31 ft,,l
A/&? ~

- Present 2 references .and 2 coded

samples
-Farniliarize the panelist with the two
references
-Ask panelist to deteftrimine whether it is
included in group A or @r-oup B
-Aoa,ysis: refer to two-s.de<!J test table
Or ·
c.af~1at, ~ a tf:atr,t-,C'
Appendix II, Chart 1
Teble G .5.a.
Minimum Numbers of Correct
Judgrnonts 1.0 Establish S.gnificanco at Varjous
P1"obablUty Levels for Paired-Comparison and
Duo-Trio Tests (one-tailed, p - ~)

No. of
Prob.eb••••v ••v• 1,

1,,.,s Cnl 005 004 003 0 02 0 01 0005 0 001

7 7 7 7 7 7
8 7 7 8 8 8 8
o 9 9 9 9 10 10 10
1 1 9 9 10 10 ,o 1 1 1 1
12 10 10 10 10 1 1 I 1 12
13 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 12 13
14 \ 1 1 1 I I 1 2 12 •3 13
15 12 12 12 12 13 13 14
16 ,2 12 13 13 14 •• 11>

19 14 14 15 15 15 16 17
:.o 15 ,s IS 16 16 I 7 18
21 15 15 16 16 I 7 1 7 18
22 16 18 16 • 7 17 18 19
23 16 1, ~ 7 1 7 18 19 ~o
24 17 17 18 18 19 19 20
25 1e 18 18 19 •9 20 21
26 18 18 19 lit 20 20 22
27 19 19 t9 20 20 21 22
28
?9
t9
20
~o
20
20
2t ,,
20 21
:?:>
22
-.
23
24
30
31
20
2,
21
21
21
22
22
22 , ..
22
23
..
23 24
25
32 22 22 22 23 24 26
33 22 :?3 23 23 24 25 26
34 23 23 23 24 25 25 27
35 23 24 24 26 25 ::s 27
36 24 24 25 25 26 27 28
37 24 25 25 26 26 27 29
30 25 2r. 26 26 :;>7 ?R 29
39 26 26 26 27 28 28 30
4() 26 27 27 27 28 29 so