Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

Indira Gandhi

National Open University


BPVI-015
School of Agriculture Dairy Products-II

Block

3
CONCENTRATED MILKS
UNIT 9

Definition, Standards, Nutritive Value and Principle of Evaporation 5


UNIT 10

Methods of Manufacture and uses of Sweetened Condensed and


Evaporated Milks. 20

UNIT 11

Packaging, Storage and Common Defects in Condensed Milks 36


Programme Design Committee
Prof. H.P. Dikshit Prof. Panjab Singh
Ex. Vice Chancellor Vice Chancellor
IGNOU, New Delhi Banaras Hindu University, Banaras (U.P.)

Prof. S.C. Garg, Shri A.N.P. Sinha


Acting Vice Chancellor Former Additional Secretary
IGNOU, New Delhi Ministry of Food Processing Industries
Delhi

Ministry of Food Processing Industries Milk Plant, Gwalior:


New Delhi : Shri M.E. Khan, Manager - Plant Operation
• Mr. K.K. Maheshwary
• Mr. R.K. Bansal, Consultant Delhi Milk Scheme, Delhi:
• Mr. V.K. Dahiya, Tech. Officer Shri Ashok Bansal, DGM
(Milk Products)
CITA, New Delhi:
NDRI, Karnal, Haryana: Shri Vijay Sardana
• Dr. S. Singh, JD (Academics)
• Dr. S.P. Agrawala, Head (Dairy Engg.) Mahaan Protein, Mathura (U.P.):
• Dr. Rajvir Singh, Head (Dairy Eco.) Dr. Ashwani Kumar Rathor, GM Technical
• Dr. K.L. Bhatia, Ex-Principal Scientist
• Dr. S.K. Tomar, Principal Scientist IGNOU, New Delhi (SOA Faculty Members):
• Dr. B.D. Tiwari, Ex. Principal Scientist • Dr. M.K. Salooja, Dy. Director
• Dr. Dharam Pal, Principal Scientist • Dr. M.C. Nair, Dy. Director
• Dr. A.A. Patel, Principal Scientist • Dr. Indrani Lahiri, Asstt. Director
• Dr. P.L. Yadav, Sr. Consultant
Mother Dairy, Delhi: • Dr. D.S. Khurdiya, Sr. Consultant
Dr. P.N. Reddy • Sh. Jaya Raj, Sr. Consultant
Former Quality Control Manager • Sh. Rajesh Singh, Consultant

Programme Coordinators : Prof. Panjab Singh, Dr. M.K. Salooja and Dr. P.L. Yadav

Block Preparation Team


Writer Course Coordinator
Dr. R. Balachandran Dr. M.K. Salooja
Dr. B.D. Tiwari Dr. P.L. Yadav
Dr. J.S. Sandhu
Editors
Dr. P.L. Yadav
Dr. J.S. Sindhu
Dr. M.K. Salooja

Material Production
Mr. Rajiv Girdhar, SO (Publication) Secretarial Assistance
Mr. Vinay Sehgal

Word Processing
Mr. Bhim Singh

October, 2006
© Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2006
ISBN-81-266-2590-2
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other
means, without permission in writing from the Indira Gandhi National Open University.
Further information on Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the
University's office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068.
Printed and published on behalf of the Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi by
Director, School of Agriculture.
Paper Used : Agrobased Environment Friendly
Lasertypesetted at Graphic Printers, 204, Pankaj Tower, Mayur Vihar, Phase-I, Delhi-91.
Printet at :
BLOCK INTRODUCTION
Condensed milk is manufactured for preserving the milk constituent. It may be
made from whole milk, partial skimmed milk, skimmed milk with and without the
addition of sugar. We will learn in this Block about definition, standard, principle of
evaporation, method of manufacture, packaging and storage of condensed milk.
Unit – 9 We will learn about the history of development of product, standards,
Nutritive value of concentrated milk, PFA standard of different types of condensed
milk and physico chemical properties like Density, Freezing point, Viscosity, Colour
flavour and Changes in pH in this unit. We will also learn about the different types of
evaporator like vacuum pan and continuous flow evaporators used while making
concentrated milk.
Unit –10 Method of manufacture of different types of concentrated milk are explained
in this unit. We will know after studying this unit about the standardization milk, flow
diagram of preparation of sweetened condensed milk, adding sugar and seeding of
sweetened condensed milk. We will also learn about the different steps or preparation
of evaporated milk like standardization of milk, forewarming, homogenization and
sterilization of products.
Unit – 11 The packaging and storage of condensed milk is most important for
maintaining the quality of products for longer period. In this unit, we will learn about
the packaging of sweetened condensed milk and evaporated milk and their storage.
Quality of condensed milk should be properly judged by using Hedonic scale. While
studying this unit we will know about the bacterial and non-bacterial defects in
sweetened condensed milk. We will also learn the defects in evaporated milk like
age thickening, age thinning, fat separation, sedimentation and development of brown
colour. Uses of condensed milk and evaporator milk are also given in this unit.
COURSE INTRODUCTION
A number of products are manufactured from milk. In India Khoa, Paneer and
Chhana, concentrated and milk powder are manufactured from surplus milk. Khoa,
Paneer and Chhana are traditional product which are produced in very small quantity
by small dealers or consumbers themselves. With the development of new
Technology it is possible to utilized surplus milk during flush season of year for
making Paneer, Chhana and Khoa, on large scale. Khoa, and Chhana are used for
preparation of a variety of sweets in our country by small manufactures. These
sweets are very common through out the country. Milk production in our country
has increased many fold since independence. A number of milk processing and milk
products manufacturing plants are utilizing large quantity of surplus milk available.
For production of concentrated milk and Milk Powders. These products can be
stored for longer period and utilized during the period of lean season. Milk powder
has great commercial value and used to meet the demand of milk and milk products
in deficit areas of country. In this course we will study about the manufacture of
heat-desiccated products specially khoa, and khoa sweets, Paneer and Chhana,
concentrated milk and dried milk.
Block – 1 We will learn about the manufacturing of Khoa, Rabri and Basundi in this
block. We will know the principle involved in manufacture of these products.
Composition, standards and classification of heat-desiccated product are also given
in the text of this block. There are a numbers of sweets made from khoa like
Gulabjamun, Peda, Burfi, Kalakand and milk cake. We will learn about the
preparation, packaging, storage and common defects of the products. This will
help us to take care in preparation and handling of the products for subsequent use.
Block – 2 Paneer and Chhana are heat and acid coagulated products made from
milk. In this block we will learn about the composition, standard, factor affecting
quality, methods of manufacture, packaging and storage of these products is discussed
here. We will also learn about the preparation of Chhana based sweets like Rasogulla,
Sandesh, Rasmalai, Chhana Murki etc. Microbiological quality of Paneer, Chhana,
and Chhana based sweets and Common defects in these products and their
preservation are also given in the text of this block.
Block – 3 Milk constituents in a concentrated form are preserved in the form of
concentrated milk or condensed milk with or without sugar. Concentrated milk can
be easily reconstituted to meet the fluid milk demand in scarcity period. In this
block we will learn about the definition, standard, nutritive value and principle of
evaporation for concentrated milk. Method of manufacture of sweetened condensed
and evaporated milk and their uses are also given in the block. We will also learn
about the packaging, storage, judging and grading of the products. Condensed milk
and evaporated milk has prolonged storage life, but sometime some defects develop,
the reason for occurance and measure to control these defects shall also be discussed
in this block.
Block – 4 Milk powder has many beneficial use in the milk and food industry. It
can be stored for longer period and can be easily transported to long distance without
deterioration. In this block we will study about the definition, compositions,
classification, legal standard and principle of drying milk. Milk is dried by roller
drier, spray drier, fluid bed drier. We will know about the engineering aspects of
these driers. In this block methods of manufacture of spray, roller dried milk and
production of value added products are given to educate us about the preparation
of products. We will also learn about the packaging, storage, and common defects
of dried milk, which will help us in maintaining the quality of dried milk.
UNIT 9 DEFINITION, STANDARDS,
NUTRITIVE VALUE AND
PRINCIPLE OF EVAPORATION
Structure
9.0 Introduction
9.1 Objectives
9.2 Brief History& Development
9.3 Definition
9.4 Composition
9.5 Standards
9.6 Nutritive Value
9.7 Physico-Chemical Properties
9.8 Principle of Evaporation
9.9 Types of Evaporator
9.10 Let Us Sum Up
9.11 Key Words
9.12 Some Useful Books
9.13 Answers to Check Your Progress

9.0 INTRODUCTION
In order to preserve the milk constituents in a concentrated form, condensed milk/
concentrated milk is manufactured from whole or skim milk by removing or
evaporating part of water under vacuum. But this form of milk still has limited shelf
life. Attempts to prolong the shelf life of this product has been made through the
addition of bacterial growth inhibitor like sugar (sweetened condensed milk) or by
heat processing (evaporated milk) to destroy the microorganisms. The concentrated
product gives considerable saving in the cost of packaging, storage and transport.
Milk concentrates can easily be reconstituted with required amount of water
corresponding to that removed by evaporation to yield a product having normal
consistency of milk. It is estimated that nearly 2 percent of world’s milk production
is converted into different types of condensed or concentrated milk.

9.1 OBJECTIVES
After reading this unit, we will be able to understand
• brief history and development of different types of concentrated milk with their
production and sale.
• composition, physico-chemical properties and nutritional value of concentrated
milk.
• principles of evaporation and some basic factors of evaporation. 5

• type of evaporators.
Concentrated Milks
9.2 BRIEF HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
The present day concept of preservation of milk by concentration and by application
of heat had the beginning with the pioneering work of Frenchman Nicholas Appert
around 1793. Gail Bordon of United States of America was first to commercially
exploit the method of concentration of milk under vacuum. He was awarded U.S.
Patent in the year 1856 for processing milk in a semi fluid state after evaporating in
vacuum. Commercial production of sweetened condensed milk by Gail Borden
started in1856.
Jhon. B. Meyenberg, a swiss gentleman who migrated to United States was awarded
a patent in 1884 for a process of sterilization of milk by steam under pressure. In
the year 1885 evaporated milk was manufactured on commercial scale in United
States based on the patent of Meyenberg. In India, the Amul Dairy is credited with
commercial production of sweetened condensed milk in the year 1961.
Nearly 55-60 percent of milk produced in India is from buffalo. It has now been
established that there are considerable differences in the make-up of cow milk and
buffalo milk and because of these differences buffalo milk is not found to be amenable
to some established technology that are most suitable for cow milk. So far attempts
to produce evaporated milk or sterilized concentrated milk from buffalo milk have
met with only limited success. However condensed milk is a convenient product for
house hold use because it has good keeping quality

9.3 DEFINITION
Condensed milks is a products obtained by evaporating part of water from whole
milk or fully or partly skimmed milk. Condensed milk may be sub-divided into the
following types.
• Sweetened condensed milk/full cream
• Sweetened condensed skim milk
• Unsweetened condensed milk/Evaporated milk.
• Unsweetened condensed skim milk/Evaporated skim milk.
The term condensed milk is commonly used when referring to full cream sweetened
condensed milk while the term evaporated milk is commonly used to referring to full
cream unsweetened condensed milk. Skim milk products are known as sweetened
condensed skim milk and unsweetened condensed skim milk.

9.4 COMPOSITION
Condensed milk and Evaporated milk are popular in western countries. These are
produced in considerable amount both for domestic consumption and for export to
other countries. The gross composition of different types of condensed milk produced
and marketed by United States of America and United Kingdom are given in
Table-9.1

6
Table 9.1 Gross Composition of Condensed Milk (Percentage) Definition,
Standards, Nutritive
Value and Principle
Type of Condensed Milk Fat Total Milk Solids
of Evaporation
USA UK USA UK
Condensed Milk 7.9 9.0 25.9 31.0
Evaporated milk 8.5 9.0 28.0 31.0
Sweetened condensed skim milk - - 20.0 20.0
Unsweetened condensed skim milk - - 24.0 26.0

Concentration of whole milk of 3.6% fat to 9.0% fat represents a concentration


factor of 2.5 (9/3.6) and separated milk of 9.0% solids not fat (SNF) concentrated
to 26.0 % SNF represents a concentration factor or 2.88 (26/9). Using this factor
it is possible to arrive at a fair approximation on composition of various types of
condensed milks if the composition of initial milk is known. Detailed composition of
different types of condensed milks is given in Table 9.2.
Table 9.2. Detailed Composition of Condensed Milks (Percentage)
Types of Water Total Fat Milk Protein Lactose Ash Total Sucrose
Condensed Solids solids- Milk
Milk not-fat Solids
Condensed 26.0 74.0 9.0 22.0 8.3 12.2 1.5 31.0 43.0
milk
Evaporated 69.0 31.0 .9.0 22.0 8.3 12.2 1.5 31.0 -
Milk
Sweetened 29.0 71.0 0.5 25.5 9.3 14.0 2.2 26.0 45.0
skim
condensed
milk

9.5 STANDARDS
i. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 2000
Concentrated milk manufactured and sold in the country must comply with certain
standards as regards to fat content and percentage of total solids. The standards as
specified by Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act 2000 are given below
while those of Bureau of Indian Standards for various types of concentrated milks
are tabulated in Table 9.3
Table 9.3 Bureau of Indian standards specification for Condensed Milks

Requirement for
Characteristics Sweetened condensed Sweetened condensed
milk skimmed milk
Total milk solids (% wt) 31.0 26.0
Min.
Fat (% wt) Nor less than 9.0 Not more than 0.5

7
Concentrated Milks
Sucrose (% wt) Min. 40.0 40.0
Acidity (% lactic) Max. 0.35 0.35
Bacterial Count (per g) Max. 500 500
Coliform Count (per g) Negative Negative
Yeast and mould count (per. 10 10
g) Max

i) “Condensed milk unsweetened (evaporated) milk” means the product


obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof or from standardized
milk by the partial removal of water. It may contain added calcium chloride,
citric acid and sodium citrate, sodium salts of ortho-phosphoric acid and poly-
phosphoric acid (as leniar phosphate) not exceeding 0.3 percent by weight of
the finished product. Such additions need not be declared on the label.
Condensed milk unsweetened shall contain not less than 8.0 percent milk fat
and not less than 26.0 percent milk solids. The product shall be suitably
sterilized.
If the product is subjected to Ultra High temperature (UHT) treatment by heating
it to a temperature of not less than 140°C for a minimum period of 3 seconds
followed by aseptic packaging it shall be designated as UHT and labeled as
specified under clause (ddd) of sub rule (B) of Rule 42.
ii) “Condensed milk sweetened” means the product obtained from cow or
buffalo milk or a combination thereof or from standardized milk by the partial
removal of water and after addition of cane sugar. It may contain added refined
lactose, calcium chloride, citric acid and sodium citrate, sodium salts of ortho-
phosphoric acid and poly-phosphoric acid (as leniar phosphate) not exceeding
0.3 percent by weight of the finished product. Such addition need not be
declared on the label. Condensed milk sweetened shall contain not less than
9.0 percent milk fat, not less than 31.0 percent total milk solids and not less
than 40.0 per cent cane sugar. The total acidity expressed as lactic acid shall
not be more than 0.35 percent.
iii) “Condensed skimmed milk unsweetened, evaporated skimmed milk”
means the product obtained from cow or buffalo skimmed milk or a combination
thereof by the partial removal of water. It may contain added calcium chloride,
citric acid and sodium citrate, sodium salts of ortho-phosphoric acid and poly-
phosphoric acid (as leniar phosphate) not exceeding 0.3 percent by weight of
the finished product. Such addition need not be declared on the label condensed
skimmed milk unsweetened shall contain not less than 20.0 percent total milk
solids. The fat content shall not exceed 0.5 percent by weight. The product
shall be suitable sterilized.
If the product is subjected to ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment by heating
it at a temperature of not less than 140°C for minimum period of 3 seconds
followed by aseptic packaging, it shall be designated as UHT and labeled as
specified under clause (ddd) of sub-rule (B) of Rule 42.
iv) A.11.02.13 “Condensed skimmed milk sweetened” means the product
obtained from cow or buffalo skimmed milk or combination thereof by partial
removal of water and after addition of cane sugar. It may contain added refined
lactose, calcium chloride, citric acid and sodium citrate, sodium salts of ortho-
8 phosphoric acid and poly-phosphoric acid (as leniar phosphate) not exceeding
0.3 percent by weight of the finished product. Such addition need not be declared Definition,
Standards, Nutritive
on the label. Condensed skimmed milk sweetened shall contain not less than Value and Principle
26.0 per cent of total milk solids and not less than 40.0 per cent cane sugar. of Evaporation
The fat content shall not exceed 0.5 percent by weight. The total acidity
expressed as lactic acid shall not be more than 0.35 percent.
v) “Partly skimmed sweetened condensed milk” means the product obtained
from partly skimmed cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by the partial
removal of water and after addition of cane sugar. It may contain added refined
lactose, calcium chloride, citric acid and sodium citrate, sodium salts of ortho-
phosphoric acid and poly-phosphoric acid (as leniar phosphate) not exceeding
0.3 per cent by weight of the finished product. Partly skimmed sweetened
condensed milk shall contain not less than 28.0 per cent of total milk solids and
not less than 40.0 per cent can sugar. The fat content shall not be less than 3.0
per cent and more 9.0 per cent by weight. The total acidity expressed as lactic
acid shall not be more than 0.35 per cent.

9.6 NUTRITIONAL VALUE


Both condensed milk and evaporated milk have better keeping quality and hence
they are accepted as convenient products for household use. Since only water is
removed from milk it is considered that all nutritional compounds available in milk
are also present in the final product also in proportion to concentration factor. Thus
both type of concentrated milk have high nutritional value as compared to plain milk.
Both are rich in fat and fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, body building proteins,
minerals and energy giving lactose. Evaporated milk is suitable for infant feeding,
since it makes soft curd, which is easily digested. Some loss of vitamins B2 and
vitamin C is caused by heating and sterilization. But the loss has minor effect on the
biological value and digestibility of milk proteins.

9.7 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


During the manufacture of condensed milk certain physical changes such as
development of brown colour, changes in viscosity are noticed besides increase in
density/specific gravity. One of the important chemical changes noticed is decrease
in pH. These changes occurring in the physico-chemical properties in condensed
milk due to various processing conditions have profound effect on the final quality
and self-life and storage stability of the product. Some of these physico-chemical
properties are discussed below:
i) Density/Specific Gravity:
Removal of water in the manufacture of condensed milk increases the total solids
content. Because of the increase in total solids concentration the density/sp. gr. of
condensed milk increases. The Sp. Gr. Of concentrated milk is product is thus used
as a rough approximation of the percentage of total solids in the product. Baume’
hydrometers are widely used for sp. Gr. Measurements. Table 9.4 gives some of
the figure for specific gravity and Baume’ readings.

9
Concentrated Milks Table 9.4 Specific gravity and Baume’ readings of condensed milks

Type of Fat % Milk- Sucrose Sp. Gr. Baume reading


Condensed solids %
16°C 49°C 16°C 49°C
Milk not fat
(60°F) (120°F) (60°F) (120°F)
%
Condensed 9.0 22.0 43.0 1.303 1.2821 33.7 31.9
Milk
Evaporated 9.0 22.0 - 1.083 1.072 31.2 9.7
Milk
Sweetened - 26.0 45.0 1.355 1.333 38.0 36.2
Condensed
skim milk

ii) Freezing Point: Freezing point of milk is quite constant, however it is always
lower than that of water and varies with composition of milk. Removal of water
as well as addition of soluble substances, such as sugar, has direct effect on the
freezing point of condensed milk. Table 9.5 gives figures for freezing point of
condensed milk.
Table 9.5 Freezing point of condensed milk
Type of Fat Milk Sucrose Freezing point
Condensed (%) solids not (%)
°C °F
milk fat (%)
Condensed 9.0 22.0 43.0 -14.9 5.1
milk
Evaporated 9.0 22.0 - -1.3 29.6
milk

iii) Viscosity: Viscosity of condensed milk varies greatly according to the


composition, processing conditions and storage period. Increase in
concentration increases the viscosity. Homogenization and low temperature
storage also contribute to the increase in viscosity. Viscosity during the
manufacture and storage of concentrated milk is highly important for successful
marketing of the product. Too high or low viscosity is not desirable in the
product. Low viscosity tends to leave objectionable sugar sediment in condensed
milk and fat separation in evaporated milk. Too high viscosity causes gel-
formation and mineral deposits in evaporated milk.
iv) Colour and Flavour: Objectionable brown colour is sometimes found in
condensed milks. Exposure to high heat during manufacture and storage of
condensed milks tends to darken their colour and develop a “cooked” flavour.
Various factors contributing to the brown discolouration and cooked flavour
production, are heat treatment, total solids concentration, pH condition, addition
of compounds like sugar and stabilizers, storage temperature and time of
storage.
v) Changes in pH: A decrease in pH as compared to milk can be expected in
condensed milks during manufacture because of the processing steps such as
preheating, concentration and sterilization. Decrease in pH has definite effect
on the stability of concentrated milk towards heat sterilization.
10
Definition,
9.8 PRINCIPLES OF EVAPORATION Standards, Nutritive
Value and Principle
Evaporation is a unit operation. It comes under the unit operation of simultaneous of Evaporation

heat and mass transfer. Evaporation means the removal of solvent as vapour from a
solution or slurry under such conditions that no attempt is made to separate
components of the vapour. In majority of evaporation process the solvent is water
and latent heat for evaporation is supplied by condensing steam and heat from the
steam is transmitted to the solution indirectly through the metallic surfaces.
Basic Factors of Evaporation: For effective evaporation of a liquid, two essential
things must be provided.
• Necessary heat must be supplied: The heat may be supplied by direct exposure
to the liquid or indirectly by transmission through suitable solid retaining wall.
• The vapour evolved must be removed continuously: The removal of vapour
may be carried out either by mixing it with some inert gas or as undiluted
vapour.
Three principal elements involved in an evaporator are:
• Heat transfer
• Vapour-liquid separation
• Energy utilization
The unit in which heat transfer takes place is called heating element or calendria.
The term calendria is also used to describe a particular type of evaporator. The
vapour-liquid separators are variously called bodies, vapour heads or flash chambers.
The term body is also used to denote an evaporator comprising of one heating
element and one vapour head. An effect is one or more bodies boiling at the same
pressure. A multiple effect evaporator is one in which vapour from one effect is
used as heating medium for another effect boiling at a lower pressure. The
requirements for optimum functioning of any evaporator are as follows:
• It must transfer maximum amount of heat.
• It must efficiently separate vapour from the residual liquid.
• It must make an efficient use of the available heat or mechanical energy as is
economically feasible.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1
1. Condensed milk commonly refers to which type of concentrated milk?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
2. Evaporated milk refers to which type of concentrated milk.
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
11
Concentrated Milks 3. Sweetened condensed milk should contain how much fat and how much total
milk solids?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
4. What should be minimum fat and total solids percent in Evaporated milk?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
5. What are the two methods by which concentrated milks can be preserved?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
6. Why specific gravity of condensed milk is higher as compared to milk?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
7. Which type of hydrometer is used for measuring the specific gravity of
condensed milk?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
8. Why the freezing point of condensed milk is lower than evaporated milk?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
9. Why too high viscosity or too low viscosity is not desirable in condensed milks?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
10. Which factors may contribute to the colour and flavour development in
concentrated milk?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
12 ...................................................................................................................
Definition,
9.9 TYPES OF EVAPORATOR Standards, Nutritive
Value and Principle
Condensing is a process of removal of water from milk in the manufacture of of Evaporation

concentrated milks. Evaporators are the equipment used for carrying out the process
of evaporation. Evaporator is a major equipment used in the dairy factories for
condensed milk. There are two types of evaporators:
• Vacuum pan/evaporator: Batch operating type evaporator is preferred when
relatively small quantities of milk are to be handled in a batch operation for
product like sweetened condensed milk.
• Continuous flow evaporator: Continuous flow evaporator is preferred for
large scale operation working in conjunction with milk drier.
i) Vacuum Pan: This type of evaporator is employed in the majority of
condenseries for the manufacture of condensed milk (Fig 9.1). The
principal parts of vacuum pan are: i) Evaporator body, ii) Heating surface,
iii) Condenser and trap and iv) Vacuum pump. The tubular calandria
pans, usually made of stainless steel, are provided with either internal or
external heating systems and work under reduced pressure. The pans
are internally fitted with steam coils and the lower portion is steam jacketed.
The steam pressure is usually 1.4 to 1.5 kg/cm. The operation is usually
carried out at 54-63°C, the milk boils at this temperature owing to reduced
pressure (63.5 cm of mercury) which is maintained in the pan. A vacuum
pump is used to maintain the vacuum in the pan. Condenser is one of the
important parts of the system. When the water vapour, which rises from
boiling milk inside the pan, comes in contact with cold metal surface or
cold spray of water in the condenser, it is condensed and carried off as
water by means of pumps or other means.

Fig 9.1 Vacuum Pan Evaporator

ii) Horizontal Tube Evaporator: In this type of evaporator, the material to be


evaporated boils outside the horizontal tube and steam condenses inside the
tubes. These types of evaporators are not considered efficient as the heat
13
transfer is lower especially if the liquid is viscous.
Concentrated Milks iii) Vertical Tube Evaporator: These are distinct improvement over
horizontal types. In this type the liquid boils inside vertical tubes with heating
medium, which is usually condensing steam held in a chest through which
the tubes pass. In this type of evaporator there is a large diameter hole in
the centre through which the liquid to be evaporated flows down. Heating
and boiling of liquid cause it to rise and flow upwards and un-evaporated
liquid flows down through the central large diameter tube. Thus natural
circulation is promoted in this type of evaporator.
iv) Forced Circulation Evaporator: This type of evaporator is a modified
form of vertical tube evaporator. In this type a pumps is used to force the
evaporating liquid through the tubes. This helps to further improve the
evaporating capacity.
v) Long Tube Vertical Evaporator: This type of evaporator consists of
one pass vertical shell and tube heat exchanger discharging the product to
be evaporated into a relatively small vapour head. Normally no liquid
level is maintained in the vapour head and the residence time of liquid is
only few seconds. The tubes are usually 2 to 5 cm in diameter. The
length normally varies from 6-12 meters. In this type the feed enters at
the bottom of the tube, starts boiling as it moves up the tube and the
mixture of liquid and vapour leaving at the top at high velocity strikes
against a deflector placed above the tube. This deflector is effective both
as a vapour separator and as a foam breaker. When the ratio of feed to
evaporation is low, recirculation of liquid is provided. The liquid is re-
circulated by a re-circulating pump.
vi) Climbing Film Evaporator: In this type the liquid to be evaporated is
fed at the lower end of the vertical tubes, heated by the condensing steam
on the outside of the tube. The liquid starts boiling at the bottom, the
vapour along with the liquid tends to rise further up the tube in the form of
a thin film. As the film rises further evaporation occurs until they reach the
top of the tubes. The mixture of vapour and milk then passes into a
separate chamber from which the vapour passes to a condenser. The
concentrated milk is removed by a pump.
The main disadvantage of this type of evaporator is that a comparatively
large volume of liquid is present in the evaporator at one time and most of
it located at the bottom. Because of this, severe scale formation occurs
more rapidly in this region.
vii) Falling Film Evaporator: This type of evaporator also consists of vertical
tube bundles heated by condensing steam on the outside (Fig 9.2). The
liquid to be evaporated is fed to the top of the tube and allowed to flow
downwards on the inside of the tubes. Arrangements are provided at the
top to distribute the liquid evenly to all tubes in the bundle. As the liquid
flows in a thin film rapid evaporation takes place. The resulting vapour
and concentrated liquid flow into a separator at the foot of the evaporator.
The vapour is drawn off from the top of the separator and liquid from the
bottom by a pump.

14
Definition,
Standards, Nutritive
Value and Principle
of Evaporation

Fig 9.2 Falling Film Evaporator

The advantages claimed for the falling film evaporator are short residence
time of liquid, good performance with small temperature difference across
the heating surface. Also more effects can be used with falling film
evaporator because it will operate with a lower temperature difference
than climbing film evaporator.
viii) Plate Evaporator: The tubular heaters described above are longer and
occupy more space. Development of plate type heat exchangers indicates
clearly the advantages of better heat transfer that could be obtained
between metal surfaces and liquids when arranged in layers so that the
liquid flows in highly turbulent manner in thin layer between the metal
plates. Among the advantages claimed for this type of evaporator are
compact nature of equipment, requirement of low head- room and the
comparative ease for addition of plates or their removal from the assembly
for increasing or decreasing the capacity.
ix) Centri-therm Evaporator: This type may be described as mechanical
evaporator, the operation of which is based on number of conical surfaces
rotating about a vertical axis, the gap between the cones providing the
steam condensing and evaporating surfaces. Feed is introduced centrally
from the top and steam centrally from the bottom. Boiling takes place on
the conical surface and centrifugal force throws the concentrated product
radially outwards to the rim of the cones from where it is expelled.
Condensate likewise is thrown out radially and discharged in a similar
manner. The concentric conical construction gives a compact form of
heating surface and the high radial velocity obtained from the rotating
action results in a thin high speed film moving across cones.
x) Mechanical Recompression Evaporator: In this system of evaporation
process, a part or all of the evaporated vapour from an evaporating unit is
compressed and this compressed vapour making up a large percentage
of the heat-required for further evaporation. A mechanical recompression
evaporator is generally limited to single effect, compressing the vapour by
means of a positive displacement pump or centrifugal compressor which
can be run by electric motor, steam turbine or diesel engine. All the vapours
from single effect are compressed and returned to calendria with no vapour
going to the condenser. This eliminates the cooling water requirement
normally associated with conventional evaporators.
In thermo-compression evaporator the compression of vapour is affected
by the use of high steam pressure and jet type steam ejector. The vapour 15
Concentrated Milks evolved from boiling milk are partially entrained by a jet of high- pressure
steam and the vapours arising from this mixture of steam and vapour is
injected into the calendria and forms the heating medium for incoming
milk. This system enables a considerable saving in quantity of steam and
water required for evaporator operation.
xi) Multiple Effect Evaporator: Considerable saving in steam and water can be
effected by using multiple effect evaporator. The vapours from one effect have
considerable latent heat and may thus be used for heating second effect and
vapours from second effect to heat a third effect and so on. Thus great
economies of operation may be made in large installations with multiple- effect
evaporator. For example in a double effect unit, the steam and water
consumption are just about one-half that required in a single effect unit. With
double effect evaporator, the first effect operates at a lower vacuum than the
second effect, which makes the boiling temperature higher in the first effect
than the second effect. Since the vapour given off from the first effect are
hotter than the boiling point of the milk in the second effect, they are used to
heat the milk in the second effect. This cuts the steam and condensing water
requirement to about half of what is required for a single effect evaporator.
Units having as many as four effects are in use for evaporation milk with
corresponding saving in steam and water. A four-effect unit will require only
about one-fourth of steam and water per kilo-gram of water evaporated as
compared to ordinary single effect. For a single effect evaporator steam required
to evaporate one kilogram of water from milk is approximately 1.2 kilogram.

Fig 9.3 Multiple Effect Evaporator

Check Your Progress 2


1. What type of equipment is generally used for condensing milk products?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
2. What are the advantages of condensing under vacuum?
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
3. Describe the principles of multiple effect evaporation.
...................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................
16 ...................................................................................................................
IMPORTANT OPERATING POINTS FOR EVAPORATORS Definition,
Standards, Nutritive
Care of vacuum pans: The care of a vacuum pan consists of principally keeping all Value and Principle
of Evaporation
joints tight the heating surface clean, the heating coils provided with steam traps so
that condensate from the coil is removed as fast as formed and the condenser is
clean. Inefficient operation has often been traced to choked holes in the condenser
spray and water logged heating coils. The slight air leak in the system is likely to
cause trouble from foaming and unstable operations of pan.
Batch or continuous operation of evaporators: The evaporators may be
operated either as a batch or continuous system. Whether evaporation should be
carried out in batch pans or continuously requires careful consideration. Continuous
type of evaporation is much more economical if large quantities of milk are to be
handled.
Evaporators should be cleaned and sanitized before admitting milk to the pan or
calandria. The product should cover the heating tubes (coils) before steam intake so
as to prevent scorching. Product should be maintained at a uniform level in the
evaporator. This is made possible by controlling the rate of fresh product intake so
that the volume of water removed is replaced by fresh milk.
Excessively rapid boiling should be avoided as it is likely to increase foaming with
more entrainment losses.

9.10 LET US SUM UP


Condensed milk is the product obtained by evaporating part of water from whole
milk or fully or partly skimmed milk. The unsweetened condensed milk is termed as
‘evaporated milk’ while the sweetened one is known as sweetened condensed milk.
Statutory bodies such as PFA and BIS have laid specifications for each type of
concentrated milk. Sweetened condensed milk should contain not less than 9.0 per
cent milk fat and not less than 31.0 per cent total milk solids. Sweetened condensed
skim milk should contain not less than 26.0 per cent of total milk solids. The fat
content should not exceed 0.5 per cent. Unsweetened condensed milk or evaporated
milk should contain not less than 8.0 per cent milk fat and not less than 26.0 per cent
total milk solids. Unsweetened condensed skim milk should contain not less than
20.0 per cent total milk solids. The fat content should not exceed 0.5 per cent. The
basic principle in preparation of these milks is continuous removal of water by
application of heat under vacuum. The specific gravity of concentrated milk is a
rough estimation of the percentage of total solids in the product and is read using
Baume’ hydrometers. As the concentration of milk progresses, the freezing point
depresses and the viscosity of the product increases. The colour of the product may
turn to slightly brownish and increase further upon storage for a long period. The
physico-chemical changes take place during manufacture of condensed milk mainly
due to concentration of milk solids, addition of sugar, heat treatment, time and
temperature of storage, pH condition etc. The nutritional value of condensed milk is
higher than milk as all the milk constituents are present in concentrated form. It is a
rich source of fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K, body building proteins
and energy giving lactose. Evaporated milk is suitable for infant feeding as it gives
soft curd characteristics.
Evaporators are the equipments used for carrying out the process of evaporation.
There are various types of evaporator viz., Vacuum pan – for batch process and
continuous flow evaporators - for large scale operation. Evaporators like horizontal
tube evaporator, vertical tube evaporator, forced circulation evaporator, long tube 17
Concentrated Milks vertical evaporator, climbing film evaporator, falling film evaporator, plate evaporator,
centritherm evaporator, mechanical recompression evaporator and multiple effect
evaporators comes under the category of continuous flow evaporators, which are
more preferred for industrial application.

9.11 KEY WORDS


Sweetened Condensed Milk : is the product obtained from whole or
skimmed milk by evaporating part of water
under vacuum and with the addition of sugar.
Evaporated Milk : is the product obtained from whole or
skimmed milk by evaporating part of water
under vacuum and heat processing milk by
sterilization process to prolong its shelf life.
Evaporation : is a unit operation for removal of solvent from
a solution or slurry under such condition that
no attempt is made to separate components
of vapour.
Baume’ hydrometer : is the instrument used to determine the specific
gravity of concentrated milk.
Evaporator : is the instrument used for evaporation of water
or concentration of milk in particular.

9.12 SOME USEFUL BOOKS


Sukumar De (1980) Outlines of Dairy Technology Oxford University Press Delhi.

9.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Your answer should include the following points
Check Your Progress - 1
1. i. The term condensed milk is commonly used when referring to full cream
sweetened condensed milk.
2. i. Evaporated milk is commonly used when referring to full cream
unsweetened condensed milk.
3. i. Sweetened condensed milk should contain not less than 9.0 percent milk
fat and not less than 31.0 percent total milk solids. Sweetened condensed
skim milk should contain not less than 26.0 percent of total milk solids.
The fat content should not exceed 0.5 percent.
4. i. Unsweetened condensed milk or evaporated milk should contain less than
8.0 percent milk fat and not less than 26.0 percent total milk solids.
Unsweetened condensed skim milk should contain not less than 20.0
percent total milk solids. The fat content should not exceed 0.5 percent.
5. i. By the addition of bacterial growth inhibitors like sugar-condensed milk.
By heat processing to destroy the microorganisms which cause spoilage-
evaporated milk.
18
6. i. Removal of water from milk in the manufacture of condensed milk increases Definition,
Standards, Nutritive
the total solids content. Because of the increase in total solids concentration Value and Principle
density/sp. gr. of condensed milk increases. of Evaporation

7. i. Baume’ hydrometers are widely used for Sp. Gr. Measurements.


8. i. Added soluble substances such as sugar lower the freezing point in
proportion to the amount added?
9. i. Low viscosity tends to leave objectionable sugar sediment in condensed
milk and fat separation in evaporated milk. Too high viscosity causes gel
formation but prevent mineral deposits in evaporated milk.
10. i. Various factors contributing to the browning discolouration and cooked
flavour concentration, pH condition, addition of compounds like sugar
storage temperature and time of storage.
Check Your Progress 2
1. i. Two types of evaporators are generally used.
• Batch operating vacuum pan/evaporator.
• Continuous flow evaporator
2. i. The advantages of evaporating milk under vacuum are:
• The boiling point of milk is reduced and so milk is not overheated.
• The flavour and colour defects occurring in milk can be controlled.
• Coagulation of milk due to high heat is avoided.
3. i. Considerable saving in steam and water can be effected by using multiple
effect evaporator. The vapour from one effect has considerable latent
heat and may this be used for heating second effect. With double effect
evaporator the first effect operations at a lower vacuum than the second
effect which makes the boiling temperature higher in the first effect than
the second effect. Since the vapour given off from the first effect are
hotter than the boiling point of milk in the second effect they are used to
heat milk in the second effect.

19

Похожие интересы