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Per--Unit Quantities

Per
Al--Balqa Applied University
Al

Department
1 of alfaoury
Dr.Audih Electrical Energy Dr.Audih alfaoury
1/22
22//2017
The per-unit system expressed the voltages, currents,
powers, impedances, and other electrical quantities basis
by the equation:
Actual value
Quantity per unit (pu) =
Base value of quantity

We select two base quantities to define a given per-unit

system. Usually we select voltage and power. And the
other base quantities are deriving
eriving.
eriving
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Advantage of per-unit:
1.Reduced calculations in three-phase systems.

2.By the choice of voltage bases, the solution of networks

containing several transformers is easy.

3.More usefully for digital computation.

4.For apparatus of the same general type the p.u. and volt
drops or losses are in the same order, regardless of size.

5-For transformers the p.u. of impedances are same for

primary and secondary sides.

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Per-Unit System
Assume: V base V rated Sbase  S rated
Then compute base values for currents and impedances are:
S b a se V b a se V base (V ) 2
I b a se   Z b a se   base
V b a se Z b a se And
I b a se S b a se
And the per-unit are:
V actual I actual S actual
V p .u .  I p .u .  S p .u . 
V base I base S base

Z actual
Z p .u .  Z %  Z p.u .  100 % (Percent of base Z)
Z base

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Example:
An electrical lamp is rated 120 volts, 500 watts.
Compute the per-unit and percent impedance of the
lamp. Give the p.u. equivalent circuit.
Solution: we select Vbase=220V and Sbase=1000VA
(1) Compute lamp resistance base is:
V2 V b2a se (220)2
P   Z base    4 8 .4 
Z Pb a se 1000
And since power factor = 1.0 1202
Zactual   28.80
(2) The per-unit impedance is: 500
Z a c tu a l 2 8 .8  0
Z p .u .    0 .6  0 p .u .
Z base 4 8 .4

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(3) Per-unit equivalent circuit:

Z  0.60o p.u.
VS  0.5450 p.u.

If the voltage applied across the lamp is increased twice the rated value,
compute the current that flows through the lamp. Use the per-unit method.
S o lu tio n :
240 2402
V p .u .   1 . 1  0 p .u . a n d Z a c tu a l   115 0o
220 500
115 0o
Z pu   2 .3 6  0 o
4 8 .8
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VS  1.10 p.u. o Z  2.360o p.u.

And the current in p.u. is:

V p .u . 1.1 0 o o
I p .u .   o
 0.466  0 p .u .
Z p .u . 2.36  0
S base 1000
I base    4.54 A
V base 220

I actual  I p.u . I base  0.4660o  4.54  2.120o A

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Per-unit System for 3- Circuits
S3(base)  3S1(base)  3V(base) I(base) I  I L
V L
V 
S b a se  3V L I L 3

S base  3Vbase ( LV ) I base ( LV )  3Vbase ( HV ) I base ( HV )

Vbase ( LV )  VL , LV Vbase ( HV )  VL , HV
S b a se S b a se
I b a se ( L V )  I b a se ( H V ) 
3V b a se ( L V ) 3V b a se ( H V )
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Per-unit System for 3- Circuits
2
V1 ( LV ) V3base( LV ) 3V3base( LV ) (Vbase( LV ) )
Zbase1 ( LV )   . 
I1 ( LV ) 3 Sbase Sbase

(Vbase ( HV ) ) 2
Z base ( HV ) 
Sbase

S3 3VL I L*
S pu    V pu I *pu
Sbase 3Vbase I baase

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Example
If the Base(S)3  30MVA , base of (VLL ) 120kV
and actual of (VLL )balanced 108kV , actual of (S)3 18MW, find :
base (S)3
a) Base of S1 base (S)1  10MVA
3
base (kVLL ) 120
b)Base of kVLN base (kVLN )    69.2kV
3 3
actual(kVLL ) 108
c)Actual kVLN  actual(kVLN )    62.3kV
3 3
actual(kVLn ) 62.3
d)Per-unit kVLn  kVLn ( pu)    0.9 pu
..
base(kVLn ) 69.2
actual(MW) 6
e)Per uint of power per phase  MW1( pu)    0.6 p.u.
base(MW) 10
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Transformation Between tow selection Bases
If we have tow selection with different base:
Selection 1
S base 1  S A V base 1 V A
2
V base 1 ZL
Then Z base 1  Z pu 1 
S base 1 Z base 1
Selection 2
S base 2  S B V base 2 V B
2
V base ZL
Then Z base 2  2 Z pu 2  
S base 2 Z base 2
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Transformation Between Bases
2
Z pu 2 ZL Zbase1 Z base1 Vbase 1 Sbase 2
 ( )( )   2
Z pu1 Z base 2 ZL Z base 2 Sbase1 Vbase 2
2
 Vbase1   Sbase2 
or Z pu2  Z pu1    
 Vbase2   Sbase1 

If we note “1” is old and “2” is new value, then:

2
 V base ,old   S base ,new 
Z pu ,new  Z pu ,old     
V base ,new   S base ,old 

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Example
The reactance of generator designated X” is given as 0.25 pu based on
generator nameplate rating of 18kV,500MVA.The base for calculation
is 20kV,100MVA.Find X” on the new base.

Solution
2
 Vbase ,old   Sbase ,new 
X " pu , new  X pu ,old     
V  S 
 base , new   base ,old 
2
 18   100 
 0.25       0.0405 pu
 20   500 

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Base of impedance in power system

Since the power system is treat with voltage is kV and the S in

kVA or MVA, then the base is:
2
V base
*note base  and since we use kilovolt and kVA , that means :
VAbase

 kV 2 V 21000
 
kVA VA

( kV )2 V 2
base  
MVA VA

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Example
3 – Y  load with identical impedance of 2030o  and voltageat reciving (VR ) is VLL  4.4kV
the load is connected with source by wiers each one with ZLine 1.475o , Find the voltage
at the source(VS ) by using pu.
Solution
Vs   V  VR  Z line I load  VR
*( solving for 1 and transfer or 3 )
* Find the base for this equation; Z , I , V
Vbase ( LL ) 4400  0 0
V R ( base 1 )    2540  0 0 V
3 3
2540  0 0
V( pu ),1   1 0 0 (in pu the angle in the base is not matter )
2540
Vbase 1 2540  0 0 0
I base 1   0
 127   30 A
Z base 1 ( load ) 20  30
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127   30 0
I pu   1  30 0
127
V base 1 2540  0 0 0
Z base 1   0
 20  30 
I base 1 127   30
1.4  75 0
Z L ine ( pu )   0.07  75 0 
20
V s 1 ( pu )  Z line ( pu ) I load ( pu )  V R 1 (pu)

 (0.07  75 0  1  30 0 )  1 0 0  1.051 2.7

0
Vs 1  V V
s ( pu ) s ( base )  1.051 2.7  254 0  0  2.670 k V
V s 3  V s 1  3  2.67  3  4.624 k V
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Example

In figure below the rating of reactance and various

components are shown. A load of 50MW at p.f. lagging is
taking from the 33kV substation which is to be maintained
at 30kV.Calculate the terminal voltage of the synchronous
machine (Vs)in pu,also represent the line and transformer
in series reactance. The system is three phase system

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Solution:
The voltage base is the transformer voltage may be
different at deferent sections 11kV, 33kV and 132kV
and base of power is unique ,taking as 100MVA.
T h e lin e th e r e a c ta n c e b a s e is :
V base  1 3 2 k V
S b a se  1 0 0 M V A
2

X 
V 2
base

1 3 2   174 
lin e ( b a s e )
S base 100
X a c tu a t j1 0 0
X lin e ( p u )    j 0 .5 7 5 p u
X base 174
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At the sending end transformer the pu reactance is
(j0.1) this is based on 50MVA and 132kV,to find new
X on based of 100MVA and 132kV ,thus:
2
 V base ,old   S base , new 
Z pu , new  Z pu ,old     
 V base ,new   S base ,old 
2
 132   100 
X pu ( new )  j 0.1       j 0.2 pu
 13 2   50 
Same at the receiving end transformer the pu
reactance is : 100
X pu ( new )  j 0.12   j 0.24 p .u .
50
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T he equiv alent reactance diagram circuit is

50  10 6
The actuale load current I load  3
 1203 A
3  30  10  0.8
we select the base of 33kV ,100 MVA , the current with new
base is :
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S 100  10 6
I base   3
 1750 A
3V 3  33  10
1203  36.86o
I   0.687   36.86 pu
pu 1750
*( note that the current laggin with 0.8 that means   36.86o )
V 30
V  actual   0.91 pu
pu ( at load bus ) V 33
base
o
Vs  VR  jXI  0.910 
  0.687   36.86  ( j 0.2  j 0.575  j 0.24)
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 1.328  j 0.558  1.44 22.79o pu

Home work
Select 20kVbase in generator circuit and Sbase=100MVA,
compute p.u. equivalent circuit.
j100
G

20 kV 22kV/220kV 220kV/20kV 50MVA

80MVA 50MVA 0.8 PF
14% 10% leading
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S u m m ery :

b ase ( k V A ) 1
B ase curren t ( A ) 1 
b ase ( k V ) 1
base ( k V ) 1 base ( k V ) 12  1 0 00
B ase im p ed an ce (  ) 1  
b ase cu rren t ( A ) b ase ( k V A ) 1
b ase ( M V A r )
1
B ase ( k W )  b as e ( k V A )  b ase ( k V A r ) 
1 1 1 1000
B ase ( k V A )  3  b ase ( k V A ) , b ase ( k V ) 3  3  b ase ( k V ) 1
3 1 LL LN

base ( k V L L / 3 ) 2  1 0 0 0
B ase im p ed an ce f o r 3 sy stem (  )  
b ase ( k V A 3  / 3)
b ase ( k V L L ) 2  1 00 0 base ( k V L L ) 2
 
b ase ( k V A 3  ) base ( M V A 3  )
2
 V b ase ,o ld   S b as e , n ew 
Z p u , n ew  Z p u ,o ld     
 V base , n ew   S b ase ,o ld 
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Per Unit Conversion Procedure of single phase

1. Pick a VA base for the entire system, Sbase

2. Pick a voltage base for each different voltage level, Vbase.
Voltage bases are related by transformer turns ratios.
Voltages are line to neutral.
3. Calculate the impedance base, Zbase= (Vbase)2/Sbase
4. Calculate the current base, Ibase =Vbase/Zbase
5. Convert actual values to per unit

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6. Convert to per unit (p.u.) (many problems are already in per
unit)
7. Solve
8. Convert back to actual as necessary

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