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Seminar Report


Submitted by
Rajas Vilas Jagdale
Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering



Department of Mechanical Engineering

Rajarshi Shahu School of Engineering & Research, Pune
2017 – 2018


This is to certify that the seminar entitled “FUNCTIONALLY GRADED

MATERIALS”, submitted by Rajas Vilas Jagdale is the bonafied work completed under my
supervision and guidance in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Mechanical
Engineering of Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (M.S.).

Place: Pune

Prof. G. S. Sawadadkar Dr. J. S. Gawande

Guide Head of Department
Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

Dr. A. B. Auti
Rajarshi Shahu School of Engineering & Research,
Pune (M.S.) – 431 005


I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided me the possibility to
complete this report. A special gratitude I will like to give to my Seminar Guide Professor
Mrs.Rashi Yadav, whose contribution in stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped
me coordinate my seminar especially in writing this report.

Furthermore I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of our
Seminar Coordinator Mr.G.S.Sawdadkar, who gave me the permission to use all required
equipments to complete the given task.

Also, I have to appreciate the guidance given by the other supervisors as well as the panel in my
Seminar Presentation that has improved my presentation skills thanks to their comments and

List of Contents
Sr.No. Name of Topic Page no.

1. Abstract 5

2. Introduction 6

2.1 Generation of FGMs 7

3 Historical Background 8

3.1 Usages of FGMs in different countries 9

Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) belongs to the class of advanced materials characterized
by variation in the properties as the dimensions varies. The overall properties of FGMs are
unique and different from any other individual material that forms it.

In this study, an overview of fabrication processes, area of application, some recent research
studies and the need to focus more research effort on improving the most promising FGM
fabrication method (solid freeform SFF) is presented. Improving the performance of SFF
processes and extensive studies on material characterization on components produced will go a
long way in bringing down the manufacturing cost of FGM and increase productivity in this

The key research opportunities and challenges in the development of manufacturing process and
materials selection of Functionally Graded materials are addressed.


A functionally graded material (FGM) is a two-component composite characterized by a

compositional gradient from one component to the other. In contrast, traditional composites are
homogeneous mixtures, and they therefore involve a compromise between the desirable
properties of the component materials.

Functionally graded materials (FGM) are innovative materials in which final properties varies
gradually with dimensions. It is the recent development in traditional composite materials which
retains their strengths and eliminates their weaknesses. It can be formed by varying chemical
composition, microstructure or design attributes from one end to other as per requirement. This
feature allows FGM to have best material properties in required quantities only where it is
needed. Though there are several methods available for manufacturing FGMs, additive based
metal deposition (by laser, electron beam, plasma etc.) technologies are reaping particular
interest owing to their recent developments. This paper presents evolution, current status and
challenges of functionally graded materials (FGMs). Various manufacturing processes of
different types of FGMs are also presented. In addition, applications of FGMs in various fields
including aerospace, defense, mining, power and tools manufacturing sectors are discussed in
Modern efforts to develop new materials for applications related to: biomedical
devices/prosthetics; metallurgy; solar panels; sensors; aerospace transport and ceramics require a
metric to measure quality as a means of controlling performance specifications. Spatial defects
in the chemical composition or physical properties of a material volume will result in variability
in the performance of said material. To compensate for this issue, industrial coatings are
developed to generate a homogeneous surface with the goal of minimizing potential failure
locations. This concept is the fundamental reasoning behind systematic efforts to characterize
and define specifications for functionally graded materials (FGM).

Generation of Functionally Graded Materials

Fig(a): Represent a diagram for generation of Functionally graded material

From the above diagram, the generation of FGMs can be stated. The base materials firstly are
categorized in as organic and inorganic materials. The organic materials listed are elastomers and
polymers while inorganic materials enlisted are metal and ceramic. Glass is a material which is
categorized as both organic and inorganic.

These materials and further processed in advanced particulates , foams, fibres etc and engineered
to form composite materials. These materials posses high mechanical as well as chemical
properties to perform a specific function known as functionally graded materials.

The concept of FGM was first considered in Japan in 1984 during a space plane project. Where a
combination of materials used would serve the purpose of a thermal barrier capable of
withstanding a surface temperature of 2000 K and a temperature gradient of 1000 k across a
10 mm section.[1] In recent years this concept has become more popular in Europe, particularly in
Germany. A transregional collaborative research center is funded since 2006 in order to exploit
the potential of grading monomaterials, such as steel, aluminium and polypropylen, by using
thermomechanically coupled manufacturing processes.

Now a days, the concept of Functionally Graded materials have rapidly increased in various
fields across the world. Composition of two or more materials functioning for a specific purpose
emerged heavily during the recent years after the successful implementation of the FGM for
various other projects.

Upcoming figures represent the annual number of usages of functionally graded materials, as
provided by the search engine scopus (as of July 2016) and knowledge generation in the field of
functionally graded materials countrywise (based on data from scopus in the duration from 1980-

Fig A represents annual number of usages of FGMs worldwide.
Fig B represents Knowledge generation in the field of FGMs by country.

Literature Review
Functionally Graded Materials : A review on Fabrication and Properties by Minoo Naebe et al
Applied Materials Today 5 (2016) 223-245

This paper presented an overview of recent advances in functionally graded materials research.
The key research opportunities and challenges in the development of manufacturing process and
materials selection of functionally graded materials are addressed. The state of knowledge in
materials selection, fabrication, characterization, analysis and modeling of functionally graded
materials is presented with a particular emphasis on identifying fundamental structure–property
relationships. Challenges in fabrication of functionally graded materials are discussed and their
future prospects in various scientific and technological fields are addressed.

Fig (A) represents flowchart of powder metallurgy fabrication process of FGMs and (B)
represents different fabrication techniques of powder metallurgy method

Functionally graded materials have become a cornerstone of modern materials research with a
wide array of application in defense, energy, aerospace and medical sectors. This extensive
overview of the research in functionally graded materials based on their fabrication methods
provides some insight into the factors that ultimately control their properties. Most research
carried out in the field of functionally graded materials is focused on ceramic/metal based
systems. As such, compared to ceramic or metal