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Magnetic field

## Electromagnetism generates a electric field (see

electromagnetism).
In special relativity, the electric field and
magnetic field are two interrelated aspects of
a single object, called the electromagnetic
field. A pure electric field in one reference
frame is observed as a combination of both
Electricity · Magnetism
an electric field and a magnetic field in a
moving reference frame.

B and H
Alternative names for B and H
B

name used by

## Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings. H

The high permeability of individual iron fil-
name used by
ings causes the magnetic field to be larger at
the ends of the filings. This causes individual magnetic field intensity electrical engineers
filings to attract each other, forming elong-
magnetic field strength electrical engineers
ated clusters that trace out the appearance of
lines. It would not be expected that these auxiliary magnetic field physicists
"lines" be precisely accurate field lines for
this magnet; rather, the magnetization of the magnetizing field physicists
iron itself would be expected to alter the field
somewhat. The term magnetic field is used for two dif-
ferent vector fields, denoted B and H, al-
A magnetic field is a vector field which though there are many alternative names for
surrounds magnets and electric currents, and both (see sidebar). To avoid confusion, this
is detected by the force it exerts on moving article uses B-field and H-field for these
electric charges and on magnetic materials. fields, and uses magnetic field where either
When placed in a magnetic field, magnetic or both fields apply.
dipoles tend to align their axes parallel to the The B-field can be defined in many equi-
magnetic field. Magnetic fields also have valent ways based on the effects it has on its
their own energy with an energy density pro- environment. For instance, a particle having
portional to the square of the field intensity. an electric charge, q, and moving in a B-field
For the physics of magnetic materials, see with a velocity, v, experiences a force, F,
magnetism and magnet, and more specific- called the Lorentz force (see below). In SI
ally ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and units, the Lorentz force equation is
diamagnetism. For constant magnetic fields,
such as are generated by magnetic materials
and steady currents, see magnetostatics. A where × is the vector cross product. The B-
changing electric field results in a magnetic field is measured in teslas in SI units and in
field, and a changing magnetic field also gauss in cgs units.

1

Although views have shifted over the placed in a non-uniform external magnetic
years, B is now understood as being the fun- field.
damental quantity, while H is a derived field. In this model, each magnetic pole is a
It is defined as a modification of B due to ma- source of a magnetic field that is stronger
terial media such that (in SI): near the pole. Further, an external magnetic
field exerts a force in the direction of the
magnetic field for a north pole and in the op-
(definition of H ) posite direction for the south pole. In a
nonuniform magnetic field, each pole sees a
where M is the magnetization of the material different field and consequently is subject to
and μ0 is the magnetic constant. The H- a different force. The difference in the two
field is measured in amperes per meter (A/m) forces moves the magnet in the direction of
in SI units and in oersteds (Oe) in cgs increasing magnetic field. (There may also be
units. a net torque.) In contrast, a magnet in a uni-
In materials for which M is proportional to form magnetic field experiences at most a
B the relationship between B and H can be torque, and no net magnetic force, no matter
cast into the simpler form: H = B ⁄ μ, where μ how strong the field is.
is a material dependent parameter called the Unfortunately, the idea of "poles" does not
permeability. In free space, there is no mag- accurately reflect what happens inside a
netization M so that H = B ⁄ μ0 (free space). magnet (see ferromagnetism). For instance, a
For many materials, though, there is no small magnet placed inside of a larger mag-
simple relationship between B and M. For net will feel a force in the opposite direction.
example, ferromagnetic materials and super- The more physically correct description of
conductors have a magnetization that is a magnetism involves atomic sized loops of cur-
multiple-valued function of B due to hyster- rent distributed throughout the magnet.
esis. Mathematically, the force on a magnet
See History of B and H below for further having a magnetic moment m is:
discussion.
.

## The magnetic field and The force on a magnet due to a non-uniform

magnetic field can be determined by sum-
permanent magnets ming up all of the forces on the elementary
Permanent magnets are objects that produce magnets that make up the entire magnet.
their own persistent magnetic fields. All per- The ability of a nonuniform magnetic field
manent magnets have both a north and a to sort differently oriented dipoles is the
south pole. Like poles repel and opposite basis of the Stern-Gerlach experiment, which
poles attract. Permanent magnets are made established the quantum mechanical nature
of ferromagnetic materials such as iron and of the magnetic dipoles associated with
nickel that have been magnetized. For more atoms and electrons.
details about magnets see magnetization be-
low and the article ferromagnetism. Torque on a magnet due to a B-
field
Force on a magnet due to a non-
uniform B A magnet placed in a magnetic field will feel
See also: Magnet#Two models for magnets: a torque that will try to align the magnet with
magnetic poles and atomic currents and the magnetic field. The torque on a magnet
Magnetic moment due to an external magnetic field is easy to
The most commonly experienced effect of the observe by placing two magnets near each
magnetic field is the force between two mag- other while allowing one to rotate.
nets. This force is often described as ’like The alignment of a magnet with the mag-
poles repel while opposites attract’. A more netic field of the Earth is how compasses
general description, that also applies to mag- work. It is used to determine the direction of
netic fields that have no poles (such as that a local magnetic field as well (see below). A
due to the current through a straight wire), is small magnet is mounted such that it is free
that a magnet experiences a force, when to turn (in a given plane) and its north pole is

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## the shaft. The inverse process, changing

mechanical motion to electrical energy, is ac-
complished by the inverse of the above mech-
anism in the electric generator.
See Rotating magnetic fields below for an
example using this effect with
electromagnets.

## Visualizing the magnetic

field
Mapping out the strength and direction of
the magnetic field is simple in principle.
First, measure the strength and direction of
the magnetic field at a large number of loca-
tions. Then mark each location with an arrow
(called a vector) pointing in the direction of
the local magnetic field with a length propor-
tional to the strength of the magnetic field.
An alternative method of visualizing the mag-
netic field which greatly simplifies the dia-
gram while containing the same information
is to ’connect’ the arrows to form "magnetic
field lines".
A compass placed near the north pole of a
magnet will point away from that pole—like
poles repel. The opposite occurs for a com-
pass placed near a magnet’s south pole. The
magnetic field points away from a magnet
near its north pole and towards a magnet
The direction of the magnetic field near near its south pole. Not all magnetic fields
the poles of a magnet is revealed by pla- are describable in terms of poles, though. A
cing compasses nearby. As seen here, the
straight current-carrying wire, for instance,
magnetic field points towards a magnet’s
produces a magnetic field that points neither
south pole and away from its north pole.
towards nor away from the wire, but en-
marked. By definition, the direction of the
local magnetic field is the direction that the
B-field lines
north pole of a compass (or of any magnet)
tends to point. Various physical phenomena have the effect
The magnetic torque also provides the of displaying magnetic field lines. For ex-
driving torque for simple electric motors. An ample, iron filings placed in a magnetic field
electric motor changes electrical energy into will line up in such a way as to visually show
mechanical energy (motion). In a motor, a the orientation of the magnetic field (see fig-
magnet is fixed to a shaft free to rotate ure at top). Another place where magnetic
(forming a rotor). This magnet is subjected to fields are visually displayed is in the polar au-
a magnetic field from an array of electromag- roras, in which visible streaks of light line up
nets —called the stator. The polarity of each with the local direction of Earth’s magnetic
individual electromagnet in the stator easily field (due to plasma particle dipole interac-
can be flipped by switching the direction of tions). In these phenomena, lines or curves
the current through its coils. By flipping com- appear that follow along the direction of the
ponent electromagnet polarities in sequence, local magnetic field.
the field of the stator continuously changes These field lines provide a simple way to
to place like poles next to the rotor, subject- depict or draw the magnetic field (or any oth-
ing the rotor to a torque that is transferred to er vector field).  The magnetic field can be
estimated at any point (whether on a field

3

line or not) by looking at the direction and for monopoles. Despite these efforts, no mag-
density of the field lines nearby. netic monopole has been observed to
Field lines are also a good tool for visualiz- date.
ing magnetic forces. When dealing with mag-
netic fields in ferromagnetic substances like
iron, and in plasmas, the magnetic forces can
The magnetic field and
be understood by imagining that the field electrical currents
lines exert a tension, (like a rubber band)
Currents of electrical charges both generate
along their length, and a pressure perpendic-
a magnetic field and feel a force due to
ular to their length on neighboring field lines.
magnetic B-fields.
The ’unlike’ poles of magnets attract because
they are linked by many field lines, while
’like’ poles repel because the field lines
Electrical currents (moving
between them don’t meet, but run parallel, charges) as a source of magnet-
pushing on each other. ic field
B-field lines always form closed loops All moving charges produce a magnetic field.
 The magnetic field of a moving charge is
Field lines are a useful way to represent any
very complicated but is well known. (See Jefi-
vector field and often reveal sophisticated
menko’s equations.) It forms closed loops
properties of fields quite simply. One import-
around a line that is pointing in the direction
ant property of the B-field that can be veri-
the charge is moving. The magnetic field of a
fied with field lines is that magnetic field
current on the other hand is much easier to
lines always make complete loops. Magnetic
calculate.
field lines neither start nor end (although
they can extend to or from infinity). To date Magnetic field of a steady current
no exception to this rule has been found. (See
magnetic monopole below.)
Since magnetic field lines always come in
loops, magnetic poles always come in N and
S pairs. Magnetic field leaves a magnet near
its north pole and enters the magnet near its
south pole but inside the magnet the magnet-
ic field continues from the south pole back to
the north.  If a magnetic field line enters a
magnet somewhere it has to leave the mag-
net somewhere else; it is not allowed to have
an end point. For this reason as well, cutting
a magnet in half will result in two separate
magnets each with both a north and a south
pole.

Magnetic monopole
(hypothetical)
A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical
particle (or class of particles) that has, as its
name suggests, only one magnetic pole Current (I) through a wire produces a mag-
netic field (B) around the wire. The field is
(either a north pole or a south pole). In other
oriented according to the right hand grip
words, it would possess a "magnetic charge"
rule.
analogous to electric charge.
Modern interest in this concept stems
The magnetic field generated by a steady
from particle theories, notably Grand Unified
current (a continual flow of charges, for ex-
Theories and superstring theories, that pre-
ample through a wire, which is constant in
dict either the existence or the possibility of
time and in which charge is neither building
magnetic monopoles. These theories and oth-
up nor depleting at any point), is described
ers have inspired extensive efforts to search
by the Biot-Savart law. This is a

4

## consequence of Ampere’s law, one of the four

Maxwell’s equations that describe electricity
and magnetism. The magnetic field lines gen-
erated by a current carrying wire form con-
centric circles around the wire. The direction
of the magnetic field of the loops is determ-
ined by the right hand grip rule. One can also
imagine driving a bus along the current. To
your left, the magnetic field points up. To
your right, it points down. (See figure to the
right.) The strength of the magnetic field de-
creases with distance from the wire.
A current carrying wire can be bent in a
loop such that the field is concentrated (and
in the same direction) inside of the loop. The
field will be weaker outside of the loop.
Stacking many such loops to form a solenoid
(or long coil) can greatly increase the mag-
netic field in the center and decrease the
magnetic field outside of the solenoid. Such
devices are called electromagnets and are ex-
tremely important in generating strong and
well controlled magnetic fields. An infinitely
long solenoid will have a uniform magnetic
field inside of the loops and no magnetic field
outside. A finite length electromagnet will
produce essentially the same magnetic field Charged particle drifts in a homogeneous
as a uniform permanent magnet of the same magnetic field. (A) No disturbing force (B)
With an electric field, E (C) With an inde-
shape and size. An electromagnet has the ad-
pendent force, F (e.g. gravity) (D) In an in-
vantage, though, that you can easily vary the
strength (even creating a field in the opposite
direction) simply by controlling the input cur-
rent. One important use is to continually
switch the polarity of a stationary electro-
magnet to force a rotating permanent mag-
net to continually rotate using the fact that
opposite poles attract and like poles repel.
This can be used to create an important type
of electrical motor.

## Force due to a B-field on a mov-

ing charge
Force on a charged particle
A charged particle moving in a B-field will Beam of electrons moving in a circle. Light-
feel a sideways force that is proportional to ing is caused by excitation of atoms of gas in
the strength of the magnetic field, the com- a bulb.
ponent of the velocity that is perpendicular to
the magnetic field and the charge of the q is the electric charge of the particle (in
particle. This force is known as the Lorentz coulombs)
force, and is given by
v is the instantaneous velocity of the
particle (in meters per second)
where
F is the force (in newtons) B is the magnetic field (in teslas).

5

The force is always perpendicular to both the charge will point outwards from the palm.
velocity of the particle and the magnetic field The force on a negative charged particle is in
that created it. Neither a stationary particle the opposite direction. If both the speed and
nor one moving in the direction of the mag- the charge are reversed then the direction of
netic field lines will experience a force. For the force remains the same. For that reason a
that reason, charged particles move in a magnetic field measurement (by itself) can-
circle (or more generally, in a helix) around not distinguish whether there is a positive
magnetic field lines; this is called cyclotron charge moving to the right or a negative
motion. Because the magnetic force is always charge moving to the left. (Both of these will
perpendicular to the motion, the magnetic produce the same current.) On the other
fields can do no work on an isolated charge. hand, a magnetic field combined with an
It can and does, however, change the electric field can distinguish between these,
particle’s direction, even to the extent that a see Hall effect below.
force applied in one direction can cause the An alternative, similar trick to the right
particle to drift in a perpendicular direction. hand rule is Fleming’s left hand rule.
(See figure.) The magnetic force can do work
to a magnetic dipole, or to a charged particle
whose motion is constrained by other forces.
Electromagnetism: the
Force on current-carrying wire
relationship between
The force on a current carrying wire is simil- magnetic and electric
ar to that of a moving charge as expected
since a charge carrying wire is a collection of
fields
moving charges. A current carrying wire will
feel a sideways force in the presence of a The magnetic field due to a
magnetic field. The Lorentz force on a macro- changing electric field
scopic current is often referred to as the La- See also: Ampere’s Law and Maxwell’s
place force. equations
A changing electric field generates a magnet-
Direction of force
ic field proportional to the time rate of the
change of the electric field. This fact is
known as Maxwell’s correction to Ampere’s
Law. Therefore the full Ampere’s Law is:

## where J is the current density, and partial de-

rivatives indicate spatial location is fixed
when the time derivative is taken. The last
term is Maxwell’s correction. This equation is
The right-hand rule: With the thumb of the
right hand pointing in the direction of the valid even when magnetic materials are in-
conventional current or moving positive volved, but in practice it is often easier to use
charge and the fingers pointing in the direc- an alternate equation .
tion of the magnetic field the force on the
current will be in a direction out of the palm. Electric force due to a changing
The direction of the force is reversed for a B-field
negative charge.
Above is a discussion of how a changing E-
The direction of force on a positive charge field can cause a B-field. The inverse process
or a current is determined by the right-hand also occurs: a magnet moving through a sta-
rule. See the figure on the right. Using the tionary coil will generate an electric field
right hand and pointing the thumb in the dir- (and therefore tend to drive a current) in the
ection of the moving positive charge or posit- coil. (These two effects bootstrap together to
ive current and the fingers in the direction of form electromagnetic waves, such as light.)
the magnetic field the resulting force on the Both these phenomena play a part in

6

Faraday’s Law, which forms the basis of is proportional to the torque on a dipole, and
many electric generators and electrical mo- torque is a well-known pseudovector.
tors. More generally, Faraday’s law states
that any change in the magnetic field linking Maxwell’s equations
a circuit will generate an electromotive force As a vector field, the B-field has two import-
or EMF, a force tending to drive a current. ant mathematical properties that relates this
Mathematically, Faraday’s law is com- magnetic field to its sources. These two prop-
monly represented as: erties, along with the two corresponding
properties of the electric field, make up Max-
well’s Equations. Maxwell’s Equations to-
gether with the Lorentz force law form a
where is the electromotive force (the complete description of classical electro-
voltage generated around a closed loop) and dynamics including both electricity and
Φm is the magnetic flux (the product of the magnetism.
area times the magnetic field normal to that The first property is that a B-field line nev-
area). This law includes both the case when er starts nor ends at a point but instead
the flux changes because of the magnetic forms a complete loop. This is mathematically
field generated by a time varying E-field (so- equivalent to saying that the divergence of B
called transformer EMF) and the case when is zero. (Such vector fields are called solen-
the flux changes because of movement oidal vector fields.) This property is called
through a magnetic field (so-called motional Gauss’ law for magnetism and is equivalent
EMF). The appearance of the magnetic flux to the statement that there are no magnetic
in this law is why engineers often refer to the charges or magnetic monopoles:
B-field as the "magnetic flux density". Cer-
tain calculations involving magnetic fields
are easier when formulated in terms of flux where ∇ · represents the divergence
density, for example, in magnetic circuits. operation.
A limited form of Faraday’s law of induc- The second mathematical property of the
tion that does not include motional electro- magnetic field is that it always loops around
motive force is the Maxwell-Faraday the source that creates it. This source could
equation: be a current, a magnet, or a changing elec-
tric field, but it is always within the loops of
magnetic field they create. Mathematically,
this fact is described by the combination of
the above Gauss’s law with the Ampère-Max-
which is one of Maxwell’s equations. This well equation:
equation is valid even in the presence of
magnetic material.

## Mathematical properties where ∇ × represents the curl operation, J =

of B complete microscopic current density and E
= electric field.
The magnitude of B is defined (in SI units) in
terms of the voltage induced per unit area on
a current carrying loop in a uniform magnetic Measuring the B-field
field normal to the loop when the magnetic Devices used to measure the local magnetic
field is reduced to zero in a unit amount of field are called magnetometers. Important
time. classes of magnetometers include using a ro-
The magnetic field vector is a tating coil, Hall effect magnetometers, NMR
pseudovector (also called an axial vector). magnetometer, SQUID magnetometer, and a
(This is a technical statement about how the fluxgate magnetometer. The magnetic fields
magnetic field behaves when you reflect the of distant astronomical objects can be de-
world in a mirror.) This fact is apparent from termined by noting their effects on local
many of the definitions and properties of the charged particles. For instance, electrons
field; for example, the magnitude of the field spiraling around a field line will produce

7

## synchotron radiation which is detectable in

(definition of H in
cgs units)
Hall effect where M is magnetization density of any
When a current carrying conductor is placed magnetic material. H is measured in amperes
in a transverse magnetic field the sideways per meter (A/m) in SI and in oersteds (Oe) for
Lorentz force on the charge carriers results cgs. In SI units, μ0 is a defined constant
in a charge separation in a direction perpen- called the magnetic constant (μ0 = 4π × 10−7
dicular to both the current and the magnetic Tm/A).
field. The resultant voltage, due to that
charge separation, is proportional to the ap- Magnetization
Hall effect. The Hall effect is often used to
measure the magnitude of a magnetic field as
well as to find the sign of the dominant
charge carriers in semiconductors (negative
electrons or positive holes).

SQUID magnetometer
Superconductors are materials with both dis-
tinctive electric properties (perfect conduct-
ivity) and magnetic properties (such as the Hierarchy of types of magnetism. See My-
ers.
Meissner effect, in which many supercon-
ductors can perfectly expel magnetic fields).
Materials placed in a magnetic field can be-
Due to these properties, loops of supercon-
come magnetized. Magnetization is due to
ducting material broken up by Josephson
the accumulated effect of many tiny magnetic
junctions can function as very sensitive mag-
dipole moments that occur on the atomic
netometers, called SQUIDs. SQUID magneto-
level. In non-magnetized materials, the mag-
meters are used in a Scanning SQUID micro-
netic dipoles align randomly such that the
scope to create a 2D map of the magnetic
net magnetic moment cancels producing no
field.
net magnetic field. But, if the magnetic di-
poles of the material becomes aligned a net
The H-field magnetization and magnetic field is pro-
In the formulation of Maxwell’s equations at duced. The magnetization field M represents
a microscopic level where all charges and how strongly a region is magnetized and is
currents are treated explicitly, only the E- defined as the volume density of the net mag-
and B-fields occur. On the other hand, when netic dipole moment in that region of
charges and currents are divided into "free" material.
and "bound" categories, D- and H-fields are An equivalent way to represent magnetiza-
used, with the H-field determined by the tion is to add all of the currents of the dipole
"free" current and time rate of change of moments that produce the magnetization.
D. Thus, when the "free" and "bound" di- The resultant current is called bound current
vision of currents and charges is introduced, and is the source of the magnetic field due to
the H-field appears and simplifies the equa- the magnet. Mathematically, the curl of M
tions for the magnetic field because micro- equals the bound current. Unlike B, though,
scopic details of the B- and E-fields inside magnetization must begin and end near the
materials can be treated separately as prob- poles. (There is no magnetization outside of
lems of condensed-matter physics. The H- the material.) Therefore, the divergence of M
field is defined as: must be non-zero near the poles of a magnet.
Most materials produce a magnetization in
response to an applied B-field. Typically, the
(definition of H in SI response is very weak and exists only when
units) the magnetic field is applied. Materials are

8

## divided into groups based upon their magnet-

ic behavior:
• Diamagnetic materials produce a
magnetization that opposes the magnetic
field.
• Paramagnetic materials produce a
magnetization in the same direction as the
applied magnetic field.
• Ferromagnetic materials and the closely
related ferrimagnetic materials and
antferromagnetic materials can
have a magnetization independent of an
applied B-field with a complex
relationship between the two fields.
• Superconductors (and ferromagnetic
superconductors) are materials that
are characterized by perfect conductivity
below a critical temperature and magnetic
field. They also are highly magnetic and Magnetic field lines around a ”magnetostatic
can be perfect diamagnets below a lower dipole” the magnetic dipole itself is in the
critical magnetic field. Superconductors center and is seen from the side.
often have a broad range of temperatures
and magnetic fields (the so named mixed The magnetic field of an ideal magnetic di-
state) for which they exhibit a complex pole is depicted on the right. As discussed be-
hysteretic dependence of M on B. low, however, due to the inherent connection
In the case of paramagnetism, and diamag- between angular momentum and magnetism,
netism the B-field often is proportional to the magnetic dipoles in actual materials are not
H-field such that: ideal magnetic dipoles. The connection
, between angular momentum and magnetism
is the basis of the Einstein-de Haas effect "ro-
where μ is a material dependent parameter tation by magnetization" and its inverse, the
called the permeability (see constitutive Barnett effect or "magnetization by rota-
equations). In some cases the permeability tion".
may be a second rank tensor so that H may The magnetic field of permanent magnets
not point in the same direction as B. These and of all magnetic material originate at the
relations between B and H are examples of atomic level. Orbiting electrons along with
constitutive equations. However, supercon- the nucleus form tiny magnets. The orbit-
ductors and ferromagnets have a more com- al component of these tiny magnets can be
plex B to H relation, see hysteresis. In all modeled as tiny loops of current with associ-
cases the original definitions of H in terms of ated magnetic dipoles. The dipole moment
B and M still are valid. of that dipole is defined as the current times
The advantage of the H-field is that its the area of the loop and represents the
bound sources are treated so differently that strength of that magnet (magnetic dipole).
they can often be isolated from the free However, in magnetic materials such as al-
sources. For example, a line integral of the loys of iron, cobalt and nickel, the magnetism
H-field in a closed loop will yield the total is almost entirely spin magnetism, not orbital
free current in the loop (not including the magnetism.
bound current). Similarly, a surface integral The magnetic dipole originating in an
of H over any closed surface will pick out the atom, electron, or nucleus is not a true di-
’magnetic charges’ within that closed pole, as is an electric dipole. Viewing a mag-
surface. netic dipole as a rotating charged sphere
brings out the close connection between
Magnetic dipoles magnetic moment and angular momentum.
See also: Spin magnetic moment and Both the magnetic moment and the angular
Micromagnetism momentum increase with the rate of rotation

9

of the sphere. The ratio of the two is called between free and bound currents. It is the
the gyromagnetic ratio, usually denoted by free current that we directly ’push’ on to cre-
the symbol γ. ate the magnetic field. The bound currents
For an atom, individual electron spins are create a magnetic field that the free current
added to get a total spin and individual orbit- has to work against without doing any of the
al angular momenta are added to get a total work.
orbital angular momentum. These two then It is not surprising, therefore, that the H-
are added using angular momentum coupling field is important in magnetic energy calcula-
to get a total angular momentum. The mag- tions since it treats the two sources differ-
nitude of the atomic dipole moment is ently. In general the incremental amount of
then: work per unit volume δW needed to cause a
small change of magnetic field δB is:

where J is the total angular momentum If there are no magnetic materials around
quantum number, gJ is the Landé g-factor, then we can replace H with B ⁄ μ0,
and μB is the Bohr magneton. The component
of this magnetic moment along the direction
of the magnetic field is then:

## For linear materials (such that B = μH ), the

where m is called the magnetic quantum energy density can be expressed as:
number or the equatorial quantum number,
which can take on any of 2J+1 values: -J,
−(J-1), … , (J−1), J. The negative sign oc- (Valid only
curs because electrons have negative charge. for linear materials)
Because of the angular momentum, the
Nonlinear materials cannot use the above
dynamics of a magnetic dipole in a magnetic
field differs from that of an electric dipole in
which is always valid. In particular, the en-
an electric field. The field does exert a torque
ergy density stored in the fields of hysteretic
on the magnetic dipole tending to align it
materials such as ferromagnets and super-
with the field. However, torque is proportion-
conductors will depend on how the magnetic
al to rate of change of angular momentum, so
field was created.
precession occurs: the direction of spin
changes. This behavior is described by the Magnetic circuits
Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation: A second use for H is in magnetic circuits
where inside a linear material B = μ H. Here,
μ is the magnetic permeability of the materi-
al. This result is similar in form to Ohm’s Law
where γ =gyromagnetic ratio, m = magnetic J = σ E, where J is the current density, σ is
moment, λ = damping coefficient and Heff = the conductance and E is the electric field.
effective magnetic field (the external field Extending this analogy we derive the coun-
plus any self-field), and ’×’ = vector cross terpart to the macroscopic Ohm’s law ( I = V ⁄
product. The first term describes precession R ) as:
of the moment about the effective field, while
the second is a damping term related to dis-
sipation of energy caused by interaction with
surroundings.

## Energy stored in magnetic fields

In asking how much energy does it take to in the circuit, is the mag-
create a specific magnetic field using a par- netomotive force applied to the circuit, and
ticular current it is important to distinguish Rm is the reluctance of the circuit. Here the

10

reluctance Rm is a quantity similar in nature predicts the correct relationship between the
to resistance for the flux. H-field and the B-field, even though it
Using this analogy it is straight-forward to wrongly places H as the fundamental field
calculate the magnetic flux of complicated with B as the auxiliary field. It predicts the
magnetic field geometries, by using all the correct forces between magnets.
available techniques of circuit theory. It even predicts the correct energy stored
in the magnetic fields. By the definition of
History of B and H magnetization, in this model, and in analogy
The modern understanding that the B-field is to the physics of springs, the work done per
the more fundamental field with the H-field unit volume, in stretching and twisting the
being an auxiliary field was not easy to arrive bonds between magnetic charge to increment
at. Indeed, largely because of mathematical the magnetization by μ0δM is W = H · μ0δM.
similarities to the electric field, the H-field In this model, B = μ0 (H + M ) is an effective
was developed first and was thought at first magnetization which includes the H-field
to be the more fundamental of the two. A term to account for the energy of setting up
brief history of this important transition in the magnetic field in a vacuum. Therefore the
thought is instructional in giving insight into total energy density increment needed to in-
the nature of both H and B. crement the magnetic field is W = H · δB.
Perhaps the earliest description of a mag- This is the correct result, but it is derived
netic field was performed by Petrus Pereg- from an incorrect model.
rinus and published in his “Epistola Petri Per- In retrospect the success of this model is
egrini de Maricourt ad Sygerum de Foucauc- due largely to the remarkable coincidence
ourt Militem de Magnete” and is dated 1269 that from the ’outside’ the field of an electric
A.D. Petrus Peregrinus mapped out the mag- dipole has the exact same form as that of a
netic field on the surface of a spherical mag- magnetic dipole. It is therefore only for the
net. Noting that the resulting field lines physics of magnetism ’inside’ of magnetic
crossed at two points he named those points material where the simpler model of magnet-
’poles’ in analogy to Earth’s poles. Almost ic charges fails. It is also important to note
three centuries later, near the end of the six- that this model is still useful in many situ-
teenth century, William Gilbert of Colchester ations dealing with magnetic material. One
replicated Petrus Peregrinus work and was example of its utility is the concept of mag-
the first to state explicitly that Earth itself netic circuits.
was a magnet. William Gilbert’s great work The formation of the correct theory of
De Magnete was published in 1600 A.D. and magnetism begins with a series of revolution-
helped to establish the study of magnetism as ary discoveries in 1820, four years before
a science. Poisson’s model was developed. (The first
The modern distinction between the B- clue that something was amiss, though, was
and H- fields does not become important un- that unlike electrical charges magnetic poles
til Siméon-Denis Poisson (1781–1840) de- cannot be separated from each other or form
veloped one of the first mathematical theor- magnetic currents.) The revolution began
ies of magnetism. Poisson’s model, developed when Hans Christian Oersted discovered that
in 1824, assumed that magnetism was due to an electrical current generates a magnetic
magnetic charges. In analogy to electric field that encircles the wire. In a quick suc-
charges, these magnetic charges produce a cession that discovery was followed by Andre
H-field. In modern notation, Poisson’s model Marie Ampere showing that parallel wires
was exactly analogous to electrostatics with having currents in the same direction attract,
the H-field replacing the electric field E-field and by Jean-Baptiste Biot and Felix Savart
and the B-field replacing the auxiliary D- developing the correct equation, the Biot-
field. Savart Law, for the magnetic field of a cur-
Poisson’s model was, unfortunately, incor- rent carrying wire. In 1825, Ampere exten-
rect. Magnetism is not due to magnetic ded this revolution by publishing his
charges. Nor is magnetism created by the H- Ampere’s Law which provided a more math-
field polarizing magnetic charge in a materi- ematically subtle and correct description of
al. The model, however, was remarkably suc- the magnetic field generated by a current
cessful for being fundamentally wrong. It than the Biot-Savart Law.

11

## Subsequent development in the nine-

teenth century interlinked magnetic and elec-
Special relativity and
tric phenomena even tighter, until the electromagnetism
concept of magnetic charge was not needed.
Magnetic fields played an important role in
Magnetism became an electric phenomenon
helping to develop the theory of special
with even the magnetism of permanent mag-
relativity.
nets being due to small loops of current in
their interior. This development was aided
greatly by Michael Faraday, who in 1831
Moving magnet and conductor
showed that a changing magnetic field gener- problem
ates an encircling electric field. Imagine a moving conducting loop that is
In 1861, James Clerk-Maxwell wrote a pa- passing by a stationary magnet, as seen by
per entitled ’On Physical Lines of Force’  an observer on the magnet, and contrast this
in which he attempted to explain Faraday’s with an observer on the loop, who sees a sta-
magnetic lines of force in terms of a sea of tionary loop near a moving magnet. The ob-
tiny molecular vortices. These molecular vor- servable phenomenon here depends only on
tices occupied all space and they were the relative motion of the conductor and the
aligned in a solenoidal fashion such that their magnet, whereas the customary view draws a
rotation axes traced out the magnetic lines of sharp distinction between the two cases in
force. When two like magnetic poles repel which either the one or the other of these
each other, the magnetic lines of force bodies is in motion: in the stationary magnet
spread outwards from each other in the case, carriers moving in a magnetic field are
space between the two poles. Maxwell con- subject to a magnetic force that gives rise to
sidered that magnetic repulsion was the con- the current (the so-called motional electro-
sequence of a lateral pressure between adja- motive force), while if the magnet is in mo-
cent lines of force, due to centrifugal force in tion and the conductor at rest, a changing
the equatorial plane of the molecular vor- magnetic field induces an electric field that
tices. When deriving the equation for mag- drives the current (the so-called transformer
netic force in part I of his 1861 paper, Max- electromotive force). Bringing these two de-
well used a quantity which was closely re- scriptions together was one factor that led
lated to the circumferential speed of the vor- Albert Einstein to develop his theory of spe-
tices. This quantity was therefore a measure cial relativity.
of the vorticity in the magnetic lines of force, In more detail, an observer for whom the
and Maxwell referred to it as the intensity of magnet is stationary would see an unchan-
the magnetic force. In the 1861 paper, the ging magnetic field and a moving conducting
magnetic intensity which we will denote as v, loop. Because the loop is moving, all of the
was always multiplied by the term μ as a charges that make up the loop also are mov-
weighting for the cross sectional density of ing. Each of these charges will have a side-
the lines of force. The quantity v corresponds ways, Lorentz force, acting on it due to the
reasonably closely to the modern magnetic B-field, and this force generates the current.
field vector H, and the product μv corres- Contrariwise, an observer on the moving loop
ponds very closely to the modern magnetic would see a changing magnetic field because
flux density B, where μ is referred to as the the loop is not moving in this observer’s ref-
magnetic permeability. erence frame, but the magnet is. This chan-
Although the classical theory of electro- ging magnetic field generates an electric
dynamics was essentially complete with Max- field that generates the current.
well’s equations, the twentieth century saw a The observer for whom the magnet is sta-
number of improvements and extensions to tionary claims there is only a magnetic field
the theory. Albert Einstein, in his great paper that creates a magnetic force on a moving
of 1905 that established relativity, showed charge. The observer for whom the loop is
that both the electric and magnetic fields stationary claims that there is both a magnet-
were part of the same phenomena viewed ic and an electric field but all of the force is
from different reference frames. Finally, the due to the electric field. Which is true? Does
emergent field of quantum mechanics was the electric field exist or not? The answer, ac-
merged with electrodynamics to form cording to special relativity, is that both
quantum electrodynamics or QED.

12

## observers are right from their reference

frame. A pure magnetic field in one reference
can be a mixture of magnetic and electric
field in another reference frame.

## Electric and magnetic fields dif-

ferent aspects of the same
phenomenon
According to special relativity, electric and
magnetic forces are part of a single physical
phenomenon, electromagnetism; an electric
force perceived by one observer will be per-
ceived by another observer in a different
frame of reference as a mixture of electric
and magnetic forces. Magnetic and electric
forces are facets of the underlying electro-
magnetic force, and the partition of the elec-
tromagnetic force into separate electric and Schematic quadrupole magnet ("four-pole")
magnetic components is not fundamental, but magnetic field. There are four steel pole tips,
varies with the observational frame of two opposing magnetic north poles and two
reference. opposing magnetic south poles.
More specifically, rather than treating the
electric and magnetic fields as separate magnet is replaced by a hollow
fields, special relativity shows that they nat- electromagnetic coil magnet.
urally mix together into a rank-2 tensor, • A magnetic field occurs in a doughnut-
called the electromagnetic tensor. This is shaped coil, the electric current spiraling
analogous to the way that special relativity around the tube-like surface, and is found,
"mixes" space and time into spacetime, and for example, in a tokamak.
mass, momentum and energy into four- • A magnetic field is generated by a current
momentum. flowing in a ring, and is found, for
example, in a tokamak.
Magnetic field shape • A magnetic field is one in which the field
lines are directed from the center
descriptions outwards, similar to the spokes in a
• An magnetic field is one that runs east- bicycle wheel. An example can be found in
west. a loudspeaker transducers (driver).
• A magnetic field is one that runs north- • A magnetic field is corkscrew-shaped, and
south. In the solar dynamo model of the sometimes seen in space plasmas such as
Sun, differential rotation of the solar the Orion Molecular Cloud.
plasma causes the meridional magnetic
field to stretch into an azimuthal magnetic Important uses and ex-
field, a process called the omega-effect.
The reverse process is called the alpha- amples of magnetic field
effect.
• A dipole magnetic field is one seen Earth’s magnetic field
around a bar magnet or around a charged See also: North Magnetic Pole and South
elementary particle with nonzero spin. Magnetic Pole
• A quadrupole magnetic field is one seen, Because of Earth’s magnetic field, a compass
for example, between the poles of four bar placed anywhere on Earth will turn so that
magnets. The field strength grows linearly the "north pole" of the magnet inside the
with the radial distance from its compass points roughly north, toward Earth’s
longitudinal axis. north magnetic pole in northern Canada. This
• A magnetic field is similar to a dipole is the traditional definition of the "north pole"
magnetic field, except that a solid bar of a magnet, although other equivalent

13

## periodically reverse direction, in a process

called geomagnetic reversal.

## Rotating magnetic fields

The rotating magnetic field is a key principle
in the operation of alternating-current mo-
tors. A permanent magnet in such a field will
rotate so as to maintain its alignment with
the external field. This effect was conceptual-
ized by Nikola Tesla, and later utilized in his,
and others’, early AC (alternating-current)
electric motors. A rotating magnetic field can
be constructed using two orthogonal coils
with 90 degrees phase difference in their AC
currents. However, in practice such a system
would be supplied through a three-wire ar-
rangement with unequal currents. This in-
A sketch of Earth’s magnetic field repres- equality would cause serious problems in
enting the source of Earth’s magnetic field as standardization of the conductor size and so,
a magnet. The north pole of earth is near the in order to overcome it, three-phase systems
top of the diagram, the south pole near the are used where the three currents are equal
bottom. Notice that the south pole of that in magnitude and have 120 degrees phase
magnet is deep in Earth’s interior below
difference. Three similar coils having mutual
Earth’s North Magnetic Pole. Earth’s mag-
geometrical angles of 120 degrees will create
netic field is produced in the outer liquid part
of its core due to a dynamo that produce the rotating magnetic field in this case. The
electrical currents there. ability of the three-phase system to create a
rotating field, utilized in electric motors, is
one of the main reasons why three-phase sys-
definitions are also possible. One confusion
tems dominate the world’s electrical power
that arises from this definition is that if Earth
supply systems.
itself is considered as a magnet, the south
Because magnets degrade with time, syn-
pole of that magnet would be the one nearer
chronous motors and induction motors use
the north magnetic pole, and vice-versa. (Op-
short-circuited rotors (instead of a magnet)
posite poles attract and the north pole of the
following the rotating magnetic field of a
compass magnet is attracted to the north
multicoiled stator. The short-circuited turns
magnetic pole.) The north magnetic pole is so
of the rotor develop eddy currents in the ro-
named not because of the polarity of the field
tating field of the stator, and these currents
there but because of its geographical
in turn move the rotor by the Lorentz force.
location.
In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the
The figure to the right is a sketch of
concept of the rotating magnetic field. In
Earth’s magnetic field represented by field
1885, Galileo Ferraris independently re-
lines. The magnetic field at any given point
searched the concept. In 1888, Tesla gained
does not point straight toward (or away) from
U.S. Patent 381,968 for his work. Also in
the poles and has a significant up/down com-
1888, Ferraris published his research in a pa-
ponent for most locations. (In addition, there
per to the Royal Academy of Sciences in
is an East/West component as Earth’s mag-
Turin.
netic poles do not coincide exactly with
Earth’s geological pole.) The magnetic field is
interior.
General
Earth’s magnetic field is probably due to a
• Electric field — field produced by electric
dynamo that produces electric currents in
charges and changing magnetic fields that
the outer liquid part of its core. Earth’s mag-
affects charged particles.
netic field is not constant: Its strength and
• Electromagnetic field — a field composed
the location of its poles vary. The poles even
of the electric field and the magnetic field.

14

## • Electromagnetism — the physics of the • Maxwell coil — a device for producing a

electromagnetic field. large volume of almost constant magnetic
• Faraday’s law of induction — the field.
connection between electric and magnetic • Stellar magnetic field — a discussion of
fields as found in motors and generators the magnetic field of stars.
• Lorentz force — the connection between • Teltron Tube — device used to display an
fields and forces electron beam and demonstrates effect of
• Magnetism — phenomenon by which electric and magnetic fields on moving
materials exert a magnetic force on other charges.
materials.
• Magnetohydrodynamics — the study of the
dynamics of electrically conducting fluids.
• Magnetic flux — amount of ’magnetic Web
field’ through a given loop. • Nave, R.. "Magnetic Field Strength H".
• Magnetic monopole — hypothetical http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/
particle which causes nonzero divergence hbase/magnetic/magfield.html.
of magnetic field. • Oppelt, Arnulf (2006-11-02). "magnetic
• Magnetic nanoparticles — extremely small field strength".
magnetic particles that are tens of atoms http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/
wide sDefinition/
• Magnetic reconnection — an effect which 0,290660,sid44_gci763586,00.html.
causes solar flares and auroras. • "magnetic field strength converter".
• Magnetic potential — the vector and http://www.unitconversion.org/
scalar potential representation of unit_converter/magnetic-field-
magnetism. strength.html.
• SI electromagnetism units — common Books
units used in electromagnetism. • Durney, Carl H. and Johnson, Curtis C.
• Orders of magnitude (magnetic field) — (1969). Introduction to modern
list of magnetic field sources and electromagnetics. McGraw-Hill. ISBN
measurement devices from smallest 0-07-018388-0.
magnetic fields to largest detected. • Rao, Nannapaneni N. (1994). Elements of
Mathematics engineering electromagnetics (4th ed.).
• Ampère’s law — law describing how Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-948746-8. OCLC
currents act as circulation sources for 221993786.
magnetic fields. • Griffiths, David J. (1999). Introduction to
• Biot-Savart law — the magnetic field set Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall.
up by a steadily flowing line current. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. OCLC 40251748.
• Magnetic helicity — extent to which a • Jackson, John D. (1999). Classical
magnetic field "wraps around itself". Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Wiley. ISBN
• Maxwell’s equations — four equations 0-471-30932-X. OCLC 224523909.
describing the behavior of electric and • Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists
magnetic fields and their interaction with and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism,
matter. Light, and Elementary Modern Physics
Applications (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN
• Dynamo theory — a proposed mechanism 0-7167-0810-8. OCLC 51095685.
for the creation of the Earth’s magnetic • Furlani, Edward P. (2001). Permanent
field. Magnet and Electromechanical Devices:
• Earth’s magnetic field — a discussion of Materials, Analysis and Applications.
the magnetic field of the Earth. Academic Press Series in
• Electric motor — AC motors used Electromagnetism. ISBN 0-12-269951-3.
magnetic fields. OCLC 162129430.
• Helmholtz coil — a device for producing a
region of nearly uniform magnetic field.
• Magnetic field viewing film — Film used to
Notes and references
view the magnetic field of an area.  The standard graduate textbook by J. D.
Jackson "Classical Electrodynamics"

15

specifically follows the historical  Yuval Ne ̕eman, Y. Kirsh (1996). The
tradition, specifically, "In the presence of Particle Hunters (2 ed.). Cambridge
magnetic materials the dipole tends to University Press. p. 56. ISBN
align itself in a certain direction. That 0521476860. http://books.google.com/
direction is by definition the direction of books?id=K4jcfCguj8YC&pg=PA56.
the magnetic flux density, denoted by B,  John S Townsend (2000). "Stern-Gerlach
provided the dipole is sufficiently small experiments". A Modern Approach to
and weak that it does not perturb the Quantum Mechanics (2 ed.). University
existing field". Similarly, in Section 5 of Science Books. pp. 1–23. ISBN
Jackson, H is referred to as the magnetic 1891389130. http://books.google.com/
field. Hence, Edward Purcell, in books?id=3_7uriPX028C&pg=PA3.
Electricity and Magnetism, McGraw-Hill,  Note that when a magnetic field is
1963, writes, Even some modern writers depicted with field lines, it is not meant
who treat B as the primary field feel to imply that the field is only nonzero
obliged to call it the magnetic induction along the drawn-in field lines. The use of
because the name magnetic field was iron filings to display a field presents
historically preempted by H. This seems something of an exception to this
clumsy and pedantic. If you go into the picture: the magnetic field is in fact
laboratory and ask a physicist what much larger along the "lines" of iron, due
causes the pion trajectories in his bubble to the large permeability of iron relative
chamber to curve, he’ll probably answer to air.
"magnetic field", not "magnetic  To see that this must be true imagine
induction." You will seldom hear a placing a compass inside of the magnet.
geophysicist refer to the Earth’s The north pole of the compass will point
magnetic induction, or an astrophysicist toward the north pole of the magnet
talk about the magnetic induction of the since magnets stacked on each other
galaxy. We propose to keep on calling B point in the same direction.
the magnetic field. As for H, although  Two experiments produced candidate
other names have been invented for it, events that were initially interpreted as
we shall call it "the field H" or even "the monopoles, but these are now regarded
magnetic field H." In a similar vein, M to be inconclusive. For details and
Gerloch (1983). Magnetism and Ligand- references, see magnetic monopole.
field Analysis. Cambridge University  In special relativity this means that the
Press. p. 110. ISBN 0521249392. electrical field and the magnetic field
http://books.google.com/ must be two parts of the same
books?id=Ovo8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA110. phenomenon. For a moving single charge
says: “So we may think of both B and H or charges moving together we can
as magnetic fields, but drop the word always shift to a reference system in
’magnetic’ from H so as to maintain the which they are not moving. In that
distinction … As Purcell points out, ’it is reference system there is no magnetic
only the names that give trouble, not the field. Yet, the physics has to be the same
symbols’.” in all reference systems. It turns out the
 Magnetic Field Strength H electric field changes as well which
 Magnetic Field Strength Converter produces the same force in the original
 H. P. Myers (1997). Introductory solid reference frame. It is probably a mistake,
state physics (2 ed.). Taylor & Francis. though, to say that the electric field
p. 366. ISBN 074840659X. causes the magnetic field when relativity
http://books.google.com/ is accounted for, since relativity favors
books?id=QhqyWH7DDQ0C&pg=PA366. no particular reference frame. (One
 See Eq. 11.42 in E. Richard Cohen, David could just as easily say that the magnetic
R. Lide, George L. Trigg (2003). AIP field caused an electric field). More
physics desk reference (3 ed.). importantly it is not always possible to
Birkhäuser. p. 381. ISBN 0387989730. move into a coordinate system in which
http://books.google.com/ all of the charges are stationary. See
books?id=JStYf6WlXpgC&pg=PA381. classical electromagnetism and special

16

 In practice the Biot-Savart law and other  M Brian Maple et al. (2008).
laws of magnetostatics can often be used "Unconventional superconductivity in
even when the charge is changing in novel materials". in K. H. Bennemann,
time as long as it is not changing too John B. Ketterson. Superconductivity.
quickly. This situation is known as being Springer. p. 640. ISBN 3540732527.
 A complete expression for Faraday’s law books?id=PguAgEQTiQwC&pg=PA640.
of induction in terms of the electric E  Naoum Karchev (2003). "Itinerant
and magnetic fields can be written as: ferromagnetism and superconductivity".
in Paul S. Lewis, D. Di (CON) Castro.
Superconductivity research at the
leading edge. Nova Publishers. p. 169.
ISBN 1590338618.
books?id=3AFo_yxBkD0C&pg=PA169.
 B. D. Cullity, C. D. Graham (2008).
Introduction to Magnetic Materials (2
ed.). Wiley-IEEE. p. 103. ISBN
where ∂Σ(t) is the moving closed path
bounding the moving surface Σ(t), and
books?id=ixAe4qIGEmwC&pg=PA103.
dA is an element of surface area of Σ(t).
 The total magnetic moment of an atom is
The first integral calculates the work
due to a combination of ’currents’ of
done moving a charge a distance dℓ
electrons ’orbiting’ the nuclei of the
based upon the Lorentz force law. In the
magnetic material plus a spin component
case where the bounding surface is
of the magnetic moment of the electrons
stationary, the Kelvin-Stokes theorem
and the nucleus. (The true nature of the
can be used to show this equation is
internal magnetic field of the electrons
and of the nucleons that make up the
equation.
nucleus is relativistic in nature.) Uwe
 John Clarke Slater, Nathaniel Herman
Krey, Anthony Owen (2007). Basic
Frank (1969). Electromagnetism (first
Theoretical Physics. Springer. p. 151.
published in 1947 ed.). Courier Dover
ISBN 3540368043.
Publications. p. 69. ISBN 0486622630.
books?id=xZ_QelBmkxYC&pg=PA151.
books?id=GYsphnFwUuUC&pg=PA69.
and H. Haken, Hans Christoph Wolf,
 HP Meyers (1997). Introductory solid
William D Brewer (2000). The physics of
state physics (2 ed.). CRC Press. p. 322;
atoms and quanta (6 ed.). Springer. ISBN
Figure 11.1. ISBN 0748406603.
books?id=SPrAMy8glocC&pg=PA187.
books?id=Uc1pCo5TrYUC&pg=PA322.
 A. E. Siegman (1986). Lasers. University
 ^ RJD Tilley (2004). Understanding
Science Books. pp. 1215–1216. ISBN
Solids. Wiley. p. 368. ISBN 0470852755.
books?id=1BZVwUZLTkAC&pg=PA1234#PPA1215,M
books?id=ZVgOLCXNoMoC&pg=PA368.
 ^ Uwe Krey & Anthony Owen (2007).
 Sōshin Chikazumi, Chad D. Graham
Basic Theoretical Physics. Springer.
(1997). Physics of ferromagnetism (2
pp. 151–152. ISBN 3540368043.
ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 118.
ISBN 0198517769.
books?id=xZ_QelBmkxYC&pg=PA151.
 Ferromagnetic materials contain many
books?id=AZVfuxXF2GsC&printsec=frontcover.
atoms with unpaired electron spins.
 Amikam Aharoni (2000). Introduction to
When these tiny atomic magnetic dipoles
the theory of ferromagnetism (2 ed.).
are aligned in the same direction, they
Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN
create a measurable macroscopic field.
 Richard B. Buxton (2002). Introduction
books?id=9RvNuIDh0qMC&pg=PA27.
to functional magnetic resonance
imaging. Cambridge University Press.

17

## p. 136. ISBN 0521581133.

books?id=6XVu0NKzgekC&pg=PA136. Information
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books?id=ZVgOLCXNoMoC&pg=PA368. theory.uwinnipeg.ca.
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