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Audiva Pricilla

PBI 6/4th Semester

Defenition of phonology and sound by experts

A. Definition of phonology
1. According to Yule (2001:54) phonology is the study of the systems, patterns and use of
spunds that occur in the languages in this world.
2. Verhaar (1984:36) says that phonology is a special field in linguistics that observes the
sounds of a particular language in accordance with its function to distinguish lexical
meaning in a language.
3. According to Keraf (1984:30) phonology is part of the grammar that studies the sound
of language.
4. Abdul Chaer (2003:102) says that phonology is formed the word "fon" which meqns
"sound" and "logi" meaning "science". Thus, it can be simply said that phonology is the
study of the sounds of language in general.
5. Catford (2001) says that phonology is the study of how sounds are organized into
systems and utilized in languages.
6. Kelly (2000) says that phonology is primarily concerned with how we interpet and
systematize sounds. It deals with the system and pattern of the sounds which exist
within particular languages.
7. Lass Roger (1998) stated that phonology is sub discipline within linguistic concerned
with "the sound of language". More narrowly, pure phonology concerned with the
function, manner, and organization of sounds as linguistic elements.
8. O'Connor (1980) stated that phonology on the other hand deals with how the sounds
are pronounced and the rules guiding their relationships in connected speeches.
9. Turbetzkoy (1958:7) says that phonology is the study of the sounds of langue.
10. Clark (2007) says that phonology means the systematic use of sound to encode meaning
in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use.

B. Definition of sound
1. David Wood says that sound is specific type of wave that takes the form of
vibrations travelling through air, water, or any other material.
2. Maclachlan (1989:26) says that sounds is directly perceived sensations of some sort
produced in the observer when the sound waves strike the air.
3. O'Shaughnessy (2000:447) says that sound is originates at a distance and we can
hear that it is coming from a direction and even place, and while there is no auditory
experiece of hearing that the sound is where we are.
4. Aristotle says that sound is a particular movement of air.
5. Galileo (1623) registered that sounds are produced and heard by us when a
frequent vibration of air shaken in tiny waves moves a certain cartilage of the
tympanum in our ears.
6. Perkins (1983) says that the sound we hear is identical with the train of airwaves
that stretches from the distant sounding object to our ear.
7. Pasnau (1999:316) says that sounds either are the vibrations of (objects that have
sounds), or supervene on those vibration.
8. Casati and Dokic (1994) say sounds requires a medium which transmits information
from vibrating object to the ears.
9. Kulvicki (2008:2) says that sounds are perceived transiently, but they are not
perceived as being transient and they are not in fact transient.
10. Scruton (2009) says that sounds are "pure events", things that hapoen but which
don't happening to anything, and that they are "secondary objects" entities whose
nature is bound up with the way we perceive them.

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