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BOILER I
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MANUAL
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LMCF00090 I
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S.S. SPARTAN, Hull 369 ·.1
and
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SoS. :SADGER, Hull 370
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Built F.or
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CHESAPEAKE and OHI9 RAILWAY 00.
By :_,I
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CHRISty CORP.
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\_. FO.$Tlzyl. WHEELER 6JNIRACT :FWB 3370-·3 ~. 3396-•9

In-struction Bo:o.k FVfB 3370-3


-· .·
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l'QSTER WHEELER.. <X>E.PORA!ION
... . .. ·.
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165 Broadway
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New York, N.Y ..

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... ·.
LMCF00092 ·I
·.·:.'r ·.

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I .· https://boilersinfo.com
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T ABtE OF CONTENTS

I Part I - Descripti.on. .of Steam G~neratoJ;s

I •
.§ecJ~on.
' . -:

Design Data 1-1


General DescriptiQn 1-·2
I Components
Drums
1-3
Waterwalls
I Furnace
Re-fractory
.
Superheate.r
I E.c.onomizer
Steam.Drum Internals
De$.uperheat.er
1-4
Internal Fe~d Lines
I Dry Pipe
Continu~us Blow-Pown
Surface Blow-Pown
I( Plates and Ba.ffles
Auxiliary Equipment
Tube ~ta List
1-~
l.-6
Perf.o.t"manc e Curve · 1... 7
I Drawing$. l.-8
·. Pa:rt l i - Ope.ration
I Putting Steam Generator in OperatiQn
lighti.ng Off
2-31
Raising· St-eam
I Q.titting in B..Q.il.er
Shutting Down
Safety 2-2
I .<:pe~ating Pr~cautions
Emergency fr~ced~res
2-a
2-4
· r..ow Wat.er
I Tube Failure
:t,.Qss of Fires
Air Heater Fires
Fu:el Economy 2-5
I Puttin9 New Steam Generator in Service
Hydrostatic-Test
2-6
Boiling Out .
r-~~
I f ..,_:._
P"'E:~
Boiling Out Pressure Parts by Steam Method
lnspection
Initial Starting
I~- Laying up Boilers 2~7
LMCF00093

1
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S~.ct:\·2n

Boil.er Feed Water


Sea Water Distillate
2.. 8 I
Share Water
Salt Water Contaminat~on
Condensate Leakage
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Effect .of Condensat-e Garry-.Ove~
Sour~e ~f CQntamirtatiQn
Leaking L;i.n.es i,n Bilges .
elimination of Oil a.n,d Grea$e
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AvQid E:x:.cessb£e Ma.k~.;.Vp.
Boile~ Water Har4tie$s
Se-eu:ring Boile.r Water Sample.$ f<~.r ~alysi.s
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Part III - Maintenance
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Boiler and Waterwal.l
Water Wasbi.l).g I
Meth-ods
Pxocedure
Washing E.c~>n<?mizers I
Wa.Shing Superheate.rs
Wa.shing ..Main Boile.r Tub~s
Drying Out the Boiler I
Tub~ Remo.val and Replacement
Boiler Tubes I
~p~rheaters
Economizer
Expanding Tubes
~.

3.-4
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Iles.criptian of
Qpe:ration
Expan~s I
Maintenance-
ln.stalling and Removing Handh.ole Plugs I
To ~nstall the Lip Typ~ Plug
T-o Install the Taper Plug (no lip)
PtSpe.Cti.qn
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·r~ Install Ov~l Handhol~ Plugs
t~:~
~-~

\ . -
2• Plugs I
\

LMCF00094 I
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Section
4 .
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In.stall.ing and. El,emovi.ng Haruihole Pl.u99 3·5


I · (C<;>ntinued)
E:riwrge,n~y R~.air o.f Tap~r-tip Han.dhol.e Plugs
E.l.liptical Handh.ol.e S.eat Gr:Lncter
I Op~ratin9 .Ins.tructions
Five-Roll H~d Ope.rat.ed Rolling ToOl for .2"
Handhole Seats
I Ins.tructi.ons for Op.er·atiqn
Pr~cautions
Cautfqn

I Economizers ... Wel.ded Return Bend 3-6


Refractories 3~7

I Gen.eral Description
Refractories for Sectional Head~r Type

tl Steam Generators
Refractory for "P" Type and ·'f.A"· Type
Steam Generators
Cause$ .of Refractory f~ilure
I lnspe.ction .Qf Re.fra.ct.Oz.-y
Repai.rs to Re.fract.ory

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I " ~
Crosby Safety Valves
I Jerguson Gage Glasses
Vulcan $oot Blowers
Swartwout Feed Water Regulators
Yarway Remote tevel Indicat.QI
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LMCF00095
I fWB -- 3310-3 3396-9

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LMCF00096 .
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I r 4 boilers eaeh ship - 2 right. hand, 2 left hand
Foster-t\'heeler 'TYpe D 2 drum I•'WB 3370-3 and 3396-9. Design
. SOOIJ, operating pressure 160#, .final tamp. 7!tt?P,
feed wate~
I 22~ 1 ya.ar 1950.., !!&ating su.r.i"noes. Boiler · · h47) sq. tt.
ltTatel.• Wal1 )40 sq. ft.
Eoonom:i.zsr 286a sq.. fto
I Total 7675 &qo fto
SUperheater 720 sq. ft.

I Furnace

Orate
volumne
stl.l'>o
880 cu. rt.
101 sq. tt.

I, ifeight. or water pe:r boiler@ steam ~vel 16 1 S'OO lb.

Performance
I Total evap: ea. boils r lbs/hr.
fhrperheat.ar outlet 'tetllP•
Total draft loss thru bqiler
or.
inc. grate.e & eQon. R2a 1.7
I~ Ail" temp. -u.nder graws
rtndient hoa.t absorbing surface
100°
32S sq. rt.
mJ/sq.i't. aliA surface 126)000
It Uberatton B'i'O/e11. ft..
Total volUl'4ne
Soot Blowers-Vulcan Model ?•3 sbe 2a
49,3.$0
8)0 • • ft.

Feed regulators-Swarthout 2!tt 60o!! Thermo hydraulic s.c. ':i'ype ~


I One forced draft. .tza.n tor eeoh boiler..
f3elt driv-&n by 20 H.P'. electrio rootox> 180:.) it.PM, fan speea 1080 RRi
1·.. Olaraga Vorta.A Contr\ll Sinr.la Inlilt Type w, sie61 3 Desi~ 2
Oa.paoity 20600 GFM Q1 Jt w.g. ~ :WOO F.

""'e indoooo draft fan for ech boiler Frat-Daniel #110 'l'ype 1
I S'1fBI. KWS design vith Nulti-Glone CCJllector f.'OHC-1-70. Belt.
d:riven b7 CJ:'ezo.ry TUrbine.
?t$rtorman - baro~Detrio 30" !{.a.
I· tbas st.a&JI\
lb$ gu per tw.
.30,-ooo
5'2,400
44,000
72,000
i'an de-sign
86L.OO
!!.P.M. 764 1 1 130 1300
~. 340 ~ 41.0
I· d~t
a.H.P.
3.21 6.63 8.2$
28 39. 61.4
I. Oeneral '!'..crulator Combustion Control Eleetronic relay type.

I /. ,. ,. .
(-=~~--
. 0cn'!lpletel:r independent staek duct for each boiler.

I LMCF00097

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P,ABT I = OFsGBIPIIPN 9F· STEAM GEJjEBAXQB:p
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FQSJER.WJil!J;LsllCQNTRACI :&'WB 3~7Q-3 &.3396-9
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TYPE; Foster Wheeler .¢0~ Type JJ?MPERAJYRE.: N'Qrmal Full
m STJFAM . GENE.MtOR. INCl.UPES;
::IT.e:r, Waterwafis, SU'perfieater,
. Pow-er D'eg • F.
Firral temp. at super... .
· he·ater O.u.tlet ........... 750
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~nomize:r, So.ot Bl-owers, Valve$ lead Water Temperature 225
artd Fittings, p·eed Water Regulato.rs
HEATING SURFACES: SQ. FT.
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f'Ou.r
(4) Steam Generators are
Installed Per Vessel.· · Stiile~••••~•••••o•oo
Waterwall.~ .. ·o•••~o·
4415
340 I
F.l)Et.; C()al ~co~mi~er ••• o .. ••••• 2&60
[> T·ota.J. Wa t.er Heating
~>
surf a.c e ••• ,... o • • • o
Superheater ••••••••
•• 76.75
720
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·• J)e·sign • •.~ .......• fl • ••••••••• , 500
·.
Hydrostat~c test •• ,~··~···· 750
1-Iydr:t;~·static t~st for
(!RA,Tit SURFACE i SQ. FT. 101
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des:uperhea't.ers ••• e 300
0 •••••• " gr00 PER BOlLER;;
·suE·erheate·r Outlet ........... . 450
Safety Valve s~tting
steam drum ................ ~ 415
At steaming Temperature Lbs.
Boil~r Dryo•••••••••l46,970
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and. o . a . . . . . . . . . . "' • • • 470 Wate.r No.rm:al level •• 16.,500
Sa.f ety Valve Settj,ng
superheater outlet ......... 450
"I:ctal ••.• ,. ••••••••• o .163,47.0 I
Weight.. .of Water Full 20,390

BOILER. PERFQRMAN:(E
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wruw. MAXIMUM I
Total Evaporation, ea. boil.er lb&/hr '29,500 44,000
Supexheater outlet temperature-De-g. F. 750 760
Feed Temperature - Deg. F.
Total draft loss through hoil.er
225' 225 I
includi.ng grates and economizers H.,O 1.7 3.7
Air temperature under grates- D~g.~. 100 100 I
_1_
LMCF00098 I
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I· GENERAL. .
,t . .I( s·ecti.on 1-2)

I tYP~
The steam genera~ors on thi.s co.ntract a+e ~f the ·'*'D"'·
design, tw.o left.hand· and two right h.anc:i, designed i.qr
coal :firing. Each steam generator includes a tw.o drum bent
I tube. boiler section{ side waterwalls;: rear waterwalls f c,<m.-
vectJ..,Qn type superheater, and an extended surface e~onomizer.•.
A. desuperheater whi,cl) supp.J.ies low temperature ste~ t~ attxili-
I aries. is instqlleci in the.steam'drum belQW the nc;>;rmal water
level~ - · - · · ·

The superheater is lo.cated behi.n.d tlle i'i+$~ th:(ee .rows


I o£ 2-"'- boiler tu]:)es and in front of
-the bank of 1J4.tt gen~rating
tubes. It consi!?ts. of t1-bend ele~ents roll.ed· i_nto headers
which are parallel to the boiler ·tube~. !ht9 sup~rheater ele-
I ments extend across.the boiler, at right.angl~s to the boiler
tub¢s~ ·
The economizer is located inboard and above the g~n.­
I erating tube bank and arranged for thre_e parallel water circuits
through the unit.

IC The rear nf each boiler is fitted wi.th a double casing.


Air leaving the blowers passes thr.ough this dt:>Uble casing,
absorbs heat from the furnace inn~r ca~ing, and enters th~
furna.ce below the grate area.
I . The products of :Combustion formed ln
the furnace make
a single pass through the screen tubes~ s\lp.erh·eater, and large
I~ bank 9f generating tubes, then upward thr.ough the ~conom.i~er
to the uptake. ·

I .NENT~·
7
Te'cti:ci'l 1-3)
pps
I the nominal insid.e diameter of the steam drum is 48~
with a wrapper sheet 7/8." thick and a'tube sheet 2J2.ic thick.
I The water drum·has an inside diameter .of 30• with a shell
thickness of l-9/16 4 ·• ·

Waterwa*l?
I The furnace. is water cooled on the roQf, side wall and
rear wall with 2:fi tubes. These tubes f.orm heat absorbing sur-
~-~~
~,~
,.----,
\
·~~

2. - LMCF00099
I
FWB 3396.-9
I 3370-3
https://boilersinfo.com I
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faGes which protect refract,o;ry a_nd at: the same time pr:ovide
additi,onal boiler heating surface. I
Circulating water for t.he rear waterwa~l i$ prQyid~d
by m_eans :Of three 4~· 9. ~P-~ feeder t:ub.es ...w}:llch are eXEanded inti,) tAe
lower rearwall header. Two .of these 4!' tt.rbes lead fro.m the ~tea.m.
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drum~ below the· _water l~?Vel, and _pne 4-'• tube lead·s from the water
drum. · .
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}'he sid7 waterwall. is supplied by- ~~ans ,Qf five 4'"· p,D~
feeder tubes wh~c.h lead from the water drllJI1. 1:;-Q. si.4!3Wall hea~er.
These side and· rea~a11 feeders are s~own in l\l·art· I; $·ec±io:n. l-f3.
:of this manual qn draw~ng m
5'()0... 4 70. ' .
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. A tube li~t i,n Part I, Section 1-6 -Qf th~s manual gives
si,ze., nUmber; and quantity of· all tubes installed in these stea I
gene.rat.ors.
F!4rnac
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The furnace is o£ ample siz~ {~r burning the required
quarttitr of fuel with_Q.Ut e~cessive. heat releaseo T:he side Wall,
.rear wa 1, and r.oof of the furnace are l.i,.ned .with water t'!lbe.s. I
hacked up· by tile, high tempe:rat~e in$ulating- b.t.o:~k, .·min~~al
we.ol blall:ket, and the _o~ter ca.sing. '{he f:r::Qnt wa1.1 -~f the ·ftq;-.
nace is lined with refract_ory bl..o.cks backed \.lp by ~igh tempera-
ture insulatil)g ble~ks 1 arid the casing. ·
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Drawing »a. lf{ 500... 719 in :Sect,i.Qn 1~8 .of this Jnallllal show.s
~n detail the arrangement nf b~1G.kwork and insulation furnished
on this contract. Ma,intenance .of re£ractl)ry is c..tmtpietely des-
I
cribed in Section ~-1~·
§rtperh~~te; I
in~
The superheater is located the gemerQ.ting tube bank
behi.nd the sc:reen tub_es~ It is a thr·ee-lo9p, fouri'pass type, con.~ ·
sisting of 104 U-bend elements rolled into the superheater headerso ·
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Each beq_der .. is fitted with a 3/4"'·· ~ain
valve and the
header diaphragms are perforated with a small drainage slot; to
provide ~Qmplete
drainage.
. .I
. The superheater elements are supported by alloy plates
placed parallel. to the gas flow and extending fr~m
the drum
ste~ I
to the water drum. The suppor~
plates are secured to four 3#
c~­
t:-;::~'.
\
........ ,.
superheqter support tubes. The superheater elements pass
holes in these·support plates. · I
t~ough

LMCFOOlOO

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FWB 3370--3
3396-9
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https://boilersinfo.com
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I Steam enters the outboard superheater header at the·bot-
tom, makes four passes through the loops, leaves at the t.op of the
I. outboard headerp and flows to the ma.i~. steam line and deauperhe~ter
inlet. ,..

I betw~en
The 2!' superheater saf.ety valve i$ installed in the piping
the superheater outlet ~d the stop valvea

I··· liconomizet.:
The economizer i.s of the c:ounte.r£low, e:x.tendep surface,
three pas~ type. It consists of a series .of "U~-bend ho.r::Lwntal
1:1\ elements, whi:eh have thei.r longitudinal axis. p-arallel tq the boiler
drum.

I- The ends of these e-Conomizer 11UP...;bend .element.s are con-


nected by mea.ns of headers. The economizer ends are expa,nQ.ed
into these headers,. machined flush with the inside .suxface of
the headers and seal welded. See Part III,. $e-ction 3-6, and
I drawings NV 500~439 and NY 5¢0-440 ~Part!, Section· l-B.
Each element is made by shrinking 51( Oo.D. ca.st iron rings
I( on 2" O.D. x 9 BWG seamless steel tubes to f.o~m the extended heat
absorbing surface. These elements axe installed through the front
tube sheet.
I Each econ.omizer i.s fitted with an inlet manifold header,
an outlet manif.old' heade.r, a J-21l vent and a 3/4"- drain,

I !wo steam soot blowers are prbvided tQr keeping the


economizer el.em.ents clean. ·
.§IEAM DRUM Ilfi~S
I {.section 1..,4
De§uperheete;
I A desuperheater is i.nstalled in the steam c.tn.Pn .of each
steam gen.erato,r to supply l.ow temperature steam required fQr aux-
iliary equipment, and to protect the superheater at l~w ratings
I by maintaining steam flow through the superheater. The desuper-
heating is accomplished by the cDoling acti~n ~f the water in the
steam drum which absorbs heat from the superheated. steam.
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·~, LMCFOOlOl

I FWB 3370-3
3396.-9
... 4 ~

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The desuperheater consists of 2'" pipe whi.ch makes four
lengthwise passes below the normal water level in the drum. The
ends are connected to inlet and o.utlet connections located at the
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rear of the drum.
Due to the higher pressure in the d;rum than .. in: the super-
I
heater, which would permit moi.sture and solids in tP~ drum to be
entrai.ned in the auxiliary st-eam line in the event -o.f a leaking
j.oint,. the desuperheater s.hould be tested independently o.f the steam
gen~rator at a pres.sur.e .of 300 psig.
I
Inte;nal Fe·ed Line I
The internal feed line extend$ h.o.;rizontally t.he length o.£
the dru:m, below the normal water level. It is made of 2!2~ seamles.s
pipe cl.osed at the e·nds. The internal feed lin-e- has slots which I
are cut horizontally in the top for introducing feed water int.o the
. drum evenly throughout its length.· The fe.e.d water inlet connection
is ·l.ocated in the top of the drum as shown in Drawing No. NY 500-564
~n Part I, Section 1-8 of this manual.
I
Dry Pipe
I .. I
The dry pipe is suspended along the top center line of
the steam drum.. It consists of an 8·•. pipe closed at e.ach end ·and
perforated· along its uppe·r surfa·ce with 3/8•· hol~s. ~ the bottom
.of the pi~e, at each end, are 3/4~ drain holes. Steam ente;rs the
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dry pipe through the upper perforated area, thus prevep.ting carry-
over .of moisture'. Steam leaves the clry pipe through the steam
nozzle. in the top of the drum. · I
Gontinuous
.
Blpw~Dgwn

A ~onti~us bl.ow-down pipe is placed near the bottom ~f


I
the steam drum.. It c.onsists o£ 3/4"' pipe which enters t.h;rough a
fitting in the rear head of the drum and extends approximately
one-half the length of the· drum. The end .of the pipe is Qpen. The
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purp.ose of the blow-down i.s to provide a means o_f reducing the den~
sity of the boiler watero
Su;rfa&$! plgwr.Down
·
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A 1~•- surface bLow-down pipe is located in the steam drum
at the normal water level. The surface blow is used for removing
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s.cum, oil or grease from the surface of the w~·ter and for re4ucing
high water l~vel when the· steam generator i~ in operatio.n.
I
Plates sfld Baffles
,t;::;;·:..
f-· .
\ ..
Swash Plates are 3/16n plates placed in the steam drum of
the boiler. They keep surging of water to a minimum by dividing the
I
lower half of the drum into three separate, approximately unifo~
LMCF00102
I
FWB 3370-3
3396-9
- 5 -
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I https://boilersinfo.com
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I Steam Baffle Plates are perforated plates pla.ced at the
normal water level in the steam drum to prevent foami.ng. The plates
I are horizontal o They extend the width of the d.rum and run about
2/3 its length ..

I AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
:' (Section 1~5)

The auxiliary equipment furnished on this installation


I by Foster Wheeler Corporation on this contract includes Crosby
Sa.fety Valves, Jergus.on Gage Glasses, Vulcan $oot Blowers,
Swartwout feed Water Regul'at.ors, and Yarway Remote Level Indicators.
I Manufacturer • s instru.ction manuals covering description,
operation, and maintenance of this equipment will be found at
the end of this instruction manual under section entitled
I 1
'Appendix 11 • A complete listing of all valves and fittings furn-
ished by Foster Wheeler is included-in Part I, Section 1-8,
Drawing No. NY 502-220, of this manual.
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..... 6 -=-...,

I LMCF00103

I FWB 3370-3 3396-9


https://boilersinfo.com

TUBE QATA - (FOR _ONE $TEAM GE~tOR)


($ect1qn 1-6) · · ·
1~~ .9 ,.a.. x 12 Bwq. B.F.tW&A~IWi. :JtY»?.v · 2·~·.. 0 .D:.~ x 10 . BWG :. TUBES
...•. 3 • . " "'· I •... · ... \ . . ..

. .~ •.{).f
Row.·NQa
.... .... ..·...
RO:?£.-,Nt,..
. ...;.... :,... ;_ . ~cpJi~; ~~~.~l~·-· .· I
G 69 1 Sidewall 3~
6 73 lA ~ ..,.,' . 29
7
8
70
14
I4.tai. Sidewarr·
·.~. e.$'!'" 59 I
9 75
10 74 ~...
11
12
75.
14
2A
3
I
13
14
75
74
Tf>
4
.I
1.5
16 74
17 74··
18
. 19
75
74
22 t.Q.
47 .f,ncl.
4$ to · ··
Reatwall
.Rearwall.
26 I
20 75 63 ,iri(;l.~ Riser~ · 16
~
:r,qtal
.....1:.4..
1259 I
fr*··P..tP,. '?t 9. ~-i
TW!~<!'lf_s;, L~~~~?fl_.
· NG.• of
;rubeS:··.,
P1 · Sidewall 4
Feeders

¥3.
P2 ·sidewall
li~e.der
R~a:;-wall
1
1
S$2
••• • j

I
te~.de;ti
14
!
R.ea:rw.al1
:feeder
1 I
R.ea;rwall 1
:rota!
Feede.r
- -
,..,;;..;;..
'··a·. I
OP~ncomer r~es
. ;.c . ~-·
a
2
.·1
Jf ;,.:· 2
tr
r.otal
~~
-
. ~l
~·.
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.:···:.
..; 7 -·
LMCF00104
i

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I https://boilersinfo.com
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P ERFORMM(;E CURYli,
I ($ection 1_,..7T
DRAWINGS
I ( Se.ctiun 1.--8)

I General Arrangement NY-500


...
~
..4-39
.
\~ '

Auxiliary Sections NY-5()()-440


I Steam Drum Internals NY..oo5Q0-564
Brickwork and Field Insulation
I Feeders and Rear-Wall Risers
·W/-500-719
Nf·500~470

It Spare.s and To9ls Per Ship


Valves and Fittings Per Ship
NY:-501~585

NY-502-220
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~"
(·- '-
~-
··,~ .

I - 9 - LMCF00105

1·.
https://boilersinfo.com Section 2-1 I
OPERATION
I
Part II OPERATION
I
PUTTING STEAM GENERATOR recommended that at least 3 or 4 hours be taken
IN OPERATION
(Section 2· 1)
to put the boiler in service. However, in cases
of extreme necessity the unit may be put in
service more rapidly.
I
The following procedure is a brief, easily re-
membered outline of the necessary steps to be
taken in putting a steam generator in service for
Valves -Main steam stop valves should be eased
slightly to prevent sticking due to ex-
pansion. When ·steanl issues forcibly
I
norn,al operation. If the unit is new, has been
laid up, or has undergone extensive repairs refer
first to the section "Putting New Steam Generator
in Service." Section 2--6.
from the air cock (approx. 20 lb.) it may
be closed. A flow of steam must be
maintained through the superheater.
I
The superheatex: vent valve should be
Lighting Off
Valves -Oosed : Steam stop valves, surface and
wide open when lighting off but may
be closed-in somewhat as pressure rises
I
to reduce an1ount of steam wasted. The
bottom blow, economizer vent
and drain, waterwall drains.
Open : Gage valves, gage glass valves,
superheater header drain valves and the
desuperheater drain valve (if installed)
should be cracked slightly so as to pre-
I
superheater vent, superheater vent accumulation of condensate. Blow
and desuperheater drains, air
cock and feed stops.
the pressure gage line to check opera-
tion of the steam gage. Allow conden-
I
(f: Feed -Fill boiler with best available feedwater, sate .to build up in line so that steam

~
(preferably 0.3 grains total solids per
gal. or less) through auxiliary feed line
until water appears in the lower gage
will not come in contact with gage and
cause damage to it. · I
Feed -Check the water level by blowing down
glass. Continue until water raises one
inch. Change over to main feed lin~
closing auxiliary check valve only, and
the gage gtasses. Blow both upper and
lower connections. As the boiler warms
up, ~e level in the gage glass will rise.
I
fill to 3" in lower glass. This pro-
cedure checks both feed lines.
Burners-Inspect furnace floor for oil. Ventilate
Do not allow it to rise out of sight in
the gage glass. The water level may be
lowered by using the surface blow. If
I
boiler thoroughly using forced draft fan a surface blow is not provided put out
to remove inflammable gases. Recircu-
late fuel oil until oil at proper tempera-
ture is available at the burners. Install
the fires and use the bottom blow. As
the steam pressure rises it may be neces-
sary to add water to make up for the
I
the smallest sprayer plates in the atom-
izers furnished for type of oil with which
the burner is designed to operate and
loss through the vents and drains. If
steam should be forn1ed in the econom-
izer, as indicated by water hammer,
I
using torch, light off one burner. Make feed to clear the economizer and blow-
sure the torch doesn't go out~ Make
sure the burner stays lit. If it goes
down boiler if level becomes too high.
Burners-When bringing up steam it is advis-
I
out, don't attempt to light the burner able to rotate the burners. Use first
again without first ventilating the fum-
ace. Flarebacks happen this way.
one burner then change to another,
allowing the brickwork to heat evenly
I
for approximately 3 hrs. before full
Raising Steam
To prevent damage to the refractory and ex-
cessive temperatures in the superheater, it is
pressure is reached on boiler. This will
necessitate burner shut-off periodically.
Use a torch for lighting burners.
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LMCF00106
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I
FOSTER WHEELER STEAM GENERATORS
I ( Cutting in the .Boiler 2 in. in the low glass. Unless absolutely
(~

I V alve.s -When the boiler pres~ure is within a


few pounds of line pressure, warm up
necessary, do not use cold feedwater to
cool down a boiler. When the boiler is
cold . close the feed stops. The steam
the steam lines slowly with the drains
stop valves can usually be tightened
I on the lines open using by-pass valves
around the main stops if provided. On
some boilers the pressure may be equal-
when the boiler has cooled but should
be eased up when lighting off again.
ized through an auxiliary . steam line.
I If not, ease the stop valves open slowly
until first rush of steam subsides. Do
SAFETY
(Sectlo11 2-2)
not. clo~o superheater vents or drains Safety should be the first consideration in boiler
I Feed
until boiler is on ike line.
-The water level must not be too high
operation. Accidents are often costly, not only to
boilers, but also by causing delays in sailing of the
when 'cutting in the boiler. If pressure vessel. The most frequent and most serious acci-

I in the line is lower than that in the


boiler there is likelihood 'of carrying
water over into the superheater. For
dents are caus~d by low water and flarebacks. The
competent operator will avoid dangerous situations
and eliminate. careless practices that may lead to

I this reason the ·superheater drains are


left cracked open until boiler is on the
line. Regulate feed supply or change to
damage or injury. The best accident prevention is
to be thoroughly informed with the \=Onstruction
and proper operation of the boiler and the auxiliary
automatic regulator. equipment. Also, in an emergency, knowing what

I Burners--Change to proper size sprayer plates


for steaming. Adjust air and oil supply
to do may eliminate serious damage.
Good operation not only increases safety but
and change to automatic combustion pays dividends in reduced maintenance expense.

I( control if so equipped.
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS
(.... __ .

Shutting Down (Sectton 2-3)

I ·If ·possible use the soot blowers just before


shutting down.
The outline in Section 2-1 is purposely brief
as it is intended to serve as a guide for the proper
sequence of steps performed in lighting off and
Burners-Extinguish the fires and remove burners.
I Allow the forced draft fan to run a few
moments to clear the furnace of all
raising steam. It is supplemented by the follow-
ing additional precautions.
If the boiler is equipped with automatic com-
gases, then shut it off and close all air

I ·.
registers. Allowing cold air to blow
through the furnace will damage the.
brickwork and may cause casings to
bustion control, shift to manual operation before
lighting off. When lighting ,off, it is difficult to
completely eliminate smoke while the furnace is
cold. Too much air, in an effort to stop the smoke,

I crack. Remove the atomizers for


cleaning.
Valves -Open the superheater vent and crack
is likely to result in unburned oil vapor being
deposited on the boiler, air heater and economizer
surfaces. As the boiler heats up this vapor is
. superheater drain valve ;4 turn. When
I the boiler pressure drops below line
pressure the steam stop valves may be
driven off and secondary combustion may occur.
The beat of this secondary combustion can cause
warped casings, baffles and supports, and if severe,
closed. When the steam pressure drops tube failure.
I to approximately 20-25 lb. gage fully
open the superheater drains (and de-
supe'rheater drains if fitted) and the air
Too little air at any time will cause the boiler
to "pant". Allowing this to continue will loosen

I£_,_
(:':-~-
cock.
the casings with resultant gas leaks and damage
to the refractory. "Panting" can also occur under

'\.
Feed '-As the boiler cools down the water level
will drop. ¥aintain the level at least
certain conditions of· poor mixture of air and oil,
or water in tqe fuel oil. ·
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I 2
LMCF00107
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Section 2-3

OPERATION
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Never light a burner from the hot brickwork. may cause a sudden drop in superheat tempera-
This practice may result in serious damage and
personal injury, due to explosion.
ture and leaking of the main steam line joints.
Carryover may also occur due to foaming, a I
Keep the superheater vent open to assure steam condition caused by a high percentage of dis-
flow through the superheater. It is just as im-
portant as water in the boiler. The superheater
.thermometer is not a reliable indicator of the
solved solids in the boiler water. Boiler feedwater
must be pure, free of dissolved solids, oil and
oxygen. Use distilled water only, if possible, for
I
all makeup feed. Samples of boiler water should
temperatures in the superheater when raising
steam.
Decrease the firing rate and increase the feed
be tested twice daily. ·Proper alkilinity should be
maintained to preverit corrosion. To prevent prim-
I
ing, blow down the stean1 generator if the total
for a few moments if steaming, which causes water
hammer, occurs in the economizer. Continued
water hammer can 'cause leaks in the feed piping,
concentration of dissolved solids exceeds 500 parts
per million ( 30 grains per gal.) or if the an1ount .
of scale forming salts is excessive.
I
economizer return headers and return bends.
Use the surface blow to reduce high water
level. Do not use the ~ttom blow or open the
To maintain low boiler water concentration, use
continuous blow when installed or the surface .
blow. Otherwise shut off fires and use the bottom
I
water wall drains unless all the fires are ex- blow.
tinguished. For most effective use of the bottom
blow, first, open the valves in the blowdown line
then open the boiler blowdown valve wide. When
· Do not permit oil, especially that containing
vegetable fats, to enter the .boiler as the insulating
I
film fonned on heating surfaces will result in
blowing operation is completed, close ·valves in
reverse order. When operating either. the surface
or. bottom blowdown valve, open valve wide and
blistering and eventual rupture of the affected
tubes. Sludge, rolled into small, hard· balls found
I
operate quickly while opening or closing. in the waterwall headers, is an indication that
The normal water level, unless otherwise speci-
fied, is at the centerline of t!Je steam drum. Carry
oil is getting into the boilers.
Dissolved oxygen may cause pitting and corro- I
nom1al water level as the perforated baffles of drum sion at and above the waterline in the drum and
internals are designed to function best at this level.
Be suspicious of a water level that does not fluc-
also in the economizer. On vessels equ~pped with
deaerators, the oxyge~ content of the feed should
be tested periodically as a check on deaerator
I
tuate. Check gage glasses frequently whether on
operation and should never be more than .03 cc
manual or automatic operation. Check carefully
gage glasses that appear completely full or com-
pletely en1pty as either may cause serious damage
per liter. To avoid oxygen pitting, maintain the
design feedwater temperature, particularly in port.
I
to equipment. Feedwater below design temperature is very likely

If there is an ttnaccountable drop in the steam


pressure, check the water level in the boiler by
to contain oxygen. Vessels not equipped· with a
means of removing oxygen from the feedwater
must chemically treat the boiler water.
I
blowing the gage glass before increasing firing
rate. Steam presiure will drop when there is in-
sufficient water in the. boiler.
Boiler treating chemicals are preferably intro-
duced into the drum through a chemical feed line
rather than through the economizer as the chemi-
I
When maneuvering anticipate changes in the cals may possibly settle on the inner surface of the
water level due to changes in. steam demand. A
sudden increase as from "stop" to "full" will result
~onomizer tubes.

It is most important that the ·recommendations


I
in a sharp rise in the water leveL The feed should
of a competent feedwater treatment concern are
not be decreased but rather increased to keep up
with the demand for steam. If the feed is de-
creased and the water level allowed to fall, the
followed.
The soot blowers should be used twice daily
I
water may drop out of sight when the firing rate is or as often as necessary as indicated by changes
suddenly decreased. Conversely, carrying the water
level too high at low loads may result in the water
in the stack temperature or in the draft loss. A
temperature drop of more than 20 deg. F. after
I
going out of sight in th_e tot> of the glass. This blowing tubes might indicate the desirability of

I
LMCF00108
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https://boilersinfo.com
I
FOSTER WHEELER STEAM GENERATORS
I( more frequent blowing. Drain the lines generously Inspect the fires for flame impingement on the

I before blowing tubes. Wet steam in the soot


blowers will. cause the soot to cake and become
difficult to remove. Use the soot blowers in the
refractory throats or floor where deposits may be
fonned.
Safety valves should be occasionally lifted
proper order; that is start by blowing the air manually as a check on their operation.
I heater and/or economizer, then the superheater,
the generating bank and finally the economizer EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
and/or air heater again. The order of blowing in (Section 2-4)

I the superheater and generating banks should fol-


low the path of the gases. The gas path may be
determined from the general arrangement drawing
Low Water
Low water, whether resulting from inattention,
feed pump failure or any other cause, is the most
showing the position of baffles, if any.
I Raise the air pressure when using the soot
blowers. ~nen using soot blowers in port or under
serious condition encountered. If the loss is
gradual and noticed by the operators :
(a) Increase the rate of feed.

I low loads, be ready to relight the fires should


they be blown out. To reduce corrosion leave the
soot blower drains open when the soot blowers are
(b) Check feed line for leaks or open valves.
(c) Check blow valves for leaks or open valves.
not in use and see that air check valves are (d) Check auxiliaries for water in steam from
I functioning. The scavenging air check valves
admit air to the elements when not in use to
auxiliary steam line which indicates leakage
from boiler steam drum into desuperheater.
prevent corrosive gases from backing up into
(e) Start auxiliary feed system.
I the soot blower heads and piping.
Hard external deposits found on economizer
If, at any tim.e, the water level falls out of sight

c
in gage glass secure all burners immediately.
surfaces are evidence that either wet steam is being
Caution. Do not fill hot boiler with cold water,
I( used for soot .blowing or the temperature of the
stack gases has fallen below the dew point. When
the stack temperature falls below the dew point,
as relatively cold feedwater coming in contact with
an overheated drum or tubes. may cause severe
distortion and leakage of rolled joints.
there is danger of certain components of the stack
I gases condensing on the elements. These condensed
gases, particularly those from fuels with a high Tube Failure
sulfur content, will cause hard caking of soot In the event of tube failure, the boiler should
I· deposits and are highly corrosive.
These hard soot· deposits may plug the econo-
be secured quickly except for the feed. Feedwater
should be added in an effort to keep the water in
sight until the boiler cools down. Watch tlu water
mizers, and cause corrosion damage. These de- in the other boilers. The sudden demand for feed
I posits may be removed by steam lancing. Steam .
lancing ports are installed on most bOilers.
may result in low water in. ~e other boilers. If
the failure is severe and the water cannot be kept
On boilers equipped with air heaters, the by- in sight, shut off the feed to the effected boiier

I pass must be used under low load conditions


when the stack temperature may fall below the dew
point. Failure to use the by-pass may result in soot
immediately. In extreme cases it may be neces-
sary to keep the forced draft fan running to carry
the steam up the stack. If escaping steam is a

I caking and corrosion damage to the heating sur-


faces and uptakes. The accumulated soot may also
result in a soot fire, causing severe damage to air
danger to life the boiler may be emptied through
the bottom blow.

heater. · Loss of Fires


I Remove atomizers from the boiler when they are
not in use. Atomizers in a cold boiler could flood
If the burners should go out from loss of oil
pressure, stoppage of the pump, forced draft blower
the furnace with oil due to leaky valves. Atomizers failure or water in the fuel, close all burner valves
not· in use but remaining in position in a steaming immediately, ventilate the furnace and relight
boiler will become choked with carbon and may burners one at a time using a torch. Restoring L
be damaged by overheating. the oil supply with the burner valves open and

4 LMCF00109

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Section 2-5

OPERATION
I
allowing the fires to relig-ht from hot brickwork The refractory cone must be concentric and have
may result in an explosion.

Air Heater Fires


the proper depth and angle. The air registers
should be in good order, that is, working freely,
I
not warped or choked with carbon deposits.
Air heater fires can be avoided by keeping
the heating surfaces. clean. In the event· of fire.
considerable damage is usually done by the time
The fuel should be at the right pressure and tem-
perature for best atomization. Oil that is too cold
I
the fire is detected. The boiler should be secured, · will not atomize properly and oil that is too hot
shutting dowi). the forced draft fan quickly and
using the steam soot blowers in the air heater as
will carbonize in the burner tips. The best atom-
ization of the fuel oil is generally obtained when
the viscosity is 150 Seconds Saybolt Universal.
I
an aid in smothering the fire.
If the boiler is shut down for any reason, open
the superheater vent to maintain a steam flow
The temperature at which the fuel will be at this
viscosity may be found by referring to the chart,
Fig. l. Use the proper size sprayer plates. Make
I
through the superh~ai~r. Crack superheat drains
sure the tips you are using have the proper spray
to prevent accumulation of ·water in the super-
heater elements.
angle. Do not use more than one size burner tip
in tlu steam generator at the same time. Use all
I
burners unless oil pressure becomes too low. The
FUEL ECONOMY
(Section 2·5)
To obtain high boiler efficiencies, the following
use of steel tools in cleaning sprayer plates may
damage them, resulting in poor atomization, there-
by requiring a large amount of excess air to elim-
I
conditions should be observed :
inate smoke. Enlargement of the holes will result
Maintain operating temperature and pressure
Adjust burners for proper combustion
in each burner handling a different quantity of
oil and adjustment of proper .amount of air will
I
Keep fire and water sides of boiler clean be impossible.
Check casings and all pressure parts against
leakage.
Excess air in large qilantities will be indicated
by white smoke. In some cases white smoke may
I
The most common cause of low efficiency is ex- result from too high fuel oil temperature. If the
cess ·air. A certain amount is necessary . but it
should be kept to a minimum. To obtain the
flame is intensely white as observed through peep-
holes in boiler or burner; too much air is being
I
proper amount of air, without smoke, burners supplied. If the fiame is red there is insufficient
clean
must be and properly adjusted with the
jacket tube so that the flame just clears there-
fractory cone without impingement. The best
air. The ideal flame is a bright golden color.
Excess air will also be indicated by a rise iJil super-
heat temperature but for accuracy the use of an
I
position may vary slightly with different firing Orsat to analyze the flue gases is necessary.
rates. To obtain best operating results the jacket
tube may be moved in and out by loosening the
Smokeless combustion or a very light brown
haze with high C0 2 (12.5% to 14%) and no
I
thumb screw for proper mixture of air and oil. CO are ·the ideal conditions.
The jacket tube should also be the proper length
so that ~e face of the sprayer plate nut is in correct
relation to the face of the diffuser. This varies
Boiler casings must be tight as any air leaking
into the boiler will sharply reduce efficiency.
I
with different types of burners; with the Todd Steady steaming with little fluctuation in air or
"Vee-Cee" burners the face of the sprayer plate
nut should project ~, into the furnace beyond
oil preSsures will be an advantage. N onnal tem-
peratures and pressures should be maintained.
I
the point where the diffuser starts to Bare. With High stack temperatures may mean excess air or
Todd straight mechanical (Hex-Press) burners
this distance is ~". Using the V ee-Cee steam
assisted atomizer the distance is 1?4". This length
fouling of the heating surfaces. A rise in air pres-
sure required for combustion may be caused by
poor burner adjustment or partial plugging of the
I
is altered by loosening the set screw and screwing
the burner clamp on or off the jacket tube. These
diinensions apply only with the Standard Hex-
gas passages. Keep the fir:esides of the boiler
clean, particularly the superheater and the econo-
mizer. Fouling of the heating surfaces not only
I
Press Register and Hex-Press diffuSer. reduces the heat transfer rate but in extreme
I
LMCFOOllO 5
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- - - - - - - - - - - -- -
- -- - -https://boilersinfo.com
J':"-~

:
: ' · ••·· , \

}
: :i. ''l
-~
.·- .. ~ ..

.,
50000
0(/')
GIVEN THE FUROL VISCOSITY OF AN ~
OIL AT 12Z"F. LoCATE THIS POINT m
IS: ~"'.: -..... .....,.. T T T T I I I I I I I I .I I I
ON THE VERTICAL UNE ABOVE 122.
;;a
20000 T..EJ.. f,MIT (If PUMPABI 1 TY THEN FOLLOW A DIAGONAL UNE
~
........ ' ....... ' Ill C: t II

DOWN, PARALLEL TO THE NEARER


·I
10000 ' '' I . . DIAGONAL SHOWN UNTIL YOU CROSS
THE VISCOSITY UNE OESIRE-D ..,AND
m
m
READ THE CORRESPONDING TEMP
r-
m
;;a
'5000 ~ t::l... ' ~~~ SOD ... ~ LtMIJOF 'EASY· PUMPABILITY' EXAMPLE: . (/')
4000 GIVEN AN OIL WITH A. VISCOSITY ~
OF 65. S.S.F. AT 122" F. m
3000 )>
- ~
"'z
0 2000
TEMPERATURE FOR 150 S.S.U.
VISCOSITY CBEST BURNING (j)
8 1500 EFFICIENCY> • 180' F m
lLI

"';l• 1000
~~·~ftl zm
;;c .
)>
~
~ 750 75
0;;a
~
z
:::1 500 ~
0
.. (/')

....J
~
!i
400

300
a
CD

'30

"'>-
jlllllllllllll=·
I
~
!:::
"'
0
200 '
-------------
0 VJSCOSIJY RANGE
!l! 150 1- 15
> FOR
c:JtEATEST BURNER E'FflCIENCV
IS:
1'- rs.R
~NI.:S
~ !"'.. l'r' l'SJ'
100 ~ 10
~
"" N~
90
80
~
~
~ 10
(j
50 60 70 100 110 120J 130 140 150 ltiO 170 180 190 200 ZlO 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

--
~ 80 90.
0 IZZ
0 TEMPERATURE- DEGREES FAHRENHEIT
FIGURE J. CHART I'OR DnUMINING PaoPu BUllNEll T&MPUATUU TO GlVIt MosT EFl'ICUNT CoMB\JSTIOl'l .

(": () )
' ·-
https://boilersinfo.com Section 2•6 I
OPERATION
I
cases "laneing" may result with high gas vdocities as high as 180 F. but in no case less than room
and temperatures through small sections of the
boiler. This causes· severe damage to all parts
adjacent to or within the lane. Frequency of use
temperature or less than 70 F. whichever is higher.
In high pressure boilers with thick d·rums, it is
desirable that the temperatur~ of the water used
I
of the soot blowers should be governed by the for filling be close to the boiler temperature. The
changes in draft loss and stack temperatures be-
fore and after blowing tubes.
use of cold water for testing a boiler which has
not thoroughly coole·d down will result in leaking
I
of the rolled joints.
Maintain proper feedwater temperature. Lower
feed temperature will result in higher superheat.
Conversely a high feed temperature will cause
The pressure should be raised gradually, being
careful not to exceed the test pressure.
I
superheat temperature to be below normal. A hydrostatic test to the working pressure will
usually be sufficient for a boiler which has been
repaired but for a new boiler or one undergoing
I
PUTTING NEW 'sTEAM GENERATOR annual inspection the test pressure is 1~ times
IN SERVICE
(Section 2-6)
the design pressure.
When inspection of all pressure parts and rolled
I
Before a new boiler, one that has been laid up joints is complete the pressure may be lowered by
or one which has undergone extensive repairs, i~
put in service it should be subjected to a hydro-
static test, boiling out, drying out for the refractory
cracking a drain valve. Open a vent valve before
the pressure drops to zero and leave wide open
while draining the water to avoid a vacuum on
I
and final inspection. the boiler.

Hydrostatic Test
The desuperheater should be tested separately at
a pressure not over 300 lb. A leaking desuper-
I
heater would allow water from the drum to pass
Prepare the boiler for hydrostatic test by re-
moving all tools, rags, etc. from the drums, tubes
and headers. Many tube failures are due to negli-
into the desuperheater and be carried with the·
steam to the auxiliaries or superheater.
I
gence in removing foreign materials. Close up On completion of the test, drain all water from
all handholes and manholes. Remove all access
doors including those for waterwall headers. A
the superheater and desuperheater, ren1ove safety
valve gags, and remove any blanks.
I
boiler that has been in service must be thoroughly
<:leaned on the fireside to facilitate inspection.
Check operation of pressure gages. Oose tightly
all stop check, drain and blowdown valves. Install
Boill;11g Out
The boiler must be boiled out to remove any pre-
I
blanks where necessary. Do no~ allow a stop valve servative on the tubes and the oil used in rolling
with steam on ont- side to be subjected to hydro-
static test on the other side of the Valve. Install
the tubes. Oil is a good insulator and if any re-
mains after erection or repairs, blistered and rup-
tured tubes may result.
I
safety valve gags. Do not use a wrench on these
gags. It is unnecessary and may result in bent
valve stems.
Before proceeding with. boiling out of boiler
remove as much oil as possible by wiping out the
ends of the tubes, the headers and drums using
I
The vents on the driun, superheater and econ~
rags and by ptilling rags through the tubes, using
mizer should be open while filling the boiler to
let the air escape. These vents may be closed as
water issues from th.em. Some boilers have check
an approved solvent. Make sure no rags are left
in the boiler as. a tube may be plugged and the
I
valves in the feed line between the economizer and loss of circulation wiil result in tube failure. Air
the drum. If the test pressure is being applied
through a connection to the air cock on the boiler
circulation· should be provided for the protection
of any men working inside the drum. I
drum, a separate test will be necessary on the econ- The boiling out solution consists of three pounds
/~~

t==·
\---
omizer. The boiler should be·at room tempera~re
before testing. The water used for the test should
be at the same temperature or above. It may be
of caustic soda and three pounds of either soda ash
or trisodium phosph~1.te for each 1,000 pounds of
water capacity of the. boiler at normal wat~ level
I
"'-.··-

7.
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LMCF00112

I
https://boilersinfo.com
I
FOSTER WHEELER STEAM GENERATORS
I /
A· boiling out solutio,n using five pounds of Navy valve and the lowest openings in the superheate.r
(~

c standard boiler compound for each 1,000 pounds of and economizer. If practicable, blank off the
I water capacity is also satisfactory. The chemicals
should be mixed thoroughly in hot water and the
piping connection between the stean1 drum and
the superheater and also the piping between the
solution poured into the drum. Close up the drum stean1 drum and the economizer. Oose all other
I and fill the boiler until the water is just in sight
in the gage glass. The superheater vents and drains
openings and provide independent blowdown Jines
from the steam drum, superheater vents and
and the air cock sho.uld be open. economizer vents.

I Observe all normal safety precautions when the


· boile\ is being fired for drying out or boiling out.
Using just enough water to dissolve the com-
pound and soda, make up separate boiling out solu-
tions for the boiler, economizer and superheater,
Using the smallest size sprayer plate, fire

I the boiler, closing the air cock when steam issues


from it but leaving a superheater vent open suffi-
ciently .to maintain a good steam flow through
by. dissolving three (3) ·-pounds each of soda ash
and caustic soda (or 5 lb. of Navy' standard hoilcr
compound) for each 1,000 lb. of water capacity
of each of these sections.
I the superheater. Allow the pressure to rise to 50
pounds and maintain this pressure during the boil-
ing out. Raise the water level nearly to the top of
Using a portable or hand pump; inject the
];>oiling-out mixtures into the generating, ·super-
the glass and blow down the level to 34 glass using heater, and economizer sections of the boiler. The
I the bottom blow. Mix another ten pounds of boil-
ing out solution and inject into the boiler using
mixture for the generating sections should be
divided between the water drums and headers.
the chemical feed line. Every six hours again Add fresh water to the generating sectio1J only

I raise the water level and repeat the blowdown pro-


cedure. This should be continued for 36 hours or
until examination of water samples from all blow-
to bring the water level in sight at the lowest
visible point in the boiler water-gage glass; The
mixed compound should be admitted to super-

I( down lines shows that no oil is present The


sample, in a glass container, is best examined in
a dark room 'by shining a small pen type flash-
heaters and economizers without additional water.
Admit saturated steam to the boiler, superheater
and economizer maintaining a pressure of 25 to 50
light through the water. Another simple test con- lb.jsq. in. in the steam drum. To insure circulation,
I sists of dropping small shavings of camphor on
the surface of a sample in a shallow container.
If the can1phor remai~s motionless, oil is present.
the stean1 supply should be under a pressure of
.about 25 lb./sq. in. higher than the pressure' in
the steam drum. Open the steam drum, super-
If even the slightest trace of oil is present the
I boiling out process should be continued.
When boiling out is completed, the solution is
heater and economizer vents to permit a con-
tinuous slow overflow from each section. Boil
out the pressure parts in this manner for 24 hours ;
preferably dumped overboard through the bottom then shut off the steam supply and drain the
I blow. It is highly caustic and will cause damage
to paint or protective coatings if dumped into the
superheater, economizer and boiler. Flush the
superheater, economizer and boiler either through
b1lge. The compound may cause some damage to the temporary blowdown lines or by filling the

I valve stem packings and some repacking may be


necessary. Also, gage glass mica may require
replacement because of contact with a caustic solu-
boiler and economizer and flooding the super·
heater.
Drain the boiler and wash out and inspect all

I tion. After the boiler is emptied it should be


opened up and all tubeS and headers thoroughly
washed out with a high pressure fresh water hose.
pressure parts.

Drying Out Furnace


I Boiling Out Pressure Parts
by Steam Method
A drying out tire should be lit in the furnace
within a few hours after installing new plastic
refractory. A wood fire is generally considered to ·
~~~- If steam is available and the pressure parts are
l:'~-
(- -
.,
.. . to be boiled out but the furnace is not to be dried
out, attach steam supply lines to the bottom blow
be the best for this purpose as it provides a more
even heat for the entire furnace. The boiler should
be prepared for lighting off in the usual manner as
c
I 8 LMCF00113

I
https://boilersinfo.com Section. 2-6 I
OPERATION
I
( i~ getting ready for steaming e.."<cept that a wood been moistened with a non-oily, non-poisonous
fire is started in the center of the furnace floor.
The fire should be kept burning at least 18 hours
and longer if time allows. The longer the drying
cleaning fluid; however, if the black smudge is
greasy or if. any other oil or grease is found, it
will be necessary to boil out the pressure parts
I
out ·period, the better. If the setting is heated too again.
rapidly, the outer layer of refractory will dry first,
shrink away from the remainder and cracks will
Before closing up the drum, check the internals
including baffies, chemical feed line and regulator
I
result. Also, with rapid heating, steari1 formed in damping chamber to see that they are secure and
the refractory, especially in a thick wall, may not
be able to seep out without developing pressure.
Do not allow the steam pressure to exceed 100
that holes are not clogged. On a boiler that has
been in service exan1ine for scale deposits and
I
corrosion. Pitting of the drum at the waterline or
lbs. during this period. Removal of an air reg-
ister allows more wood to be added.
The furnace may 'al~o be dried out with an in-
above is usually a sign of O)o..")'gen in the feedwater.
Also examine the desuperheater and the feed
line applying hydrostatic test if necessary to check
I
ternlittent oil fire using the smallest size sprayer
plate and rotating the fire from one burner to
another .every half hour. The pressure should not
tightness. Check dry pipe making sure holes or
slots are not plugged.
The internal surfaces of the superheater tubes
I
be allowed to exceed 100 lb. Drying out may be
should be 'inspected for scale deposits. Scale indi-
completed m a minimum _of 12 hours, although 24
or .36 hours is n'lore desirabl~. At the end of this
time the pressure may be raised to working pres-
cates carryover and will quickly result in a warped
suwheater and tube failures.
I
When examining the fireside, the soot blowers
sure and the boiler cut in on the line if necessary.
The furnace will be dried out but 12 to 24 hours
of steaming at normal capacity is required to
should be rotated from the outside. Check align-
ment of the holes so that steam willnot inlpinge on
I
cure the refractory. If the boiler is to be cooled the tubes, and also that the soot blower elements
down again,· close all openings and allow to cool
slowly. If possible, enter the furnace to check
are straight and not chafing on the tubes. Elements
may be straight but the boiler tubes warped so
that chafing occurs. · .
I
the drying out and look for cracks or excessive
shrinkage.
Drying out may be accomplished simultaneously
with the boiling out process if the initial firing rate
On a bOiler that has been in service, check for
blistered or sagged tubes. Look for soot deposits
in ·the air heater, economizer, economizer vestibules
I
is kept very low and increased slowly. and the superheater bank. Examine the soot

Inspection
blower bearings, edges of the superheater support .
plates, access doors and openings for corrosion.
I
See that baffles are secure and dampers operating.
Because of the possible presence of inflammable
or noxious vapors in the steam generator, it is
extremely important to ventilate the unit thor-
Inspect refractory to see that headers, drums,
doors, doors frames, etc. are adequately protected.
Measure the thickness of the brick wall to deter-
I
oughly before entering for inspection of pressure
mine if erosion necessitates renewaL Determine
parts. It is also important to make sure, before
entering the unit, that all valves which might per-
mit the entrance of steam or water are tagged,
the depth of the floor by measuring from the top
of the floor to the centerline of the burner. If the
I
floor is too high because of slag deposits it should
closed and secured by a lock or wiring.
Make a thorough inspection of the internal sur-
faces and, if any scum or oil is present, repeat the
be renewed as flame impingement will build up
more carbon deposits. I
Encrustations around handholes indicate leaks.
boiling-out procedure. It is advisable to run a
rag on a rod through various tubes to determine
their condition. Black smudge may be found at the
Gaskets or ferrules should be replaced and encrus-
tations removed as they are corrosive. I
ends of a tube in a new steam generator even Examine the air casings under the burners for
/--":"-
~~-
't---
though the remainder of the tube may be clean. A
slight trace of this black deposit is not harmful
oil which may be a fire hazard.
Before closing up and filling the boiler, be sure I
and it -may be wiped out with a rag which has the bottom blow valve is closed.

LMCF00114 9
I
I
https://boilersinfo.com
I FOSTER WHEELER STEAM GENERA TORS

I ( Initial Starting. checked occasionally as the alkalinity will gradually


decrease. Either prov1de means for recirculating
I Before starting a new boiler for the first time,
make sure all gages, thermometers and test con-
nections have been installed and. are operating.
the feed water when filling or add sufficient soda
ash or caustic soda before the boiler is filled. Add-
ing these later· with no c.irculation may result in
Check all auxiliary equipment such as feedwater
I regulators and indicators, valves, combustion con-
trol system and soot blowers. Read carefully the
spots of concentrated alkalinity.. If possible, light
a fire unqer the boiler before it is completely
filled to circulate the chemicals and drive off any
sections under· "Operation" and "Operating Pre-
oxygen. The filling of the boiler and the super-
I cautions". Before cutting in the boiler it is im-
perative that the safety valves be blown and reset,
if necessary, ·to lift at the proper pressures. The
heater may then be completed. Do not use the
wet lay-up method if danger of freezing exists.

I. superheater safety valve must lift before the


main safety valves to give adequate protection to
Be sure the superheater-is drained before putting
the boiler in serv1ce again.
the superheater. If the boiler is to be laid up for a prolonged
period it is best laid up using one of the com-

I It is desirable to limit the firing rate to low


loads for a few days to thoroughly dry out and
cure the refractory and also to ascertain that all
mercial preservatives available to coat all internal
surfaces or else it may be laid up dry. If laid up
dry it is important that it be drained completely,
auxiliary eq1,1ipment functions properly.
I LAYING UP BOILERS
using an air hose to blow water out of any pockets
that are not self draining and mopping up water
remaining in the drums. Check all valves for tight-
(Sectloa 2-7) ness. A number of shallow pans containing a de-
I A boiler not in use should not be allowed to stand
partially filled with water for lorig periods. If it
hydrating agent such as silica gel, quicklime or
calcium chloride should· be placed in each drum

It
is e.-.cpected that the boiler will be out of service and the boiler closed up tightly. This dehydrating
for more than a day, fill the boiler, economizer and agent should be enmined every 3 months and
superheater completely with water to give protec- replaced whenever it has absorbed enough moisture
tion against cor:rosion. Care should be taken to to make it ineffective.
. see that the boiler is completely filled by building
I up 20 or 30 lb. pressure and venting at high
points. Make sure that leaking valves do not al_low
Before laying up a boiler it should be thoroughly
cleaned on the fireside. Soot deposits, especially
when damp, are highly corrosive and if allowed to
the gradual entrance of steam or feedwater from remain may result in serious damage to the casings
I other boilers, as serious corrosion will result..
To fill the boiler, deaerated feedwater should be
and pressure parts. All openings to the furnace
should be tightly closed and the stack covered.
used, adding chemicals to give a final boiler alka- Better protection inay be had with special fireside

I linity of 20 to 30 gr. per gallon. This should be preservatives sprayed on the tubes.

I
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L~- . . :.
I t····-
~·'·
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1 IQ
LMCF00115

I
https://boilersinfo.com Section 2-8 I
BOILER FEED WATER
I
( BOILER FEED WATER The most common source of contamination of

Sea Water Distillate


(Section 2-8) the water in boilers is salt-water leakage into the
fresh-water system. The principal parts of the
system where this leakage may occur are listed
I
Practically all waters. used for boiler feed pur- below:
poses contain some impurities which are undesir-
able. The distillate obtained from evaporation of (1)
(2)
Condensers: main, auxiliary, and dynamo.
Salt-water-cooled air-ejector condensers.
I
sea water should not contain more than 0.5 grain
per gal. of chloride. Even then small amounts
of all the other salts found in sea water will be
found in the distilled water and eventually will
(3)
( 4)
Distilling plants.
Salt-water-cooled gland-exhaust con-
densers. ·
I
enter the boiler with the tt1a:lce-ttp feed water.
The soap hardness of water distilled from sea water
nonnally will show ;less than 0.3 grain per gal.
(5) Leaky bottom-blow valves on idle boilers.
(6) Leaky feed suction and drain lines which
run through bilges.
I
of hardness when the chloride content is not over
(7) Leaky sean1s and rivets in reserve feed
Ci.S grain per gal.
Shore Water
tanks. I
All shore waters contain varying amount of
contaminating salts, depending on the character
of the rocks, sand, and earth over which they
Condensate Leakage
Condensers are the most common source of
salt-water leakage into the feed ~ater system.
I
have flowed and on the extent and nature of
municipal treatment to which they have been
subjected. The impurity content of shore water
will· always be higher and, more important, will
Particular attention should be given to establish-
ing a routine to detect leakage of salt water into
the fresh-water side of condensers. In most in-
I
stallations, the condensate consistently contains
be chemically and proportionately different from
that of the evaporated water which water-treat-
ment is designed to control. Water received
no more than 0.5 grain per gal. of chloride. Any
consistent increase above this value is a definite I
from shore should not be used in the boilers indication of a leak. When a leak is detected, it
(except in emergency) without fust being evap-
orated in the ship's distilling plant I£ necessary
should be corrected as soon as operating condi-
tions will permit dismantling the· unit affected. I
to use shore water without distillation, the water
should be teste"d and only a neutral water, low in
hardness, should be accepted for temporary use
during the emergency. A neutral water is one
Effect of Conde.nsate
Carry-Over I
which is colorless with phenolphthalein indicator Whenever the condensate from any condenser
and green with methyl-purple indicator.
evaporation of shore water, in order to obtain
The shows the presence of chloride to be above the
usual operating · value, it is well to check the I
satisfactory feed water for the boilers, may result steam from the boilers by testing a sample of
in depositing on the evaporator tubes an extremely
hard scale different from that resulting from
evaporation of sea water.
water from 9ne of the steam drain lines. Such
a steam-condensate sample shoUld be tested for
both alkalinity and chloride since a small amount
I
of alkalinity may affect the chloride determina-
Salt-Water Contamination
Feed water shall be maintained as free from
tion. The results of the steam-condensate ana-
lyses will indicate whether or not there is any
I
impurities as possible. This requirement involves carry-over of boiler water in sufficient quantity
careful attention to the entire plant through which
the water passes, either in the form of steam or
as water, for, even though water used as make-up
to give more than nonnal chloride readings in
the condensate. Sudden large increases in ship
speed may cause carry-over from the boilers. The
I
feed be excellent at the time of its entry into the effect of this carry-over on. the chloride in the
system, it may absorb impurities from the various
parts of the installation.
condensate will be more pronounced the higher
the chloride content of the boiler water.
I
LMCF00116
I
I
https://boilersinfo.com
I
FOSTER WHEElER STEAM GENERATORS
I Source of Contamination. ( 1) In general, it is not necessary to use oil
(
for the internal lubrication of the steam cylinders
I . It is of the greatest importance that any unu-
sual rise in the chloride content in the fe.ed
tanks, feed water, or boilers be investigated at
or valve chests of any reciprocating machinery.
Saturated steam provides enough water of conden-
sation to give the necessary lubrication, and in
once and the source of the leakage ·found and
I corrected. To locate these sources, test the fresh
water from different units in the system, and
superheated steam units the metals used are usually
designed to operate satiSfactorily without lubrica-
tion. The use of a pure mineral oil. may be used
where possible cut out the elements one at a
in special cases. Only a light, smooth coating
I time until the feed water freshens. A test for
chloride in the feed water should be made each
time one of the elements is cut out. Before making
of petrolatum shall be applied to the inside of
cylinders at specified inspections.
(2) Very little lubrication of rods is necessary
I a test, the plant should be allowed to operate for
several minutes without this elen1ent in commis-
sion so that the chloride concentration of the feed
and this lubrication shall be kept at a minimum
by the use of small quantities of mineral oil at
water due to that element may have time to be each application. With main reciprocating engines

I diluted with salt-free water. using forced lubrication, the oil from such parts
as crossheads and guides should be prevented
from splashing on the piston rods or valve stems.
Leaking Lines in Bilges
I The system may be salted up by leaky feed-
suction lines which run through the bilges. Such
( 3) W!len filters or grease extractors are fitted,
they always should be used and kept in efficient
condition.
leaks will also be · responsible for some loss of
I make-up feed water. Periodic tests of feed-suction
lines should be made as very often leaks will exist
( 4) Filtering material should be cleaned or re-
newed as often as found necessary. Special pre-
cautions and instructions when using diatoma-
· which are responsible not only for a loss of fresh
I( water but for loss of pumping efficiency when the
lines are being used.
ceous-earth filter-aid should be observed.
(5) Drains from fuel oil heaters and from heat-
ing coils in lubricating oil tanks and fuel oil
tanks always shall be passed through an inspec-
I Elimination of Air in
Feed Water
tion tank before discharging into the feed system.
Frequent inspections of these tanks are necessary
It is imperative that all possible precautions in order that the presence of oil will be discovered

I be taken to eliminate dissolved air from the boiler


feed water in order to reduce corrosion of boilers
and, particularly, of economizers. Elimination
soon after its first appearance, in order that drains
may be diverted to the bilge until the source of
contamination is removed.

I consists in correcting all possible sources of air


leakage into the feed system and of maintaining
the efficiency of the deaerating equipment. Where Avoid Excessive Make-Up
open hot wells are used, it is recommended to keep It is necesSary to add to the system make-up

I temperature as close to 212 deg. F. as possible,


so as not to absorb air from the atmosphere.
feed water to replace water lost by leakage. A11
boilers, piping, glands, and valves should be kept
This can be accomplished by the installation of a tight and in efficient condition. The amount of

I small heating coil in the hot .well. The hot well


should be tightly covered, with a minimum open-
ing for observation.
make-up feed used per hour in port and per mile
under way should be checked daily and every
effort made to keep these amounts at a low and
consistent level. The use of excessive quantities
I Elimination of Oil and Grease
of make-up feed indicates lack of attention to one
of the most important details connected with

I r~.v~
t-···-
The presence of oil and grease in the feed water
and in the boilers is a frequent occurrence. The
following precautions should be effective in pre-
operating the engineering plant of a vessel. The
amount of make-up feed water used by a ship is
usually a fair indication of the overall engineer-
venting any oil from reaching the boilers : ing efficiency.

I 12 LMCF00117

I
https://boilersinfo.com I
Section 2-8

BOILER FEED WATER


I
Boiler-Water Hardness 70o F. Figure 2 shows a typical cooler. Samples
The occurrence of boiler-water hardness usu-
ally is evidence either that the make-up feed water
of water for analysis should be taken in clean
containers, should be free from suspended matter,
I
and should be protected from contamination dur-
contains excessive hardness or that the boiler con-
tains considerable scale, although false soap hard-
ness may result from the pre~ence of zinc supplied
ing the time between sampling and analysis. If
the sample bottle is not stoppered tight, alkaline
samples will absorb carbon dioxide from the
I
either by condenser corrosion or from galvanized
storage tanks. The ar;nount of ~ompound which is
added to maintain the proper alkalinity should
atmosphere reconverting the hydroxide to car-
bonate so that erroneously low results for alka-
linity :.Vin be obtained with the phenolphthalein
I
simultaneously insure zero hardness of the boiler titration.
water if proper feed water is used. The source of
any unusual hardness in the boiler or fee~ water
should be searched lof, found, and corrected. If
I
the boiler water consistently shows hardness, and
the measures taken fail to remedy this condition,
competent feedwater treatment concern should be
I
consulted. /::::===-·::.:::.:::.-:.:--=-=-=== -BOILER WATER

I
If SAMPLE

\.'..-:===========:~,
Securing Boiler Water . I I

Samples For Analysis {s:~~~~~~~~~:


When taking water samples for analyses, it is
particularly important that the sampling connec-
-----------/I
/1------------
\I
I
tion first be thoroughly flushed to insure obtaining COO\..EO BOILER
\':::::::::::::::..-::-..::--=.::====
I
-WATER SAMPLE
samples that are truly representative of the water
in the boiler and to remove sediment which may
be trapped in the connection. Coolers should be
installed in the line .from the connection with the
Salinometer valve to cool the boiler-water sam-
ples to approximately 100° F. except that samples FIGURE z. SuGGESTED
COOLING WATE!t
INLET

M:nuon OF CooLING BoiLER


I
for dissolved oxygen test must be cooled below
I
W A TEll SAMPLES noK SAUNOKETEll CoNNECTION.

I
I
I
I
'
~
·_r7,:-,
'!.-...
) . ··--·
I
LMCF00118 I
13

I
I https://boilersinfo.com
Section 3-1
MAINTENANCE
I ((
I Part 1.11 - MAINTENANCE

I BOILER ·AND WATERWALL


(Section 3·1)
( 1) Possibility of damage to brickwork
(2) Possibility of acid corrosion of tubes and
The most important item in the care of boiler drums
I tubes is to keep them clean inside and out. The
outside is kept clean by the use of soot blowers
(3) Availability of sufficient fresh water
( 4) Protection of electrical equipment arotmd
and the inside by careful attention to the water
or under the boiler. Boilers shall be dried
I treatment. It is recomm~ded the tubes be tur-
bined throughout with soft wire brush as often
as is found necessary. The tubes neareSt the
out carefully immediately after water wash-
ing.
furnace will require the most cleaning. as they . (5) Because of damage caused by water wash-
I are exposed to the highest gas temperatures,
and consequently scale has the greatest tendency
ing, it should be resorted to only when all
other methods have failed.
to form in them.

I The firesides of a boiler present more of a


problem. Soot accumulations are removed with
Methods
In general, there are two approved procedures
the soot blowers and, periodically, by removirig for water washing:
I the access doors and hand lancing and scraping.
For deposits of soot and slag that resist these
methods the operator ma:y resort to water washing.
(1) Use of a water lance, see ~ig. 1.
(2) Use of soot blowers for distributing the

It
water in the tube nests.

The first method requires less water and re-


WATER WASHING
(Sectloft 3·2)
sults in less wetting of the boiler and refractories
but has the disadvantage that all parts of the tube
I When gas passages have been clogged to such
an extent that mechanical cleaning is ineffective,
nests cannot be reached. The second method re-
quires more water and results in considerable
the firesides should be cleaned by hot-water wash- wetting of the boiler but has the advantage of

I ing. This procedure should not be u:;ed indis-


criminately and is ordinarily necessary only for
inaccessible superheaters and economizers. The
the washing action of a large quantity of water.
When sufficient water is available, best results
can be attained by employing a combination of.
following should be kept in mind when resorting
I to water washing:
the two methods. The procedure described below
involves the· use of both methods. When neces-
sary to conserve water, use the lance method. The
latter will ordinarily be found sufficient for econ-
I omizers and (when necessary to wash) the gen-
erating, waterwall, and water screen tube banks.

I NO%ti..E
Procedure
Open, remove, or loosen access doors and
panels to provide access to the· firesides and drain-

I LENGTH AS UOUIPIEO P'OII


DI!PTH OP' SOII..I!II tue! lAili(
age from the furnace, and around drums and ·
headers. It may be found desirable only to loosen
certain panels to reduce splashing on adjacent
I,~. machinery or personnel. Line up a fire and bilge
:r~., pump for pumping the waste water overboard.
l-- ·-·
Install canvas shields or gutters where prac-
FIGURE 1. WATElt LANCE FOR APPLYING WAn:Jt
ticable to reduce wetting of the refractories or
I LOCALLY WHEN WAn:Jt w
ASJUNG.

LMCF00119
I
Section 3-3
I
TUBE REMOVAL & REPLACEMENT
I
cated in the main tube. bank are removed through
TUBE REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT
(Section 3-3) the access door placed at the bottom of the casing,
4. Insert driving tool · (made up to correct
I
Screen, waterwall, roof and floor tubes, or any
size and gage of tube) into the tube and drive
tubes in or near the furnace and superheater tubes,
may be plugged in case of failure, but should be
replaced at the .first opportunity.
the tool with a . small mall. This will free the
tube ends from the drwns.
I
5. To remove tube ends without cutting flares
When plugging tubes on the fire side of ·the
furnace, the following factors should be taken into .
consideration :
off as above paragraph 1 describes, flush cut
tubes ne.Xt to drums on fire. side and d_rive into I
drums.
( 1) Screen tubes-plugging or· removal of these
tubes will tend to increase superheat temperature.
(2) Wall tubes-;-rc;.moval or plugging of ad-
When installing a new tube, first properly clean
the tube seat to the bare metal using a fine emery I
cloth. Inspect the seat to check that no spirals or
jacent side, rear or roof tubes endangers the
refractories.
( 3) Floor tubes-plugging or removal of floor
grooves r«?main in the tube seat.
The spare tubes may be protected with an I
tubes should be held at an absolute minimwn, internal coating which, if not removed, will act
since loss of these tubes will effect the circulation
in the furnace wall tubes.
the same as scale in service. This should be
thoroughly removed and the outside as well as
inside of the tube at the ends must be free of
I
( 4) Superheater...:....plugging or removing super-
burs and cleaned bright with fine emery cloth.
heater tubes will increase pressure drop through
·the superheater, therefore, the number of tubes out
of use in any one pass should be held at a minimum.
The tube is then placed in the drum holes and
rolled with the proper expander for the tube size,
I
gage and sheet thickness.
Tubes in the· main tube bank may be plugged .
in case of failure. Because of the large number
of generating tubes in the main tube bank, the
To remove waterwall tubes, follow instructions
in paragraphs 2, 4 and 5, substituting the word
I
los.s of several tubes will not effect the performance "headers" for "drums":
of the steam generator. The amount a tube should be expanded can
·only be determined from experience.
I
Boiler Tube~ Tubes should be cleaned internally after ex-
If it should become necessary to renew a boiler
tube, the defective tube is removed as follows :
panding.
I
Superheaters
1. Working from the inside of the drum (steam
or water drum) use a round nose chisel and chip
off flare (sometimes called the bell) of the tube
To cut out a superheater tube, first remove the
handhole plugs from the header opposite the ends
I
to be removed, until the tube end becomes flush of the tube to be ren1oved. Access to the super-
with the drum. Extreme care must be exercised
in this operation so as not to dig the chisel into
heater header is by means of panels or doors in the
boiler casing. I
the drum. Remove the adjacent plugs. above or below
2. U:5e an acetylene torch or any heating torch, this point to admit a light and to give better
heat the inside of the tube to a dull red. Allow access for ~orking. The tube should be cut at the
tube to air cool. · U-bend end and one side taken out at a time. Use
an acetylene torch and heat the tube end to be re-
3. Burn, chip, or hack saw both ends of the
tube at furnace side approximately 1" to 2" from
tube sheets, taking care not to harm tube sheets.
moved to a dull red. Allow the tube to air cool
for shrinking. The bell end· of the tube being
I
After both ends of the tube have been cut from removed is to be crimped in or cut off. Insert tube
the drums, the tube is pulled out through the
tube bank and removed from the furnace. Boiler
driver (made up to correct size and gage of tube)
into the tube and drive the tool with a small mall. I
tubes located in the front of the superheater are Pull tube at the U-benCi end with a turn buckle
removed through the burner opening. Tubes lo- or small chain hoist, taking up slack on turn bw;:kle
I
LMCF00120

I
I Section 3-4

I ,(
EXPANDING TUBES

Step 1: Cut the superheater element at the U- Step 3: Insert new tube to within 1/16" from
I bend end removing U-bend in order to
take out one side at a time. Assemble
inside face of ·header. Expand tube in
seat by using expander with mandrels,
cutter· shank extensions and insert universal joint and extension.

I through tube from the U-bend end.


Attach pilot from hand hole end that
fits nearest ID of expanded tube and
Step 4: Seal weld tubes as per instructions on
arrangement drawing of superheater.
Step 5: Remove any weld splatter projecting

I attach weld removing cutter. Assemble


sleeve, feed nut and washer over driving
shank and screw into extension. Insert
over inside edge of tube or inside of tube.

spacer and additional pipe spacer as


EXPANDING TUBES

I necessary between sleeve and end of tube.


With the· use of an air motor or electric
(Sectioa 3-4)

The proper use of expanders is of utmost im-


drill to tu~ ,. driving shank, feed cutter portance in the installation of tubes. The process

I by backing feed nut until weld is removed


(approximately 1/16").
of expanding is a most severe application of power
and unless care is used, tubes and tube seats can
be badly damaged.
Step 2: Remove spacer. Back entire mechanism Tubes should be expanded just enough to secure
I into header, replace cutter with tube
removing reamer and proceed as in
tightness so that ample "life" may be left in the
metal for future expanding should it be found nec-
Step 1,· tmtil tube is entirely free from essary. The judgment of the operator must govern

I header. When reamer has penetrated


tube for above ~ ", remove the pilot and
continue reaming. Clean tube seat thor-
the proper amount of rolling.

Description of Expanders
oughly of any particles of tube, paying.
I( special attention to the grooves. An expander consists of three or five expanding
rolls and one or two belling rollS, held in place by
a cage. A tapered mandrel fits tbru a hole in the
. center of the cage. The rolls are set at an angle
I .to the longitudfual axis of the body so that when
the mandrel is rotated in a clockwise direction, it
provides the pull or feed necessary to move the
I mandrel forward. As the mandrel moves forward,
the rolls are forced outward expanding the tube to
its.. seat.

I The rolls are tapered to match the taper on the


mandrel, so that they will expand the ~~ parallel·
to the seat. Selection of the proper expander to be
STEP "It

I used is important. Factors governing the selection


include size and gage of the tube and the thick-
ness· of the seat in the drum or header. Composi-
tion of the tube, wall thickness and diameter may
I also affect the selection of the proper taPer. Less

I
I A--:-~~
l~-c::·:-
(--- STEP "a"
l·Lruee HOLE
OIA. PLUS .20"

\.,
FIGURE 4. ExPANDER FOR RoLUNG TUBES m MAIN

I BoiLER TuBE BANK AND THE SuPERHEATER ELENENTS. FIGURE 5. SNAP GAGE.

.5
LMCF00121
I
Section 3-4
I
EXPANDING TUBES
/
(
I
off the end of a tube from the expanding opera- belling roll is the same as the distance from the
tion, it cannot get into a tube seat into which a
tube has not been expanded.
handhole surface to the face of the tube sheet.
When the expander is in place, it should be set so I
that the thrust collar is approximately ~" to ~"
'When starting to expand a tube, the expander
should be set into the tube, with approximate one-
hal£ of the straight rolls in the tube so that the
from the seating, that is ~, to %" of travel left.
I
expander will move into the tube as the mandrel
is rotated. The proper setting can only be deter-
mined by experience as it is necessary to set the
expander back farther from the end of the tube
I
·when expanding into a thick tube sheet than when
expanding into a thin tube sheet. The expanding
operation should be stepped when the small end of
I
the belling roll is in line with the inside edge of
the seat. If the tu~ has not been sufficiently ex-
panded when the small end of the belling roll
I
reaches the inside edge of the seat, the expander
should be removed and the rolling operation re-
peated as outlined above. Do not let the small end
of the belling roll pass the end of the seat · as it
I
will cut the htbe, round the seat or pull the tube
into the drum.
For starting to expand economizer tubes, the
UNIVERSAL
(Use siuve « buahi119 to
protect handhole 11otl ··
I
thrust collar should be set so that the distance ·
from its seating surface to the front end of 'the
FIGURE 9. EXPANDitR WITH UN.MtllSAL ]OIN'mD
MANDilltL FO'l WAna WALL RoUND HJtADus. I
I
I
TOP VIEW
I
I
I
I
RATCHET WRENCH GEAR DRIVE TRAIN OF GEARS END VIEW
I
FIGURE 8. 90 DEG. Faov
I
EXPANDING TuaES m WAm HEADERS WtTR HAND HoLEs THJt Tue Houts.

7
LMCF00122

I
I Section 3-5
HANDHOLE PLUGS
I ·r .-"f·.

' INSTALLING AND REMOVING Install nut hand tight as shown in "A" of Fig. 10.

I HANDHOLE PLUGS
(Sedion 3-S)
Hold make-up plate firmly against header and
tighten nut with wrench, tapping the plate back
against the header after each small increment
Checll Dra·wing for types of handholes used
of tightening. The plug must not be allowed to
I on this installation.
Before installing handhole plugs, all plug seats,
bind unless the plate is fully in contact with the
header.
plugs and gaskets or ferrules should be carefully Draw the plug in as far as possible with the

I cleaned. Powdered graphite and water should be


used on the threads of all plugs, to prevent the
nuts from freezing after the equipment has been
wrench, then remove make-up plate, coat stud
with a water and graphite mixture and install
the standard handhole plate and tighten nut se-

I in service.
Particular care m.us,t be taken when reinstalling
old plugs to see ,that all rust and scale is removed.
curely. Note that the plug must be drawn in
hard in order to compress the ferrule properly
and make a sealed joint as shown in "C" of Fig.
10.
I To Install the Taper Plug (no lip)
Assemble the plug complete using make-up
I. plate. Coat the threads on the handhole plug with
a mixture of graphite and water and lightly coat
both sides of the ferrule with clean, light machine

I A a 0
oil Keep the square edge of the ferrule outside
and the bevel end against the plug.
Inse.r t the plug into the seat and bring the make-

I( up plate firmly against the header, similar to


sketch "B" of Fig. 10. Slowly draw .up the plug,
using a wrench and tap the plate lightly to facili-
tate tightening and proper seating of the plug and

I ferrule.
When completely tightened and properly seated,
remove make-up plate and replace with permanent

I 0

FIGURE 10.
E F

LIP TYPB: HANDHOLB: PLUG DETAILS.


handhole plate.

I I. Nut
2. Handhole Plate
REFERENCE

J. Ferrule or Gasket
4.
5.
6.
LIST
Handhole Plug
Lifting Tool
Make-up Plate

I To Install the Lip Type Plug


PLUG ASSEMBLY

I
PL.l,JG ASSEMBLY
Screw the lifting tool into the .end of the stud, WITH NUT PULLEO ·up
pass the plug through the handhole and draw it FIGURE 11. 2" STANDAI.D (STI.AIGHT TAPB:I.) HAND-
squarely in against the header wall (see Fig. 10 HOU PLvc.
above). WiPe both sides of the ferrule with light,
I clean machine oil and insert in hole. ·Keep the
square edge of the ferrule outside and th~ beveled
Inspection
To remove plug for inspe_ction, remove- nut and
end against the plug. plate and lightly crinip the projecting end of the
Slip the make-up plate over the stud, making gasket at two points to hold gasket in place. · Next
sure that the ferrule is entered in the grooved screw lifting tool into stud or fasten a wire around
plate and ·is true and squarely seated on the plug. the stem of the plug, thread pipe nipple over

9
LMCF00123

I
Section 3-5 I
HANDHOLE PLUGS
I
ELLIPTICAL HANDHOLE SEAT GRINDER For other thread sizes of studes an adapter
For repairing minor defects in elliptical hand-
holes, an Elliott Handhold Seat Grinder is sug~
is used between the stud and leveling plate.
3. Insert the grinding wheel in the handhole to
I
gested. This unit is designed to hold a grinding be refaced. Turn the adjusting lock nut clock-
wheel in one plane while permitting its free
movement in that plane. It is driven by either
an air or electric motor, the drives being inter-
wise to the limit of travel.
4. Assemble the grinder onto the leveling· plate,
I
adjust the grinder to the best working posi-
changeable.
The unit is set up for use by threading a face
plate to a handhole plate stud of an adjacent
tion and tighten the ball nut by hand. ·
I
handhole. An adjusting plate is screwed to the
face place on a ball joint, and adjusted by four
leveling screws. Tlii!{ plate rigidly controls the
I
~lignment of the grinding wheel relative to the
seat face. The grinder can be set up to work at
any angle. I
The width of the seat to be ground is controlled
by a guide roller on the spindle housing, which
bears against the side of the handhole. Guide I
rollers can be supplied in ~our diameters and
four different diameters of grinding. wheels are
available. ·Adapters for ~, and 1" handhold
studs are furnished. A convenient spacer on the
I
(/ grinding spindle is used to adjust the level of
'=· the grinding wheel for various thickness of headers.
Handholes of any shape can be ground. Any
I
handhole within range of the unit can be faced
with a single setting. In case the reach is greater
than 11 ~ ", an extension link can be furnished.
I
Operating Instructions
The handhole grinder is assembled with the FIGURE 14. AssEMBLY oF Am-DR.IVEN HANDHOL£
I
grinding wheel ahead of the spindle collar for SEAT GIUNDElt.
use in grinding heavy headers; For thin headers
it will be necessary to assemble the spindle collar I
in front of the grinding wheel. Before setting 5. While turning the drive nut with the fingers,
ttp the grinder, measure the distance between the
top of the header and the top of the yoke. This
should be approximately 2 in. If it ·is less, use
turn the adjusting lock nut counter-clockwise
until the grinding wheel contacts the gasket
face lightly.
I
washers between the leveling plate and the top of
the yoke. A good job of leveling the grinder
reduces the grinding time and results in a smoother
'
6. Turn the adjusting screws, with the T -handle
wrench, while twirling the drive nut, until I
seat. the wheel contact is uniform around the entire
1. Remove the leveling plate from the grinder
assemble by unthreading the ball nut.
seat.
7. Tum the adjusting lock nut clockwise to
I
2. In a handhole within reach of the grinder, ren1ove the grinding wheel from contact with
assemble a handhole plate and yoke, then
thread the leveling plate on the stud (plate
the gasket s~t.
8. Attach the motor drive unit by threading
I
has a 1, u. s. thread) and set up tight the motor onto the housing lock nut.

LMCF00124
It I
I
I Section 3-5
HANOHOLE PLUGS
I{ (
the handhole is out of round, it is advisable to true 9. Rotate to the right approximately 45 deg.

I !t up with a 5-roll expander.


For operation of the tool proceed as follows:
10. Remove latch so as to stop feed.
11. Roll until tension is relieved.

I 1. Measure the thickness of the header material


in the handhole.
2. Measure the same distance on the handhole
12. Repeat steps No. 8 to 11 until a handhole
seat of the required width is obtained, or
until the marred surface of the header seat

I reseating too~ making adjustments by adding


or subtracting some of the thrust washers,
see Fig. 15 until the distance from the bottom
is refinished.

Precautions
spacer collar to the center of the rolls is such
I that when the tool is inserted in the header
handhole, the bearing surface will fall approxi-
1. The header surface where the spacer collar
seats should be examined and must be perfectly
true and at 90 deg. with the handhole opening.
mately in the middle of the rolls.

I 3. Lubricate the rolls and the washers slightly.


4. Screw back the feed nut until the rolls fall
2. Dimension for tapered seat as shown in Fig.
16 of handhole seat should be kept accurate, too
wide a seat would make it difficult to make a tight
back in the roller head. joint.
I 5. Insert the reseating tool in the header hand-
hole. · Caution
3. Do not feed too rapidly and check continu-
I 6. Tighten feed nut hand tight.
7. Place ratchet wrench on the end of the man-
ously that latch feed does not slip into place, when
rolling is commencing.

1t drel.
8. Drop latch so that it engages with the feed
nut.
4. This tool must be used with discretion~ as
wer roUing or improper use may result in serious
damage.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I r·r-~ -·~
'•

I LMCF00125 13

I
Section 3-6
I
ECONOMIZERS
I
ECONOMIZERS
Welded Return Bend Design I
(Section . 3-6)

Access Doors
Insulated access doors are installed at each end
I
of the economizer. The doors at the; rear of the
economizer must be removed for · access to the
handhole plugs in the headers. These doors must
I
be removed to examine welded joints for tight-
ness. Doors at the front of the economizer, in
addition to the above, are removed for tube removal
FIGURE 2. StANDAltD U -BEND ECONOMIZ£ll ELEllll:NT
CoNNE:CttD TO HEADERS WttH WELDED REtuRN BENDS. I
and cleaning.
REFERENCE LIST

.Internal Inspection
I. Tube Sheets 9. Headers Inlet or Outlet
2. Extended Surface Rings 10. Spacer Ring
3. Economizer Tubes 11. Spacers
I
For internal inspection of the elements .the hand- 4. Sealinr Rings 12. Spacer Washer
hole plate must ~ removed. Refer to. Fig. 2.
( 1) Screw plug lifting tool into stud.
S. Hand Hole Plug
6. Hand Hole Plate
7. Nut
8. FerruleorGuket
13. ·Tube Tack Weld to
Spacer
14. Return Bend
IS. ReturnBendWeld
I
(2) Remove nut, piece No. 7.
{3) Remove plate, No. 6.
( 4) Slip pipe over lifting tool.
The flow of water through the individual passes
of the economizer is shown by the drawing in
Section 1-under "Description of Economizer'~ in
I
the first section of this book. This drawing must be
( 5) Drive plug into the header by tapping pipe
as shown in view D of Figure 10 Section
3-5 Handhole Plugs (pg. 9).
followed to determine the passes of water through
the economizer• . Carefully check the drawing to
I
determine the pass in which leak occurs so that
(6) Crimp ferrule (or gasket) part No.8 Fig. the ~ements at both the inlet and outlet header
2 using crimping tool (Fig. 3) ·and remove of this pass can be plugged.
from header.
The tube plug for this purpose should have a
(7) · Remove plug (5) by means of lifting tooL taper of ~, in 3y.i" length or 1~/32" per 12".
The tube plug and plug extractor are shown in
Figure 1..
I
Taking Economizer Element
Out of 5ervlce
To take any element out of service, plug off the Removing Economlz~r. Elements I
entire stream which is affected by it. Place tube Burn, or preferably cut off (using hack saw)
plugs in the inlet (top) and outlet (bottom) head-
ers of the elements of the lane in which the leak
occurs-thereby blocking off the entire pass.
both return bends ( 14) Fig. 2 from effected ele-
ment at four places where the return bends are
welded. This cut should be made through the weld
I
(15). This is necessary for accessibility in install-
ing and aligning new element. Chip the tack weld
(13) to spacer on effected elenlent only. If one
I
I
FIGURE 1. SECTION TsaouGH FollGD) STEEL H!wlEB.
SHOWING MtttBOD oF RE:w:ovma THE PLtJG Filo¥ AN
I
EcoNOKIZU TuBE THAT HAs BEEN PL'l.JGGED TO Pn- FIGURE 3. CRm:PrNG TooL FOil. RExovrNG !4NDHou
Mtt OnutioN WITHOUT WAttiNG FoR REPAIRS. GASKET.

LMCF00126
I
I Section 3-6
ECONOMIZERS
I ( 1. Thoroughly clean split chill ring and install to build weld up flush witp tube and bend. Clean

I it in the return bend. See Fig. 7.


2. Fit bend to tube and tack weld the tube in
each pass thoroughly as described above.
6. Apply a final weaving pass covering the
place. weld.
I #5
3. Apply first weld head using
or #85 electrode.
~, Fleetweld After return bend is welded in place, tack weld
tube to spacer in four places (Fig. 2, #13).
4. Thoroughly clean the weld vvith a rotating
I wire brush or peen weld if more practicable.
5. Apply a sufficient number of welding passes
Replace handhole plugs and test the welded
joints under pressure. ·u tight, replace economizer
doors.

I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I

LMCF00127 3

I
Section 3-7 I
REFRACTORIES
I
REFRACTORIES materials possess the property of insulating value
(Section 3·7}

Genera·f Description
at elevated temperatures. Their use will be cov-
ered later. Similar to the dense refractory group,
these are provided in several forn1s and shapes,
I
Why refractories and insulation?
The primary reasons for the use of materials
among which are standard shapes and castable
types. An example of the latter is Kast-0-Lite,
a lightWeight refractory castable.
I
of this nature are to confine the . temperatures
resultant from the combustion process in the de-
sired areas, maintain uniform furnace temperature,
to aid in supporting combustion and to protect
(C) Such items as biock and blanket insulation,
loose rock wool and insulating cement are identi-
fied as Industrial Insulating materials. Generally
I
these materials are designed for high insulating
vital. parts of the steam generator from . direct
flame impingement or excessive heat.
For simplicity these materials can be divided
efficiencies in a specific temperature rahge usually
1200° to 1900° F. These materials do not possess
I
refractory properties and are therefore used as
into three groups according to their general char-
acteristics and ttSe.s:
A. Dense Fire Clay Refractories.
backing up and in areas where insulating efficiency
-more than refractory properties are desired. This
group h3.s in addition to pie-formed shapes such
I
B.
(Super duty, special super duty
or high heat duty.)
Insulating Refractories.
castahle materials a.S castable #20, SK-7 and cast-
able block mix· which are used where it is neces-
sary to form special shapes or fill hard-to-get-at
I
areas. The SK-7 as in the case of KS-4 is made
C. Industrial Insulating Materials
(Block, Blankets, etc.)
for gun application.
The materials described above are common .to
I
(A) Dense Fire Clay Refractories may be sub- all Marine Steam Generators in part or as a whole.
divided into many types.. This description covers
only those materials common to Marine Steam Refractories for Sectional Header
I
Generator furnaces. Fundamentally the function Type Steam Generators
of the dense fire clay refractories is to take the
abuse or wear r~ulting from ~gh ·furnace tem·
peratures and direct exposure to gases of com-
The materials used in the furnace and boiler
sections of the sectional header boiler are largely
I
bustion. of standard shapes and sizes. The walls are con-
Materials in this group are furnished in' many
different forms and shapes. Those common ·to
structed \vith standard 9" straights ~nd series
brick of Mex..Ko super duty fire brick ba:cked by I
insulating brick and/or block insulation. · .
marine boilers and generators are kiln fired fire
brick, such as Empire, Mex-Ko and KX-99, the
plastic and ·castable refractories such as Super
Anchor brick secured by anchor bolts located on
specified centers ~re provided to hold the wall
back· against the casings. All bricks are bon-ded
I
Plastic, Super Hybond, Kast-Set and KS-4. The
latter an~ of such nature that they can be molded
or cast into desired shapes on the job. The KS-4
is a type of high temperature castable made
together by a good grade of bonding mortar of
the same characteristics as the clay used to manu-
facture the brick. In furnaces having water walls,
I
i.e.: the Victory Ship boilers ·and· the C2SAJ1
especially for gun application.
Kiln fired fire brick are provided in standard
class vessels these tubes are backed up by. a high
heat duty fire brick such as· Empire, backed by
I
arid special shapes. The standard are referred to block insulation.
as series brick. These are designed to eliminate,
to a great extent, undesirable cutting. Special
shapes such as anchor brick, roof tiles, etc. are
An illustration of typical side wall construction
can be seen in figure 1. The application of ma-
I
made foe specific uses and locations. terials in the &oor and corbell in this type of unit
/'~~
{p.o--•
,,~~-·
(B) The Insulating refractories are refractories
having outstanding insulating qualities. These
is also illustrated in this figure. The materials used
in the front wall and burner sections are shown
in figure 2.
I
'
LMCF00128 I
I
I Section 3~7

REFRACTORIES

I .- : .

I r.
Corbdl con~truction in these units serve a dual The economizer vestibule and boiler side and
•. purpose. They are installed using Kast-Set or end walls are insulated in the same manner as
Super Plastic (as specified on boiler refractory described for the same area in the sectional header
drawing) to seal the floor expansion joints and boiler. There are some exceptions to this, however.
to protect the wall headers from exposure to direct ·Some units have walls cast of Castable #20 in-

I furnace heat.
The lower drum in these units is protected by
sulation and others were equipped with special
anchored square edge tiles. The vestibule Boors
are insulated with two layers of block insulation,
a refractory wall, referred to as a bridgewall. · This

I is constructed of either Super Plastic or Kast Set


as specified. It is the practice to anchor these
materials to the drum using special anchors made
the topmost covered .with · insulation coating to
prevent penetration of water or soot into the block.
The superheater header is protected by a panel

I for this purpose. The top of this drum is pro-


a
tected by covering o.£ Kast Set.
Coal fired units of this type equipped with grates
of Kast Set poured in place. This serves as pro-
tection from the hotter furnace gases that would
cause damage to these headers and tubes. The
have a higher bridgewall than is common in oil casing on the ioop end of the superheater is pro-
I fired units. This bridgewall is generally con-
structed of a slag resisting KX-99 fire brick to
vided with removable access doors. These doors
are protected with Kast-0-Lite backed with block
the height above the grate line as specified on insulation.

I brick work drawing. Either Super Plastic or Kast


Set is then carried up from this point and over the
The refractory and insulating materials used
in these units are designed to withstand the con-
top of the drum. ditions normally expected to be found therein.

I Furnace water walls in the "A" or "D" type


units are -backed with first quality or super duty
refractories, i.e. Empire or if the latter Mex-Ko.
With proper operation and maintenance, few if
any, difficulties should arise.

I( Dependent upon the unit, these are either 9"


straights and series or square edge tile. This is
then backed with block and blanket insulation.
Causes of Refractory Failure
Some common refractory failures encoun- .
tered in marine furnaces are spalling (mechanical,
The same construction is followed for the furnace
I roof.
structural and thermal), stagging and abrasion.
These are considered the major causes. Briefiy
the costliest refractory failures can be considered
to be spalling and slagging. There are many
I factors that can be related to the causes of spalling
for out purpose.

I SpaUing\
Three basic types of spalling are :
1.· Mechanical, sometimes referred to as pinch-

I ing, is not frequently found to occur in furnace


walls. This type of failure is generally ·caused by
improper location or lack ·of proper expansion
joints. Fireclay brick expand approximately Q.06
I percent at 1800° F. It is therefore important that
expansion joints be properly located, as shown on ·
drawings.

I 2. Structural spalling is the type most fre-


quently encountered in marine boiler furnaces.
This condition is accelerated by slagging and flame
1-t::-.
[" ' ~-
·. impingement. Present day · oils usually contain
chemicals which act as a flux when deposited .
FIG.3-RErAcri>R.Y INST.ALLED ON Lown DRUl( AND
' .. FLOOil TUBES OF "D" TYPE SnAY GENERATOR.. on incandescent fire brick. These fimces have a

I LMCF00129
3

I
Section 3-7 I
REFRACTORtES
I
( should be consulted. Discuss any problems that Firebrick used in the floor should be laid with
may arise with your service engineer.
After all old refractory, insulating materials
and debris have oeen removed all casings and
staggered joints around the floor. Placing soft
block insulation of 1" thickness in the expansion
joints will provide a ~" joint free from debris.
I
the floor pan should be examined for defects and
distortions. It is important that these be repaired
before replacing any brickwork or insulation.
If the boilers are to be water washed it is in1-
portant not to substitute your insulating products
with some which are soluble in water, as there
I
In making renewals or repairs, emphasis should is a danger of washing away the backing up in-
be placed on strict adherence to the boiler refrac-
tory drawing and any latest revisions suggested
sulating materials. Wherever possible, water
should be diverted away from the furnace and
I
by your service engineer. boiler linings.
When laying fire brick care should be exercised
to get thin even joints. This is accomplished by
On repairs where Plastic refractories are to be
used, these materials should be applied last. It is
I
. using mortar of a consistency suitable for dipping desirable to light off assoon as possible after this
the brick. The best side of the brick should be
selected for the furnace interior and after being
dipped on two sides in the mortar, are then fitted
work is completed. Where castables have been
used the opposite will apply as the castables be-
come stronger if permitted to fully air set before
I
snugly against the next by rubbing until a tight
fit is assured. All joints should be staggered by
placing a soap at the end of the course, or by the
the application of heat.
When all work has been completed, and all
safety precautions have been complied with, a
I
use of a large 9" straight. When placing the
anchor bolts and anchor brick it is important that·
. the fit be loose enough to permit movement due to
slow fire (wood if possible) should be started. If
the unit is oil fired the smallest tip possible should
be used. This drying out or baking period will
I
expansion. During the construction of the wall all
permit the moisture to escape without building up
excessive mortar should be removed using a wire
brush.
Whenever Super Plastic is to be installed, the
captive steam in pockets throughout the fining. It
is advantageous to maintain this fire for 18 to 24
I
hours if possible. The temperature may be gradu-
manufacturers' recommendations should be fol-
lowed closely. The plastic should be rammed in
place using a three pound maul or an air rammer
aliy increased until steam is raised.
Patching or minor repairs to the furnace or
I
made for that purpose. Proper expansion joints boiler linings should be made as soon as discovered._
should be provided and the plastic areas should
be divided into sections with contraction cuts.·
This procedure will prevent serious damage to re-
fractories and boiler. I
These cuts are made by scoring the plastic approxi- Before any patches can be made to brick sur-
mately 3" deep with a sharp thin instrument such
as a trowel. After completion of the Super Plastic
work, the surface should be scratched to permit
faces all slag and loose particles must be removed.
If the patch is to be shallow such as replacing
spalled material, an application of Green Cote as
I
venting. When using Hybond, it is necessary to
vent the surface by punching holes using a thin rod.
All castable should be dry mixed in a cleari
described before can be made by spraying, brush-
ing or troweling. If the extent of the repair is
greater than this, the defective area- should be
I
container before adding the water as prescribed removed back to solid brick or plastic.
by the manufacturer. Where metal tubes pene-
trate into or through the castable or whenever
The sides of the hole should be dove tailed to
provide anchorage and Super Plastic rammed into
I
the castable is anchored with metal anchors, pro-
the patch~
vision should be mad,e for expansion of the metal
within the castable. Wrapping with friction tape
or some other combustible material will serve this
Inspection and necessary repair to the furnace
lining will help to provide long and trouble free
I
. ,.
t;:--
.
purpose. refrllctory life.
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