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200 Piping Component Selection

Abstract
This section gives guidance on the selection and use of the mechanical components
that are fabricated into piping systems. The dimensional and material standards for
common components are described. Illustrations are provided of these components
and of some special valves and fittings. Guidance is given on the selection and use
of piping components in applications common to all types of installations.

Contents Page

210 Introduction 200-4


211 Definition of Terms
212 Pressure Rating
213 Piping Standards
214 Joining Methods
220 Material Selection Considerations 200-7
221 Factors to Consider
222 Sources of Information
223 Service Conditions
224 Typical Material Selections
225 Materials Commonly Used for Piping
226 Materials Selection Summary
230 Pipe and Tubing 200-16
231 Recommended Materials for Pipe
232 Dimensional Standard for Pipe
233 Pressure Design of Pipe
234 Economics of Pipe Wall Selection
235 Tubing
240 Fittings 200-29
241 Materials for Fittings

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242 Dimensional Standards for Fittings


243 Company Practice for Fitting Use
244 Straight Connections
245 Direction Changes
246 Branch Connections
247 Reducing and End Closure Fittings
250 Flanges, Blanks, and Blinds 200-46
251 Flanges
252 Flange Facing
253 Flange Attachment to Pipe
254 Commonly Used Flanges
255 Special Purpose Flanges
256 Flange Covers
257 Blinds and Blanks
258 Thickness Calculation for Blanks
260 Nonflange Connections 200-52
261 Grayloc Connector
262 Cameron, Securamax, G-CON, and OTECO Hub and Clamp Fittings
263 Victaulic Coupling
264 Dresser Coupling
270 Valves 200-53
271 Factors to Consider
272 Types of Valves
273 Specifying Valve Parts
274 Valve Operators
275 Valves for General Service
276 Special Purpose Valves
277 Valves for Sour Service
278 Valves for Saltwater Service
280 Bolts and Gaskets 200-84
281 Bolts
282 Gaskets

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290 Miscellaneous Engineered Equipment 200-90


291 Strainers
292 Flame Arresters
293 Expansion Joints
294 Swivel Joints

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210 Introduction
The general category of piping includes not only pipe, but also tubing, fittings
(elbows, tees, flanges, reducers), valves, and specialty piping components such as
expansion joints. This section defines frequently used terms, discusses pressure
rating and standards for manufacture of piping components, and lists methods of
joining pipe. The rest of Section 200 describes piping components in this order:
1) pipe and tubing; 2) fittings; 3) flanges, blinds and blanks; 4) valves; 5) bolts and
gaskets; and 6) miscellaneous engineered equipment. The discussion includes
recommended methods for use of these components.

211 Definition of Terms


Class. This word refers to ANSI class. ASME/ANSI B16.5 and B16.34 define the
pressure/temperature relationships for steel flanges and fittings. Pressure ranges are
defined by the classes. The class number (150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, 2500 for
flanges) has no direct relationship to the actual pressure capability of the piping
component. Flanges and valves have specific pressure ratings. Steel pipe and
welding fittings do not. Although socket welding and threaded fittings are called out
by class (2000, 3000, 6000), their pressure capability is defined by the pipe they
connect.
Corporate Piping Classes. Classes that apply to piping systems with specific
combinations of pressure rating, valve type, material, joint connections, etc. The
Corporation Piping Specification (See Volume 2 of this manual) contains about 30
of these classes, which themselves are sometimes referred to as specifications.
Design Operating Temperature. This term is used by process designers to mean
the desired process temperature. The term is not useful for piping designers and
should not be confused with design temperature or operating temperature, defined
below.
Design Temperature. Maximum temperature the system is designed to withstand.
This is usually the maximum process temperature plus a safety factor.
EFW Pipe. Pipe commonly produced from plate with a longitudinal butt weld.
EFW stands for electric fusion welded. Welding of carbon and low alloy steels
normally is accomplished by submerged arc welding (SAW). In submerged arc
welding an automatic electric arc process is used, with the filler metal coming from
the electrode supplying the electric arc. The weld is shielded by granular or fusible
flux. Mechanical pressure is not required. Typical specifications are API 5L and
ASTM A671, A672, and A691.
Electric Flash Weld Pipe. Pipe produced by a principle similar to that used for
electric resistance welded pipe. The heat for welding is obtained from the resistance
to the flow of the electric current between the butted edges of a single pipe length
simultaneously. A typical specification for electric flash welded pipe is API 5L
Grade A25. This low quality pipe is no longer made in the U.S.A. Spiral welded
electric flash weld pipe is also available, but is also low quality.

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ERW Pipe. Pipe produced from a continuous coiled strip (skelp). ERW stands for
electric resistance welded. Unlike furnace welded pipe, in which the whole width of
the strip is heated, only the edges of ERW pipe are heated to welding temperature.
The edges are heated by their resistance to the flow of an electric current. At the
appropriate welding temperature, rollers force the edges together. Excess molten
metal is forced out from the weld to the outside and inside of the pipe. Because of
this ejection of weld metal and the significantly higher welding temperatures as
compared to the furnace welded pipe, ERW pipe is allowed a higher weld joint
factor than furnace welded pipe. Typical specifications are ASTM A53 Type E, and
API 5L.
Furnace Continuous Welded Pipe. Pipe (furnace welded, butt welded) made by
running a steel strip through a furnace and then forcing the edges of the strip
together under pressure while at furnace temperatures to form the welded pipe. This
is a low quality pipe and should not be used without consideration of the reduced
reliability. Typical specifications are ASTM A120 and A53 Type F.
Grade. A subclassification that defines the chemical and mechanical properties of a
specific material within a material specification. For example, WPB and WPC are
grades of wrought steel for fittings produced to ASTM A234.
Nominal Pipe Size (NPS). A number to represent the outside diameter of pipe. This
number equals the outside diameter for pipe sizes 14 inches and larger. For smaller-
diameter pipe, up to and including NPS 12, the outside diameter is a fraction of an
inch larger than the NPS number. Appendix D gives tables of the nominal pipe size
and outside diameter of pipe.
Malleable Iron. Cast iron made from pig iron by long, high temperature heating
and slow cooling. The result is a very strong, malleable metal.
Operating Temperature. Normal temperature at which the system will operate.
SMLS (seamless) Pipe. Pipe produced by a sequence of hot extrusion or hot
piercing, followed by sizing operations that form the pipe’s desired final dimen-
sions. Typical specifications are ASTM A106, A53 Type S, and API 5L.
Schedule. A pipe’s wall thickness. See Wall Thickness.
Size. Outside diameter (O.D.) of pipe. See Nominal Pipe Size.
Wall Thickness. Given as Weight (standard, extra strong, double extra strong),
Schedule Number (40, 80, 160), or actual thickness. Appendix D of this manual
gives the weight and schedule numbers for pipe. The appendix also shows that
Weight and Schedule are not always equivalent. For example:
• Standard Weight (ST) equals Schedule 40 for pipe sizes NPS 1/8 to NPS 10
• Extra Strong (XS) equals Schedule 80 for sizes NPS 1/8 to NPS 8
• Double Extra Strong (XX) and Schedule 160 are not equal for any line size.
Weight. A pipe’s wall thickness. See Wall Thickness.

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Welded Austenitic Stainless Pipe. Pipe made by fusion welding—either


submerged arc, heliarc or gas shielded tungsten arc. The typical specification is
ASTM A358.
Wrought Steel. Steel items produced by rolling, extruding, or forging from hot or
cold shapes.

212 Pressure Rating


Piping must be designed to satisfy the pressure and temperature requirements of the
intended service. Some piping components have a specific pressure rating and
others do not:
Pipe has no specific pressure rating. It must be calculated on the basis of wall
thickness and allowable stress value. An example of the calculation is given in
Section 230.
Fittings have no specific pressure rating, but it is generally the same as the pressure
rating of straight pipe of the same material and schedule. Exceptions to this rule will
be discussed under the appropriate fitting classes. See Section 240.
Flanges and valves have specific pressure ratings, which are listed in ASME/ANSI
B16.5 and B16.34 respectively.

213 Piping Standards


The most commonly used standards for piping components are:
ASME/ANSI B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME/ANSI B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings
ASME/ANSI B16.11 Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded
ASME/ANSI B16.34 Valves—Flanged, Threaded and Welding End
ASME/ANSI B36.10M Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
ASME/ANSI B36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe

For a complete list of standards applicable to piping components see Table 326.1 in
ASME/ANSI B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. See also
Section 100 of this manual.

214 Joining Methods


The common joining methods for steel pipe are:
Butt Weld. For pipe NPS 2 and larger
Socket Weld or Threaded. For pipe smaller than NPS 2 except for high pressure
and temperature services

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Flanged. Generally for pipe-to-valve or pipe-to-equipment connections NPS 2 and


larger, but also frequently used for equipment and instrument connections NPS ¾
and up
Hub-and-clamp. For high pressure sweet hydrocarbon gas and liquid and water
service. See Appendix B
Clamp. For low pressure special services

220 Material Selection Considerations


This section presents an overview of how to select materials for a piping system. It
is intended to provide enough information so that issues are known but steers the
reader to other sources when detailed information is needed. The section gives a list
of factors to consider, reviews sources containing more information, discusses the
service conditions which affect materials selection and discusses some pertinent
materials properties.

221 Factors to Consider


Selection of materials for piping involves many factors. The following list high-
lights the primary considerations. Further details are available in the Corrosion
Prevention and Metallurgy Manual and from specialists, such as those in CRTC’s
Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit.

Maintenance Versus New Construction


Maintenance is usually done on a “replace in kind” basis unless corrosion or oper-
ating problems justify a change. New construction will frequently require more
thought about whether existing piping classes are appropriate. Revisions may be
necessary due to new information. For instance, the Company’s practice for stress
relief of lines in MEA and DEA service changed in 1987 due to failures in these
services.

Code Requirements
Local, state and federal codes and regulations need to be considered.

Safety and Reliability


It is important to assess the likelihood and consequences of failure. Doing so may
lead to different choices of materials for seemingly similar piping systems. Consid-
eration should be given to the following:
• Reliability
– Past history in the same or similar services
– Onstream inspection as a means to predict failures
– Shutdown frequency in similar services

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• Consequences of Failure
– Personnel safety. Determine if hazardous materials are involved (acids,
caustics, H2S, HF)
– Fire hazards (LPG, high pressure H2, proximity to a furnace)
– Extent of lost production if the piping fails
– Ease of repair or replacement
– Availability of expert craftsmen and replacement material in the field
– Leakage. Determine effect on plant performance, such as of catalyst
poisoning
– Plant shutdown. May result from leakage unless equipment can be
bypassed
– Shutdown of related plants. May result from plant shutdown

Service Environment
The process environment may require special materials or postweld heat treatment.
Velocity limitations may be required to limit corrosion or erosion-corrosion.

Operating Temperature and Pressure


Operating temperature and pressure may be critical in the selection of materials.
Cyclical pressure or temperature may require additional design considerations.

Design Life
The Company normally designs piping for a ten-year minimum life. It should be
determined if this is appropriate.

Design Corrosion Allowance


The expected corrosion rate may be constant or change with time. External corro-
sion (atmospheric corrosion or chlorides from insulation) may be a factor.
The Company usually specifies a 1/16-inch minimum corrosion allowance for
carbon steel and low alloy steel piping if the corrosion rate can be predicted accu-
rately and is less than 3 mils per year (mpy). For stainless steel, the Company
normally specifies 1/32-inch minimum corrosion allowance. If more than 3/16-inch
corrosion allowance is needed the Company normally uses a more corrosion resis-
tant material.

Cost, Availability and Delivery


The first choice may or may not be the economic choice in terms of life-cycle cost.
It should be determined if the material is available for construction or maintenance
and if delivery time is acceptable.

Environmental Regulations
Leakage may cause environmental problems such as pollution of navigable waters
and unacceptable emissions.

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Standardization
Making a new piping class may not be economical; standardization may lower
overall facility costs.

Constructability
The material must be readily fabricated, available and amenable to inspection.

222 Sources of Information


Answering the concerns raised in Section 221 involves a lot of research. Common
places to look for information are:

Inspection Records
If the Company has a similar installation, inspectors and their inspection records are
the best starting points for learning what works and where mistakes can be avoided.
Look for common failure locations and types of failures. For example, elbows may
fail first due to velocity, and corrosion failures may be because of general, pitting or
localized (stress corrosion cracking) corrosion.

Piping Class Sheets


See what others have chosen, and whether the Corporate Piping Class sheets have
changed since the last similar project. Piping classes in different operating locations
may differ due to different design considerations.

Operators
Operators should be consulted about existing plants; the piping class sheets may be
out of date with current maintenance practices.

Previous Materials Selections


For many large facilities materials selection is formalized on a report written by
materials engineers, such as CRTC’s Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit
specialists. This is a good source for construction materials and for notes on mate-
rials considerations in that process environment.

Other Owners
If the Company does not have a similar process, another company may. Most will
provide informal information if asked. If the Company is licensing a process, the
licensor will provide information. Other licensees should be visited, with the
licensor’s assistance, for a first-hand account of their experience.

Designers
Industry standards are usually well known by design firms, but designers commonly
lack a feedback mechanism for their designs unless they also operate the process.
The result can be that designers learn more slowly from failures and tend to be at
the industry norm rather than on the leading edge.

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Other
Other sources of corrosion data include the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy
Manual, laboratory tests, and published data. Volume 2 of the Corrosion Prevention
and Metallurgy Manual gives good general material selection guidelines for several
specific types of plants. Contact a CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit
specialist for additional information and specific recommendations.

223 Service Conditions


This section presents general principles of material selection (introduced in the
preceding sections) needed to prevent deterioration in the service environment.

Service Environment
Materials are selected to limit corrosion to acceptable rates in a given service envi-
ronment. The service environment comprises the contents of the piping, its tempera-
ture and pressure, contaminants, physical state, and, sometimes, velocity. Materials
selections need to consider both corrosion rates and other deterioration mechanisms.
Certain environmental conditions may cause deterioration mechanisms such as
stress corrosion cracking, sulfide stress cracking, and hydrogen attack. The Corro-
sion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual describes these mechanisms and, in the
sections dealing with specific plants, highlights potential deterioration mechanisms.

Operating Temperature and Pressure


Operating temperature and pressure may limit the choice of materials and can have
a significant influence on corrosion rates. Temperature can limit the choice of mate-
rials based on considerations of strength, metallurgy, and corrosion. For example,
carbon steel is limited to a maximum design temperature of 800°F. Above 800°F,
the strength decreases significantly and graphitization may cause the steel to
embrittle. Corrosion rates frequently increase with temperature. In sour hydro-
carbon services, corrosion of bare carbon steel accelerates at temperatures above
550°F.
Operating pressure can also influence the stability of a material in a given service
environment, as with hydrogen attack of steels in high pressure hydrogen at elevated
temperatures. Low temperature can also limit materials selection.

Design Life and Corrosion Allowance


The design life typically used for piping is ten years. Corrosion allowances are spec-
ified to achieve the design life and are based on the expected corrosion rate. Corro-
sion allowances are discussed in more detail in the Corrosion Prevention and
Metallurgy Manual, but are summarized in Figure 200-1.

Cost
One of the objectives of materials selection is to select the most economical mate-
rial. This usually leads to the use of carbon or low alloy steels rather than stainless
and highly alloyed materials.

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For some aqueous services—up to about 200°F—nonmetallic thin film coatings can
be applied to reduce corrosion rates and the need for alloy material.

Fig. 200-1 Minimum Corrosion Allowance


Carbon and low alloy steel(1), (2) 1/16 in.
(3), (4)
Stainless Steel and high alloy steel 1/32 in.
(1) Low alloy steels include chrome-moly steels such as 2¼ Cr 1 Mo and 9 Cr 1 Mo steels.
(2) 1/16-inch is usually used, assuming available corrosion data clearly shows a corrosion rate less than 3 mpy. If the corrosion rate is
inconclusive or greater than 3 mpy, then a minimum of 1/8-inch is recommended. A corrosion allowance greater than ¼-inch usually
justifies a change to a more corrosion resistant alloy.
(3) High alloy steels include alloys with more than about 10 percent chromium (such as 12 Cr, Alloy 20 and Monel).
(4) The break point for upgrading stainless steels and high alloys is not defined precisely as it is in note 2. This is because by the time you
are selecting stainless, you are already fine-tuning the selection for a grade of stainless that gives a reasonable economic corrosion
allowance.

224 Typical Material Selections


Figure 200-2 shows typical materials for some common environments. Data in this
table is illustrative only and is not intended for design.
Perhaps too often metallic piping is the only kind considered. Nonmetallic piping
should also be considered; the Company has had successful experience in many
services. Section 400 gives detailed information on various types of nonmetallic and
nonmetallic-lined pipe. A few examples of successful service are given in
Figure 200-3. Consult a materials specialist for more help.

Fig. 200-2 Common Piping Materials Selection


Service Typical Materials Comments
Produced fluids Carbon steel with coating Corrosivity of produced fluids varies
containing water widely. Consult a corrosion specialist
Hydrocarbons—sweet Carbon steel Sensitive to trace H2S above 550°F
Hydrocarbons—sour Carbon steel Limited to 550°F
Hydrogen—sweet Carbon steel, 1¼ Cr ½ Mo, and 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Choice depends on temperature and
steels hydrogen partial pressure(1)
Hydrogen—sour Carbon steel, 1¼ Cr ½ Mo, and 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Choice depends on temperature and
steel, and Type 321 and 347 stainless steels hydrogen partial pressure(1)
Steam Carbon steel Superheated steam may require low
alloy steel
Steam condensate Carbon steel CO2 corrosion may require stainless
steel in a condensing service
Acids Plastic-lined steel Temperature limited
Salt water Fiberglass reinforced plastic Joint type is important
(1) See API Recommended Practice 941.

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Fig. 200-3 Nonmetallic Pipe Uses


Material Service
High density polyethylene (HDPE) Produced water
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Acids, caustics, demineralized water
Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) Seawater, brine, wet gas
Plastic-lined steel Acid/base mixing

225 Materials Commonly Used for Piping


The following discussion of the characteristics of common piping materials is an
abbreviated version of information contained in the Corrosion Prevention and
Metallurgy Manual. Consult that manual and a CRTC Materials and Equipment
Engineering Unit specialist on specific questions.

Carbon Steel
Carbon steel with a 1/16-inch to 3/16-inch corrosion allowance is the economic
material selection for a large percentage of piping in refinery, chemical plant, and
producing applications.
Carbon steels have a nominal composition of iron with about 1% manganese and up
to 0.35% carbon. Higher carbon results in poor weldability. Carbon steels are easily
fabricated. Some limitations of carbon steels are as follows:
Brittle Fracture. Carbon steels may be susceptible to brittle fracture at normal
ambient temperatures. Brittle fracture can be prevented by choosing the right mate-
rial and minimum pressurizing temperatures. Refer to the Pressure Vessel Manual
for information on prevention of brittle fracture.
Hydrogen Attack. Carbon steel will suffer hydrogen attack at elevated temperature
in high pressure hydrogen. Material selection should be based on the Nelson
Curves, shown in API Recommended Practice 941 in the Corrosion Prevention and
Metallurgy Manual.
Graphitization. Welded carbon steel must be limited to 800°F maximum to prevent
graphitization. Graphitization is the formation of graphite, primarily in weld heat
affected zones, from the decomposition of iron carbides. Graphitized steel can fail
under small loads or strains.
Stress Corrosion Cracking. As-welded or cold-worked carbon steel is susceptible
to stress corrosion cracking in caustic, nitrate, carbonate, and amine solutions and in
anhydrous ammonia. Stress relief is required to prevent failures. More information
is given in the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual. Consult a CRTC
Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit specialist for specific applications.
Sulfide Stress Cracking. High strength steel and hard welds in carbon steel in
aqueous solutions containing H2S are susceptible to sudden failures called sulfide
stress cracking. Controlling maximum strength and hardness is generally sufficient
to prevent cracking. The Company’s piping specifications limit steel strength and

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weld hardness to prevent cracking. Postweld heat treatment may also be beneficial
to prevent cracking.
Hydrogen-induced Cracking. Some low strength carbon steels may be susceptible
to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) in wet services containing H2S. Blistering is
one example of this type of cracking. Refer to the Corrosion Prevention and Metal-
lurgy Manual for additional details. Steel makers offer steels made with very low
sulfur contents and calcium treated for inclusion shape control to resist HIC. The
Company generally has not specified these steels except in some pipelines and pres-
sure vessels. Postweld heat treatment may also be beneficial to prevent cracking.

Carbon-Moly Steels
Carbon-moly steel is similar to carbon steel but with 0.5% molybdenum, added. The
molybdenum addition improves the steel’s high temperature strength and graphitiza-
tion resistance. The corrosion resistance is the same as for carbon steel. Limitations
of carbon-moly steels are as follows:
Brittle Fracture. Unless made to fine-grain practice and normalized, carbon-moly
steels may have poor resistance to brittle fracture.
Hydrogen Attack. Carbon-moly is no better than carbon steel in resisting hydrogen
attack. Carbon-moly should not be specified for hydrogen attack resistance. Refer to
the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual and API Recommended
Practice 941.
Graphitization. Carbon-moly will graphitize similarly to carbon steel, but is resis-
tant up to 850°F.
Stress Corrosion Cracking. Same as for carbon steel.
Sulfide Stress Cracking. Same as for carbon steel.

Chrome-Moly Steels
Chrome-moly low alloy steels are similar to carbon steel but with chromium and
molybdenum added. Typical grades are 1¼ Cr ½ Mo, and 2¼ Cr 1 Mo. The general
corrosion resistance of these grades is about equal to that of carbon steel. Chrome-
moly steels have better resistance to hydrogen attack than carbon steel and have
better high temperature strength. They do not graphitize. Chrome-moly steels are
somewhat more difficult to fabricate; they require control of preheat for welding
and postweld heat treatment for all welded construction. Limitations of chrome-
moly steels are as follows:
Brittle Fracture. Like the carbon steels, chrome-moly steels undergo a ductile-to-
brittle transition at low temperatures and become susceptible to brittle fracture. In
addition, chrome-moly steels in service above about 650°F embrittle in service. The
2¼ Cr 1 Mo steels are particularly susceptible, but 1 Cr ½ Mo and 1-¼ Cr ½ Mo can
also be susceptible. Consult a Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit specialist
for specific applications.
Hydrogen Attack. Resistance to hydrogen attack is dependent on the chromium
and molybdenum contents in the steel. Resistance improves with increased alloy

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content. Refer to the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual and API Recom-
mended Practice 941.
Stress Corrosion Cracking and Sulfide Stress Cracking. Same limitations as for
carbon steel.

Stainless Steels
Stainless steels are alloys of iron and chromium, typically with at least 12% chro-
mium. Series 300 stainless steels also contain nickel. A term commonly used for
Type 304 stainless steel is 18-8, designating its 18% chromium and 8% nickel alloy
content. Other alloying elements such as molybdenum, titanium, and niobium can
be added for specific purposes.
Stainless steels are classified as ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, or duplex depending
on their microstructure.
• Austenitic. Examples are Type 304, 304L, 316, 321 and 347 stainless steels.
Austenitic stainless steels will not harden with heat treatment. They are
nonmagnetic. Austenitic stainless steels are generally readily weldable.
• Martensitic. Type 410 stainless is the most common example. Martensitic
stainless steels can be hardened with heat treatment. They are magnetic. Use of
martensitic material in a piping system is prohibited due to poor weldability.
• Ferritic. Examples are Types 405 and 429, AL 29-4 and Sea-Cure. Ferritic
stainless steels will not harden with heat treatment. They are magnetic and
usually don’t contain nickel. Use of ferritic stainless material in a piping system
is prohibited due to poor weldability.
• Duplex. Examples are Avesta 254SMo, Type 329, Sandvik SAF2205, and
Ferralium 255. Duplex stainless steels have structures of roughly 50% auste-
nite and 50% ferrite. They are nonhardenable by heat treatment. They currently
are not widely used. They have corrosion properties similar to the austenitics
but are higher strength. They share some of the limitations of both the ferritics
and austenitics.
Limitations of the stainless steels are as follows:
Austenitic Stainless Steels in Chloride Solutions. Chloride stress-corrosion
cracking of austenitic stainless steels can occur in dilute chloride solutions
containing as low as 5 ppm chloride ions at temperatures in the 140°F to 200°F
range. Cracking is most severe where the chloride ion concentration is high, the
solution is hot, the pH is neutral or low, and especially where evaporation builds up
deposits on the stainless steel.
Stainless equipment hydrostatically tested with sea water has failed due to the
residual sodium chloride film left behind. Other failures have been traced to chlo-
rides leaching out of wet insulation. Many failures have resulted from not protecting
stainless equipment from chlorides during shutdowns. There can be an incubation
period of several hours or many weeks before cracking occurs in certain environ-
ments. Cracking can be greatly reduced by stress relieving the stainless equipment.

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However, complete freedom from chloride stress corrosion cracking can be assured
only by protecting austenitic stainless steels from any chloride ions or by using the
more expensive super stainless grades with 30-45% nickel, such as Inconel 625.
Duplex stainless steels have improved resistance to chloride stress corrosion
cracking.
Austenitic Stainless Steels in Sulfur-derived Acids. Sulfurous or polythionic acids
can cause stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels. Unlike chloride
stress corrosion cracking, the austenitic stainless steel must be sensitized with chro-
mium carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries before polythionic acid stress
corrosion cracking can occur.
Sensitization occurs by heating above 750°F, such as occurs by welding or heat
treatment. Several grades of stainless are designed to have increased resistance to
sensitization. Regular grades of austenitic stainless steel (Types 304, 316, etc.)
sensitize easily. The extra low carbon grades of stainless steel (Types 304L, 316L,
etc.) normally do not sensitize during welding. However, they will sensitize if held
too long at temperatures above about 750°F. Some austenitic stainless steels
(Types 321 and 347) are chemically stabilized to minimize sensitization. However,
they too can sensitize during prolonged exposures to temperatures above about
850°F.
Neither sulfurous nor polythionic acids are normally found in process units during
operation. However, these acids commonly develop during shutdowns by the oxida-
tion of iron sulfide scale in the presence of moisture and oxygen.
Chromium Stainless Steels in 750°F to 900°F Service. Ferritic and martensitic
stainless steels containing 13% or more chromium can embrittle during exposure to
temperatures in the 750°F to 900°F range. This phenomenon is known as 885°F
embrittlement. Some of these stainless steels are so sensitive to 885°F embrittle-
ment that even slow cooling through this temperature range will cause
embrittlement. Duplex stainless steels are also susceptible to 885°F embrittlement.
Stainless Steels Above 1000°F. At elevated temperatures, all stainless steels with
high chromium contents will develop a constituent called sigma phase which causes
embrittlement at lower temperatures. Sigma phase is a very hard, nonmagnetic,
brittle phase.
The straight chromium ferritic and martensitic stainless steels containing 13% and
more chromium are very susceptible to extensive sigma phase formation at tempera-
tures above about 1000°F. The austenitic stainless steels are not as susceptible
because of their high nickel content, but they can develop damaging amounts of
sigma phase when held between about 1000°F to 1550°F for long periods of time.
Certain highly susceptible austenitic alloys, such as castings and welds, may
develop serious embrittlement in a few hours at temperatures of 1200°F to 1300°F.
Duplex stainless steels are also very susceptible to sigma embrittlement.
Sigma phase normally does not affect the steel’s elevated temperature properties but
may make it so brittle at lower temperatures that failures will occur during startup or
shutdown.

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Sulfide Stress Cracking. The martensitic stainless steels are especially susceptible
to sulfide stress cracking. Welds are difficult to soften with heat treatment and are,
therefore, susceptible to cracking. Low carbon grades, like Type 410S, are used to
limit weld zone hardness.

Nickel Alloys
Nickel alloys such as Monel, Inconel alloys, Incoloy alloys, and Hastelloy alloys are
usually very expensive, and are used only for specialized applications. Some nickel
alloys have good resistance to chloride solutions where stainless steels are poor.
Fabricating and weldability are generally good with proper precautions.

Titanium Alloys
These are rarely used for piping. Welding is difficult, requiring very clean condi-
tions. Field repairs are not practical.

Castings
Various types of castings are used in piping. Figure 200-4 lists some.

Fig. 200-4 Castings Used in Piping


Type Brittleness Common Specifications
Grey cast iron Very brittle ASTM A126 Gr.B
Malleable cast iron Near steel
Ductile or nodular cast iron Nearest to steel ASTM A395
Cast steel Can equal steel ASTM A216 Gr.WCB

226 Materials Selection Summary


Figure 200-5 summarizes some limitations of the commonly used piping materials.
Data in this table is illustrative only and is not intended for design.

230 Pipe and Tubing


This section discusses the selection of pipe materials and dimensional standards for
pipe, and it gives pressure design calculations for pipe. Recommendations are also
given for tubing materials and connections in various services, and pressure rating
of tubing is discussed.

231 Recommended Materials for Pipe


This section will help with engineering decisions regarding materials selection.
Selection of both material and fabrication method is dictated by the piping class (see
the Corporation Piping Specification).

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Fig. 200-5 Piping Material Temperature Limits Maximum Use Temperature, °F


Carbon 1¼ Cr - 2¼ Cr - 5 Cr - 18 Cr -
Steel C-½ Mo ½ Mo 1 Mo ½ Mo 8 Ni (304)
Allowable stress (3000 psi) 900 1081 1095 1150 1096 1345
(per ASME/ANSI B31.3)
Oxidation (10 mpy loss) 1050 1050 1100 1175 1200 1500
Graphitization (welded only) 800 850
Temper embrittlement 700-1050 700-1050
Sigma embrittlement 1100-1700
Hardening on cooling 1330 1330 1375 1425 1450
Carbide precipitation 750-1500
(sensitization)
Hydrogen attack (750 psia 460 460 955 1000 1080
H2 P)(1)
H2S corrosion (10 mpy loss at 590 590 630 630 670 ≈1000
800 ppm H2S)
H2/H2S corrosion (10 mpy loss 485 485 485 485 485 875
at 10 psia H2S P)
Caustic embrittlement stress 140 140 140 140 140 140
corrosion cracking(2)
Amine stress corrosion
cracking
MEA(3) X X X X X X
DEA(2) 100 100 100 100 100 100
Chloride stress corrosion 140
cracking(2)
Sulfide stress(4) corrosion X X X X X
cracking
(1) P indicates Partial Pressure
(2) Not susceptible if stress relieved.
(3) X = Susceptible at ambient temperature when not stress relieved.
(4) X = Susceptible at ambient temperature when tensile strength exceeds 90 ksi or hardness exceeds Rockwell C22.

Carbon Steel Pipe


There are many methods of manufacturing carbon steel pipe, and several levels of
quality. In general, seamless pipe is specified for critical services and for large
processing facilities. Whether of carbon steel or alloy, pipe without a longitudinal
seam provides maximum fire safety and overall reliability. Welded seam pipe,
however, has many applications and can result in significant savings on large jobs.
Whether seamless or welded pipe is used, Grade B is specified rather than Grade A
because of its higher allowable stress. Grade B pipe costs the same and is usually
more readily available than Grade A. Grade A can be used in any service but,

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because of the lower allowable stresses, wall thicknesses will be greater. Grade A is
rarely used and is being phased out of piping codes.
The upper temperature limit for all plain carbon steel pipe is 800°F, although flange
ratings and gasket material may well dictate a lower limit. Above 800°F strength is
reduced by graphitization, and alloy piping is specified.
Named below are the common fabrication methods for carbon steel pipe and
services, in general, for which they can be considered. Only the first three methods
produce acceptable pipe for Company use. Additional information on specifications
and uses is available from the CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit.
For descriptions of these fabrication methods, see Section 210.
Seamless Pipe (SMLS). Seamless pipe is preferred for most on-plot services in
both large plants and producing areas. It is available in sizes up to about NPS 20.
Electric Fusion Welded (EFW) Pipe. For process facilities, EFW pipe is an
acceptable substitute for seamless pipe if produced by the submerged arc process
and if additional mill inspections are performed. See Model Specification
PPL-MS-1050, Line Pipe. Carbon steel EFW pipe is normally available only in
sizes NPS 16 and larger. EFW pipe is usually less expensive than seamless, but
more expensive than electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe.
Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) Pipe. ERW pipe is acceptable for pipeline and
off-plot service. It also can be considered for utility services in process facilities. In
the above cases, additional mill inspections and vendor approval should be obtained
as outlined in Specification PPL-MS-1050. Some operating centers prefer ERW
over EFW for on-plot services because of the lower cost. See Section 700.
Electric Flash Welded, Furnace Lap Welded and Furnace Butt Welded Pipe.
These are all of lower quality than EFW or ERW and are seldom used. They should
be considered only for noncritical, nonhazardous services where reduced reliability
can be accepted, such as low pressure concrete-lined pipe, off-plot vent lines, stand-
pipes, and submerged outfall lines. Electric flash welded and lap welded pipe are no
longer made in the United States.
Spiral Welded Pipe. Historically, spiral welded pipe has shown poor quality and is
not recommended. The same applications and restrictions apply as for furnace
welded pipe.
X Grades of API 5L Pipe. The X grades of API SPEC 5L pipe are not used in
process plants. These grades have a higher yield strength of 42,000 to 65,000 psi.
They are more susceptible to welding problems and hydrogen embrittlement, espe-
cially at the higher strengths. ASME/ANSI B31.3 limits their use to a maximum of
400°F, and little or no advantage can be taken of the higher yield strength in pres-
sure calculations. The X grades are used extensively for pipelines.

Special Service Pipe


Plain carbon steel piping is adequate for the majority of services encountered in
industry. However, for many applications, service conditions or economics require
other materials. Most materials and related services are considered in the Corporation

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Piping Specification. For more information consult the Corrosion Prevention and
Metallurgy Manual or contact the CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering
Unit. The following items comprise an incomplete compilation of materials and
special services in Company facilities:
Carbon Steel in Low Temperature Service. ASME/ANSI B31.3 allows carbon
steel piping to be used down to minus 20°F without toughness testing. Based upon
toughness data for typical grades of carbon steel piping, such as ASTM A53 and
A106, Company practice has been more restrictive than this, typically requiring
impact testing below about 10°F. Current Company practice is to use the impact
exemption curves shown in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section
VIII, Division 1, Section UCS-66. This is essentially the same as the Company’s
past practice. For colder temperatures, impact tested grades, such as ASTM A-333
Grades 1 or 6 are used.
Carbon—½% Moly. Resists graphitization and retains strength to 850°F. Has
limited application. See Model Specification PIM-MS-4772 for fabrication require-
ments.
Low Chrome (1 to 3%). Resists hydrogen attack above 400°F. Used also for high-
temperature strength. See the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual for
details. See PIM-MS-4772 for fabrication requirements.
High Chrome (5 to 9%). Resists H2S corrosion in stocks above 500°F in the
absence of hydrogen. A 12% chrome alloy is not recommended because of diffi-
culty in making reliable welds. See PIM-MS-4772 for applications and limitations.
Stainless Steel. Used where both hydrogen and H2S are present in stocks above
500°F. Austenitic types 304L, 316L, 321 and 347, which do not sensitize during
welding or require postweld heat treatment, are generally specified. Also used in
rich MEA/DEA, sour water, and some acid services. Common in lube oil and seal
oil systems, where contaminants cannot be tolerated. See PIM-MS-4770 for fabrica-
tion requirements.
Alloy 20. Used with dilute (<80% concentration) or concentrated sulfuric acid at
elevated temperatures or high velocity. See the Corrosion Prevention and Metal-
lurgy Manual. PIM-MS-4770 covers fabrication requirements.
Cast Iron. Used in brine and saltwater systems with flanged connections, and
sewers and drains with bell and spigot connections. See the Corrosion Prevention
and Metallurgy Manual and Civil and Structural Manual.
Copper/Brass. Used in drinking water and instrument air service. Common in salt-
water service and plumbing systems within buildings. Unsuitable in atmospheres
corrosive to copper. See the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual.
Galvanized Steel. Used primarily in instrument air and drinking water systems.
Replaces tubing in areas subject to mechanical damage.
Plastic. Used extensively at low pressures and temperatures for chemical and water
treating services, but not with hydrocarbons. See Section 400.

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Concrete. Primarily used in saltwater, drainage, and wastewater service. See


Section 400 and the Civil and Structural Manual.
Lined Pipe. Carbon steel pipe coated with a protective liner is used with corrosive
waters, brines, and many chemicals. Liners include Teflon, polypropylene, epoxy
and glass. See Section 400. Cement mortar is used in water service; see Specification
PPL-MS-1632 in the Pipeline Manual, and see the Corrosion Prevention and Metal-
lurgy Manual.
Double-Wall Pipe. Generally fabricated of carbon steel. Provides a steam jacket for
high pour point stock. Generally used in molten sulfur service.

232 Dimensional Standard for Pipe


The dimensional standards for steel and stainless steel pipe are ASME/ANSI
B36.10M and ASME/ANSI B36.19 respectively.
Pipe is designated by size and wall thickness. The manufacturing process and
tooling used dictates that the O.D. of the pipe be kept standard and any change in
wall thickness be made by changing the inside diameter (I.D.) of the pipe. See
Appendix D for tables of sizes and wall thickness.
The current dimensional standard is the result of consolidating the old Manufac-
turers Standard, in which the wall thicknesses were designated by weight. The
designations “standard weight,” “extra strong” and “double extra strong” were
carried over to the present standard, which now uses both weight designations and
schedule numbers, and some wall thicknesses without schedule number or weight
designation.

233 Pressure Design of Pipe


Pipe has no specific tabulated pressure rating. The rating is calculated using the
formula from the applicable section of the ASME/ANSI B31 Code for Pressure Piping.
Pressure rating calculations are usually carried out in one of two ways:
• Find the thinnest wall pipe that will satisfy a given design pressure and temper-
ature with a given corrosion allowance
• Find the maximum design pressure at a given temperature for a known wall
thickness and corrosion allowance

Difference between Piping and Pipeline Formulae


Piping Formula. This manual is concerned only with plant piping covered by
ASME/ANSI B31.1, Power Piping, and B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum
Refinery Piping. Both use the same design formula:

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

PD
t m = ----------------------------- + c
2 ( SE + PY )
(Eq. 200-1)
Pipeline Formulae. Equations 200-2 and 200-3 (from ASME/ANSI B31.4 and
B31.8) are for pipeline design only and are shown here only for comparison.
The ASME/ANSI B31.4 design formula is:

PD
t = --------
2S
(Eq. 200-2)
The ASME/ANSI B31.8 design formula is:

P =  ---------- F E T
2ST
 D 
(Eq. 200-3)
These simpler formulae should not be used for the design of piping systems. The
allowable stresses and various design factors for the three formulae are defined
differently, depending on the type of construction, area classification and pipe
used. Consult the Pipeline Manual for guidance.
Because the design formulae for piping and pipelines are different, be careful to
select the correct code and apply the correct design factors. As an example, the
maximum design pressure for NPS 6 Sch. 40 ASTM A106 Gr B or API 5L Gr B
pipe is tabulated in Figure 200-6 to show the difference between the ratings allowed
by the various Code sections.

Fig. 200-6 Example Pressure Ratings(1) of NPS 6 SCH 40 ASTM A53 GR.B Seamless and
ERW Pipe According to Different Code Sections
Seamless Pipe ERW Pipe(2)
Allowable Stress at Maximum Design Maximum Design
Code Section 100°F, psi Pressure, psig Pressure, psig
B31.1 15,000 1143 975
B31.3 20,000 1524 1295
B31.4 S = (0.72)(35,000) 2130 2130
B31.8 S = 35,000 2130 2130
F = 0.72
T=1
(1) These ratings apply to all fittings that have no specific pressure rating and to all that are rated by
comparison to equivalent pipe.
(2) Joint efficiency for ERW pipe: B31.1 and B31.3 E = 0.85
B31.4 and B31.8 E = 1.0

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Design Pressure Formula for Piping


A design pressure and temperature must be established prior to any specific pipe
wall thickness calculations. This may be the service pressure and temperature plus a
safety factor, or the pressure/ temperature limitations of the flanges, if the flange
class has been established (flange ratings are tabulated in ASME B16.5).
ASME/ANSI B31.3 is the Company-wide basis for development of most piping
designs and specifications. The following wall thickness calculations are based on
the 1984 edition, Paragraph 304. Standard Form PIM-EF-539, Wall Thickness
Calculations, can be used in conjunction with the ASME/ANSI B31.3 procedure
outlined below for documentation of calculated pipe wall thicknesses.
The required thickness of straight sections of pipe shall be determined in accor-
dance with the following equation:

tm = t + c
(Eq. 200-4)
where:
tm = required minimum pipe wall thickness, including pressure design
thickness, mechanical allowance, and corrosion/erosion allow-
ance, in. The selected nominal thickness must be equal to or
larger than tm
t = pressure design thickness, in.
c = additional wall thickness for mechanical allowances (thread or
groove depth) plus corrosion/erosion allowances, in.
Pressure Design Thickness (t). Pressure design thickness, t, is calculated as follows:

PD
t = -----------------------------
2 ( SE + PY )
(Eq. 200-5)
where:
P = internal design pressure, psig
D = outside diameter of pipe, in.
t = pressure design thickness, in. (t must be less than D/6)
Y = coefficient based on pipe material. Use 0.4 for carbon steel at
900°F temperature and below. (See ASME/ANSI B31.3 for other
materials and temperatures.)
S = basic allowable stress for material from ASME/ANSI B31.1 or
B31.3 Table A-1, psi
E = quality factor from Table A1-A or A1-B of ASME/ANSI B31.3
(This is a function of how the pipe is manufactured. For example,
E=1.0 for seamless pipe, and 0.85 for ERW.)

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Additional Wall Thickness (c). The additional wall thickness required for mechan-
ical and corrosion/erosion allowances should be as follows:
• Pipe threads
Nominal Pipe Size Thread Depth, in
½ and ¾ 0.057
1 through 2 0.070

• Groove depths. As specified. Victaulic couplings, for example, require the


addition of the manufacturer’s specified groove depth to the pressure design
thickness.
Note If t, based on the sum of the pressure and mechanical allowances, is less
than the “throwaway” thickness on PIM-EF-539, then the throwaway figure should
be used in the remaining calculations. The throwaway thickness provides some
structural strength for self-support. Some OPCOs prefer other throwaway
thicknesses.
• Corrosion/erosion allowance. Varies from zero (no corrosion or erosion) to
3/16 inch (severe corrosion or erosion). The actual amount should be deter-
mined with the help of materials engineers; 1/16 to 1/8 inch is typical.
Nominal Wall Thickness. The total required minimum wall thickness, tm, is
arrived at by totalling pressure design thickness, and mechanical and corro-
sion/erosion allowances. A further allowance is made for mill tolerances (12½% for
seamless pipe), and the nearest larger commercially available nominal thickness is
specified.
Therefore:

tm
nominal thickness ≥ -------------
0.875
(Eq. 200-6)
and

PD
t m = ----------------------------- + c
2 ( SE + PY )
(Eq. 200-1)
Nominal wall thickness of pipe can be obtained from pipe manufacturers’ hand-
books or ASME/ANSI B36.10M, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Not all
nominal wall thicknesses made are always commercially available.
Pipe wall thicknesses calculated as shown here do not specifically provide for
unusual thrusts or bending moments. Most sizes have sufficient metal to withstand
moderate displacement strains from normal thermal expansion or terminal move-
ments, but this should bechecked as described in Section 330, and should adhere to
code requirements for expansion and flexibility.

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234 Economics of Pipe Wall Selection


Thin Wall Pipe
Pipe wall thicknesses should be selected with care. In a given size, thin wall pipe
can be more expensive to use than standard wall pipe. Costs of piping materials for
several plants were analyzed to compare (1) thin wall pipe and fittings, (2) thin wall
pipe and taper-bored standard weight fittings, and (3) standard weight pipe and
fittings. The results were incorporated into the Corporation Piping Specification
(GB135169), but may be stated in general terms as follows. For NPS 2 through NPS
24, Standard Weight pipe and Standard Weight fittings are less costly than Schedule
20. On long, straight runs of pipe without many fittings or when ERW pipe is used,
thinner-than-standard walls can frequently save money. However, where a number
of fittings are involved, standard weight pipe and fittings are normally less costly
than special thin wall fittings or taper-boring Standard Weight fittings. Also, avail-
ability of thin wall fittings and taper-bored fittings and flanges is often a problem.

Future Maintenance
Standard wall thicknesses will lead to simpler and less expensive maintenance.

Flange Rating versus Service Conditions


Where flanges have a higher rating than required by the design pressure and temper-
ature (for example, Class 300 flanges used for H2S or LPG service when actual
pressure and temperature conditions require only Class 150 flanges), savings might
be realized for large quantities of pipe if the actual pressure and temperature of the
system are used for pipe design. Any extra cost to taper bore the flanges or fittings
for good weld fit-up to the thinner wall pipe must be considered.

Future Capacity
Anomalies in pipe wall thicknesses may allow economical use of deviations from
customary economics by switching from some pipe sizes to the nearest larger sizes
(for example, NPS 1½ Schedule 80 to NPS 2 Schedule 40, which has approxi-
mately the same weight per foot). Runs of the larger pipe not having many valves or
fittings can be equal or nearly equal in cost.

235 Tubing
It is often necessary to choose between tubing and small diameter piping. Where
mechanical damage is not a hazard, tubing offers several advantages. It is faster and
less expensive to form and install tubing than to fit up threaded or socket weld
piping; tubing has less mass and therefore undergoes less stress at connections in
vibrating service; and in most systems it has fewer connections, and therefore fewer
potential leaks. Tubing is not recommended for process service. The most common
services are instrument air, utilities, instrument process leads, and steam tracing.
One-quarter-inch through ½-inch diameter tubing is in common use in almost all
facilities. Use of sizes over ½ inch is discouraged because of concern for tight
connections, greater possibility of kinking and, in the case of stainless steel, diffi-

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

culty in handling; ½-inch diameter, 0.065-inch wall SS tubing is the upper practical
limit for manual field bending.

Materials for Tubing


Materials specified are typically (1) seamless annealed copper with brass fittings for
nonhazardous low pressure services to its upper limit of 400°F, (2) 304 stainless
steel with 316 SS fittings for corrosive service, hazardous service or higher pres-
sures/temperatures, and (3) plastic for instrument air in certain areas.
Seamless annealed copper tubing with brass fittings per ASTM B88 Type K, Water
Tubing, is recommended for utilities and steam tracing. Instrument air tubing should
conform to ASTM B280 (DHP), Refrigeration Tubing. Copper tubing has an upper
temperature limit of 400°F. Note that ASTM B88 tubing is specified with a nominal
diameter 1/8 inch less than the actual outside diameter, while other copper tubing is
specified by actual outside diameters. This must be considered when matching
tubing with compression fittings, which are sized by actual outside diameters of the
tubing.
Stainless steel is always used for hydrocarbons and in hazardous or critical services
in fire risk areas. Company practice is to specify solution-heat-treated and pickled
Type 304 stainless steel per ASTM A269, with 316SS fittings in corrosive service.
This material is included in ASME/ANSI B31.3. It is available in seamless and
welded seam types and in several wall thicknesses for each diameter. A maximum
wall thickness of 0.065 inch is recommended; above this there can be problems
obtaining a proper seal with compression fittings. Seamless is preferred because of
the higher allowable stress and concern for tight connections.
Carbon steel is not recommended because internal corrosion and scaling can plug
the tubing and damage instruments and equipment.
Aluminum tubing was formerly used for instrument air in chemical (ammonia,
H2S, etc.) plants, but is no longer recommended. It proved susceptible to work-hard-
ening and frequent failure at the tubing connections, resulting from the normal
minor vibration of process piping.
Plastic tubing is used for instrument air in certain limited areas, such as within
compressor panels.

Connections for Tubing


The preferred connections for tubing are compression fittings, and there are many
variations. Compression fittings have one or more ferrules that grip the tubing
within a compression nut. Care must be taken to avoid a reversal of ferrules during
installation.
Compression fitting suppliers with proven success in Company facilities are Craw-
ford Swagelok, Hoke Gyrolok and Parker CPI. Other types of fittings, including
flared tubing fittings, are considered poorer choices. Operating centers should stan-
dardize the fittings used within their facilities to avoid mixing fitting components
and thereby risking leaks.

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Because a compression fitting actually deforms the tube to obtain a proper seal, the
tube wall thickness and hardness should always be checked against the fitting manu-
facturer’s maximum wall thickness and hardness limitations. Also, the tubing
surface condition is important for proper sealing; scratches or dents can result in
leaks, especially in gas service.

Pressure Rating of Tubing

Fig. 200-7 ASTM A269 Seamless 316 Stainless Steel Tubing Maximum Allowable Working Pressures, psig at 100 to
300°F
Tube Wall Thickness, in.
Tube OD, in. 0.028 0.035 0.049 0.065 0.083 0.095 0.109 0.120
0.2500 4000 5000 7100 9400
0.3125 4000 5600 7500
0.3750 3400 4700 6200
0.5000 2500 3500 4700 6000
0.6250 2800 3700 4800 5500
0.7500 2400 3100 4000 4600 5200
0.8750 2000 2700 3400 3900 4500
1.0000 2300 3000 3400 3900 4300
Pressure ratings are calculated by formula:
2tSE
P = -----------
D
(Eq. 200-7)
where:
P = design pressure, psig
t = minimum wall thickness = nominal wall thickness minus tolerance
(tolerance for less than ½-in. OD is 15%)
(tolerance for ½-in. and larger OD is 10%)
S = allowable stress at temperature, psi
E = weld efficiency (for welded ASTM A269, E = 0.8)
D = outside diameter, in.
The calculated values are rounded to the nearest 100 psi per ASTM A450.

Allowable working pressures for given tubing sizes are available from tables
supplied by most tubing and tubing fitting manufacturers. However, varying pipe
code interpretations are applied in these tables, and the information is
inconsistent.
For hazardous and critical services, allowable working pressures for stainless steel
should be checked using Equations 200-1 and 200-4 through 200-6. If welded seam

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

tubing is used, a quality factor E from Table A-1B in ASME/ANSI B31.3 must be
used. Also, ASTM A-269 allows a ±15% variation in wall thickness for tubing less
than ½-inch O.D. and ±10% for tubing ½-inch O.D. or larger. This is similar to mill
tolerance for pipe.
Normally no corrosion/erosion allowance is applied to tubing. If corrosion is
suspected, consult the Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC.
Figure 200-7 gives maximum allowable working pressures for seamless stainless
steel tubing per ASTM A-269, in the most common sizes and wall thicknesses.
Figure 200-8 is a table of de-rated allowable pressures for ½-inch O.D. stainless
steel tubing at elevated temperatures; and an example calculation.

Fig. 200-8 Temperature-derated Allowable Pressures for ½-inch O.D. Stainless Steel Tubing
ASTM A269 Stainless Steel Tubing—0.5 in. OD Derated Allowable Pressures at Elevated Temperatures, psig
Welded Tubing Seamless Tubing
Temp, °F 0.5-in. OD, 0.065-in. Wall 0.5-in. OD, 0.065-in. Wall
304 SS 316 SS 304 SS 316 SS
100 3700 3700 4700 4700
300 3700 3700 4700 4700
600 3100 3200 3800 4000
850 2800 2900 3500 3700
Pressure ratings are calculated by formula:
2tSE
P = -----------
D
(Eq. 200-8)
where:
P = design pressure, psig
t = minimum wall thickness = nominal wall thickness minus tolerance
(tolerance for ½-in. OD is 10%)
S = allowable stress at temperature, psi
E = weld efficiency (for welded ASTM A269, E = 0.8)
D = outside diameter, in.
The calculated values are rounded to the nearest 100 psi per ASTM A450.
Example: ½-in. OD, 0.065-in. wall, 316 SS welded ASTM A269 tube, 100°F:

2tSE ( 2 × 0.065 × 0.9 × 20, 000 × 0.8 )


P = ----------- = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 3744 psig
D 0.5
After rounding,
P = 3700 psig

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In the midrange of wall thicknesses, compression fittings for each tubing size are
generally pressure-rated higher than the connected tubing. For critical and
hazardous services, and particularly with heavier wall thicknesses, this should be
confirmed with the vendor.

Copper Tubing Applications


One-quarter-inch O.D. instrument air is the most common copper tubing applica-
tion in almost all facilities. Tubing is available with a PVC jacket for use in atmo-
spheres corrosive to copper. See the Instrumentation and Control Manual.
Another application is 3/8-inch and 1/2-inch O.D. steam tracing beneath thermal
insulation on piping and equipment. To guarantee leak-tight intermediate connec-
tions in long runs of insulated pipe, soldered joints in place of connectors can be
used, or the connectors brought outside the insulation.
Preinsulated copper tubing is used for steam supply and condensate return lines
connected to steam tracing. This may be more economical than insulated pipe at
some locations. See the Utilities Manual.
Low-temperature cooling water connections and lube oil connections on rotating
equipment use copper in noncritical off-plot service, as do drinking water systems,
where mechanical strength for support is not a concern.

Stainless Steel Tubing Applications


Instrument connections downstream of the first block valve on process lines use
usually ½-inch O.D. stainless steel tubing with 0.065-inch wall thickness for
mechanical strength. Presteam-traced and preinsulated tubing bundles are available
for instrument process leads. Stainless steel instrument tubing is discussed in
Section 340 of this manual and in the Instrumentation and Control Manual.
Self-contained cooling water and lube oil systems on hot or critical rotating equip-
ment normally use ½-inch O.D. stainless steel with 0.065-inch wall thickness. Refer
to the relevant equipment manual or the General Machinery Manual.
Centrifugal pump mechanical seal flush connections use stainless steel with a
½-inch O.D. and 0.065-inch wall.
Stainless steel replaces copper tubing for instrument air and steam tracing in corro-
sive atmospheres such as chemical, ammonia, sulfur, and H2S removal plants.

Plastic Tubing Applications


Polyethylene tubing, singly or in color-coded bundles, is available for instrument air
service. It is normally installed underground, or in control houses and similarly fire-
protected areas. In shutdown systems, polyethylene tubing is used as a failsafe
device which initiates shutdown when burned through by fire. See the Instrumenta-
tion and Control Manual.

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

240 Fittings
Fittings are used for:
• Joining straight pieces of pipe
• Changing direction
• Making branch connections
• Changing the size of pipe
This section discusses materials for fittings, including the industry standards that
cover pressure rating of fittings fabricated from these materials, and recommended
materials for various applications. The section then describes various fittings.

241 Materials for Fittings


Fittings are fabricated of forged steel, wrought steel, and malleable iron.
Forged steel socket welding and threaded fittings are manufactured in sizes from
NPS 1/8 to NPS 4. Corporate Piping Classes (defined in the Corporation Piping
Specification in Volume 2 of this manual) generally specify forged steel socket
welding or threaded fittings for the NPS ¾ through NPS 1½ size range and allow
their use for NPS 2 fittings in special cases.
Malleable iron threaded fittings are manufactured in sizes from NPS ½ through
NPS 6. Corporate Piping Classes allow them for instrument air and cooling water
service only.
Wrought steel butt welding fittings are manufactured in sizes from NPS ½ to
NPS 48. Corporate Piping Classes generally specify them for NPS 2 and larger
piping. In exceptional cases, where crevice corrosion is of concern or in lube oil
systems where it is difficult to clean dirt and slag from the crevices, butt welding
fittings may be specified for NPS ¾ and larger piping. Butt welding of pipe smaller
than NPS 2 is more expensive than other types of joints.
Wrought steel butt welding short radius elbows and returns are a special class
of fittings manufactured for use in close quarters. It is significant that these fittings
are rated only for 80% of the pressure rating calculated for seamless pipe of the
same size and nominal thickness.
The pressure rating method for each of the above classes of fittings is somewhat
different. Refer to Section 242.

242 Dimensional Standards for Fittings


The four ASME/ANSI standards for fittings are discussed next.

ASME/ANSI B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded


Fittings covered by this standard include: 45- and 90-degree elbows, tees, crosses,
couplings, caps, plugs, and bushings.

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Forged steel fittings are designated by pressure classes. The pressure classes and the
schedule of pipe corresponding to each are given in Figure 200-9.

Fig. 200-9 Forged Steel Fitting Pressure Classes, per ASME/ANSI B16.11
Class
Threaded 2000(1) 3000(1) 6000
Socket Welding 3000 6000 9000
Corresponding Pipe Sch 80 Sch 160 XXS
Schedules
(1) Company practice for both threaded and socket welding systems is to use Class 3000 fittings with
Schedule 80 pipe and Class 6000 fittings with Schedule 160 pipe.

Pressure Ratings. The maximum allowable pressure of the fitting is that computed
for straight seamless pipe of equivalent material and corresponding pipe schedule
(from Figure 200-9). The wall thickness used in the computation is that tabulated in
ASME/ANSI B36.10M for the size and applicable schedule of pipe, reduced by
manufacturing tolerances and other allowances (corrosion and thread depth).
Marking. Fittings are marked with:
• Manufacturer’s name or trademark
• Material identification (such as A105)
• Suffix “WP”, indicating conformance to B16.11
• Pressure class
• Size (NPS)
Material. Forged carbon steel fittings conform to ASTM A105. There is only one
grade designated A105.
Forged alloy steel fittings conform to ASTM A182 and come in many grades,
according to composition. For example, ASTM A182 Gr F11 is 1¼ Cr-½ Mo;
ASTM A182 Gr F304L is type 304L stainless steel. For further details refer
to ASTM A182.
Forged carbon and low alloy steel fittings intended for low temperature service
conform to ASTM A350. Chemical composition is specified by grade. Tensile
properties are specified by Class designations. For example, ASTM A350 Gr LF3
Class 2 is 3% Ni. For further details refer to ASTM A350.

ASME/ANSI B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings


This standard covers malleable iron threaded fittings in Class 150 for sizes NPS 1/8
through NPS 6 and Class 300 for sizes NPS 1/4 through NPS 6. Fittings include: 45-
and 90-degree elbows, Tees, crosses, Y-branches, couplings (straight and reducing),
street tees and elbows, caps, and return bends.
Pressure Ratings. The pressure ratings are as listed in Figure 200-10.

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Marking. Class 150 fittings are marked only with the manufacturer’s name or
trademark.
Class 300 fittings are marked with the:
• Manufacturer’s name or trademark
• Numeral 300
• Letters MI to designate malleable iron
• Size (NPS)
Material. The material conforms to ASTM A197.

Fig. 200-10 Pressure Ratings for Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, per ASME/ANSI B16.3
Class 150 Class 300
Temperature, °F All Sizes Sizes ¼ to 1 Sizes 1¼ to 2 Sizes 2½ to 3
-20 to 150 300 2000 1500 1000
200 265 1785 1350 910
250 225 1575 1200 825
300 185 1360 1050 735
(1)
350 150 1150 900 650

400 935 750 560


450 726 600 475
500 510 450 385
550 300 300 300
(1) Permissible for service temperature up to 366°F, reflecting the temperature of saturated steam at 150 psig.

ASME/ANSI B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings


This standard covers the following fittings in sizes NPS ½ through NPS 48. Fittings
include: long radius elbows (90-degree and 45-degree), long radius reducing
elbows, long radius returns (180-degree return bends), straight tees and crosses,
reducing outlet tees and crosses, lap joint stub ends, caps, and reducers (concentric
and eccentric).
Butt welding fittings are designated by weight or schedule of the associated pipe.
The commonly stocked weights are standard weight, extra strong, Schedule 160,
and double extra strong.
Pressure Ratings. The allowable pressure ratings for fittings designed in accor-
dance with this standard are calculated as for straight seamless pipe in accordance
with ASME/ANSI B31.
Marking. Fittings are marked with the following:
• Manufacturer’s name or trademark

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200 Piping Component Selection Piping Manual

• Material identification
• Prefix WP, indicating conformance to B16.9
• Schedule number or wall thickness designation
Material. Materials for wrought carbon and alloy steel fittings conform to ASTM
A234. Chemical composition is designated by grades. Low carbon wrought steel is
designated by ASTM A234 Gr WPB; 1¼ Cr-½ Mo is designated by ASTM A234
Gr WP11.
Wrought austenitic stainless steel fittings conform to ASTM A403. This standard
covers two general classes, WP and CR. Fittings designated WP must withstand a
test pressure equal to that prescribed for the specified matching pipe. Pressure
requirements for Class CR fittings are based on MSS SP-43 and are less rigorous.
The Company does not recommend use of Class CR fittings. Class WP fittings are
subdivided into three subclasses:
WP-S Seamless Construction
WP-W Welded Construction; X-ray of manufacturers’ welds only
WP-WX Welded Construction; full X-ray of all welds.

Company practice is to specify WP-S or WP-WX. The type of stainless steel is indi-
cated in the grade symbol. For example: ASTM A403 Gr WP-S 304L is a 304L
seamless stainless steel fitting.
Wrought carbon and alloy steel fittings intended for low temperature service
conform to ASTM A420. Chemical composition and tensile requirements are desig-
nated by the grade symbol. The standard lists 4 grades: Gr WPL6, Gr WPL3,
Gr WPL8, Gr WPL9.

ASME/ANSI B16.28, Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows


and Returns
This standard covers short radius elbows and returns.
Pressure Ratings. The pressure ratings are 80% of those calculated for seamless
pipe of the same size, material, and nominal thickness.
Marking. Fittings are marked with:
• Manufacturer’s name or trademark
• Material identification
• Prefix WP, indicating conformance to B16.28
• Schedule number or nominal wall thickness designation
Material. Material references are the same as given for ASME/ANSI B16.9.
Note Use of short radius fittings is discouraged because of the higher pressure
drop and lower pressure rating. Generally in a Class 150 flanged system with stan-
dard weight pipe and sizes up to 12 inches the pressure rating of the short radius
elbows will be satisfactory, but it has to be checked.

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

243 Company Practice for Fitting Use


Company practice is to use butt weld fittings for piping NPS 2 and larger and
threaded or socket weld fittings for most NPS 1½ and smaller piping. Except for
galvanized pipe in air and drinking water service, threaded piping larger than NPS
1½ is rarely used today. This discussion is limited to carbon and alloy steel fittings.
Cast iron pressure fittings are used almost exclusively in saltwater service. Small
diameter piping is discussed in Section 340 of this manual.
Weld fittings should be wrought carbon or alloy steel (ASTM A105, A182, A234,
A350, and A420), not cast steel, which has proven less reliable. The metallurgy of
the fittings should always match that of the pipe. Consult the Materials and Equip-
ment Engineering Unit of CRTC if this is not possible.
To facilitate fit-up and welding, the bore of the fitting should be aligned as accu-
rately as possible with the bore of the pipe; for details see Standard Drawing
GC-L34496. In some cases, standard weight butt weld fittings do not fit well
enough with thinner wall pipe to obtain proper ID alignment for welding.
When the wall thicknesses of the fitting and pipe differ by more than 1/16 inch,
ASME/ANSI B31.3 requires the thicker component to be taper-bored, or back-
beveled, so that the inside diameter mismatch does not exceed 1/16 inch at the weld
joint. This will permit better quality welds in the root pass, and the more gradual
change in cross-section will reduce the likelihood of stress-related failure.
Carbon steel welds on pipe and fittings with 3/4-inch or greater wall thickness and
most alloy welds require heat treatment. These requirements are covered in the
Welding Manual.

244 Straight Connections


These fittings—couplings, unions, and flanges—are shown in Figure 200-11.
Flanges are discussed in detail in Section 250.

245 Direction Changes


The three fittings that change direction are elbows, bends and miters. See
Figure 200-12.

Elbows
Wrought steel elbows (or ells) of 90 degrees and 45 degrees are readily available.
Returns of 180 degrees are also available, but are seldom used other than in fired
heater coils and heat exchangers. For angles other than 45 and 90 degrees, an ell is
usually trimmed to fit. Long radius elbows are preferred to provide smooth flow and
reduce erosion. Short radius ells are allowed when space restrictions require their
use.
☞ Caution short radius ells and return bends are pressure rated at only 80% of
connected piping with the same wall thickness and material.

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Normally, only standard weight (ST), extra strong (XS), and double extra strong
(XX) wall thickness ells are available off-the-shelf. When matching thin wall pipe,
it is usually less expensive to purchase heavier wall ells and back-bevel the ends (on
a lathe) to match the pipe than to special-order the ells. Section 230 discusses the
economics of using thin wall pipe.
Although not in common use, long tangent ells can be economical for mounting
slip-on flanges in close quarters, and 90-degree reducing ells for combining direc-
tion change with line size change in close quarters.

Bends
Common practice in off-plot and remote locations (including offshore platforms) is
to install pipe bends instead of fittings. They have also replaced special heavy wall
fittings in high pressure process plants. Typical bends are made to a radius of five
times the pipe diameter and can be done in the shop or the field. Care must be taken
not to reduce either (1) the pipe wall thickness to less than allowable by ASME/
ANSI B31.3 or (2) the flow area.
Induction bends, cold bends to a radius less than five times the diameter and some
alloys require postweld heat treating, depending on the material (see paragraph
332.4 of ASME/ANSI B31.3). Piping fabrication with bends is discussed in Model
Specifications PIM-MS-2505, PIM-MS-4770, PIM-MS-4772. Model Specification
PPL-MS-4737, Induction Bending (in the Pipeline Manual), specifies procedures
for induction bends. See also Section 300 of the Pipeline Manual.

Miters
Once common in all services, 45- and 90-degree miters have been abandoned
because of their higher labor cost and greater flow resistance. Welded miters have
high stress intensification factors and are good candidates for fatigue failure, espe-
cially in hot service. No miters should be buried. Miters may be safe to use for very
large piping in low pressure service (below 200 psi). Design calculations for miter
bends are included in ASME/ANSI B31.3.

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Fig. 200-11 Straight Connection Fittings Courtesy of Taylor Forge and Bonney Forge (1 of 3)

Slip-on Flange Threaded Flange

Lap Joint Flange Welding Neck Flange

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Fig. 200-11 Straight Connection Fittings Courtesy of Taylor Forge and Bonney Forge (2 of 3)

Socket Welding Flange Threaded Union

Full Coupling Socket Welding Union

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Fig. 200-11 Straight Connection Fittings Courtesy of Taylor Forge and Bonney Forge (3 of 3)

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200 Piping Component Selection Piping Manual

Fig. 200-12 Change of Direction Fittings Courtesy of Canvil and Taylor Forge (1 of 2)

90° Long-Radius Elbow 90° Reducing Elbow

45° Long-Radius Elbow 90° Short-Radius Elbow

180° Long-Radius Return 180° Short-Radius Return

90° Three Piece Miter


Elbow

Elbows and Returns

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Fig. 200-12 Change of Direction Fittings Courtesy of Canvil and Taylor Forge (2 of 2)

Socket Welding Elbows

Threaded Elbows

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200 Piping Component Selection Piping Manual

246 Branch Connections


The proper selection of branch reinforcement for given service conditions depends
on ASME/ANSI B31.3 requirements and material and fabrication costs.
Figure 200-13 illustrates branch connections.

Tees
Wrought steel tees make the strongest and safest branch connections and are recom-
mended for most applications. They have great resistance to fatigue in vibrating
service and are used almost exclusively in hydrocarbon service when the branch
size and run size are the same. Wrought steel reducing tees and straight tees used
with weld reducers are equal in quality.

Reinforced Branches
Weldolets, sweepolets, sockolets, thredolets, elbolets, and stub-ins with saddles and
reinforcing pads are acceptable. Unreinforced stub-ins are allowed only for low-
pressure, noncritical utilities.
For significant differences in branch size and run size, integrally reinforced weldo-
lets are generally preferable to reinforced stub-ins. Their welding is more consistent
and easier to inspect, and calculation is not required for code compliance. See the
Corporation Piping Specification for recommended branch reinforcing tables. These
tables must be used in conjunction with the appropriate piping class sheet.
Sweepolets are normally used in high-pressure pipeline service. They offer strength
with low residual metal stress, and the attachment welds are easily radiographed.
Saddles, reinforcing pads, weldolets, and stub-ins should be installed per
ASME/ANSI B31.3 and Standard Drawing GC-L34496.
Weld bosses are no longer recommended for piping. They have been used in place
of thredolets and the like, but they are custom-made and costly. (The rationale for
their use was: they provided weld reinforcement while allowing enough length for
damaged threads to be cut off and re-tapped.) Although ASME/ANSI B31.3 allows
threaded and socket weld couplings or half-couplings, the potential for poor attach-
ment welds makes their use unadvisable.

Other
Branch connections at other than 90 degrees are not recommended and seldom
encountered; however, ASME/ANSI B31.3 covers calculation of reinforcement
requirements for such connections. They should be considered only for utility
services. Prefabricated 45-degree lateral outlets are available and integrally rein-
forced latrolets are recommended for small diameter piping connections. Welding
crosses are acceptable but seldom used. Almost all connection needs are met with
tees of some type.

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Fig. 200-13 Branch Connection Fittings Courtesy of Bonney Forge, Canvil, and Taylor Forge
(1 of 3)

Straight Reducing

Threaded Tees

Socket Welding Tee

Straight Reducing

Butt Welding Tees

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200 Piping Component Selection Piping Manual

Fig. 200-13 Branch Connection Fittings Courtesy of Bonney Forge, Canvil, and Taylor Forge
(2 of 3)

Weldolet®

Socket Welding

Butt Welding Elbolet® Threaded Elbolet®

Elbolet®

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Fig. 200-13 Branch Connection Fittings Courtesy of Bonney Forge, Canvil, and Taylor Forge
(3 of 3)

Butt-Weld Threaded Socket-Weld


For 45° Lateral Connections

Latrolet®

☞Caution
Before choosing thredolet
in cyclic service, check
the branch tables in the
Piping Specification to be
sure it is allowed.

Thredolet® Sockolet®

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247 Reducing and End Closure Fittings


These fittings (Figure 200-14) are used wherever pipe changes size and where
piping ends.

Fig. 200-14 Reducers and End Closure Fittings Courtesy of Bonny Forge, Taylor Forge and
Standard Fittings (1 of 2)

Concentric Reducer Eccentric Reducer

Butt Welding Reducers

Butt Welding Cap

Concentric Eccentric
Swaged Nipple Swaged Nipple

Swaged Nipples

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Fig. 200-14 Reducers and End Closure Fittings Courtesy of Bonny Forge, Taylor Forge and
Standard Fittings (2 of 2)

Eccentric Swaged Nipple, Beveled Large End - Plain Small End (BLE-PSE)

Concentric Swaged Nipple, Threaded Both Ends (TBE)

Eccentric Swaged Nipple, Beveled Large End - Threaded Small End (BLE-TSE)

Steel Barstock Plug (Solid)

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Changes in Pipe Size


Changes in pipe size are normally done with concentric or eccentric reducers and
infrequently with reducing elbows, which are not readily available. Changes in pipe
wall thickness between sizes sometimes makes it necessary to back-bevel one end
of the reducer or pipe to meet fit-up requirements. Unless care is taken in the selec-
tion and installation of reducers, pockets of liquid or vapor can be trapped, requiring
additional venting or draining.
Standard Drawing GB-L88267 provides dimensional information for the fabrica-
tion of welding tapers. These are used when large line size transitions are not
commercially available or when minimum system pressure loss is desired.

Line Terminations
Pipe ends not connected to equipment, for instance, at the end of pipeway headers,
are normally capped with wrought steel weld caps. If the line must be cleaned peri-
odically or if it may be extended in the future, a flange with a blind flange is used.
See Section 320 regarding the use of ells with dummy extensions instead of capped
deadlegs.

250 Flanges, Blanks, and Blinds

251 Flanges
Flanges provide a bolted, separable joint in piping. Most piping connections to
equipment are flanged for ease of installation and maintenance. Most valves in sizes
NPS 2 and larger are flanged.
There are two categories of flange joints: (1) unconfined gasket that can blow out
under excess pressure or with poor makeup and (2) confined gasket that may leak
but cannot blow out.

When to Use Flanges


The use of flanges and nonflange connections (see Section 260) should be limited to
locations where there is a clear need for removal of valves or equipment, for access
or maintenance, or for blinding. Because all connections, including flanges, are
potential leak sources, their use should be kept to the minimum needed for safe and
reasonably convenient operation and maintenance.
Other than welding, the preferred means of connecting NPS 2 and larger piping in
most services is the flange. Flanges are also an option with small piping. This is
discussed in Section 340.
Flanges should be used in place of threaded unions for small piping in systems
subject to thermal shock and in steam services between 150 psig and about
600 psig. At 600 psig the use of flanges and other connections in all services is
further limited because of the high potential for leaks.

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

In LPG and hydrogen service flanges should also be used in small piping and have a
minimum rating of Class 300. See Section 1100 for a detailed discussion.

Industry Standards
ASME/ANSI B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings. This standard covers the
pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions and testing for flanges in sizes
NPS ½ to NPS 24. ANSE B16.5 flanges are divided into Classes 150, 300, 400,
600, 900, 1500, and 2500.
The flange dimensions are standardized. Pressure-temperature ratings are given for
the most commonly used materials. These ratings are applicable to the flanged joint
if the gaskets and bolting specified in the standard are used. The standard also gives
a method of pressure rating for materials not included in the tables.
ASME/ANSI B31 also allows ratings for flanges to be calculated using the proce-
dure in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1,
Appendix 2. This calculation is now available as a PC program. For certain flange
and gasket combinations the calculated ratings can be higher than the ratings tabu-
lated in B16.5.
Other Flange Standards. ASME/ANSI B16.5 only covers flanges up to NPS 24.
ASME/ANSI B16.47 includes dimensional standards for flanges up to NPS 60.

Temperature Limitations of Class 150 Flanges


Current Company practice is to limit Class 150 flanges to a maximum temperature
of 450°F because of the potential for leakage caused by warping and the subsequent
fire hazard. Nevertheless, several Company installations have many years of good
experience with Class 150 flanges at temperatures up to 700°F.

Materials Recommendations
Flanges are available in as many materials as is pipe. They are selected by type of
connection to the pipe, flange face, and ASME/ANSI B16.5 Class designation.
Although available in forged or cast steel, forged is specified for its greater reli-
ability. ASME/ANSI B16.5 has four groups of materials within the general cate-
gory of carbon steel (groups 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4). The Company avoids using
carbon steels from group 1.2 because they can produce excessively hard welds.

252 Flange Facing


The common flange facings are flat (plain) face, raised face, and ring joint. Tongue-
and-groove facings may still be found in older installations, and may still be used on
some equipment, but are no longer used on piping flanges.
Flat facing is normally used only on cast iron flanges or steel flanges that mate to
cast iron flanges, and requires a full face gasket. Raised face is the most common
flange facing. The ring joint flange facing is used for high pressure, high tempera-
ture services such as steam and hydrogen above 600 psig, and hydrocarbons above
Class 600.

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Raised Face Flanges


These flanges are used with both 1/16-inch composition gaskets and spiral-wound
gaskets. When used with composition gaskets, the joint is considered unconfined.
However, when used with spiral-wound gaskets with a centering ring, raised face
flange connections are considered the equivalent of confined gasket connections in
most services. With spiral-wound gaskets, the flange face must not be excessively
rough or the gasket will not seat properly. For this application, flanges should
comply with paragraph 6.4.4.3 of ASME/ANSI B16.5:
“Either a serrated concentric or serrated spiral finish having a resultant surface
finish from 125 µin. to 250 µin. average roughness shall be furnished. The cutting
tool employed should have an approximate 0.06 in. or larger radius, and there
should be from 45 grooves/in. through 55 grooves/in.”
Composition gaskets can be used with flange faces rougher than 250-microinch, but
it is usually impractical to segregate and control the use of multiple flange facing
standards, both during construction and for maintenance. The aforementioned 125
to 250-microinch roughness standard can be used with both composition and spiral-
wound gaskets.

Flat Face Flanges


Flat face cast iron flanges can break from the moment induced by bolting against a
raised face. To avoid this problem, steel flat face (or plain face) flanges are speci-
fied for flanging against Class 125 cast iron valves or equipment. Full face composi-
tion gaskets are required.
Class 125 flat face cast iron flanges are dimensionally compatible with Class 150
raised face steel flanges, (except for the raised face) and the two can be bolted
together. Machining the raised face steel flange to a flat face is often more expe-
dient than ordering a special flange. Cast iron flange ratings above Class 125 are
seldom encountered.

ORJ Flanges
Octagonal or Oval Ring Joint (ORJ)—also called Ring Type Joint (RTJ)—flanges
are more secure than raised face flanges with spiral-wound gaskets. These confined
gasket flanges are specified for high-temperature/pressure and hazardous services.
Company practice is to use ORJ flanges with all hydrogen systems and any hydro-
carbon systems that contain appreciable amounts of hydrogen. They should be
considered for all services with Class 900 flanges or higher.
ORJ flanges are more expensive than raised face flanges, and each application
should be individually reviewed. Factors to consider are the exacting fit-up require-
ments and the additional flexibility of the connected piping needed for gasket
installation and removal. The flange groove and ring gasket are also extremely
susceptible to mechanical damage during handling and storing. A small scratch on
either surface can result in a leak. Small scratches and nicks can be removed from
the groove by lapping a ring into the groove. This is expensive, especially when
done in the field. See also Section 280.

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Piping Manual 200 Piping Component Selection

Tongue-and-Groove Flanges
Once in common use by the Company in high-temperature/pressure services
because of the confined gasket feature, T & G flanges are no longer specified. They
are subject to corrosion in the groove and have the added problem of matching male
and female flanges at each installation.

253 Flange Attachment to Pipe


Flange attachment to pipe is by weld neck, socket weld, threaded, slip-on or lap
joint stub. Figure 200-11 in Section 240 illustrates these types.

254 Commonly Used Flanges


Weld neck flanges are preferred for most services because of the strength of its full
penetration butt weld, ease of radiographing, and a hub that tapers from the pipe
connection to the flange. It is generally purchased bored to the same ID as the
matching pipe. If the inside diameters differ by more than 1/16-inch, back-beveling
is required per Standard Drawing GC-L34496.
The socket welding flange is commonly used for NPS ¾ to NPS 1½ pipe. To
prevent cracking of the fillet weld it is important to provide a 1/16-inch gap between
the end of the pipe and the bottom of the socket before starting the weld. See also
Section 340 and 650. Socket welding may not be acceptable for services where
crevice corrosion can develop or in oil systems where minute solid contaminants
cannot be tolerated.
The slip-on flange is acceptable for undemanding services. Slip-on flanges shall be
fillet welded inside and out. They are less desirable than the weld neck flange
because of the fillet weld attachment rather than a full penetration butt weld and
radiography of fillet welds are not effective. Material cost is less than for a weld
neck flange, but the need for fillet welds inside and out makes the installed cost
about the same. Slip-on flanges are not acceptable for high pressure/temperature
hydrocarbon service, hazardous services, H2 service or wet sour service where H2
can be generated as a corrosion product; the trapped space between welds is subject
to H2 blister distortion. See the Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Manual.
The threaded flange resembles a slip-on flange but has a threaded bore. It is seldom
used. Although it can be fitted and installed in areas where welding is not allowed.
Prefabricated spools welded elsewhere and bolted into place are preferred. Threaded
flanges have low fatigue resistance and are suitable only for low pressure/tempera-
ture, nonhazardous, nonvibrating service.
The lap joint (Van Stone) flange uses a lap joint stub end on the pipe and a flange
that rotates freely. This allows easy field alignment of the bolt holes, such as is
required to accommodate rotation at tanks that are settling. An advantage in corro-
sive chemical services is that while the pipe and the stub end may be a corrosion
resistant alloy, the flange, which is not in contact with the fluid, can be lower-priced
carbon steel. However, lap joint flange connections have a very low fatigue resis-
tance and are not suitable for cyclic or vibrating services.

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255 Special Purpose Flanges


Orifice Flanges
Used to meter fluid flow. In larger sizes it is purchased as an assembly of flanges,
bolts, nuts, and jack screws. Orifice flanges are available as weld neck, slip-on, and
threaded; however, Company practice is to specify weld neck in sizes through
NPS 10. The flanges must be bored to the same diameter as the connecting piping.
Above NPS 10 regular flanges are specified with the orifice “throat” tap connec-
tions mounted on the connected piping. The proper installation of orifice flanges is
discussed in the Instrumentation and Control Manual.

Reducing Flanges
This flange (threaded or slip-on) reduces the line to a smaller pipe size. It can be
used in place of a concentric reducer where: a size change is desired, flow resis-
tance is not a problem, the line drain and flush requirements are considered, and a
flanged connection is needed. Reducing flanges are rarely used, are difficult to
obtain and are not normally recommended.

Blind Flanges
These flanges are used to close off vessel nozzles or the ends of piping where
frequent cleaning or inspection is necessary or if the piping may be extended in the
future. See “Blinds and Blanks”, below.

256 Flange Covers


In hazardous chemical services (sulfuric acid, caustics, etc.) flange covers can be
used to protect personnel from leakage. Milsheff plastic cloth covers, metal sheets,
and plastic tape have been used. The need to periodically inspect for leaks and the
ease of replacement after maintenance should be considered when choosing covers.

257 Blinds and Blanks


A blind is flat flange with no hole through the center that bolts to the flanged end of
a run of pipe or to a flanged equipment nozzle. Blinds are purchased ready-made for
a particular pressure class. A blank is a circular metal plate bolted between two pipe
flanges.

Blanks
The safest and most effective way to isolate a line or connected equipment is to
install a plate blank. A plate blank should always be used in hydrocarbon and
hazardous services where positive isolation must be guaranteed. Closed valves
without a plate blank have the potential for leakage past the seat.
One kind of blank, called a figure-eight (or spectacle) blank is useful where piping
is blocked off frequently and the piping is not easily sprung apart or pulled together.
One of the flat circles of plate that comprise this type of blank has a hole through
the center; the other is solid.

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Design Information for Blanks


The Company has the following standard drawings for blanks:
GC-L31452 Blanks for raised face flanges
GF-L14298 Blanks for ring joint flanges

In these installations jack screws may be needed to separate the flanges to change
blanks, as shown on Standard Drawing GD-L1050.
Dimensional information on ORJ and flat plate blanks is also provided by API Stan-
dard 590, Steel Line Blanks. Included are material specifications and other informa-
tion for direct purchase from vendors.

Alternative to Blanks
Acceptable substitutes for plate blanks and flanges in low pressure services are
commercially manufactured three-bolt line blinds—sometimes called line blind
valves. These are more expensive than plate blanks with flanges but are more
quickly and easily operated. Because of their lower strength, these quick-acting
blinds are not recommended for high pressures. They should be specified only
where frequent swinging of blinds is necessary.
Care should be taken in selecting line blinds, because they have O-ring seals; some
models are not fire safe. Models with secondary metal-to-metal seating should be
specified. Acceptable manufacturers include Hindle-Hamer and Greenwood
(Vernon Tool Co.).

258 Thickness Calculation for Blanks


The design formula for the required thickness of plate blanks is given in
ASME/ANSI B31.3 paragraph 304.5.3 as:

3P 1 ⁄ 2
t = d g  ------------- +c
 16SE
(Eq. 200-9)
where:
dg = inside diameter of gasket, in.
S = allowable stress, psi
P = design gage pressure, psig
c = corrosion allowance, in.
E = quality factor
= 1.0 for one-piece plate

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260 Nonflange Connections


Where flanges are not suitable because they are too large, too heavy, or of inade-
quate pressure rating, nonflange connectors are available. Several brands are
discussed below. Be careful not to mix brands.

261 Grayloc Connector


Initially developed for production drilling and wellhead service, Grayloc connec-
tors provide a metal-to-metal seal with a steel ring clamped between two machined
hubs. They are a good alternative to flanges in low temperature, high pressure,
noncorrosive service. The seal rings have a coating of Teflon or molydisulphide to
aid assembly. As with ORJ gaskets and flanges, alignment requirements are
exacting; the rings and hubs are susceptible to mechanical damage, and seal ring
insertion and removal require sufficient piping flexibility. The design and fabrica-
tion of this connector is proprietary and not covered by industry piping codes.
Grayloc connections generally are not economical below Class 900 in carbon steel,
Class 600 in stainless steel, or in some smaller sizes. See Appendix B. They often
have longer delivery times than high-pressure flanges. Company experience has
been excellent up to 400°F in services above 1000 psig. One pilot plant has used
Grayloc connectors up to 850°F and 3000 psig for 3 years with excellent results.
Advantages of Grayloc connectors include:
• Cost less than flanges in the higher pressures and larger sizes
• Have less mass than equivalent flanges (This can be important in high pressure
services near vibrating equipment such as compressors)
• Require less space than flanges
• Assemble more easily since there are no bolt holes to align
• Can withstand greater pipe bending stresses than equivalent flanges
See Appendix B for a discussion of field installation practices for these connectors.

262 Cameron, Securamax, G-CON, and OTECO Hub and Clamp Fittings
These fittings are very similar to the Grayloc fitting. They have essentially the same
features. The Company has less experience with these manufacturers. See
Appendix B.

263 Victaulic Coupling


The Victaulic coupling is a semiflexible, quick-connect, clamp-type coupling with a
soft seal.
It has a circumferential groove near the end of each pipe to be joined. The coupling
consists of a split ring with rims at both ends that fit into the grooves and a resilient

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cylindrical gasket that is compressed between the ring and the pipe ends to prevent
leakage. The fit of the split ring is sloppy to permit a small amount of angular
flexibility.
The machined groove pipe end is preferred over the optional rolled groove. The
groove must be considered when calculating allowable pressures and wall
thicknesses.

Suggested Applications
Normally the Victaulic coupling is not suitable for hydrocarbon service. Typically it
is used for low pressure/temperature and nonhazardous service in fire-safe areas.
Used with aluminum or light steel pipe, it is convenient for quick installation of
temporary piping where welding is not allowed. It is also useful in isolating vibra-
tion and adjusting for minor piping misalignment, and is used extensively in
commercial buildings on permanent utility water piping.

264 Dresser Coupling


The Dresser coupling is a semiflexible, compression-type coupling with soft seals. It
is used with plain-end pipe to remedy small initial misalignment and to provide a
limited amount of angular and longitudinal flexibility. The flexibility is provided by
resilient gaskets at each end of a ring which is centered over the pipe ends. Dresser
couplings are suitable for low pressure/temperature service—typically cooling
tower pump suction lines—where they provide a tight joint at moderate cost.
Dresser couplings have no fire resistance and must not be used in hydrocarbon
service.
The Dresser coupling requires the addition of some means of restraining longitu-
dinal pipe movement, because the joint is a slip fit and can separate. Dresser
couplings must not be used in systems subject to hydraulic shock.

270 Valves
Valve pressure classes and ratings are given in ASME/ANSI B16.34, while end-to-
end dimensions are given in ASME/ANSI B16.10. This section of the manual lists
items to consider when choosing the type of valve to use; describes the various
valve types; discusses design choices for valve parts; lists valve operators; and
recommends valves for specific applications.

271 Factors to Consider


Valve selection is one of the most important phases of piping specification develop-
ment. The primary considerations for selection of the proper valve are material
selection, pressure class selection, and process function. Additionally, refer to
Section 1400, “Reducing Fugitive Emissions from Valves.”

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Material Selection
Material selection depends on the fluid handled by the valve and the operating
temperature, and includes the material for the body, trim and packing. The trim
includes the working parts of a valve and the seat rings. For more detail about trim
see under the individual valve types, following.
The Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CTRC has extensive files on
material performances for most process applications and their recommendation
should be sought for any new installation.

Pressure Class Selection


Pressure class selection is a part of piping specification development and is deter-
mined by the design pressure and temperature.
Flanged and butt welded valves are manufactured to pressure Classes 150, 300, 600,
900, 1500, and 2500. With the valve open, the body pressure-temperature ratings are
the same as for the corresponding flange classes; however, some trim configura-
tions may be rated lower than the body.
Threaded and socket weld gate valves sized from NPS ¾ to NPS 1½ are manufac-
tured to API Standard 602, Compact Carbon Steel Gate Valves. These compact
valves are rated Class 800, and the pressure-temperature rating tables are published
in API STD 602.

Process Function Selection


The process function of a valve can be on-off, throttling, or backflow prevention.
Some small valves combine these functions.
Valves for on-off operation do not control flow rate; they are either fully open or
completely closed. Typical examples are suction and discharge valves on pumps,
and valve manifolds. Operators usually refer to these valves as block valves. Any
valve type can be used as a block valve except straight body globe valves, which are
usually not considered suitable because of their high pressure drop. However, in
high pressure, high temperature hydrocracking services Y-body globe valves are the
preferred choice for block valves.
Valves for throttling are used to manually control the flow rate. The most frequent
application is the control valve bypass, which gives flow control when the control
valve is removed for maintenance. Most control valves are throttling valves.
A throttling valve is generally either a globe or a butterfly valve. In some cases it
may be a plug or ball valve with a special port configuration for throttling.
Check valves are used to prevent flow reversals in lines. Their most frequent use is
on centrifugal pump discharge lines.
Drain and vent valves are normally used during maintenance to vent, drain or
steam out a line before it is opened for inspection. Drain and vent valve selection is
the same as on-off valve selection.

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Instrument connection root valves are the same as block valves, except usually
limited to ¾- to 1½-inch size. Root valves are either gate valves or Y-body globe
valves. Instrument valves and instruments downstream of root valves are consid-
ered part of instrumentation.

Selection Rules of Thumb


Rules of thumb have limited validity in valve selections. Most simple rules have
many exceptions and are valid only for a narrow size range. For example, “solid
stainless steel wedge” is a sound specification for a carbon steel gate valve in sizes
up to 2 inches or even 3 inches, but it is a waste for a 12-inch or larger valve. Only
the seating area of the wedge has to have high corrosion resistance, and while it is
simpler to make a small wedge from solid stainless it is much more economical to
use a stainless-steel-overlayed carbon steel wedge in the larger sizes.
The relative costs of different valves are changeable. Caution is called for because
the cost of stainless or special alloy valves versus carbon steel can change quickly.
Be sure your data are up-to-date. Worth noting is the cost of cast iron valves. Histor-
ically, they cost about half as much as cast steel valves. Today (1989) the cost
differential has shrunk to 5% or 10%, and there is little economic justification for
using cast iron valves.

272 Types of Valves


Gate Valves
Gate valves generally impose a smaller pressure drop than other valves. When fully
opened, they allow straight-through flow in a passage that is essentially the same
diameter as the associated piping. See Figures 200-15 and 200-16. The plain solid
wedge, inclined seat gate valve is the most common type. However, at high temper-
atures and moment loads resulting from thermal expansion, this type of gate valve
may experience galling of the solid wedge against its inclined seat. A flexible
wedge tends to accommodate misalignment, minimize galling and improve sealing.
Unfortunately, in dirty service the groove machined into the wedge to provide the
flexibility may become plugged and lose effectiveness.
Split wedge designs were also developed to accommodate seat misalignment, but
the service life of hinged two-piece gates in dirty high temperature services is gener-
ally unsatisfactory.
The split wedge gate valve and through-conduit gate valves are designed to allow
pigging operations in pipeline applications.

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Fig. 200-15 Gate Valve, Typical Courtesy of Velan Valve

Fig. 200-16 Gate Valve, Stem and Wedge Types

Rising stem, Non-rising stem,


Rising stem,
outside screw and yoke inside screw
Inside screw
Courtesy of Velan Courtesy of Walworth
Courtesy of Walworth

Courtesy of Pacific Valves

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Plug Valves
The basic components of the plug valve are the body, plug and cover. The plug can
be either cylindrical or tapered. In the open position, the bore of the plug connects
the inlet and outlet ends of the valve, providing straight-line flow. Generally the
opening in the plug is oval. Plug valves with round openings are also available but
generally weigh more. An important feature of the plug valve is its suitability for
multiport construction. Three- and four-way plug valves are widely used for flow
switching in lube oil systems and in batch operations.
In smaller sizes the plug is rotated by a lever operator attached to the stem. The
lever position indicates whether the valve is open or closed.
There are two types of plug valves: lubricated and nonlubricated. The lubricated
valves have metal-to-metal-seats and provide a good seal. In the former type, lubri-
cant is injected between the plug and the body and helps to lift the conical plug. The
main problem with lubricated plug valves is “freezing” of the plug. If the plug is not
rotated for a long time the lubricant washes out and corrosion products may freeze
the plug into the body. Lubricated plug valves perform well in applications where
the fluid handled has good lubricating properties.
Plug valves should not be used above about 350°F without careful analysis of:
• Temperature limits of lubricant or, in nonlubricated valves, seal material
• Thermal expansion between valve and plug, which can freeze the plug
Like ball valves, plug valves are not recommended for throttling service and are
subject to port erosion while being operated. However, where quarter-turn valves
are required in abrasive service, such as sandy crude oil, plug valves are preferred.
Nonlubricated plug valves usually have an elastomer sleeve that eliminates the need
to lubricate the plug. See Figure 200-17. Application is limited by the temperature
limit and fire resistance of the sleeve material. Their principal use is in corrosive
chemical service at ambient to moderate temperatures.

Fig. 200-17 Nonlubricated Plug Valve Courtesy of Xomox Corporation

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Figure 200-18 shows the TruSeal plug valve, which incorporates features of the
split wedge gate valve into a plug valve.

Fig. 200-18 TruSeal Double Block and Bleed Plug Valve Courtesy of Orbit Valve Company

Ball Valves
The flow control element in the ball valve is a sphere with a hole connecting the
inlet and outlet ports. Sealing is normally accomplished with resilient elastomer seat
rings; metal seat rings have been developed for use in high-temperature and/or abra-
sive service.
Two basic types of ball valve construction are available, floating ball and trunnion-
mounted ball.
Floating Ball Valves. The line pressure pushes a freely floating ball into the down
stream seat. As the pressure increases, the effectiveness of the seal also increases;
however, leaks are likely at low differential pressures. To effect a seal at low differ-
ential pressures, the resilient elastomer seats are precompressed during assembly
and require a higher torque to turn. Precompression may cause scoring of the resil-
ient seats when abrasive particles are caught between the ball and the seat rings. The
operating torque in floating ball valves increases with the size of the valve and with
the pressure differential. See Figure 200-19.
Ball valves are available in full port, reduced port and venturi port patterns. See
Figure 200-19. Full port valves have the least pressure drop but the largest bodies
and, consequently, the greatest weight. The reduced port has the highest pressure
drop and least weight. The venturi port design lowers the pressure drop by incorpo-
rating a gradual transition from the full pipe cross-section to the reduced port in the
ball itself.

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Fig. 200-19 Floating Ball Valve Configurations Courtesy of Marpac

a. Full Port b. Reduced Port c. Venturi Port

Body styles include top entry, split body, end entry, and completely welded. See
Figure 200-20. Top entry is much like opening a bonnet on a gate valve, and is the
most convenient for maintenance because the ball can be pulled out without
disturbing the piping. Top entry ball valves are usually available in smaller sizes.
End entry ball valves must be pulled from the line for disassembly. Welded body
valves are usually repairable only by factory maintenance services. The advantage
of the welded body style is reduced weight, especially in higher pressure classes.
Ball valves compare favorably against gate valves in weight and dimensions.
Offshore production platforms particularly favor ball valves.

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Fig. 200-20 Ball Valve Body Styles Courtesy of Marpac Valve and Cooper Cameron

a. Three Piece b. End Entry

c. Top Entry d. Welded body ball valve


(not for refinery use)

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Figure 200-21 shows a metal seated floating ball valve that has an integral metal
seat with a spring loaded washer/guide that forces the ball against the integral seat.
The preferred flow direction is to have the pressure pushing the ball against the inte-
gral seat.

Fig. 200-21 Metal Seated Ball Valve Courtesy of Valvtron

Ball Valve with Integral Seat and Spring Loaded Washer/Guide

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Trunnion-Mounted Ball Valves. The position of the ball is fixed by top and bottom
trunnions mounted in bearings. The seats are moved against the ball by line pres-
sure. Each seat moves independently, and most designs incorporate spring loading
to effect sealing at low differential pressures. Additionally, the seat ring periphery
requires sealing against the body, usually with elastomer O-rings. See
Figure 200-22.

Fig. 200-22 Trunnion Mounted Ball Valve Courtesy of Cooper Cameron Valves, a Division of
Cooper Cameron Corporation

Figure 200-23 shows the Orbit ball valve, which is a rising stem ball valve with a
single seat ring. The stem both rises and rotates. The rotation is effected by a
stationary stem guide, located on the bonnet extension, which engages a spiral slot
cut into the stem. During an opening cycle the stem first moves straight up and
simultaneously backs the ball away from the resilient seat ring. The stem then
rotates 90 degrees to open the flow path through the valve. The ball has no contact
with the seat ring during the rotation, which saves the seat ring from scuffs. Seat
selection includes the traditional bubble tight Teflon TFE seal with a secondary
metal seat (Type H) for temperatures below 450°F or an all-metal stainless steel seat
(Type H8) for temperatures above 450°F. Orbit valves should be used in liquid, gas

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or vapor services that do not contain grit or fines and they should be installed with
the pressure pushing the ball into the seat.

Fig. 200-23 Orbit Ball Valve and Seat Selection Courtesy of Orbit Valve Company

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Globe Valves
Globe valves generally have a tortuous flow path, often with two 90-degree changes
in the direction of flow inside the valve body. See Figure 200-24. Most designs are
unidirectional, with the flow brought in under the disc. The flow control characteris-
tics of globe valves are determined by the shape of the disc or plug. A flat disc
provides quick opening, while a needle-type plug provides a very gradual opening
of the flow path.

Fig. 200-24 Globe Valves

a. Plug Type b. Y-Pattern


Courtesy of Pacific Valves Courtesy of Edward Valves, Inc.

Pressure drop in globe valves is usually high. The pressure loss can be reduced by
Y-pattern or angle-pattern bodies.
Globe valves are used where throttling of the flow is required or as block valves in
high temperature, high pressure services. The disc of a globe valve is pushed onto
the seat ring perpendicularly and so has freedom of angular adjustment. It will not
bind even under high moment loads. However, globe valves are heavier and more
expensive than gate valves.

Butterfly Valves
There are three types of butterfly valves: a rubber-lined valve in which the center-
line of the stem runs along a radius of the disk, a high performance valve in which
the disc is offset from the centerline and has a spherical seating surface, and a metal
seated triple offset valve in which the center of rotation is double offset and there is
also an offset cone shape to the seating surface.
Rubber-Lined Butterfly Valves. Rubber-lined butterfly valves are typically made
of a cast iron body with a heavy rubber liner which overlaps the flanges and serves
as a gasket. This type of butterfly valve is low priced but can only meet the require-
ments for cooling water service. See Figure 200-25.

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Fig. 200-25 Butterfly Valve Courtesy of Tyco Valves and Controls

Rubber-lined

High-Performance Butterfly Valves. High performance butterfly valves have an


elastomer seat ring - backed up with a secondary metal seat mounted on the body.
The disc is attached to the stem in a double offset position. One offset is by moving
the stem from the centerline to the side and the other is to move away from the
plane of the disc. High performance butterfly valves are no longer recommended
because of the temperature limit of elastomers in hydrocarbon service and metal
fatigue of the thin back-up seat. If stress corrosion is present it will reduce the cycle
life of these valves. When reconditioning of an existing high performance butterfly
valve becomes necessary, replacement with a metal seated triple offset design is
recommended.
Metal Seated Triple Offset Butterfly Valves. These valves are a later develop-
ment, but by now are well proven and in use at the refineries. The distinguishing
feature of these valves, now made by several manufacturers, is the offset cone-
shaped seating surface. The placement of the center of rotation coupled with the
shape of the seat results in a disc being lifted off the seating surface in just a few
degrees of rotation. Contact between the disc and the body seat is only in the fully
closed position. There is no friction or wear between the disc and seat which results
in minimum leakage rates. See Figure 200-26.
Designs vary somewhat from one manufacturer to another but the body seat style
most commonly used is solid metal. The body seat can be a hard metal overlay, a
pressed-in seat ring or a bolted-in seat ring. The mating seat, bolted to the disc, is a
flexible laminated design built of several layers of stainless steel with graphite sand-
wiched in between the layers. There are also designs where the disc is solid metal

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Fig. 200-26 Metal-Seated Triple Offset Butterfly Valve Courtesy of Orbit Valve International Incorporated

TRIPLE AXIS DESIGN

Single axis offset moves the Double axis offset moves the
shaft off the sealing edge disc pivot-point off the valve
allowing complete, uninter- centerline, producing cam-
rupted seating contact around closure for positive torque
the entire rim. seating.

Triple axis offset moves the


seat cone angle off-axis, to
achieve compressive sealing.

FRICTION FREE SEALING

Disc and seat surfaces meet at a


chosen contact angle for friction-
less compression. All points of the
seal ring contact the seat at the
same instant and rotation stops.

The seat contour ensures


compressive sealing around the
entire seal ring.

Further torque applied to the valve


shaft loads the seal ring equally at
all points, with radial force, to
assure zero leakage.

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and the flexible laminated seat ring is bolted into the body. Metal seated butterfly
valves are available in a variety of face-to-face dimensions.
The triple offset metal seated butterfly valves are superior to elastomer seated fire
safe high performance butterfly valves. Any refinery service previously utilizing a
high performance butterfly valve with an elastomer seat can be more efficiently
handled with the metal seated triple offset design.

Check Valves
Check valves are designed to prevent reversal of flow in lines.
The swing check valve is the most commonly used. It can be installed in lines with
horizontal or upward vertical flow. It is usually used with low fluid velocities where
flow reversals are infrequent. Pressure drop is moderate.
The lift check valve comes in two types: lift disc and ball check. When flow
reverses, the disk or ball is reseated by gravity. The gravity action means these
valves must be installed in correct orientation. The construction resembles that of a
globe valve and the pressure drop is higher than in swing check designs. These
valves can handle frequent liquid flow reversals.
Piston check valves are generally used in gas service such as compressor discharge.
The downstream side of the valve is connected back to the space above the piston
and the pressure increase helps to close the valve. Most piston check valves can be
spring-assisted. They are designed to handle frequent gas flow reversals. Pressure
drop is comparable to the pressure drop of globe valves.
Tilting-disc check valves are similar to swing checks. However, the disc is lighter
weight and is pivoted close to the center of gravity. It takes a lower pressure differ-
ential to open the disc, and it reacts more quickly to flow reversals and minimizes
slamming. The main use is in gas flow lines.
Split-disc or butterfly check valves consist of two semicircular discs mounted on a
common hinge pin, with springs to help close the discs. The body design is usually a
wafer style. Manufacturers claim that it is suitable for operation even with vertical
downflow. In larger sizes the pressure drop is low; in smaller sizes the butterfly
obstructs a larger portion of the flow area.
Stop check valves combine the function of a block valve and a check valve. The
construction is similar to the lift check, with a stem added above the disk allowing it
to be held down onto the seat. When the stem is lifted the valve functions as a check
valve. With the stem lowered, the valve functions as a globe valve. It is mainly used
on boiler steam outlet lines.
Figure 200-27 shows five types of check valves.

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Fig. 200-27 Check Valve Types Courtesy of Edward Valves, Inc.

a. Swing b. Lift Disc

c. Lift Ball d. Tilting Disc

e. Stop Check

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273 Specifying Valve Parts


Fire Safety
Because they require moveable parts, packing, flanges (in most cases), and human
operator involvement, valves can almost be considered “equipment” from the fire
safety standpoint. Fire safety in designs and practices is discussed in detail in the
Fire Protection Manual. However, general requirements regarding valve selection
are outlined here.
The Company requires that elastomer seated ball, plug, and butterfly valves for
hydrocarbon service pass the API 607 or API 6FA fire tests. Gate and globe valves
are normally not tested for fire resistance because they have metal-to-metal seats.
Soft-seated valves in hydrocarbon service must be fire-resistant, with metal-to-metal
backup seating to limit fluid leakage when the seat or stem sealing material is lost in
a fire. See this section under Valve Packing and Seals.
Double block-and-bleed valves in liquid service should have relief valves or drains
to relieve pressure from the body cavity. See Section 276, under Tight Shutoff
Valves.
Steel valves are used on tanks and vessels, in areas exposed to mechanical hazards,
and in lines carrying petroleum products, especially in or near operating units or
valuable equipment. Cast iron valves should be limited to brine and low-pressure,
noncritical utilities.
Steel valves are used for utility lines in areas where failure during a fire would
impede firefighting.
Spring-actuated, self-closing (deadman) valves should be considered in congested
areas where failure to close a valve could result in danger to personnel or permit
flow of oil or gas into hazardous areas. Examples are chemical draws, vents,
bleeders, drains, sample draws, level cocks, and tank truck and barrel filling
operations.
Thermal-closing valves actuated by loss of a fusible link, and remotely operated
valves are justified in areas that would be inaccessible for manual closing of critical
valves once a fire had started. Examples are LPG storage tanks, bulk storage plants
contained within tank yard walls, and confined storage areas near high value prop-
erty. Thermal valves are described in detail in the Tank Manual.

Seat Selection
Valves can be divided into two groups according to their seating surface construc-
tion: metal-seated valves and elastomer-seated valves. The fundamental difference
is that elastomer-seated valves have a limited operating temperature determined by
the elastomer used. Elastomer seats are subject to destruction if the valve is exposed
to a fire.

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The traditional metal-seated valves are:


• Gate valves
• Plug valves (lubricated)
• Globe valves
• Check valves
The traditional elastomer-seated valves are:
• Ball valves
• Plug valves (nonlubricated)
• Butterfly valves
Special metal-seated valves are:
• Ball valves
• Butterfly valves
All metal-seated valve types can also be made with elastomer inserts for so-called
bubble-tight shutoff. Ball valves and butterfly valves also can be made with all
metal seats, but these are special, relatively expensive valves.
Some elastomer-seated valves are available with firesafe construction. In these
valves the seat is constructed so that when the primary elastomer seat is destroyed
the ball or butterfly is displaced by line pressure and brought in contact with a
secondary metal seat. Although the shutoff may no longer be bubble-tight, the
through-leakage is slight and there is no leak to the outside.
In oil refineries metal-seated valves are generally suitable for all services, while
elastomer-seated valves are suitable only for selected nonflammable fluid services
and lower operating temperatures. In oilfield production applications, operating
temperatures are generally lower, and ball valves are much more common than in
refineries.
Their lower weight, lower cost and quarter-turn operation (with the valve handle
serving as indicator) account for the attractiveness of ball and butterfly valves, but
only within certain size limits. In larger sizes gear operators are required, and the
quick quarter-turn operation is lost. This, however, turns out to be for the best
because in larger sizes a quick valve shutoff could induce a pressure surge (water
hammer).

Choosing Bonnet Design


Not all valves have bonnets. Both gate and globe valves do, and some people call
the top closure of a check valve a “bonnet”. The bonnet designs for gate and globe
valves and for check valve top closures are: (1) union, (2) screwed, (3) screwed and
seal welded, (4) welded, (5) bolted, and (6) pressure seal. The choice depends on the
service and on the size and pressure rating of the valve. For example, only the latter
3 designs are acceptable for steel valves in hydrocarbon service.
Choice of bonnet design is discussed below in three ways: by service, by valve type,
and by bonnet type.

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Low Pressure Utility Service (NPS ½ to 1½). Screwed and union bonnet designs
are compact and satisfactory for low pressure utility services, water, utility and
instrument air. The size range is ½ inch to 1½ inch.
Hydrocarbon Service (NPS ½ to 1½). Small valves for hydrocarbon and process
fluid services require screwed and seal-welded, bolted, or welded bonnet designs.
The bolted design increases valve weight but provides access for seat maintenance.
The welded bonnet-type valve is lightweight. However, except for replacement of
packing, welded bonnet valves cannot be easily repaired. They are useful in
vibrating services where low mass at root valve connections is desired. The screwed
and seal-welded valve is the middle ground, offering high-pressure leak-free perfor-
mance at moderate weight and cost.
Any Service (NPS 2). The 2-inch gate and globe valves are generally of the bolted
bonnet design.
Any Service (≥NPS 3). Gate and globe valves 3 inches and larger are either bolted
bonnet or pressure seal bonnet design. The pressure seal bonnet reduces the weight
and is predominantly used in larger sizes and higher pressure classes. Pressure seal
designs vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The Company requires a design
with a segmented locking ring, which assures that the cover can not pull out of
the body.
Globe and Gate Valves. Regardless of bonnet type, steel gate and globe valves
should be specified as outside-screw-and-yoke (OS&Y). This preferred design
isolates the stem threads from the fluid and reduces galling and thread corrosion.
The rising stem also indicates the valve position.
Check Valves. NPS 2 and larger steel check valves are acceptable with bolted or
pressure seal bonnet. Steel NPS 1½ and smaller check valves are acceptable with
bolted or screwed bonnet with seal weld.
Bonnet Types. Welded bonnets are normally used on NPS 1½ and smaller valves.
Except for replacement of packing, welded bonnet valves cannot be easily repaired.
They are useful in vibrating services where low mass at root valve connections is
desired.
Bolted bonnets are available in all valve sizes and are the most common with NPS
2 and larger. The bonnet is flanged and should be specified with a confined gasket
joint.
Pressure seal bonnets are used in Class 600 or higher valves. The adequacy of the
bonnet retention design should be reviewed. Pressure seal bonnets with secondary
mechanical retention features are recommended; thermal distortion of the valve
body during fire exposure can result in loss of the bonnet seal.
Screwed-in bonnets are potentially dangerous because the bonnet can work loose
in vibrating service or normal repetitive valve operation. Screwed-in bonnets are
acceptable when the body-to-bonnet joint has been seal welded.
High-pressure instrument valves (NPS ¾ and smaller) with union bonnets are
acceptable only with a locking pin, strap, or tack weld that prevents the loosening of

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the bonnet. Union bonnets on block valves are acceptable only on brass or bronze
valves in low pressure utility service such as air and water. They are less expensive
with the inside screw pattern; however, the rising stem version indicates valve posi-
tion and is preferred.

Stem Retention
The valve stem/shaft must be designed to be blowout-proof. Retention by packing
friction alone is not an acceptable design. A positive mechanical retention feature is
necessary and the design shall be such that removal of the stem seal retainer (e.g.
gland) alone will not allow the stem to be removed. Additionally, the stem/shaft
shall be designed so that if failure of the stem/shaft-to-disc connection or internal
failure of the stem/shaft occurs, no portion of the stem/shaft can be ejected from the
valve as a result of internal pressure.

Port Size
Port size can be full port, reduced port, or Venturi port. Reduced port is some-
times called “regular” or “conventional” port. Reduced ports are usually 0.7 times
the diameter of the full port. Venturi port, usually offered in ball valves, is 0.5 times
the diameter of the full port. The reduction in port size generally reduces the weight
and cost of the valve, and reduced port valves are often the economic choice. Full
port valves are required in some applications, for example, at hot taps or in pipeline
applications where pigging of the lines is required. Port size was illustrated in
Figure 200-19.

Valve Materials
Valve Body Materials. For valves with bonnets, bonnet material is the same as the
valve body material. Carbon steel is the most common valve body material for
valves in hydrocarbon and critical services. Experience with both forged and cast
steel valves has generally been acceptable.
Cast iron materials are less expensive but should be limited to saltwater and offplot
utilities because they can fracture from overbolting or line expansion stress, and can
crack in a fire, especially if struck with water while hot. Repair by welding is not
practical.
Malleable cast iron and ductile iron (also called nodular cast iron) are preferred over
gray cast iron (ASTM A126) because they will tolerate some bending loads.
However, their cracking resistance in a fire may be no better than regular cast iron.
In the U.S.A., OSHA places limitations on valves carrying flammable or combus-
tible liquids (See Section 100).
Brass and bronze valve bodies are suitable for water and low pressure air. They have
good corrosion resistance with water and brines. However, these materials melt at
low temperatures and should not be used in hydrocarbon service. They should not
be used at locations with atmospheres corrosive to copper (i.e., containing H2S or
NH3).
Stainless steel and chrome alloys are rarely justified except for serious corrosion
problems or extreme temperatures. Stainless valves should be purchased solution-

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annealed and pickled to provide the best corrosion resistant properties. Section 200
gives some guidance on stainless steel and alloy applications. The Materials Unit of
CRTC should be consulted for specific applications.
Valve Trim. Trim includes stems, seats, discs, yoke bushings, and other internal
parts.
Stems, Seats, and Discs. Hardened 12% chromium steel is the most widely used
valve trim material for general services. Stellite trim is available at additional cost
and performs better with steam than 12% chrome. Stellite resists wire drawing,
increasing valve life, and is specified for steam above 200 psig. Small socket
welded and screwed valves can sometimes be obtained with Stellite seat rings at
little or no additional cost.
Precipitation-hardened stainless steels, such as 17-4PH and 17-7PH, are used for
stem materials by some manufacturers. Use of these materials with aqueous chlo-
rides or sulfides should be carefully reviewed because of their susceptibility to
cracking failure. Material selection for sour service is discussed later in this section.
Yoke Bushings. Steel valves in hydrocarbon service should have yoke bushings,
sleeves, drive nuts, sleeve nuts, and gland followers of material with a melting point
of 1750°F or higher for fire resistance. This precludes most bronze or brass mate-
rials normally supplied as manufacturers’ standards.

Valve Packing and Seals


A brief discussion of packing and seals follows.
Fugitive Emissions. These emissions include leaks from valves, especially around
the stem packing. Some jurisdictions are beginning to control fugitive emissions.
Some vendors claim to have special graphite packings that reduce emissions, but the
benefits are unproven. The Company believes that use of good packing, in accor-
dance with Standard Drawing GC-L99771, and adequate periodic maintenance will
yield satisfactory results in almost all services. For services where fugitive emis-
sions cannot be tolerated, special packing or bellows seal valves may be considered.
Packing. Steel valves should be specified with a packing good for any service for
which the valve might be installed. For most applications flexible graphite with anti-
extrusion-end rings of braided graphite fiber is recommended. Teflon packing
should not be used for general purpose applications in hydrocarbon service because
it will be lost in a fire.
Standard Drawing GC-L99771 provides guidance for selection of valve stem
packing for hydrocarbons and most other services. Asbestos has been almost
completely phased out by U.S. manufacturers. It has limited availability but is still
the first choice for phosphoric and sulfuric acids.
Fluorocarbon Seals. Teflon is a fluorocarbon plastic. It is limited to 450°F or
lower, depending on the grade and valve design. Unconfined Teflon can “cold flow”
and should be limited to maximum temperatures of 250°F to 350°F, depending on
valve design.

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Teflon is chemically resistant to almost all common services. However, Teflon seals
are not as resilient as the elastomers and are subject to cold flow. Teflon should be
limited to applications where its superior chemical resistance or low friction is
required. In flammable fluid service, fire resistant design with metal-to-metal
backup seating is required.
Elastomer Seals. Most elastomer seals are manufactured in the “O” ring form.
• Viton is a synthetic rubber limited to about 350°F. It is used mainly for its
proven resistance to aromatic hydrocarbons. Viton should not be used with
ammonia or amines.
• Nitrile (Buna-N) and Neoprene are common elastomer materials used mainly
for water and hydrocarbon services low in aromatics. These materials are
limited to maximum temperatures of about 200°F to 300°F, depending upon the
specific service.
Seal material must suit the service fluid. If it does not, the material can swell,
reducing strength and life of the seal. For additional guidance on the selection and
limitations of elastomers and fluorocarbons consult the Materials and Equipment
Engineering Unit of CRTC.

Valve End Connections


Following is a brief discussion of various types of end connections.
Flange Connections. There are as many types of flanged valve connections as there
are flange faces: flat face with cast iron valves, raised face, and ORJ (ring joint)
with steel and alloy valves. See also Section 250. Valves of sizes NPS 2 and larger
should normally be flanged.
Butt Weld Connections. Normally used on valves of ANSI Class 600 and higher to
minimize the number of connections that can leak. Examples are hydrogen service
and high pressure steam. The valve construction should allow in-line repairs by
removing the bonnet.
The bore of butt weld valves should match the inside diameter of the connecting
pipe. If postweld heat treating of the pipe-to-valve weld is necessary the vendor
should be consulted regarding temperatures and technique. During welding and
heat-treating some disassembly of the valve may be required to prevent destruction
of elastomer seal materials or warping of metal seals.
Threaded Connections. Typically used with NPS 1½ and smaller valves in low
pressure service although NPS 2 sizes are commonly used on producing wellheads.
In vibrating service steel valves should be seal- or bridge-welded to eliminate the
notch effect of the pipe threads. Valve bodies must be specified with weldable body
material. Free machining leaded steels are not acceptable. See Section 340 for small
piping design.
Socket Weld Connections. An alternative to screwed valves. Eliminates the need to
thread pipe. Recommended for high pressure service. Socket welding small valves

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at times requires dismantling the valve or other precautions to protect the seats.
Refer to Section 340 for small piping design.
If postweld heat treating of the pipe-to-socket weld is necessary, the valves should
be furnished with 6-inch stubs welded into the sockets and heat treated by the manu-
facturer prior to finish machining.
Combination Connections. API 602 Standard Extended-Body valves with an inte-
gral nipple on one end and female connection on the other (threaded or socket
welded) saves one field weld. The additional body length must be considered for
drain valve installations.
Wafer or Wafer-Lug Connections. Primarily used with butterfly, check or slide-
gate valves for sandwiching between flanges. The wafer-lug valve can be furnished
with tapped holes that allow pipe removal from one side of the valve while
containing pressure on the other.

274 Valve Operators


Following is a discussion of manual gear, chain wheel, electric motor, and pneu-
matic and hydraulic operators.

Manual Gear Operators


Large valves and valves with high pressure differentials across them are normally
supplied with a geared operator. Several options are available for configuration of
the hand-wheel with respect to the valve body. Recommended requirements for
operators follow. In doubtful situations the manufacturer’s guidelines should be
used:
• Gate and globe valves NPS 12 and larger, ANSI Class 125 through 300
• Gate and globe valves NPS 6 and larger, ANSI Class 400 and higher
• Quarter-turn valves NPS 8 and larger, ANSI Class 150 through 400; NPS 6
and larger, ANSI Class 600 and 900; NPS 4 and larger, ANSI Class 1500, and
NPS 3 and larger, ANSI Class 2500
• Torque— above 70 foot-pounds, an operator of some sort is generally required.

Chain Wheel Operators


Flanged gate and globe valves located overhead and out of reach can be mounted
horizontally and furnished with a chain wheel operator. These are generally a
nuisance and sometimes a hazard and should be considered only when operation is
infrequent and the valve cannot be relocated.

Electric Motor Operators


Very large valves that require an excessive number of turns to open or close are
often equipped with a motor driven gear and are called motor operated valves
(MOVs). Typical applications for MOVs of all sizes are tank field operations and
emergency shutdown where the valves are operated from a remote station.

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Pneumatic and Hydraulic Operators


Quarter-turn ball or plug valves can be equipped with remotely actuated pneumatic
operators for on-off operation. These are typical in emergency shutdown systems in
self-contained production facilities. Similar pressure actuated hydraulic operators
are common at wellheads both onshore and offshore. These systems are discussed in
Sections 700 and 800 of this manual and the Instrumentation and Control Manual.

275 Valves for General Service


Gate Valves
Gate valves are the workhorse of the industry. Except where ball or plug valves are
used for frequent or rapid operation, they are preferred for general use because they
are rugged, simple, self-draining, and have low pressure-drop characteristics. Gate
valves are not suitable for throttling, and should be used only for on-off applica-
tions. If kept partially open, the bottom of the gate becomes eroded.
Gate valves are available with solid, flexible solid, and split wedge gate (disc)
designs. Although the split wedge design can better accommodate thermal distor-
tion, the plain solid or flexible solid wedge is preferred. The split wedge is suscep-
tible to additional wear and corrosion, and the discs tend to foul and plug in dirty
service. An acceptable expanding wedge design is discussed in Section 276 under
Tight Shutoff Valves.
Gate valves subjected to large pressure differentials when closed can be supplied
with a valved NPS 1 bypass line around the gate. This can be welded into the body
of the valve by the manufacturer, if specified. It allows partial pressure equalization
prior to opening the valve and, in the case of high temperature service, preheating of
the low pressure side. Bypass lines are typical in NPS 6 and larger valves in
600 psig and higher steam service.
Full port configuration is required when (1) pressure loss is important, (2) complete
line drainage is required, or (3) hot tapping is practiced. Most gate valves NPS 6 and
larger are manufactured as full port valves.
Reduced port valves are typically available in NPS 4 and smaller. Their use is urged
for general applications since they cost about 30% less than full port valves.
Although most full port small valves provide greater corrosion allowance and a
deeper stuffing box, the additional cost is rarely justified unless:
• A full port is needed for rodding-out in lines prone to scale buildup or plugging
• Higher-than-normal corrosion is anticipated
• A full port is needed for hot tapping or for inserting probes such as corrosion
probes
The Corporation Piping Specification shows reduced port gate valves for all
NPS 1½ and smaller sizes, but the engineer can substitute full port valves if required
for a particular service.

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Ball Valves
Ball valves are typified by quick and easy quarter-turn operation and tight shutoff.
They are favored in producing operations where frequent valve operation and ease
of actuation are necessary. In larger sizes, ball valves are generally more expensive
than other valves. Ball valves are not recommended for throttling service.
Ball valves are manufactured in two basic configurations: floating ball and trunnion-
mounted ball. The floating ball type moves to the seat, and in the trunnion-mounted
type, the seats move to the ball. The ball in both types of valves is normally held
between soft seats. However, the trunnion-mounted ball requires less torque to turn
at high pressures. Both valves can be provided with resilient seats and a metal-to-
metal backup seat in a fire-safe design. Some acceptable manufacturers are Cooper-
WKM, Dresser-TK, Neles-Jamesbury, and Cooper-Orbit.
The maximum service temperature is usually limited by the elastomeric or fluoro-
carbon seat material to between 250°F and 450°F.
Ball valves with butt welded ends should receive special attention to be certain that
welding heat does not damage the seats. One way is to have nipples welded to the
end connections at the factory before the seats are installed. Another approach is to
use low heat-input welding for the field welds such as short-arc MIG welding. See
the Welding Manual.
Bronze ball valves with double seats of elastomer or fluorocarbon materials may be
considered for water and air services where Class 125 or Class 150 brass gate valves
are customarily used. Carbon steel ball valves have also been used in dry air or gas
piping such as around furnaces.
Fire-safe ball valves provide good shutoff even after fire destroys the primary elas-
tomeric seat because they have a secondary metal retaining seat ring that is
machined to the contour of the ball. With the floating ball design the ball-to-stem
connection is slotted, and after the destruction of the primary seal, line pressure
forces the ball into the closed position against the metal retaining seat ring. The
blow-out proof stem design and packing selection should prevent stem leakage even
after fire exposure. Approved fire-safe ball valve designs normally have stainless
steel balls and trim as a minimum requirement. This requirement evolved because of
several failures caused by holidays or leafing of the coating or plating on carbon
steel balls.
Cooper-Orbit Company trunnion ball valves with a rising stem are widely accepted
and are available with either a full or reduced port design. They use a ball that is
forced by the camming action of the stem against a TFE seal confined in a metal
seat ring. In addition to fire resistance, these valves have remained tight and oper-
able in high-pressure service over long periods of time. Satisfactory experience
includes LPG, hydrocarbon, hydrogen, and ammonia services. They are generally
more expensive than other valves.
Cooper-Orbit valves are limited to 450°F by the Teflon (TFE) seal. Although the
valve seals in both directions, for the highest reliability it should be installed in the
preferred direction as indicated on the valve body. Cooper-Orbit valves are also

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available with an all-metal seat and special high-temperature packing for service
temperatures above 450°F. Chevron has some experience with their all-metal seat.

Globe Valves
Globe valves are preferred for throttling, flow-control services, and tight shut-off.
The circular configuration of plug and seat allows more precise fabrication and a
tighter seal than the gate valve. Globe valves are also discussed later in this section
under Tight Shut-off Valves.
Pressure drop through globe valves is much higher than through gate valves.
Although most globe valves are vertical or upright stem, the Y-pattern is selected
when reducing pressure loss is important. Angle valves, with piping connections at
right angles, incur less pressure loss. However, they are subjected to the same
stresses as piping elbows and are seldom used in processes. One common applica-
tion, though, is bronze angle valves with composition disks at fire hose stations,
where repeated tight closure is required and infrequent use is expected.

Check Valves
Check valves are used to prevent reversal of flow and are available in several
configurations, with lift check and swing check the most common. Check valves
should never be relied on for tight shutoff under pressure, regardless of vendors’
claims (see the following discussion of stop check valves below). Metal-to-metal
seats or soft seats with metal-to-metal backup should always be specified in hydro-
carbon service.
Lift Checks. Most often these valves are used for NPS 1½ pipe and smaller with
threaded or socket weld ends. They have a ball or guided piston plug that is lifted by
vertical fluid flow and reseated by reverse flow and gravity. They are available in a
Y-pattern for reduced pressure drop. Lift checks tend not to slam shut and are good
in applications with irregular flow or frequent reversals of flow. They should be
used in horizontal lines only. The Y-pattern can be considered in vertical lines with
upward flow.
Swing Checks. These valves are more frequently used. They have less resistance to
flow and are normally used in NPS 2 and larger pipe. They tend to slam, and
frequent flow reversals can produce “chatter,” though the tilting disc version is
slightly less susceptible in this regard. Swing checks cannot operate in vertical lines
with downward flow.
Swing Checks with Snubbers, Dashpots or Counterweights. In some services,
slamming or flow reversal can be a significant problem; such as at the discharge of
large cooling water pumps when they are shut down. Very high forces are involved
and the valves can be damaged unless the action of the disc can be controlled. This
can be done by installing valves with external pneumatic snubbers, dashpots or
counterweights connected to the extended shaft.
Positive retention of the extended shaft is required. This is accomplished by a step
change in the diameter of the shaft and designing it so that removal of the stem seal
(e.g., gland) retainer alone will not allow the shaft to be removed. Shaft retention by
dowel pins between the clapper and the extended shaft is not acceptable.

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Stop Checks. These valves are a combination of a lift check valve and block valve.
The stem can be used to hold the disc closed, ensuring tight shutoff. They are gener-
ally used on boiler outlet steam lines when boilers operate in parallel to guarantee
boiler isolation on shutdowns, and in similar applications in high pressure process
plants. Normally specified in the Y-pattern, they are used in horizontal lines or
vertical lines with upward flow. Their dual function reduces valve costs in high
pressure services.
Dual Disc Checks. These valves are normally of the wafer type installed between
matching flanges. The spring-actuated closing feature makes them suitable for use
in any position. They are not as reliable as swing or lift checks because of the possi-
bility of spring failure, and are not recommended for pulsating flow or in corrosive
or critical service. Care must always be taken in spring material selection. In hori-
zontal lines the valves should be installed with the hinge pin in the vertical position.
Although available with metal-to-metal seats, they are normally specified with an
elastomer liner that also acts as the gasket against the flanges. See the discussion of
butterfly valves, following in this section, for the limitations of wafer-type valves.

Plug Valves
Like ball valves, plug valves should be used where rapid operation and (for lubri-
cated valves) tight shutoff are required.
Lubricated Plug Valves. These valves have a special fitting that allows lubricant to
be pumped into the valve between the body and the plug. The lubricant also
improves the seal.
A systematic lubrication program is essential. The lubricated plug valve has been
used extensively in NPS 6 and smaller sizes in marketing plants and terminals
because of its rapid operation, positive shutoff, and ready indication of valve posi-
tion. However, sticking problems with valves that were not regularly lubricated has
led to replacement with ball valves in many locations.
Nonlubricated Plug Valves. These valves have a solid metal plug that rides against
a low-friction seating face of Teflon or an elastomer for easy valve operation.
Nonlubricated plug valves are especially attractive where a plug valve is desirable
but a systematic lubrication program cannot be maintained. The seating material
normally limits the operating temperature to 350°F or less.
Nonlubricated plug valves for corrosive services are fully lined, and the fluid has no
contact with the metal parts. These valves can leak if the liner is destroyed by fire
and are not recommended for flammable fluids.
Eccentric Plug Valves. These valves, such as DeZurik rubber-lined plug valves,
provide reliable service in utility air as a final valve on tool air connections, and in
saltwater service. They hold against pressure only in one direction and are not
recommended for vacuum service or flammable fluids.

Butterfly Valves
There are three types of butterfly valves: a rubber-lined valve, a high performance
fire-safe valve, and a metal seated triple offset valve.

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Rubber-lined Butterfly Valves. These valves with wafer or wafer-lug bodies are
less expensive than gate valves and are frequently used in fresh water, saltwater, and
(in the past) carefully selected locations in hydrocarbon services. They are also used
to throttle flow where pressure drop is not excessive.
Elastomer-lined butterfly valves are available as flanged valves or wafer valves
mounted between matching flanges. The elastomer seat or liner material limits the
valve operating temperature to 350°F or less and can allow substantial flange and
seat leakage in case of fire.
Wafer valves are available in three styles: plain wafer, wafer-lug with holes to pass
the flange stud bolts, and wafer-lug with tapped holes. They are less expensive than
flanged valves.
Wafer valves also have the following limitations:
• The long bolts used with plain wafer valves will expand when exposed to flame
and allow leakage. Wafer valves are not recommended for critical hydrocarbon
service. In noncritical hydrocarbon services, the use of lug-type bodies or the
installation of fire shields is required. See Standard Drawing GB-L1110.
• Wafer valves require room in the piping on either side to allow proper opera-
tion. If blinding is expected at wafer valves, tapped lugs with capscrews are
required
• Overbolting can be a problem with wafer butterfly valves whose liner extends
over both faces and acts as both gasket and seat. If overbolted or subject to line
movement, the liner can bulge into the valve cavity and make the valve diffi-
cult or impossible to operate
• With wafer valves, a flange misalignment can cause a leak. Their use is not
recommended unless the pipe flanges can be kept aligned
High Performance Fire-Safe Butterfly Valves. High-performance butterfly valves
are fire resistant. They have a secondary metal-to-metal seat ring that provides
shutoff if the primary elastomeric seat ring is destroyed in a fire.
Fire resistant butterfly valves with a lug-type body are not acceptable for critical
locations such as the first valves connecting to a tank or pressure vessel, emergency
shutdown valves, depressuring valves, or valves required for safe facility shut-
downs during an emergency. Metal seated butterfly valves are now recommended as
a replacement when reconditioning is required.
Metal Seated Triple Offset Butterfly Valves. The placement of the center of rota-
tion coupled with a cone-shaped metal seating surface are the distinguishing
features of these valves. There is no friction or wear between the disc and the seat
because the offset design results in the disc being lifted off the seating surface in
just a few degrees of rotation. The body seat most commonly used is solid metal and
the mating seat, bolted to the disc, is a flexible laminated design built of several
layers of stainless steel with graphite sandwiched between the layers. There are also
designs where the disc is solid metal and the flexible laminated seat ring is bolted to
the body.

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Metal seated butterfly valves are available in a variety of face-to-face dimensions.


These valves are in use in Chevron refineries and have demonstrated reliability with
minimal leakage in service.

276 Special Purpose Valves


Tight Shutoff Valves
In certain services a tight shutoff or a double block-and-bleed valve is required for
product containment or segregation. Several special valves are available at extra
cost for these applications.
The Orbit valve is a good single seated ball valve with tight shutoff. It uses a soft
seat backed up with a metal seat-ring.
Y-pattern globe valves with metal-to-metal seats are also excellent single block
valves in high pressure, high temperature service. Edwards, Invensys-valves are
often used in high pressure process plants and steam systems.
Double block-and-bleed valves generally have soft seals that are backed up with
metal seats. The three generic types, with acceptable vendors, are:
• Modified plug valve (General Valve Twin Seal, Cooper Industries TruSeal,
Emerson-Daniel Dan-Ex)
• Modified gate valve (Crane Valve-Pacific HIS)
• Full conduit slab gate valve (Cooper Industries-WKM, Dresser-Grove)
All of these valves use fluorocarbons or elastomers that impose a limit on the oper-
ating temperature. General performance of these valves has been good. The
following discussion covers the most commonly used block-and-bleed valves.
Liquids will become trapped in the body cavity of any block-and-bleed valve.
Thermal expansion of the liquid caused by ambient temperature or fire exposure
may damage the valve or make it impossible to open. Block-and-bleed valves there-
fore require a relief or drain valve for the body cavity. The relief valve can be
installed at the factory and connected internally to the low-pressure side of the
valve.
Modified Plug Valves. TruSeal, Twin Seal, and Dan-Ex valves have plugs or slips
that rotate 90 degrees and wedge into position when the valve closes. The body can
be fitted with a bleed valve venting the space between the slips. The slips have elas-
tomer seats attached to each face. The camming action of the valve frees the seat
before it is rotated and thus minimizes damage to the soft seals. Because the elas-
tomer is narrower than the seat ring recess, metal-to-metal seating develops when
the elastomer is damaged by fire.
Company experience with these valves has generally been good. However, the elas-
tomer has a tendency to stick if the valve is left in one position for several months.
Seat material generally limits maximum temperatures to between 250°F and 350°F,
depending on the particular seat material. The elastomer must be compatible with
the stock. Viton or other special material should be used with reformates.

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Modified Gate Valves. The Crane Valve-Pacific HIS gate valve has pressure ener-
gized resilient seals with metal-to-metal backup on both sides of the gate. Service
and temperature limitations are the same as with modified plug valves. The body
can be fitted with a drain valve. These valves have given excellent long term block-
and-bleed service in product loading manifolds.
Metal Seated Ball Valves. Tyco-Valvtron, Mogas and Valvtechnologies Compa-
nies are advancing metal seated floating ball valve designs. The valve utilizes a split
body design with a spring-loaded washer/guide that forces the ball against an inte-
gral hard-faced body seat. They were developed for critical high-temperature and
abrasive applications.
Full Conduit, Expanding-Gate Valves. Cooper Industries-WKM Pow-R-Seal full
conduit bolted bonnet gate valves have generally given excellent service at ambient
temperature where long term tight shutoff performance is mandatory. It is designed
to pass line scrapers (pigs) and has been used extensively on pipelines and in oil
field applications. The Pow-R-Seal offers a Teflon seal with a parallel expanding
split gate and metal-to-metal seats. The wedge gate design requires a large body
cavity and has a “preferred flow direction” stamped on the valve end connection.
Because the body cavity is sealed off from the piping in both the open and closed
positions, a body relief valve is mandatory.
Full Conduit, Slab-Gate Valves. Dresser-Grove G4 and Cooper Industries-WKM
“Saf-T-Seal” models are full conduit slab gate valves with a one piece gate. They
depend on spring-loaded rubber O-ring seats and line pressure to maintain a seal and
are limited to a maximum of 250°F. They are less expensive than Pow-R-Seal, and
the Company has had good experience with these valves in pipeline service. The
construction materials should be reviewed when using any of these valves in
services subject to sulfide cracking.

Metering Valves
Needle valves are small globe valves normally used to manually control pressure or
flow. Although available in smaller sizes, NPS ½ and ¾ are normally specified.
They are typically machined from stainless steel with threaded connections and
rated at ANSI Class 2500 or more. They have a screwed bonnet and should be
purchased with a locking device to prevent the bonnet from backing out. Their main
use is with instrumentation piping and continuous sampling systems. The proper
applications and installation are covered in the Instrumentation and Control
Manual.
Flow chokes, also called flow beans, are used primarily by Producing Departments
in very high pressure systems and to control steady flow while absorbing very high
pressure drops. Generally supplied in the angle valve configuration, they are typi-
cally available from NPS 1 to NPS 6, with threaded, flanged, or butt welded connec-
tions through ANSI Class 2500 and API Class 10,000. Normally fitted with a
manual handwheel and a position indicator, they can also have pneumatic or
hydraulic operators. Typical applications are reducing wellhead system pressures at
gathering stations and balancing flow in injection lines at steam flood manifolds
(see Section 700).

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Slide Gate Valves


Also called knife gates, have a fabricated body with a wafer design and tapped lugs
for bolting between matching ANSI Class 150 flanges. They are used primarily in
low pressure, large diameter relief or wastewater lines, where full line size is
required and a conventional gate valve would be too heavy.
Slide gates normally have soft seats against the knife gate. Bubble tight service is
advertised but cannot be expected in most cases. Minimal leakage must be accept-
able, especially in the larger sizes.

277 Valves for Sour Service


The prime concerns when handling sour fluids are corrosion and cracking, odor, and
the H2S hazard. Handling H2S is discussed in Section 1000 of this manual.

Valve Trim Materials


Good service is obtained with conventionally hard 12% chrome seats and discs in
most sour services. However, 12% chrome, carbon steel, alloy steels, and precipita-
tion-hardened (PH) stainless steels are susceptible to sulfide cracking in sour liquids
and wet sour gas if their hardness is above Rockwell C22. The tendency to crack
varies widely depending on trace impurities.
Acceptable replacement materials not subject to sulfide cracking include iron base
super alloys like ASTM A638 Grade 660 cobalt, nickel-base hard-facing material
such as Stellite, 300 series stainless steels, or ferritic steels like carbon steel and
12% chrome tempered to hardnesses less than Rockwell C22. The Materials and
Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC should be consulted if there is doubt about
selection.

Valve Design
Where gate or globe valves are necessary, grease seal valves with extra-deep
stuffing boxes, a lantern ring and sealant injection fitting are desirable. These are
considerably more expensive than standard valves.
Orbit ball valves are effective where tight shutoff is required. Standard Orbit sour
trims do not resist sulfide cracking and should not be used in high H2S service.
Instead, Orbit’s T7 Special Chevron (SC) modified trim should be specified.
Consult the Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC.

278 Valves for Saltwater Service


In saltwater service where valves can be easily replaced, cast iron or carbon steel
valves are generally used in large sizes, and bronze valves in small sizes. Where
replacement is difficult, the more expensive bronze valves may be preferable since
they resist corrosion in saltwater if velocities are not excessive. Very large cast iron
and steel valves are sometimes epoxy-lined. The 300 series stainless steels are
subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in stagnant or slow-moving (less than 2 to
3 fps) saltwater. Monel performs satisfactorily in flowing saltwater and is usually

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less subject to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, Monel is 5 to 10 times more
expensive than steel or cast iron.

280 Bolts and Gaskets


Bolts and gaskets are used at flanged connections in piping.

281 Bolts
Bolt Material
Bolting materials are divided into the four groups below by ASME/ANSI B16.5.
Choice of bolting material is governed by service fluid (sweet, sour), its tempera-
ture, and bolt style.
• High strength
• Medium strength
• Low strength
• Nickel and special alloy
The most commonly used bolts for flanges in refinery piping are the ASTM A193
Gr B7 stud bolts, which fall into the high strength group. The temperature range for
these bolts is from -20°F to 750°F. See Figure 200-28.

Fig. 200-28 Machine Bolt with Hex Nut and Stud Bolt with Hex Nuts Courtesy of Crane
Valves

The medium strength ASTM A193 Gr B7M studs are required in sour services to
avoid sulfide stress corrosion cracking. Sour service here means continuous H2S
exposure, such as in heat exchangers or possibly with insulated flanges. Grade B7
studs should be used for flanges in open atmospheres.
Low carbon machine bolts per ASTM A307 Gr B are in the low strength group.
They should be used for all cast iron flanges (to prevent overstressing the flange)
and for Class 150 flanges up to 16 inches. Low carbon bolts are limited to a bolt
temperature of 400°F.
High strength ASTM A193 Gr B16 bolts are used for temperatures between 750°F
and 950°F.

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Bolt Size
Selection of proper stud bolt and machine bolt sizes, including length, is given in
ASME/ANSI B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.
The calculation of proper bolt length always assumes the use of heavy pattern hex
nuts per ASME/ANSI B18.2, Square and Hex Nuts. Heavy pattern nuts are desir-
able because of additional strength and the larger area on the flats that helps avoid
rounding corners.
Certain pipe fittings and valves, such as the wafer valves discussed in Section 270,
have extra long stud bolts. Such installations are a concern in fire hazard areas.
Long bolts are more susceptible to expansion when subjected to flame impinge-
ment and are a potential leak source. If long bolts are used in such areas, they
should have flame impingement shields as shown on Standard Drawing GB-L1110.
Threading. All machine bolts, stud bolts, and nuts should be specified with threads
as described in ASTM A193 Paragraph 15.

Bolt Applications
Proper material selection of bolts and nuts for various applications is discussed
below, and summarized in Figure 200-29.

Fig. 200-29 Recommended Bolting Materials


Temp Range
Service Flanges Pipe Dia. Bolt Dia. °F Bolt Spec Nut Spec
General Cast Iron All All -20 to 400 ASTM A307 ASME/ANSI
Grade B B18.2
C.S. ≤ 16 ≤1 -20 to 400 ASTM A307 ASME/ANSI
Class 150 Grade B B18.2
C.S. All All -20 to 750 ASTM A193 ASTM A194
All Classes Grade B7 Grade 2H
General C.S. All All -20 to 850 ASTM A193 ASTM A194
Sour All Classes Grade B7M Grade 2HM
C.S. All All -20 to 850 ASTM A193 ASTM A194
All Classes Grade B7M Grade 2HM
High Temp C.S. All All -20 to 950 ASTM A193 ASTM A194
All Classes Grade B16 Grade 2
C.S. All All Select bolts to match service conditions
All Classes
Low Temp C.S. All All ≤ -20 ASTM A320 ASTM A194
All Classes Grade L7 Grade 2H
Low Temp S.S. All All ≤ -20 ASTM A320 ASTM A194
Sour All Classes Grade L7M Grade 2HM

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General Service. ASTM A307 Grade B low carbon steel machine bolts with square
heads and heavy hex nuts per ASME/ANSI B18.2 are specified for cast iron flanges
and are suitable for Class 150 carbon steel flanges up to NPS 16 where bolt diam-
eter is one inch or less.
Although low carbon machine bolts are acceptable for Class 150 steel flanges,
common practice is to use B7 stud bolts (see following) on all steel flanges. Use of
the low carbon steel machine bolts is limited to the -20°F to 400°F bolt metal
temperature range by ASME/ANSI B31.3.
ASTM A193 Grade B7 alloy stud bolts are high-strength stud bolts. They are the
most widely used bolts and should be specified for:
• ANSI Class 300 and higher flange ratings
• All bolt metal temperatures from -20°F to 750°F
• Bolt diameters ≥ 1-1/8 inch in any ANSI class
ASTM A194 Grade 2H heavy hex nuts are specified for B7 alloy studs. B7 studs are
subject to sulfide cracking failure if exposed to stock containing aqueous H2S (e.g.,
on internal vessel piping). If sulfide cracking is likely, ASTM A193 Grade B7M
studs tempered to less than 225 Brinnell hardness should be considered, with ASTM
A194 Grade 2HM nuts. ASTM A193 Grade B7M studs have lower strength levels,
and the bolt strength and flange design should be reviewed for suitability in pres-
sure-temperature conditions. ASME/ANSI B31.3 lists allowable bolt stresses, and
the calculation method is in Appendix 2 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section VIII, Division 1. Bolting of internal parts is not covered by codes and engi-
neering judgment must be used.
High Temperature Service. ASTM A193 Grade B16 alloy stud bolts with ASTM
A194 Grade 2 nuts should be used between 750°F and 950°F for most services.
Also see Stainless Steel Stud Bolts, following.
Low Temperature Service. ASTM A320 Grade L7 alloy stud bolts with ASTM
A194 Grade 2H nuts should be specified where ambient or service temperatures can
drop below -20°F. In sour services with low temperatures, ASTM A320 Grade L7M
studs should be specified, with ASTM A194 Grade 2HM nuts.
Stainless Steel Stud Bolts. Stainless steel stud bolts should be used with stainless
steel flanges where high operating temperatures and thermal cycling can cause
flange leakage because of differential thermal expansion between low alloy bolt
material (B7 or B16) and the stainless steel flange. Stainless steel bolts should also
be considered where leaking line fluid can cause severe corrosion of the bolts.
Selection of the proper bolt material depends on the fluid being handled.
The Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC should be consulted on
the application and selection of stainless steel bolts.
The design of flanged joints using stainless steel bolting should be reviewed to
determine if the joint is suitable for the needed pressure-temperature rating with the
lower allowable bolt stresses. See ASME/ANSI B31.3 for allowable bolt stresses

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and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division I for the calcula-
tion procedure.
Bolting-up Practices. Good practice for tightening bolted flanges is discussed in
Section 600 of this manual. Bolt tightening instructions ensure that the gasket is
uniformly compressed, but they usually cannot remedy leaking flanged connections
that are improperly aligned, have the wrong gasket, have too much thermal stress or
have excessive moment loads on the joint.

282 Gaskets
Two styles of gasket are commonly used with pipe flanges: Nonmetallic (ASME
B16.21) and Metallic (ASME B16.20). Refer to Standard Drawing GD-L1264
“Gasket Specifications and Acceptable Brands” and form PIM-EF-743 “Flange
Gasket Limitations” for Chevrons’ recommendations on gaskets and their limita-
tions in various services.
Class 150 carbon steel raised-face flanges use non-metallic flat-ring gaskets. Class
125 cast iron flat-face flanges use non-metallic full-face gaskets.
Class 150 carbon steel raised-face flanges in non-flammable fluid service to 365°F
(particularly cooling water service) use aramid fiber composition gaskets. In flam-
mable service to 450°F Class 150 carbon steel raised-face flanges use graphite
coated corrugated gaskets (not recommended for cooling water service because of
galvanic corrosion concerns).
Class 300 and Class 600 flanges use spiral-wound or ring-joint gaskets depending
on the fluid service. Both of these gaskets are metallic. Flange classes higher than
Class 600 in refinery process services use only ring-joint gaskets.
In upstream production and in pipeline service the piping at pumping and
compressor stations may use spiral wound gaskets at higher than Class 600 rating.

Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges (ASME Standard B16.21)


Nonmetallic flat gaskets for pipe flanges are made to the ASME Standard B16.21.
These gaskets have relatively lower tensile strength than metallic gaskets and may
be subject to blowout (See Section 250). Chevron has limited their use to ASME
Class 150 flanges and maximum service temperatures between 300°F-450°F
depending on the material. Chevron does not recommend the use of Class 150
flanges above 450°F; for services above 450°F Class 300 flanges and spiral-wound
gaskets are specified.
Historically flat ring composition gaskets were cut from sheets made with asbestos
fibers, some inert fillers and bound with an elastomer binder. In the old piping spec-
ifications the asbestos sheet gaskets were limited to 450°F because of the elasto-
meric binder. (Asbestos ropes were used in reactor internals up to 900°F because
they contained no binders).

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Non-asbestos composition sheet gaskets are now made with synthetic fibers
(replacing the asbestos fiber) and an elastomer binder, they are limited to 365°F in
non-flammable service and to Class 150 flanges.
Company experience with most reinforced flexible graphite sheet gaskets has been
poor because of the lack of elastic recovery in flexible graphite material. However,
the flat ring corrugated gaskets (stainless sheet metal core bonded with a flexible
graphite coating) have performed well and are considered the exception. The coated
corrugated gasket is still classified as nonmetallic despite the metal reinforcement.
Chevron recommends the coated corrugated gasket for use with Class 150 flanges to
450°F. (Note: The 450°F limit is not the limit for flexible graphite it is the limit for
the Class 150 flange). Special care and handling are necessary with gaskets that
have flexible graphite as a coating or as a filler (spiral-wound or jacketed) because
they are easily damaged.
The low resistance of graphite to concentrated acids such as H2SO4 and HNO3
makes it unsuitable for these and other highly oxidizing services. Spiral-Wound
gaskets with a PTFE filler are recommended. Appropriate metal winding material is
Alloy 20 for H2SO4 and Type 304 for HNO3.

Surface Finish for Flanges


The surface finish of the gasket contact area on flanges should comply with the
latest edition of ASME B16.5 “Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.” Refer to
Section 250 for additional information.

Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - (ASME Standard B16.20)


Three styles of metallic gasket are covered in the ASME Standard B16.20: Ring-
Joint, Spiral-Wound and Jacketed. They are suitable for use with flanges described
in ASME B16.5, ASME B16.47 and API-6A Standards.
Ring-Joint Gaskets (ORJ, RTJ). Type “R” Octagonal or Oval Ring-Joint (ORJ),
also called Ring Type Joint (RTJ), gaskets have either an octagonal or an oval cross-
section. They are used in high-pressure, high-temperature and/or critical services
and are considered more secure than Spiral-Wound style gaskets. The octagonal
ring-joint is preferred because of the greater seating surface.
They should be used in all hydrogen systems and considered for all services with
ASME Class 900 (or higher) flange rating. Material selection must be suitable for
the service conditions. Common materials and their maximum allowable hardness
are listed in ASME B16.20. See Section 250 for additional discussion on the use of
Ring-Joint flanges.
Spiral-Wound Gaskets. Spiral-Wound gaskets are fabricated from a thin V-shaped
metal strip (winding) and a strip of gasket material (filler) wound together into a
ring. (See Figure 200-30.) The metal strip is usually Type 304 stainless steel but can
be of other materials as required for corrosion resistance. The ends of the strip are
spot welded to prevent unraveling of the spiral. Filler material is either flexible
graphite (good for high temperatures) or PTFE (recommended for oxidizing acids).
Spiral-Wound gaskets for pipe flanges have a 1/8-inch thick outer metal ring that
has a dual function: it centers the gasket and prevents over-compression.

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Fig. 200-30 Spiral-wound Gasket Courtesy of The Flexitallic Group

Considered a confined gasket, spiral-wound gaskets are recommended up to 750°F


for general hydrocarbon, LPG and steam services. Spiral-wound gaskets are not
recommended for hydrogen service. Gaskets NPS 12 and larger with a graphite
filler and all NPS sizes with a PTFE filler should have both an outer carbon steel
compression centering ring and an inner ring made of the same material as the
winding. Additionally, ASME B16.20 requires outer and inner rings for NPS 12 and
larger in ASME Class 1500, and NPS 4 and larger in Class 2500.
Double-Jacketed Gaskets. Double-Jacketed metal gaskets consist of a soft resil-
ient core encased in a soft iron jacket. The principal use for these gaskets was for
high pressure, high temperature services with raised face or tongue-and-groove
flanges. Spiral-Wound gaskets have largely replaced these gaskets.

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290 Miscellaneous Engineered Equipment


Some piping equipment must be specifically engineered (either by design or selec-
tion) for certain tasks.

291 Strainers
Strainers may be of either the permanent or temporary type. Permanent strainers are
used to protect sensitive equipment such as turbine meters, close clearance compres-
sors and other rotating equipment from particulate matter in the process fluids.
Temporary strainers are used at startup to protect sensitive equipment, mainly
pumps, from debris in the lines. See Figure 200-31 for illustrations of temporary and
permanent strainers.

Fig. 200-31 Strainers Courtesy of Mack Iron Works Company

a. Permanent Basket Strainer b. Temporary Cone Strainer

c. Permanent Tee Strainer


d. Permanent Tee Strainer - High
Pressure Drop (not recommended)

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Strainer Selection and Use


Strainers should be used for pump, compressor, and PD meter suctions during initial
startup and where line or product debris is common. The issue of permanent versus
temporary installation must be based on intended service, maintainability, and cost
on a case-by-case basis.
Tee, Basket, Conical Strainers Compared. Tee strainers are preferred. Basket
strainers should be used only when continuous cleaning is required. Conical
strainers, although initially less expensive, should be used only if the conical
strainer’s disadvantages can be justified based on expected machinery reliability,
startup costs, and maintenance costs.
Tee and basket strainers have the following advantages. They:
• Eliminate the need to realign machinery drivelines, since piping spool pieces
are not disassembled
• Reduce strainer cleanout time
• Are serviceable by operators without assistance from maintenance crews
• Reduce startup costs when multiple cleanings are required
• Have more robust strainer elements and are less likely to fail and damage
machinery
Tee and basket strainers have these disadvantages:
• Higher initial cost
• Extra gasketed joint that can leak
• Requirement for extra piping space in some instances
Tee Strainers. Tee strainers should be used wherever disassembly of piping is not
practical because of the cost of machinery realignment or the piping configuration.
Tee strainers can be used for continuous removal of debris from a line. Cleanout is
much simpler and quicker than for conical strainers.
Tee strainers are meant for permanent installation, although the strainer elements
may be removed if no longer needed. They are commercially available as flanged,
threaded, or (rarely) weld-end, for both in-line tee and Y-pattern styles. The style
chosen depends on the line size, contaminants to be removed, and piping configura-
tion. The strainer elements are bathtub-shaped. The screen size, mesh size, and
basket size should be established with the vendor. Suppliers include Aitken, Inc.,
Houston, TX; Mac Iron; and others.
Strainer bodies, internals, connected blowdown valves and drain piping should be
fabricated of steel, as determined by the applicable pipe code and pipe material.
Strainer element materials should be chosen with consideration for the service fluid
and expected life.

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Tee strainers are more expensive than conical strainers. However, the higher cost is
offset by lower maintenance costs and elimination of the need for a removable pipe
spool. Figure 200-32 shows typical installations for tee strainers for a pump.

Fig. 200-32 In-Line Tee Strainers for a Pump

Not Recommended
Preferred
(High Pressure Drop)

Basket Strainers. Basket strainers should be used to continuously remove debris


from a line. Applications include removal of corrosion scale in steam turbine
suction lines and debris in compressor suction lines, and installation upstream of
displacement meters and in pump suction lines in dirty service, such as crude lift-
ings from tankers. Basket strainers are designed for permanent installation. They
generally have cast iron or steel bodies with flanged connections. The strainer can
be lifted out through a cover flange. Bolted cover flanges are recommended; clamp
styles usually do not match the piping flange pressure rating. The screen size, mesh
size and basket size should be established with the vendor. Basket strainers are as
expensive as valves. Dual strainers with associated valving may be required for
some services.
Conical Strainers. Conical strainers should only be used in turbine, compressor and
pump suction lines to catch debris during startup of new systems and newly modi-
fied systems. They are typically installed at a pair of flanges close to the machine’s
inlet. Installation of long conical strainers at large diameter suctions can present
problems, especially where space is limited. An extra pair of flanges or removable
spool is often required.
Conical strainers are commercially available in many screen sizes, and for use with
all ANSI flange faces, sizes and ratings. For general service, they should be fabri-
cated of a minimum of 16 BWG carbon steel sheet with 1/8-inch diameter holes on
3/16-inch straight centers. Above NPS 20 the manufacturer should be consulted.
Consider stainless steel in corrosive services or where the strainer will be in use for
extended periods.
Installation of Conical Strainers. It is a common misconception that these
strainers should point upstream. Conical strainers should be installed with the
pointed end downstream. This position retains more flow area as debris collects, is

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structurally stronger, and retains debris when the strainer is removed. When
woven wire mesh is used to cover the perforated sheet, it should be placed on the
upstream side.
Company-designed Conical Strainers. In areas where acceptable conical screens
are not commercially available, Standard Drawing GB-L88612 provides fabrication
details. Because of the cost of fabricating screens to our own design, commercial
screens should be used when possible.
Some commercially manufactured strainer elements are fabricated of light gage
steel and have been known to collapse when plugged with scale or grit, or as a result
of vibration-induced metal fatigue.

Strainers for Specific Services


Pump Strainers. For services where solids finer than 1/8-inch cannot be tolerated,
wire mesh can be mounted over the perforated screen. Sizing should be coordinated
with the pump vendor and strainer manufacturer. The mesh should be installed on
the upstream side of the screen.
Strainers should have an open area of at least 120% of the pipe flow area. A greater
area should be specified when significant fouling is expected or when pump suction
pressure is important (refer to the Pump Manual for information on NPSH).
Centrifugal Compressor Strainers. Centrifugal compressors are more tolerant of
small particles than reciprocating machines but are sensitive to larger objects that
can damage the high-speed rotors. In critical services, fine-mesh startup strainer
elements are sometimes replaced after startup with permanent “bolt catcher” strainer
elements with heavier construction and larger openings.
Conical strainers for centrifugal compressors should be of 11 BWG carbon steel
plate with a support ring of 1/4-inch steel. The open area should be equal to 200%
of the pipe flow area, with 1/8-inch diameter holes punched on a 3/16-inch trian-
gular pitch. Longitudinal weld quality is critical for conical elements. A wire mesh
overlay should not be used; it can plug too quickly. Instead, the suction piping
should be mechanically cleaned sufficiently to remove particles large enough to
damage the machine.
Reciprocating Compressor Strainers. These machines are sensitive to fine scale
and grit, which can damage the valves and cylinders. Larger objects are of less
concern because they can be stopped when passing through suction bottles or at the
suction valve guards. Suction system piping may need to be chemically cleaned
before the compressor is commissioned. See Model Specification PIM-MS-2411.
Strainer elements are usually fabricated of woven stainless steel wire mesh installed
over perforated carbon steel plate. The strainer plate and support ring should be
fabricated with the same thickness steel and perforation dimensions as for centrif-
ugal machines. Particles larger than 140 microns should be removed.
The open area of the perforated plate should be approximately 300% of the pipe
flow area to compensate for the wire mesh overlay, which will reduce the open area.

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Strainers for Water Well Pumps. Water well discharge piping presents special
problems because sand may be present during pump starts or may be continuously
produced. The sand can quickly plug off fine weave mesh elements. It is difficult to
remove sand from the element in service—especially angular sand. Where contin-
uous sand removal is needed, strainers with automatic scrapers (for the strainers)
may be satisfactory, but they are expensive.

292 Flame Arresters


Flame arresters are installed to prevent flame propagation in vent piping. Their
purpose is to slow, cool, and extinguish a flame front before detonation can occur.
An explanation of how they function and proper installation procedures are
presented in the Fire Protection Manual.
The operation of flame arresters is described in the Flame Arrester Guide, by
J. G. Seebold, available from CRTC’s Environmental Services Unit. See also the
Tank Manual and the Fire Protection Manual.

Common Applications
The most common application is to prevent spark- or lightning-ignited flame at
atmospheric vent discharges from traveling upstream. They are also installed in
waste gas lines to furnace fireboxes, tank field and marine vapor recovery systems,
and long exhaust lines of large engines. In the latter instance they prevent flame
propagation downstream in the hot gas.
Flame arresters should be steel-fabricated and must be strong enough to withstand
detonation. Kemp flame arresters are currently acceptable for in-line use, and others
are being tested.
Maintenance is required because the minute passages in the device are susceptible
to fouling with corrosion products and stock contaminants. To remain effective, they
must be periodically inspected and cleaned.

293 Expansion Joints


When a welded expansion loop to accommodate pipe expansion is not practical, for
instance, in congested areas or when line drainage is important, an expansion joint
may be considered. Expansion joints are not recommended for hydrocarbon service
and should be the last resort. Expansion joints provide flexibility either by axial
movement, angular rotation, or a combination of the two. Expansion joints for axial
movement may be either packless or packed.

Packed Joints
The packed slip joint consists of a length of pipe, generally machined, that slides
inside a packed sleeve. This joint is useful when large amounts of axial expansion
must be absorbed. It must be carefully guided to avoid angular moments that might
cause binding. Selection and installation should be reviewed with the vendor. Slip
joints require restraint of movement, either with external bolts or an internal collar.
These are normally supplied by the vendor. This joint is not recommended for flam-

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mable fluid service both because it is difficult to keep tight and because the packing
may burn out in a fire. Slip joints are recommended for off-plot use only.
Dresser couplings are sometimes considered to be a packed expansion joint. For
information on this coupling, See Section 260.

Packless Joints
The preferred packless expansion joint is the bellows expansion joint. The bellows
material must be carefully selected to avoid failures from fatigue and stress corro-
sion cracking. To prevent accumulation of sediment in the convolutions, it is prefer-
able to locate bellows expansion joints in vertical runs of pipe.
Bellows can be designed to absorb axial, lateral, and angular pipe movement. They
can be considered for on-plot noncritical steam and condensate. Fatigue failure is a
concern; normal cyclic operation and exposure to pulsing or vibrating service must
be considered. Proper material selection, sizing, and installation are critical and
should be reviewed with the vendor. Fire resistance of bellows is low.
Section 330 recommends that, if feasible, flexibility be provided by pipe bends, but
it may be necessary to use packless corrugated bellows expansion joints for refinery
service. Expansion joints are most commonly used in large lines where space does
not permit pipe bends, or immediately adjacent to rotating equipment to provide
angular flexibility without high moments that might distort the rotating equipment
casings and cause binding and misalignment.
All of the joints discussed earlier, including the bellows expansion joint, slip joint,
and Dresser coupling, may be blown apart by longitudinal hydrostatic pressure
unless special precautions are taken to anchor the pipe on each side of the joint.
The Victaulic coupling is sometimes considered to be a packless expansion joint.
For information on this coupling, see Section 260.
Hinge expansion joints are used to absorb expansion by the angular motion of the
joint. This is achieved using two hinged expansion joints spaced a distance apart
and located so that the major expansion movement is normal to the axis through the
joints. To best utilize the hinge system the distance between the hinges should be as
large as possible. The advantage of hinge joints is that they absorb the pressure
thrust forces and require a minimum of guiding and intermediate anchors. See
Figure 200-33.
The gimbal expansion joint incorporates a pair of hinges connected to a common
floating gimbal ring. This construction provides for close control of the movement
imposed upon the bellows and at the same time supports the dead weight of the
system and absorbs the pressure thrust. Gimbal expansion joints are used in pairs to
absorb multiplane motion in a piping system. See Figure 200-33.

294 Swivel Joints


Swivel joints are used off-plot, primarily in tanker loading booms, tank truck
loading systems, and with floating roof tank internal roof drains where articulated

Chevron Corporation 200-95 November 2001


200 Piping Component Selection Piping Manual

Fig. 200-33 Expansion Joints—Hinge and Gimbal Courtesy of Pathway Bellows

a. Hinge Expansion Joint b. Gimbal Expansion Joint


Note:
HEJ = Hinge Expansion Joint
GEJ = Gimbal Expansion Joint
IA = Intermediate Action
PG = Planer Guide

piping is required. Swivel joints can be sealed with a variety of packing. The ball
bearings require lubrication. Swivel joints are not considered fire resistant.

November 2001 200-96 Chevron Corporation