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Name: Revada Rajeev

Roll Number: 1504049


ElectronicsandCommunication
3rd Semester
Submitted on :12-04-2017

GREEN TECHNOLOGY (CH104)ASSIGNMENT

TOPIC: Green Technology in Waste Management

ARTICLE 1:

 The above news article was published by the Hindustan Times with news item
“Getting the best out of biomedical waste: KGMU docs show the way”
 The dumping yard which is a hazardous prone area turned out to be
treatment center now. This change was brought in by a team of doctors at
King George’s Medical University (KGMU) in Lucknow.
 The improper handling of the waste might be hazardous to doctors, patients
or for people who are going near by this area
 A luxurious and ultramodern cell was constructed on the dumping yard that
treats the biomedical waste .The cell has its own separating unit that
separates disinfects(like DNA bottles),non infectious waste and these wastes
are converted into scrap .
 By adopting common methodologies after segregation the waste are turned
out into scrap with the help of state of art machines and later sold out .The
process ensures that waste generated by the hospital is never reused.
Henceforth the load of biomedical waste is reduced by a good amount
 The sanctity of the hospital is retained by use of this model. The hospital
management are looking forward to spread the awareness of this initiative
and to this model every hospital must posses a special place for waste
disposal
 Now the center has become a good revenue generator for the university
adding 1 lakh per annum by selling the treated waste

ARTICLE 2:
 The above news article was published on Deccan Chronicle with news item
“GHMC turns scraps into sofas”.
 The Greater Hyderabad Municipal corporation laid its initiative in an
innovative turning the scrap that has been piled up in the city’s backyard
into sofas in partnership with city based designers and owners of Bamboo
House India. These small-scale projects are turning out to be revenue
boosters.
 The debris which are result of broken spill drums and tyres are turned into
useful interior furniture models likes sofas
 Tires represent a serious environmental concern on several fronts. Part of the
risk lies with their chemical makeup. Toxins released from tire decomposition,
incineration or accidental fires can pollute the water, air and soil.
 Another major concern of discarded tires is increased fire risk. When heated,
tires become a fuel source.
 It reads that much as 80 tyres and 20 drums were used for the pilot projects
using which they have designed few prototypes. The team is working on a
model for tree gaurds. This model serves dual use one is that urban scrap is
put to use and second is that these models does not cost a bomb.
 The places where the cement benches are intended to be implanted can now
be replaced the cost effective benches crafted out of scrap. It is said that
cement benches would cost Rs.8000 whereas the other would cost Rs.3000.

ARTICLE 3:
 The above news article was published on the Indian Express newspaper with
news item “From garbage to gardens”.
 This initiative was laid forward by the 75 year old woman named Sudha pai
from Pune. Her garden consisted of daisy plants like dahlias, commercial
plants of spurge family like poinsettias ,garlic creepers, palm trees, mango
trees and an section of different varieties of orchids.
 All the kitchen waste and household waste are collected into the compost pits
and here the waste is then converted into manure. This acts as the major
source of organic manure . Manures contain small percentage of nutrients
and are applied in large quantities, they supply plant nutrients including
micronutrients, improves soil physical properties.
 The waste can be converted into compost just below six inches of normal land
surface. Not only a person who has created this compost pits can dump the
waste he can ask his neighbors to dump their waste too.
 The methods that are adopted by her were vermiculture, bioculture and EM
solution methods. VERMICULTURE corresponds to cultivation of earthworms,
especially in order to use them to convert organic waste into fertilizer. BIO
CULTURE is a bacterial formulation designed to improve waste degradation
in septic tanks and eliminate odors due to organic buildup.
 These methods result in small gardens also these methods surpassed the
requirement for soil . So the gardens could be laid anywhere in our
surroundings
 On her terrace, the bed of double plastic has two layers of bricks around it.
The coconut hair spread at bottom ensures proper drainage and on that are
the layers of waste .For maintenance and also to keep pests away she uses
Effective Microorganism solution which are available in the market .
 After all these methods the compost is then allowed to decompose for about
three months. This method is referred to as KHAMBA METHOD
 On the whole she is spreading her initiative to a larger extent with help of
City’s corporation ,also she has a blog. This process has become so popular
that students of various schools turn up how the waste has been converted
into gardens
 The extent of pollution can be reduced to a great deal because there are
about thousand tonnes of waste in a city generated every year. Taking
advantage of this we could create a large number of gardens . All the bio-
waste are to be segregated and necessary waste that are required to create
bio composts are then collected
ARTICLE 4:

 The above article appeared on 2nd of December 2015 in Indiatoday with


news item “Low grade waste heat converters: Best of waste”
 Reference link: “http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/climate-change-
technologies-low-grade-waste-heat-converters-best-out-of-
waste/1/537289.html”
 Just like other sources of electricity like thermal stress (piezoelectricity)
electricity may be derived from excess heat generated as well

 Keeping this in mind a pune based Thermax( projects that conserve energy
and preserve the environment) had started this technology in 2008

 This technology is called Organic Rankine Technology(ORC). The Organic


Rankine cycle is named for its use of an organic, high molecular mass fluid
with a liquid-vapor phase change occurring at a lower temperature than the
water-steam phase change. The fluid allows Rankine Cycle heat recovery
from lower temperature source like industrial waste heat

 Waste heat generated from heavy machinery such as boilers , diesel engines
and from thermal plants is now being converted into electricity. The organic
Rankine cycle (ORC) technology harnesses low-grade energy into electricity .
A scale of 100 kw the technology costs Rs.1.4 crores which when scaled up
would cost 11-12 crore per MW

 Firms in India are still working towards heat recovery at the larger level.
Once it’s achieved they will turn to low grade heat, so the implementation
may take longer

 So on the whole heat in the form of waste derived from incinerators and
many other firms is turned into the source of electricity
ARTICLE 5:

 The above article was published on 31st of July 2016 on the Hindu with
the news item “Turning waste tyre into ‘green steel’ ’’
 Every year, over one billion tyres are manufactured worldwide, and
equal number of tyres are permanently removed from vehicles,
becoming waste.
 Mumbai-born scientist Professor Veena Sahajwalla, Director, Centre for
Sustainable Materials Research and Technology at University of New
South Wales (UNSW) Australia, who has invented Polymer Injection
Technology that converts old rubber tyres to metal alloys that make
‘Green Steel’ says this could be the answer to deal with the growing
problem of disposal of waste tyres globally.
 Although modern tyres are fundamentally rubber products, they are a
complex mix of natural and synthetic rubbers, and various structural
reinforcing elements including metals and chemical additives.
 Risks include the stagnant water in tyres that provides breeding
grounds for mosquitoes and leaching of toxic substances into soils.
 We have developed Polymer Injection Technology (PIT), or ‘green
steel’ which introduces a simple modification into the conventional
manufacturing process for steel. The technology precisely controls the
injection of granulated waste tyres in conventional Electric Arc Furnace
(EAF) steelmaking, partially replacing non-renewable coke.
 Waste tyres, like coke, are good sources of hydrocarbons. This means
they can be usefully transformed in EAF steelmaking, as long as the
process of injecting them into the furnace is precisely calibrated.
 The University of NewSouthwhales UNSW spent a number of years
researching and understanding the high temperature reactions that
take place when waste tyres partially replace coke, enabling them to
optomize the operating parameters of the furnaces.
 Steel is one of the most important materials worldwide. As India’s
economy grows, so does its demand for steel. ‘Green steel’ offers
multiple benefits – as it makes good use of waste tyres, it reduces the
cost of EAF steelmaking and reduces the environmental footprint of
the industry.
 Most waste tyres end up in landfill. With ‘green steelmaking’ process
they have introduced a real economic and environmental incentive for
communities and businesses to value waste tyres as an input into
steelmaking, and so steer them away from landfill. Globally, much
positive work has been done to recycle or reuse tyres, but it has not
kept pace with the growing volumes.
 Some of these uses include burning tyres as fuel in cement kilns, the use
of waste tyres in civil engineering works such as retaining walls and
highway barriers, the use of granulated waste tyres for numerous
applications such as sports and playground surfaces and blended into
asphalt for road making or as rubberized asphalt concrete.