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3/12/2018 WRITING CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS (Quantitative)


List of Modules:

Module 1 - Looking for a Topic /Research Proposal

Module 2 - Quantitative Research
Module 3 - Qualitative Research
Module 4 -Home PhD
Analysing Qualitative Data Marketing DLP

Module 5 - Writing the Thesis

In Chapter 4: Analysis of Data (Quantitative), you present the results or findings

of the study in the form of tables and graphs using the APA format and style.

Contents of Module 5: Writing the Thesis

Structure of the Thesis

Writing Chapter 1: "Introduction"
Writing Chapter 2: "Review of Literature"
Writing Chapter 3: "Methodology" [Quantitative]
Writing Chapter 3: "Methodology" [Qualitative]
Writing Chapter 4: "Analysis of Data" (Quantitative)
Writing Chapter 4: Analysis of Data (Qualitative)
Writing Chapter 5: "Summary, Discussion and Conclusion"
Thesis Defence
Writing Style and Language Expression
APA Format & Style
What are Examiners Looking for in a Thesis?

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3/12/2018 WRITING CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS (Quantitative)

Writing Chapter 4 - Analysis of Data for Quantitative Research

Chapter four of the Thesis is given

different titles "Analysis of Data";
"Results of Study"; "Analysis and
Results" and others. The two key
words is 'analysis' and 'results' where
the researcher analyses the data
collected and presents the results in
Chapter 4. 'Analysis' here implies the use of relevant statistical tools usually to determine
differences and relationships.
Sometimes students spend so much time collecting and analysing the data but when it
comes to reporting they do not do a good job. Some students 'sell short' by under-
reporting the data they have collected and analysed. They fail to tease out valuable and
relevant information and present it in Chapter 4. In some instances, the presentation of
the data is not clear even though Chapter 1, Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 are well written.
Chapter 4 is perhaps the most important chapter because it is the culmination of all your
efforts. People would like to know what you have found out after spending so many
years. What's the big deal? It is a big deal because the findings is the essence of the
whole project. You should be most excited in what you have found and to be able to
convey that excitement in Chapter 4. Here we will focus on writing the results and
analysis of data based on a quantitative approach which consists of THREE sections:
Preamble / Introduction

You begin this Chapter with a 'Preamble' or 'Introduction' in which you remind the reader
on the purpose of the study and the research questions or hypotheses. Briefly tell the
reader about the research design - i.e. whether it was an experimental, quasi-
experimental, survey. correlational design and so forth.
Also, briefly describe the data collection techniques - such as questionnaire,
observation, interviews, aptitude tests, attitude tests, scales, inventories and so forth
[Note that the process of how you collected the data must be aligned with what was
employed in Chapter 3 - a common error is that what you reported in Chapter 3 does not
match with what was mentioned in Chapter 4]
Finally, in this section you briefly describe the characteristics of the sample (such as age,
gender or other relevant information) that has emerged from your data collection to
provide context for your findings. You could include tables describing the demographics
of the sample.
Report the Findings

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3/12/2018 WRITING CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS (Quantitative)

The 'Report of Findings' is not a sub-section heading. Instead the sub-section headings
should be each 'Research Question' or 'Hypothesis'. Organise your presentation as
1. Research Question / Hypothesis 1 followed by the results
2. Research Question / Hypotheisis 2 followed by the results
3. Research Question / Hypothesis 3 followed by the results
4. and so forth

You restate the research question / hypothesis as follows:

In the form of a Questions - Is there a significant difference in leadership

styles between male and female leaders in the banking sector?.
In form of a statement - Gender and Leadership Style in the Banking Sector.
In the form of a null hypothesis - There is no significant difference between
male and female managers ...........

Guidelines for the Presentation of Statistical Information

Support your presentation with tables, graphs, charts and figures where
Follow APA format. 
Tables, charts, graphs and figures should be interpreted - it is your
responsibility to tell your reader what you think is the most important
information in the graphics. 
Make sure that each graphic is clearly labelled with a title so that
readers can easily identify and understand them. 
Never present a table, chart, or figure that you are not planning to

It should be written in the past tense because the data has been


Do not judge, editorialise, evaluate or give you opinion on the results

obtained. Just report the facts, OK!

Presentation should be consistent with the underlying theoretical framework

[Not left isolated in Chapter 2]

Remember to write for the reader and it should be logical and easy to follow
- 'make it simple but not simpler'

Avoid citations - it is not necessary to cite sources - you will do that in 

Chapter 5.
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3/12/2018 WRITING CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS (Quantitative)

Research Question 1 / Hypothesis 1

In attempting to answer each Research Question or Hypothesis, you would surely

have used various statistical tools and procedures. You have to demonstrate how
theses statistical tests help answer Research Question 1 or the rejection or
acceptance of Hypotheses 1.
You have to show how the statistical analysis employed allow you to draw
conclusions. Note that you have to assume that the readers of your thesis have a
knowledge of statistics. Don’t try to explain how or why you used a particular
test unless it is unusual.
APA Guidelines for Reporting Statistical Analysis
Reporting Descriptive Statistics

In reporting the results of descriptive statistical tests, focus is on the means (M),
standard deviations (SD), frequencies (N) and percentages presented in tables or
graphs (bar charts, line graphs, pie charts). For example,
'Females (M = 45, SD = 2.1) are more satisfied with their jobs compared to their male (M
= 38, SD = 2.2) colleagues'.

If you present descriptive statistics in a table or figure, you do not need to repeat
in text form all that is in the table. However, you should explain the key features
in the table in the narrative which will help interpretation. A common error is tell
nothing about the table or graph in the text or to tell in writing everything in the
table or graph. You have to decide on what are the key findings or features that
should be written about. You cannot say, "Just look at the table and interpret for
yourself what was found".
Reporting the p value

Most quantitative research in the behavioural and social sciences involve

comparing two or more groups of individuals. The statistical tools (such as t-test,
ANOVA) are used to report a significant difference between two or more
conditions where one condition may be more, less, higher or lower than another
condition. For this purpose, the 'p value' is used ranging from .001, .01 and .05.
Before you report, make sure that you mention at the onset that you are using a
particular alpha level such as .05 for all statistical tests. This is how it should be
"A p value of .03 was reported indicating a significant difference between

Reporting Correlations
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3/12/2018 WRITING CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS (Quantitative)

Correlations provide a measure of statistical relationship between two variables.

Note that correlations can be tested for statistical significance and reported as
"For the thirty students, the scores on the mathematics test (M = 7.00, SD = 1.23) and
the attitude towards mathematics (M = 80.89, SD = 6.90) were strongly and significantly
correlated, r(29) = .70, p = .038"

Reporting the Independent Samples t Test

For this analysis, the emphasis is on comparing the means from two groups.
Here again the summary and the inferential statistics focus on the difference.
"An independent sample t test showed that the difference in quiz scores between the
control group (n = 4, M = 6.00, SD = 0.82) and the experimental group (n = 4, M = 8.00,
SD = .82) were statistically significant, t(6) = -3.46, p = .013, 95% CI [-3.41, -0.59], d =

Some common mistakes in reporting statistical data

Forgetting to italicise symbols such as p, t, F, r.

t(34) = 2.39, p = .011 is wrong
t(34) = 2.39, p = .011 is right

Forgetting to put spaces around = and <

t(34)=2.39,p<.001 is wrong
t(34) = 2.39, p < .001 is better

Putting leading zeros on p-values and correlation coefficients:

t(34) = 2.39, p<.0001, r = 0.23 is wrong
t(34) = 2.39, p < .001, r = .23 is right

Forgetting degrees of freedom:

t = 2.39, p<.001 is bad
t(34) = 2.39, p < .001 is good


This sub-section should summarise the answers to the main Research Questions or
Hypotheses that the analysis answered. This section serves as the transition to Chapter
5, where these results will be discussed in detail. This sub-section section should orient
the reader to Chapter 5 as well as summarise Chapter 4's findings. 
Summarize the results of the tests for the reader in their order of significance.
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3/12/2018 WRITING CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS (Quantitative)

No new information or analysis should be included; the goal of the summary is

to summarize the findings for the reader in one to two paragraphs.
Add a transition to the topics in chapter five.

1. How to Present Your Findings

2. Data and Results Section by Jamie Olson
3. Writing the Results and Literature Sections
4. How to Analyse and Write an Analysis Chapter

Maintained by John Arul Phillips

A SiteOrigin Theme

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