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HYDRAULIC COEFFICIENTS OF ORIFICE

OBJECTIVE:

(i) To determine the hydraulic coefficients, coefficient of discharge (C d) coefficient


velocity ( Cv) and coefficient contraction (Cc) of the given orifice fitted on a tank.
(ii) To draw the graph Cd vs Hw.
EQUIPMENT:
a) The given orifice plate fitted on a tank size 0.3 m x 0.3 m x 1.0 m, provided with
piezometer and scale arrangement with zero of the coinciding with the centre of the
Orifices & Mouthpieces with overflow outlet and drain plug and with provision for fixing
interchangeable Orifice & Mouthpiece.

b) A measuring tank size 0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.6 m, arranged with to overflow arrangement
and provided with gauge glass, scale arrangement and a drain valve.

c) A scale and sliding apparatus to measure the X and Y co-ordinates of the jet suitable
hook gauge & Horizontal scale are mounted on the supply tank for convenience of
handling.

d) Stop Watch.

BASICS :
Water is allowed to flow through the orifice keeping the head constant by adjusting the
inlet valve. The actual discharge Qa is determined using the measuring tank.

Co-efficient of discharge
Actual discharge
Where

a – Area of measuring tank in cm2


h – Height differences in piezo meter in cm.

t – Time to collect water for a height difference of h cm, measured in

seconds

Theoretical discharge

Where

Qa – Actual discharge = Ax h / t
a – Area of the measuring tank.

H – Rise of water level (say10cm) in meters.

T – Time in seconds for raise of water level.

D – Diameter of the orifice

A – Area of the Orifice (or Mouthpiece) = ? / 4 d 2


H – Height of liquid above the centre of the Orifice (or Mouthpiece).

Coefficient of discharge
Co-efficient of Velocity

X = Horizontal co-ordinate of the jet at the measuring point

Y = Vertical co-ordinate of the jet at the measuring point

H = Height of liquid above the centre of the Orifices.

Co-efficient of contraction
Cc = Cd / Cv
PROCEDURE:

i. Open the inlet valve and maintain the head constant ( at supply tank ) over the orifice.

ii. Allow water to flow through the orifice and note the maximum head over the orifice
that permits the water jet to flow into the measuring tank. Divide this head to
approximately 7 steps of readings.

iii. Regulate the inlet valve to obtain a constant head H w over the orifice and note the
time taken for collecting water to a height ‘h’ in the measuring tank.
iv. Note X1 and Y1 co-ordinates using the pointer gauge at the centre of vena contracta
(taken as 0.5 time the diameter outside the orifice opening).
v. Measure the X2 and Y2 coordinates at any point on the centre of the jet, preferably at
the farthest point.
vi. Adjust the head over the orifice and repeat the experiment.
BERNOULLI’S THEOREM

Objective of the Experiment


1. To demonstrate the variation of the pressure along a converging-diverging
pipesection.2 . T h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o v a l i d a t e B e r n o u l l i ’ s a s s u
m p t i o n s a n d t h e o r e m b y experimentally proving that the sum of the terms
in the Bernoulli equation along astreamline always remains a constant.

Apparatus Required:
Apparatus for the verification of Bernoulli’s theorem and measuring tank with
stop watch setup for measuring the actual flow rate.
Theory:
The Bernoulli theorem is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and
elevation, andis valid in regions of steady, incompressible flow where net frictional
forces are negligible. Theequation is obtained when the Euler’s equation is integrated
along the streamline for a constantdensity (incompressible) fluid. The constant
of integration (called the Bernoulli’s constant) variesfrom one streamline to another
but remains constant along a streamline in steady, frictionless, incompressible
flow. Despite its simplicity, it has been proven to be a very powerful tool for
fluidmechanics.Bernoulli’s equation states that the “sum of the kinetic energy
(velocity head), the pressureenergy (static head) and Potential energy
(elevation head) per unit weight of the fluid at
any point remains constant” provided the flow is steady, irrotational, and frictionless and
the fluidused is incompressible. This is however, on the assumption that
energy is neither added to nor taken away by some external agency. The
key approximation in the derivation of Bernoulli’sequation is that viscous
effects are negligibly small compared to inertial, gravitational, and pressure
effects. We can write the theorem asPressure head ()+ Velocity head ()+ Elevation (Z) =
a constantWhere, P = the pressure.(N/m2)
r = density of the fluid, kg/m3
V = velocity of flow, (m/s)g = acceleration due to gravity, m/s2
Z = elevation from datum line, (m)

Procedure:
1. Keep the bypass valve open and start the pump and slowly start closing valve.
2. The water shall start flowing through the flow channel. The level in the
Piezometer tubes shall start rising.
3. O p e n t h e v a l v e o n t h e d e l i v e r y t a n k s i d e a n d a d j u s t t h e h e a d i n
t h e P i e z o m e t e r t u b e s t o steady position.
4. M e a s u r e t h e h e a d s a t a l l t h e p o i n t s a n d a l s o d i s c h a r g e w i t h h e l p
o f d i v e r s i o n p a n i n t h e measuring tank.
5. Varying the discharge and repeat the procedure.

Observations:
Distance between each piezometer = 7.5 cmDensity of water = 0.001 kg/cm3
1) Note down the Sl. No’s of Pitot tubes and their cross sectional areas.

2) Volume of water collected q = ……………. cm3


3) Time taken for collection of water t = …………….sec