A multi-purpose finite element model for flexible riser studies

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A multi-purpose finite element model for flexible riser studies

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OMAE2014

June 8-13, 2014, San Francisco, California, USA

OMAE2014-23250

Jean-Marc LEROY, Timothee PERDRIZET Laurent PAUMIER

IFP Energies nouvelles Technip - Flexi France

Solaize, France Le Trait, France

with rig or FPSO, stiffener, etc.).

The paper focuses on a Finite Element (FE) model

developed at IFPEN, denominated 3D-Periodic, which is Three types of models are available to study the complete armor

dedicated to flexible riser studies. It takes full advantage of the layers, mainly developed to represent bending of risers with

geometric and loading periodicities to reduce the model length standard internal pressure and axial tension loadings:

and the CPU cost. The model is developed in a commercial FE • full length models [1,2,3,4,5] in which a few

software with dedicated pre- and post-treatment packages. The meters long pipes with end-fittings boundary

model can represent standard cyclic bending with internal conditions are considered. These models can

pressure and axial tension as well as external pressures load account for non-uniform curvatures along the pipe

cases to investigate the risk of lateral buckling of tensile armors and contacts with outer structures (stiffener,

or of pipe collapse. bellmouth, soil), but result in large computing

times;

INTRODUCTION • one armor pitch length models [6], with periodic

boundary conditions. Each armor wire of a given

High pressure flexible risers are commonly used in offshore layer has a specific behavior, but periodic

oil and gas production for over 35 years. They provide conditions impose that the curvature of the bent

compliant and corrosion resistant solutions, even in the world's pipe is constant at a given time;

harshest and deepest offshore environments. • reduced length models, assuming that all armors

of a given layer have the same behavior, with

The accurate and reliable modeling of offshore flexible risers periodic conditions on one pitch, and constant

behavior is still a challenge because of: curvature of the pipe at a given time. With the

• their complex structure (thermoplastic sheaths, various previous assumptions, IFPEN developed a

steel helically wrapped layers, anti-wear tapes, anti-buckling software called LIFE which is based on analytical

tapes), developments and on finite differences integration

• the large number of potential contacts (friction and schemes [7].

stick/slip conditions between components),

• the different scales of the problem (typically from few The 3D-Periodic model presented in this paper is a local FE

meters for helical layers pitches to few kilometers for the model belonging to the latter type of models described above.

flexible pipe length), historically leading to use both global and From given tensions and curvatures variations of the pipe, it

local models, computes slips, stresses and curvatures in armor layers. It was

• the variable nature of the loads along the pipe (tension, successfully compared to LIFE in [1] and is used as a R&D tool

curvature, internal and external pressures, torsion),

to verify the conservatism of the design tools available in A1 ○ ○

S1

α

Technip group [7,8]. B2 S2

A2 ○ ○ ○

B3 S3

The following relevant features have been included in the 3D- A3 ○ ○ ○

2πa

Periodic model: A4 ○ ○

B4

○

S4

A5 ○ ○ ○

pressure (reverse end-cap effect),

• armor annulus status: flooded or non-flooded,

B1

A1 ○ ○ ○

depending on the sealing of the external sheath, 2πa 2πa S1

n f tan α tan α

• anti-buckling tapes resistance,

• elasto-plastic material behavior of armors, Figure 1: illustration of periodicity: initial helix wire

S'1

• contact pressures or normal gaps between layers A'1

○ ○

A'2

of the pipe and associated friction loads, ○ ○ B'2 ○ S'2

3

that requires the introduction of all wires in the

model. A'4

○ ○ B'4 ○ S'4

The model and its evolutions are first explained. Then, different A'5○ ○ B'5 ○ S'5

applications are presented such as steel armor stress assessment, A'1 ○ ○ ○

B'1 S'1

lateral buckling and collapse studies. 2πa

n f tan α

3D-PERIODIC MODEL wire

For numerical reasons described in a later section, the model is

extended symmetrically to a length 2l.

Description of the model

The 3D-Periodic model has been developed to represent a The 3D-Periodic model can be summed up in:

flexible pipe length where periodicity can be assumed for both • a FE discretization on a length 2l of the various layers

the geometry and the loadings. Assuming that all the wires of an constituting the structure,

armor layer have the same behavior, it is then possible to reduce • periodicity conditions between couple of points of

the model to a length l equal to the pitch of the layer p divided each layer initially on the same generatrix,

by the number of wires nf: • a central beam used to apply uniform curvature along

p 2π a the model as well as axial and torsional loading,

l= = (1) • a contact model between the layers.

nf n f tan α

where a and α are the radius and initial laying angle of a helical Each one of the above points is detailed in the subsequent

layer, respectively. It is illustrated on Figure 1 where a sections.

simplified straight pipe is developed, with a layer composed of

5 wires. Using appropriate periodicity conditions between

couples of points ( Ai , Bi ) located on the same initial generatrix, Periodicity conditions

the dotted segments represent then the solid line (S1S1), which is Periodicity conditions are applied between the couples of

a wire on a pitch. nodes ( Ai , Bi ) of each layer, located on the same initial

A similar figure can be drawn on a deformed cylinder, see generatrix of the model. They involve a third node, denoted C ,

Figure 2 where points ( Ai' , Bi' ) are the final positions of points located on the axis of the flexible model and initially in the

( Ai , Bi ) . In this case, the couple of points located on the same same section as Bi , see Figure 3. The section that contains the

generatrix have the same displacements relatively to the node Ai is fixed as it is assumed to be the plane of symmetry of

deformed surface. the model. Ai' , Bi' and C ' are the deformed positions of Ai , Bi

and C .

0 −δθC3 δθ C2

δθˆC = δθC3 0 −δθC1 (8)

−δθC2 δθ 1

0

C

rotation fields of node C .

The various layers of the structure are discretized with FE

as follow:

• an external equivalent kernel composed of a layer of

Figure 3: example of nodes involved in periodicity quadrilateral shell elements sharing nodes with

(a) initial configuration (b) deformed configuration circumferential embedded beam elements. They

represent respectively the external sheaths and the anti-

Degrees of freedom (dof) of nodes Ai , Bi and C are linked buckling tapes. The mechanical properties of the shell

and beam elements are computed so that their stiffness

through periodicity conditions which are written as follow for is equal to the one of the various sheaths and anti-

translational dof: buckling tapes located above the armor layers;

R (φ ) .Bis Bi' = Ais Ai' • armor layers discretized with 8-nodes bricks. Two or 4

t C

(2)

s s armor layers can be included in the model;

where A and B are fictitious nodes corresponding to the

i i • anti–wear tapes modeled as initial cylinders with 8-

deformed positions of points Ai and Bi if they were stuck on nodes bricks;

• an internal equivalent kernel composed of a layer of

the deformed cylinder. R

t

(φ )

C

and φ C

are respectively the quadrilateral shell elements sharing nodes with

transposed of the rotation matrix and the rotation vector at circumferential embedded beam elements. They

point C . Considering that the section of point Ai is fixed, i.e. represent respectively internal sheaths and carcass,

pressure vault and spirals whose laying angles are

Ais = Ai , and the following relationship: close to 90°. The mechanical properties of the shell

( )

Bis Bi' = Bis C ' + C ' Bi' = R φ C .Bi C + C ' Bi' (3)

and beam elements are computed so that their stiffness

is equal to the one of the various sheaths and steel

equation (2) can be written: layers situated under the armor layers. Optionally, the

C ' Bi' = R φ ( ) .(CB + A A )

C

i i i

'

(4)

internal kernel can be modeled as a multi-layer kernel

for collapse applications. In this case, all the layers are

In the case of shell and beam FE, periodicity conditions for explicitly represented, see section “Effect of traction

rotational dof are written: on the collapse of flexible pipes” for details.

R φ ( ) = R (φ ) .R (φ )

Bi C Ai

(5) Each kernel and anti–wear layer have 8 elements in the flexible

Equations (4) and (5) are then linearized in order to compute axis direction and 200 elements in the circumferential direction.

the tangent stiffness matrix of the Newton algorithm. Linearized Nine circumferential beams are embedded in each kernel. Each

equations are respectively. armor wire is meshed with 8 elements in the section and 2

δ u B − δ uC = δθˆC .R (φ C ) .(CBi + Ai Ai' ) + R (φ C ) .δ u A

elements in the tangential direction of the armor. All the

i i

(6) elements are linear and, when available, reduced integration

δθ B = δθC + R (φ C ) .δθ A

with Hourglass control is used. Figure 4 shows a typical mesh

(7) of a 3D-Periodic model for a 2 armor layers flexible pipe.

i i

where δ u A , δ u B , δ uC , δθ A , δθ B , δθC

i i i i

are the linearized

respectively, and δθˆC is the skew-symmetric matrix of node C

defined as:

Contact resolution

All contacts interactions between the model components

are considered. It allows, in particular, lateral contacts between

adjacent armor wires during cyclic bending tests. Each pair of

surfaces potentially in contact are treated with a node-to-surface

approach. The slave contact nodes are the nodes Ai located in

the plane of symmetry of the model. Other nodes of the layers

have their dof eliminated by the periodicity conditions and

should not be slaves in the contact algorithm. Master surfaces

correspond to the whole surface of the different layers, which

allows each slave contact node to find a lower, upper or lateral

surface to correctly solve the contact conditions. This is the

reason why the model is extended symmetrically to a length 2l.

A penalty algorithm is chosen for numerical efficiency to

Figure 4: typical mesh of a 2 armor layers 3D-Periodic impose normal and tangential contact conditions. Penalty

model stiffness parameters are chosen optimally to obtain low CPU

cost and good contact solution accuracy.

Central beam and load application

The full set of nodes Ci , located on the axis of the flexible Implementation of the model

and used in the periodicity conditions, constitute a central beam

without mechanical properties, see Figure 5. One of these The model is implemented within the commercial FE

nodes, denoted M, is attributed the role of master while other software Abaqus, using an implicit scheme (Abaqus Standard

nodes Ci are slaves. Loadings are applied at master node M : module). Abaqus is a reference code for the resolution of highly

• the curvature of the flexible is imposed through a non-linear problems including contacts. The use of this

commercial code enables to benefit from a complete

rotation angle φ,

environment that includes capabilities for creating models,

• the axial load of the flexible is imposed through a

submitting and monitoring jobs, and evaluating results with

follower force T in the pipe axis,

post-processing functionalities. Fully automated pre- and post-

• the torsion is imposed through a follower moment

processing of the 3D-Periodic model are implemented using

around the axis of the structure.

Python scripts. Periodicity conditions are introduced in the

The motion of the slave nodes is imposed through relations

model through a Fortran User Subroutine.

between their dof and that of M, such that the curvature of the

central beam is spatially constant, while axial displacement and

torsion angle are linearly distributed along the flexible axis.

ELEMENTS OF ARMOR KINEMATICS

kinematics of helically wounded wires. In the case of internal

pressure loading, it is assumed that they stay on the surface of a

tore representing the inner layers of the flexible riser. Figure 6

represents the mobile basis (t, N, B) of a wire, composed

respectively of the vector tangent to the wire, the inner normal

to the tore, and the bi-normal. Let us define also on the same

figure, a circumferential angle θ starting at the outer-arc.

Note that during bending, the normal n to the wire may not

Figure 5: kinematic conditions of the central beam and load coincide with N, except when the wire follows the geodesic

application. curve. The wire kinematics is described by the displacement

with respect to the reference tore, whose components in the

Internal and external pressure loadings can also be applied to basis are ∆ut, ∆uN and ∆uB. The last component is called

the model through pressures exerted on the internal or external transverse displacement. Similarly the curvature components

kernels, with suitable radius correction. are denoted Ct, CN and CB.

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

pressure in contact with a bend stiffener

The example of this section is devoted to the cyclic

bending of a part of flexible riser close to the surface

connection where high tension combined to bending can lead to

fatigue damage of the steel armor wires. To limit bending loads,

Figure 6 : Darboux-Ribaucour wire basis. the riser is generally endowed with a bend limitation apparatus.

We consider here the case of a bend stiffener which is a

We consider the following particular geometric cases which will polymer cone surrounding the flexible riser. Technip has

be used as references for the deformed wire : conducted an experiment test including 7 asymmetrical bending

• geodesic curve with a curvature along N and cycles between a low and a high angles. The test rig is

corresponding to the straightest path along the tore, illustrated in Figure 8.

• iso-meridian curve with displacements relative to the

reference tore along the circumference, During this test, both internal and external armor wires have

• transposed curve, with no transverse displacement. been instrumented with strain gages from which stress

variations are measured.

For sake of illustration, Figure 7 shows an example of the

transverse displacement vs. θ, for these characteristic curves. Because of the boundary conditions and the bend stiffener

The global amplitude depends on the pipe properties and on interaction, the bending curvature of the riser is highly variable

pipe curvature, but the sinusoidal shapes and sign of along its length, which violates a fundamental assumption of the

displacement are invariant properties. 3D-Periodic model. To quantify the error introduced, we have

performed 3D-Periodic simulations at the 7 meridian sections

where the strain gages are located, which are regularly

distributed along the length, between the top-end extremity of

the riser and the bottom-end of the stiffener, see Figure 8. For

each section location, the curvature of the riser central axis is

given by a numerical model, and then imposed as the constant

curvature of the 3D-Periodic model.

evolution towards the geodesic or towards the iso-meridian,

implies a migration towards the inner-arc, or the outer-arc,

respectively.

bending through a swinging table (left part); locations of

strain gage sections (right part).

by a hysteresis which is related to frictional slips. The

accordance of the model to the experiment strongly depends on

µ for the maximum amplitude and ∆ue for the steep curve

slopes. For this example, µ and ∆ue were set respectively to 0.15

and 1e-5 m as these values were calibrated from previous tests

(e.g. [7]).

armors, despite some significant gaps at few gages, for example

at the second and third rows from the top. It corresponds to the

transition between the rigid and the deformable parts of the

stiffener.

internal armors is overestimated compared to the experiment. It

can be explained with a full length model simulation, as

described in [1,2], that gives much better correlation with

presented test results. The full length model takes into account

pipe curvature variations, boundary conditions and stiffener

interaction which are disregarded by the 3D-Periodic model.

These effects reduce the sliding length of the internal armor

wires and hence the amplitude of the tangential stress during the

hysteretic cycle when compared to the 3D-Periodic result.

Periodic model to approximate even such a complex cyclic

bending with non-constant curvature. The external armor wires

keep a quite homogeneous frictional status. For the internal

armors, the overestimation of the wire length which is sliding

results in a gap with the experiment, but in the conservative

sense. Of course, such discrepancy could be reduced by

Figure 9 : tangential stress difference to the mean vs employing a more accurate, but more computing time

bending angle during the last cycle. 3D-Periodic (blue expensive, 3D full length model [1,2,3,4,5]. For this example,

dashed) and experiment (red), external armors. the 3D-Periodic model is two hundred time faster than the 3D

full length model described in [1,2], to compute all presented

Figure 9 and Figure 10 represent the difference between σt and results. The total number of variables is about 6 million for the

its mean value, vs. the bending angle of the swinging table, 3D full length model and is reduced to about 100 000 for the

during the last cycle, within the external and internal armors 3D-Periodic model.

respectively. All vertical axes are scaled according to the

maximum value over the gages of the layer. Each horizontal

axis ranges from the left to the right, according to the minimum

and maximum bending angles respectively. Each picture

corresponds to a gage located by a row for the meridian section,

in the same order as in Figure 8, and a column for the

circumferential location being, from the left to the right, the

outer-arc (θ=0), the neutral fibers (θ=π/2), and the inner-arc

(θ=π).

model, regularized with an elastic domain. This model is thus

defined by a friction coefficient µ and a maximum elastic slip

∆ue. As classically expected for a bending test, the amplitude of

the cycle is very small at the neutral fibers, compared to that at

the outer and inner arcs. At these locations, the cycle is marked

wires brought together and cannot be captured with the 3D-

Periodic model. The second pattern is illustrated on Figure 11

and is characterized by a change in helix angle with a low angle

to the outer-arc generatrix. The wires are migrating

transversally towards the outer-arc, meaning they go away from

the geodesic. Actually, they can move beyond the iso-meridian

curve.

corresponds to the outer-arc generatrix.

unstable bifurcation of armor wires equilibrium under

compression. However, it has to be clearly distinguished from

the configuration which is responsible for the ruin of the pipe,

because they may not coincide, as demonstrated in this section.

Considering the first part of Figure 7, for θ in [0,π], we will

determine the triggering of the bifurcation by a change of sign

in ∆uB from positive to negative.

Figure 10 : same as Figure 9 for internal armors. have been developed to simulate LB, either with FEM (e.g.

[12,13]) or semi-analytical approaches ([13,14,15,16]). A

common point between these models is that they neglect direct

interactions between the adjacent amour wires composing a

Plastic lateral buckling of wide steel armor wires with layer of the pipe, either because they consider only one armor

water-flooded annulus wire, or because the wires interact only by common boundary

Lateral Buckling (LB) is due to the reverse end-cap conditions at the extremities of the pipe. This limitation may be

compression induced by high external pressure. It has been questionable since, as observed in experiments [10,11], the

identified since PETROBRAS encountered a pipe failure at lateral contacts between the wires play a key role in LB

about 1700 m of water depth in 1997. Because of the mechanism.

complexity of this failure mechanism, several campaigns of in-

situ experiments (DIP tests) and with hyperbaric chambers have It is proposed here to investigate with 3D-Periodic

been realized, trying to reproduce LB failure of flexible pipes, simulations the role of these lateral contacts for the case of wide

see [10,11,12]. steel armor wires which are suspected, from experiments

observations, to ruin with plasticity.

Among the conclusions of these campaigns, it has been The results presented were obtained by setting friction

established that water-flooded annulus promotes LB, because of coefficient µ to a very small value, in order to accelerate the

less important inter-layer frictional resistances, and that internal stabilization of the bending cycles, marked by the convergence

wires are more exposed to this mechanism. With these of the CB and ∆uB curves. It has been verified that increasing µ

conditions and without bending, the armor wires are detached does change significantly the mechanical state of the external

from the inner layers, and are pressed against the outer layers. armors (that are less stressed when µ is increased), but not that

The principles and notations introduced in the section of internal armors, which are the major pipe components to be

“Elements of armor kinematics” can be used in this section by designed against LB. The steel armor constitutive law is elasto-

replacing the inner layers by the outer layers for the reference plasticity with a Von Mises criterion.

tore. The post-mortem examination put in evidence two main

pattern for the armors. The first is characterized by lenses of

Let us start by describing the key principles of the

mechanism on a representative example simulated at various

external pressure Pext. The armors width over thickness ratio is

about 6.6, and the initial helix angle is 30.0°. Figure 12 displays A

the evolution of the maximum ∆uB for θ in [0,π] vs. Pext. As

discussed above, the triggering of the bifurcation is located

between the third and the fourth point, starting from the left.

The instability is marked by a rapid decrease until Pext=0.5, at B

which the evolution is stabilized. Finally, plasticity begins at a

pressure between Pext =1 and the next point to the right. C

A, B, C, before the bifurcation, after the stabilization and after

the beginning of plasticity, respectively. Figure 13 and Figure

14 compare the circumferential distribution of the normalized

lateral gap and of CB, respectively, at the three pressure states.

The normalizations are arbitrary but do not change the Figure 12: Maximum of internal armor ∆uB for θ in [0,ππ] vs.

discussion here after. Pext. Both axes are normalized by the values at Pext

marking the onset of plasticity.

The bifurcation is marked by the inversion of the lateral gap

profile between A and B. At stage B, a lateral contact takes

place at the outer-arc. This feature is essential because it

prevents the continuation of the transverse migration towards

the outer-arc and it is responsible for the stabilization of the

previous bifurcation. This mechanism also stops the

amplification of CΒ according to a quite unchanged

circumferential distribution shape, with extrema located at the

neutral fibers.

larger part of the wire length, from the outer-arc to the neutral

fiber. Also, the transverse curvature keeps on developing but

with a more localized distribution whose extrema are shifted

between the neutral fiber and the inner-arc.

Figure 13 : lateral gap of internal armors vs. θ. Negative

This amplification of CB induces stresses triggering plasticity of values means interpenetration.

the wide steel armors. To investigate the idea that such scenario

leading to plasticity can explain wide armor LB failures, Figure

15 compares, for several Technip experiments with varying

structural parameters, the 3D-Periodic estimates of the pressure

threshold for plasticity and the experimental critical pressures.

This figure include error bars due to pressure sampling only.

Despite the fundamental assumptions of the 3D-Periodic model,

the numerical and the experiment are in relative good

agreement.

rectangular section, see [17,21,22] for similar approaches. The

calculation of the equivalent parameters is based on the

conservation of the following properties:

• bending stiffness per unit length (EI/p)

• axial stiffness per unit length (EA/p)

• yield load in compression per unit length (σ0A/p)

• amplitude of the hardening per unit length (H/p)

where I, A and p are respectively the bending inertia, area and

pitch of the layer. E, σ0 and H are the Young modulus, initial

yield stress and hardening amplitude of the material.

EA A 12 I

E* = e* =

p 12 I A

(9)

σ0A A HA A

Figure 15 : comparison of numerical estimates of LB σ 0* = H* =

p 12 I p 12 I

plasticity pressure vs. experimental critical pressure. Y-axis

is normalized by the maximum value and top thin bars where E*, e*, σ 0* and H* are respectively the Young modulus,

indicate uncertainty range. thickness, initial yield stress and hardening amplitude of the

equivalent layer. Lemaitre-Chaboche [23] non-linear kinematic

hardening model is used for plasticity with Von-Mises criterion.

Effect of traction on the collapse of flexible pipes For a monotonic uniaxial loading, the yield stress can be written

Most of the FE models used for collapse studies focus as:

(1 − e )

exclusively on the modeling of the inner kernel. Carcass and C − γε p

pressure vault are modeled either with their actual sections, e.g. σ y = σ0 + (10)

[17,18], or through equivalent layers, e.g. [19,20]. The γ

advantage of the 3D-Periodic multi-layers model presented in where εp is the equivalent plastic strain, and C and γ are two

this section is to represent accurately both the internal layers, parameters giving the amplitude of the hardening:

the armors and the external layers of the flexible. It permits for C

instance to study accurately the influence of the armor layers on H= (11)

the collapse during the bending or the traction of the structure, γ

as described in this section. As a consequence, the 3D-Periodic The axial stiffness of carcasses and vaults can be neglected

multi-layers model can constitute a useful R&D complementary because their laying angle is close to 90°. It allows the previous

model to the analytical design model presented in [8]. equivalent parameters to be used within a transversely isotropic

model, in which the direction parallel to the flexible axis has

The study of the collapse of flexible pipes under external negligible properties, and the plane of isotropy has the above

pressure requires the 3D-Periodic model to be enhanced in calculated properties. Coupling Poisson coefficients between

order to take into account: the plane of isotropy and the direction orthogonal to it are set to

• the various layers of the internal kernel (carcass, zero in order to obtain fully uncoupled material behavior in

vaults, sheaths), those two directions.

• an initial defect that will initiate the collapse failure.

As presented in the finite element discretization section, the Finally, an initial defect is introduced in the model through an

various layers that constitute the inner kernel of the flexible can ovalization which is applied uniformly on all the layers of the

be modeled individually through structural shells. Contrary to structure.

the equivalent kernel which is placed right below the inner

armor layer, the layers of the detailed kernel are modeled at The flexible used to illustrate the capabilities of the model is a

their effective radius. It is fundamental to obtain accurate 10'' rough bore with a laying angle of 55° and no pressure

collapse pressures. In the case of a carcass or a vault, the armor. It is considered with water flooded annulus. Two

complex geometrical section of the layer is not explicitly specimens of this TECHNIP structure have been tested at

represented. It would lead to high CPU cost calculations (large IFPEN laboratory. They have been subjected to various

numbers of dof, contacts between spires) whereas local stress traction-pressure loading paths until collapse is observed. Some

state in the carcass is not of interest here. As a consequence, results are given on Figure 16:

they are simplified into equivalent structural shells with

• traction-pressure loading paths for which no collapse confinement. For medium range tension, T=2/7 and

has been observed are represented in green, T=3/7, a decrease of confinement occurs when the

• two collapses have been observed and are represented ovalization of the carcass is more important, which

with red dots. One collapse is obtained with no traction leads to a quick collapse of the structure, see the

applied on the structure and one collapse is obtained in decrease observed on Figure 16.

the high tractions zone.

Results presented on Figure 16 are normalized regarding the

structure ultimate pull and the experimental collapse pressure at

T=0.

(a) (b)

Figure 17: deformed states x30:

(a) tension (b) compression for T=2.0

reverse end-cap effect never compensates the traction

applied to the structure. As a consequence, armor

layers are always in contact with the inner kernel

which increases the confinement and the resistance to

Figure 16: Comparison of collapse pressures: experimental collapse. For very high tensions, it could be expected

tests and simulations that the negative effect of the additional compression

applied by the armors on the kernel exceeds the

In the 3D-Periodic model, the flexible is first submitted to the positive effect of the confinement. However, this is not

required traction, then to the external pressure and associated the case for the structure studied here as no decrease of

reverse end-cap effect. Resulting collapse pressures are the collapse resistance is observed for very high

represented on Figure 16 with the red curve. The black curve tensions.

shows the limit between the zone where the flexible is

successively in tension and compression because of the reverse Finally, results show a good agreement between experimental

end-cap effect (low tractions zone) and the zone where the tests and numerical results. Differences are about 10% of the

structure is always in tension (high tractions zone), i.e. where collapse pressure and can be explained by the various numerical

the reverse end-cap effect is never greater than the applied and experimental uncertainties (dispersion of the results, initial

traction load. defect, friction, etc.) to which the collapse is sensitive. Both

numerical and experimental results show a positive effect of the

The curve obtained by numerical simulations shows a slight traction on the resistance of the flexible to external pressure. It

increase followed by a slight decrease of the collapse pressure is explained by a better confinement of the carcass by the armor

with increasing tractions in the low tractions zone. In the high layers when subjected to tension.

tractions zone, a noticeable increase of the collapse pressure

with the traction is observed. As a consequence, one can CONCLUSION

distinguish two different behaviors:

• in the low tractions zone, the structure is first in A R&D numerical tool, denominated 3D-Periodic model, has

tension because of the applied traction load. It been presented in this paper. It is dedicated to the study of the

improves the confinement of the carcass by the armor local mechanical behavior of flexible pipes, and in particular

layers and so its resistance to external pressure. The that of the tensile armor wires. The model takes advantage of

increasing reverse end-cap effect produces then a the structure periodicity in order to reduce the cost of the

compression state in the structure which makes the simulations. It assumes that all the wires behave similarly but

armor layers and the anti-buckling tapes inflate. A can take into account lateral contacts between adjacent wires.

clearance appears between the carcass and armors at Despite these fundamental assumptions, the applications

6h and 12h, according to the initial ovalization, see presented in the paper on cyclic bending, lateral buckling and

Figure 17. In most cases, the contact persists at 3h and collapse demonstrate the versatility of the model and its ability

9h which allows the carcass to keep a level of to reproduce experimental observations of complex

mechanisms. These applications also show that the 3D-Periodic Monitoring”, OMAE2002-28092, Proceedings of the ASME

model can greatly facilitate the understanding of engineering 2002 21st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and

design on some failure mechanisms which are not yet clearly Arctic Engineering (OMAE2002), Oslo, Norway.

understood.

[6] Edmans, B., Alfano, G., Bahai, H., 2012, "Large-Scale

The cyclic bending example shows that the fatigue damage of Analysis And Local Stress Assessment Of Flexible Unbonded

the armors are strongly related to the portion of the wires that Pipes Using Fea", OMAE2012-84249, Proceedings of the

are in a sliding state. The armor lateral buckling example ASME 2010 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore

emphasizes the key role of lateral contacts between adjacent and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2012), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

wires which stabilize the initial transverse displacement

instability. Finally, the collapse example shows that the [7] Leroy, J-M., Estrier, P., 2001, "Calculation of stresses and

confinement of the internal kernel by the armor layers during slips in helical layers of dynamically bent flexible pipes", Oil &

traction increases the resistance of the flexible pipe to external Gas Science and Technology, Revue d'IFP Energies nouvelles,

pressure. However, this mechanism competes with the Vol. 56, No. 6, 2001, pp. 545-554.

compression due to the reverse end-cap effect.

[8] Paumier, L., Averbuch, D., Felix-Henry, A., 2009, "Flexible

As a conclusion, the 3D-Periodic model is a R&D tool which Pipe Curved Collapse Resistance Calculation", OMAE2009-

can be used for a better understanding of mechanical 79117, Proceedings of the ASME 2009 28th International

phenomena responsible for the flexible pipes failure. It allows Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering

continuous improvements of Technip design tools in various (OMAE2009), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

domains such as fatigue analysis [7], lateral buckling and

collapse [8]. [9] Féret, J., Momplot, G., 1989., Caflex, “Computer Program

for Capacity Analysis of Flexible pipes”, IFP-SINTEF

Structural Engineering Report, No. STF71 F91019.

REFERENCES

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[11] Sécher, P., Bectarte, F., Felix-Henry, A. 2011, "Lateral

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Barbosa, T., Godinho, C., 2012, "Predictions of armour wire Almeida, M.C., 2007, “Recent Research on the Instability of

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