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MBA_ Health Management

Couse_ Project Management

Chapter 6:
Planning Personnel/Labor
Requirements

Ass. Prof. Dr. Mahdi A. Alsubaei


Planning Personnel/Labor
Requirements

 Need for Planning Personnel/Labor

 Planning Personnel Requirements

 What is the connection between a firm’s


strategic orientation and HR planning?
Overview
 Good project management ex: in construction
must vigorously pursue the efficient utilization
of labor, material and equipment.
 Improvement of labor productivity should be
a major and continual concern of those who
are responsible for cost control of constructed
facilities.
Organizational Life-Cycle Stages and
HR Activities
LIFE- TRAINING LABOR /
CYCLE STAFFING COMPENSATION AND EMPLOYEE
STAGE DEVELOPMENT RELATIONS
Introduction Attract best Meet or exceed Define future Set basic
technical and labor market rates skill employee-
professional to attract needed requirements relations
talent. talent. and begin philosophy of
establishing organization.
career ladders.
Growth Recruit adequate Meet external Mold effective Maintain labor
numbers and mix market but consider management peace,
of qualifies internal equity team through employee
workers. Plan effects. Establish management motivation,
management formal development and morale.
succession. Mange compensation and
rapid internal labor structures. organizational
market development.
movements
Organizational Life-Cycle Stages
and HR Activities (cont’d)
TRAINING AND LABOR /
LIFE-CYCLE STAFFING COMPENSATION DEVELOPMENT EMPLOYEE
STAGE RELATIONS

Maturity Encourage sufficient Control Maintain flexibility Control labor costs


turnover to minimize compensation and skills of an and maintain labor
layoffs and provide costs. aging workforce. peace. Improve
new openings. productivity.
Encourage mobility
as reorganizations
shift jobs around.
Decline Plan and implement Implement tighter Implement Improve
workforce cost control. retraining and productivity and
reductions and career consulting achieve flexibility in
reallocations, services. work rules.
downsizing and Negotiate job
outplacement may security and
occur during this employment-
stage. adjustment policies
How does HR Planning occur?

1. What does the environment look like?


2. What are our future personnel needs?
(forecast demand)
a. Judgmental
 Estimates
 Rule of Thumb
 Delphi Technique
 NGT
 Brainstorming
The Nominal Group Technique
A small group of 4-5 people gathers around a table. Leader
identifies judgment issue and gives participants procedural
instructions.

Participants write down all ideas that occur to them, keeping


their lists private at this point. Creativity is encouraged during
this phase.

Leader asks each participant to present ideas and writes them


on a blackboard or flipchart, continuing until all ideas have been
recorded.

Participants discuss each other’s ideas, clarifying, expanding,


and evaluating them as a group.

Participants rank ideas privately in their own personal order and


preference.

The idea that ranks highest among the participants is adopted


as the group’s judgment.
The Delphi Technique
Leader identifies judgment issues and develops questionnaire.

Prospective participants are identified and asked to cooperate.

Leaders send questionnaire to willing participants, who record


their judgments and recommendations and return the
questionnaire.

Leaders compiles summaries and reproduces participants’


responses.

Leader sends the compiled list of judgment to all participants.

Participants comment on each other’s ideas and propose a final


judgment.

Leader looks
for consensus

Leader accepts consensus judgment as group’s choice.


How does HR Planning occur?

1. What does the environment look like?


2. What are our future personnel needs?
(forecast demand)
b. Statistical
 Regression
Statistical Techniques Used to Project
Staffing Demand Needs
Name Description
Regression analysis Past levels of various work load indicators, such as
sales, production levels, and value added, are
examined for statistical relationships with staffing
levels. Where sufficiently strong relationships are
found, a regression (or multiple regression) model is
derived. Forecasted levels of the retained indicator(s)
are entered into the resulting model and used to
calculate the associated level of human resource
requirements.

Productivity ratios
Historical data are used to examine past levels of a
productivity index (P):

P = Work load / Number of People

Where constant, or systematic, relationships are found,


human resource requirements can be computed by diving
Statistical Techniques Used to Project
Staffing Demand Needs (cont’d)
Name Description
Personnel ratios Past personnel data are examined to determine historical
relationships among the employees in various jobs or job
categories. Regression analysis or productivity ratios are
then used to project either total or key-group human
resource requirements, and personnel ratios are used to
allocated total requirements to various job categories or to
estimate for non-key groups.

Time series analysis


Past staffing levels (instead of work load indicators) are
used to project future human resource requirements. Past
staffing levels are examined to isolate and cyclical
variation, long-tem terms, and random movement. Long-
term trends are then extrapolated or projected using a
moving average, exponential smoothing, or regression
technique.
Regression Analysis
1. Statically identify historical predictor of workforce size
Example: FTEs = a + b1 sales + b2 new customers

2. Only use equations with predictors found to be


statistically significant

3. Predict future HR requirements, using equation


Example: (a) FTEs = 7 + .0004 sales + .02 new
customers
(b) Projected sales = $1,000,000
Projected new customers = 300
(c) HR requirements = 7 + 400 + 6 = 413
Example: Determining the Relationship
Between Hospital Size and Number of Nurses
How does HR Planning occur?

2. What are our future personnel needs?


(demand forecast cont.)
b. Statistical (cont.)
 Ratio analysis
How does HR Planning occur?
3. Are resources available – internally or
externally – to fill those needs?
a. Internal
 Replacement charts
Employee Replacement Chart for
Succession Planning
How does HR Planning occur?
3. Are resources available – internally or
externally – to fill those needs?
a. Internal
 Replacement charts
 Promotability
How does HR Planning occur?
3. Are resources available – internally or
externally – to fill those needs?
a. Internal
 Replacement charts
 Promotability
 Succession planning
 Skills inventory
 Transition (Markov) matrix
How does HR Planning occur?
3. Are resources available – internally or
externally – to fill those needs?
b. External – what do you look at?

- try to determine availability of


qualified labor; Surplus? Shortage?
How does HR Planning occur?
4. What should we do?
- create plan of action to reconcile supply
and demand

a. Set objectives
b. Generate alternatives
Staffing Alternatives to Deal with
Employee Surpluses

Source: Compliments of Dan Ward, GTE Corporation


Staffing Alternatives to Deal with
Employee Shortages

Source: Compliments of Dan Ward, GTE Corporation


How does HR Planning occur?
4. What should we do?
- create plan of action to reconcile supply
and demand

a. Set objectives
b. Generate alternatives
c. Assess alternatives
Alternative Scheduling Options
Percent Using
Alternative (N = 427 companies)

The following definitions were used in this survey


for alternative scheduling strategies:

• Part-time: A regular employee who works fewer than 35 hours per 84%
week.
• Flextime: A system than enables employees to vary their schedules:
40%
Usually, the flexibility applies to starting and finishing times.
• Compressed workweek: A full-week schedule (usually 40 hours) than
23%
occurs in fewer than five days, such as four 10-hour days.
• Job sharing: Two or more employees split a full-time position, diving
18%
the responsibilities, and, to some degree, the compensation.
• Work-at-home: A program that enables employees to complete work at
home (or at a remote office closer to home) on a regular basis. It is often 13%
referred to as “flexplace” or “telecommuting.”
How does HR Planning occur?
4. What should we do?
- create plan of action to reconcile supply
and demand

a. Set objectives
b. Generate alternatives
c. Assess alternatives
d. Choose alternative – KEEP
PHILOSOPHY IN MIND
How does HR Planning occur?

5. How did we do?


a. Did company avoid surplus/shortage?

b. Evaluate usefulness of methods used

c. Goals v. Production Levels, etc.