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Three Phase Transformer


Construction Questions and
Answers
by Manish
6-7 minutes

This set of Transformers Multiple Choice Questions &


Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Three Phase Transformer
Construction”.

1. Which type of winding is used in 3-phase shell-type


transformer?
a) Circular type
b) Sandwich type
c) Cylindrical type
d) Rectangular type
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In core type of the transformer, winding is
done by normal method, while in the shell type transformer,
winding is sandwiched between corresponding shells of
core material. Hence, it is sandwich type.

2. 3-phase transformers compare to 1-phase transformers


________

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a) More economical
b) Easy in construction
c) Easy to construct
d) Easy to handle
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: 3-phase transformers are also used to power
large motors and other heavy loads. A three-wire three-
phase circuit is more economical than an equivalent two-
wire single-phase circuit at the same line to ground voltage
because it uses less conductor material to transmit a given
amount of electrical power.

3. How 3-phase transformers are constructed?


a) A bank of 3 single phase transformers
b) A single 3-phase transformer with the primary and
secondary of each phase wound on three legs of a common
core
c) Single 3-phase transformer or a bank of 3 1-phase
transformers
d) By different method
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: #-phase transformers can be either
constructed by 2 methods. One is a bank of 3 single phase
transformers and another method is a single 3-phase
transformer with the primary and secondary of each phase
wound on three legs of a common core.

4. Three phase transformer compare to a bank of 3 single

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phase transformers is ____________


a) Cheaper
b) Costlier
c) More in space
d) Can’t be determined
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: 3-phase transformers can be manufactured by
2 methods. The three-phase transformer unit costs about
15% less than that of a bank and furthermore, the single
unit occupies less space. There is little difference in
reliability.

5. In mines we use _______________


a) a single unit of 3-phase transformer
b) a bank of 3 single phase transformers
c) use of 3-phase transformer is avoided
d) a single unit or a bank
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: It is cheaper to carry spare stock of a single-
phase rather than a three-phase transformer. In
underground use (mines) a bank of single-phase units may
be preferred as it is easier to transport these units. The
bank also offers the advantage of a de-rated open-delta
operation when one single-phase unit becomes inoperative.

6. In three phase bank phases are ___________________


a) the phases are electrically not connected and
magnetically independent

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b) the phases are electrically not connected and


magnetically dependent
c) the phases are electrically connected and magnetically
independent
d) the phases are electrically connected and magnetically
dependent
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The 3-phase load bank is constructed by so
that all three phases are made to be connected with
together electrically. By the same time these banks form
three magnetic circuits which are independent.

7. Where the tappings are provided in a transformer?


a) At the phase end of LV side
b) At the phase end of HV side
c) At the neutral side end of the HV side
d) At the middle of HV side
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Tappings are provided in order to maintain the
terminal voltage across the loads within the permissible
specified limits with respect to load variations. Tappings can
be provided at phase end or neutral end of HV side. But to
maintain magnetic symmetry tappings are preferred in the
middle of the winding only.

8. Tappings are on _____________


a) LV side of a transformer
b) HV side of transformer

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c) Not on any side


d) On both sides
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Generally, tappings are preferred on HV side,
because the HV side is low current-high voltage side, tap
changer involves low current interruption and large
variations or small steps are possible due to more no of
turns.

9. In core type 3-phase transformer flux path chooses how


many paths to return?
a) 2
b) Single
c) 3
d) Many
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Flux of each limb in core type uses the other
two limbs for its return path with the three-magnetic flux’s in
the core generated by the line voltages differing in time-
phase by 120 degrees. Thus, the flux in the core remains
nearly sinusoidal, producing a sinusoidal secondary supply
voltage.

10. Why shell type 3-phase transformer is used in large


power transforming applications?
a) Can be made with more height
b) Can be made with less height
c) More height and less height flexibility

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d) Due to other reasons


View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The shell-type five-limb type three-phase
transformer construction is heavier and more expensive to
build than the core-type. Five-limb cores are generally used
for very large power transformers as they can be made with
reduced height.

11. A three-phase transformer generally has the three


magnetic circuits interlaced.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: A three-phase transformer generally has the
three magnetic circuits which are interlaced to give a
uniform distribution of the dielectric flux between the high
and low voltage windings. The exception is a three-phase
shell type transformer. In the shell type of construction,
even though the three cores are together, they are non-
interlaced.

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Three Phase Transformer


Connections Questions and
Answers
by Manish
7-8 minutes

This set of Transformers Multiple Choice Questions &


Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Three Phase Transformer
Connections”.

1. When does star/star transformers work satisfactorily?


a) Load is unbalanced only
b) Load is balanced only
c) On balanced as well as unbalanced loads
d) Independent of load type
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: With the unbalanced load connected to the
neutral, the neutral point shifts thereby making the three
line-to-neutral (i.e. phase) voltages unequal. The effect of
unbalanced loads can be illustrated by placing a single load
between phase (or coil) a and the neutral on the secondary
side.

2. When does delta/star transformer work satisfactorily?

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a) Load is balanced only


b) Load is unbalanced only
c) On balanced as well as unbalanced loads
d) Independent of load type
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Large unbalanced/balanced loads can be
handled satisfactory. The Y-D connection has no problem
with third harmonic components due to circulating currents
in D(delta). It is also more stable to unbalanced loads since
the D partially redistributes any imbalance that occurs.

3. Scott connections are used in _______________


a) three-phase to single phase transformation
b) three-phase to two-phase transformation
c) single phase to three-phase transformation
d) all phase transformations
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Scott connections are used to convert three-
phase to two-phase conversion, to start two phase motors
and two phase furnaces. It requires two single phase
transformers with adjustable tappings, one transformer is
main transformer which is centre tapped through teaser
transformer primary with a suitable number of turns to get a
balanced two-phase supply.

4. In a three-phase star – delta transformer, what is the


angle difference between primary and secondary phase
voltages?

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a) Delta side leads by 300


b) Delta side lags by 300
c) Star side leads by 300
d) Star side lags by 300
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: This is a vector group and has + 30°
displacement. Therefore, delta side leads by + 30°. So, it
can be stated that delta side is having lead of 300 over star
side because of the connections made.

5. Which can be also called as 00 /1800 connection?


a) Star/star
b) Direct star
c) Delta/star
d) Star/delta
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Star connection is formed on each side by
connecting together phase winding terminals. The voltages
of the corresponding phases (and thus of the corresponding
lines) are in phase. This is known as the 0°-connection. If
the winding terminals on secondary side are reversed, the
180°-connection is obtained.

6. What is the ratio of transformation of star/star


connection?
a) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation x:1
b) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation 2x:1
c) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation x/3:1

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d) Can’t say
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The phase transformation ratio is given as x:1,
where x simply denotes the turns ratio of a transformer
given, thus, in the star/star connection we will get the same
ratios, as at a particular point, voltage reading on primary
will be proportional to secondary with x.

7. Delta/delta connection is also called as ____________


a) 00-connection
b) 900-connection
c) 1800-connection
d) 00/1800-connection
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Delta/delta connection is also called as 00-
connection as seen from the phasor diagram that primary
and secondary line voltages are in phase with each other.
By reversing connection, we can get 1800 phase shift.

8. What is the ratio of transformation of delta/delta


connection?
a) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation x:1
b) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation 2x:1
c) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation x/3:1
d) Can’t determine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The phase transformation ratio is given as x:1,

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where x simply denotes the turns ratio of a transformer


given, thus, in the delta/delta connection also similar to the
star/star, we will get the same ratios, as at a particular
point, voltage reading on primary will be proportional to
secondary with x.

9. Open delta connection has VA rating of


_______________
a) √3 times delta/delta VA rating
b) 1/√3 times delta/delta VA rating
c) 3 times delta/delta VA rating
d) 1/3 times delta/delta VA rating
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: When one of the transformer in delta/delta
connection is removed we get open delta connection. This
connection can handle the power of √3VI. While on the
similar line delta/delta connection can handle the power of
3VI.

10. Star/delta connection is also called as ____________


a) 300-connection
b) 00-connection
c) -300-connection
d) 300/-300-connection
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Star/delta connection is also called as +/-300-
connection as seen from the phasor diagram that primary
and secondary line voltages are either ahead or below by

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300 phases with each other. By reversing connection, we


can get another condition phase shift.

11. What is the ratio of transformation of star/delta


connection?
a) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation x:1
b) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation √3x:1
c) Phase transformation x:1, line transformation 3x:1
d) Can’t determine with information available
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The phase transformation ratio is given as x:1,
where x simply denotes the turns ratio of a transformer
given, thus, in the star/delta connection we will get the √3
factor in ratios, as at a particular point, voltage reading on
primary will be proportional to secondary with √3x.

12. x/√3:1 ratio is obtained in ______________


a) Star/delta
b) Delta/star
c) Delta/delta
d) Star/star
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The phase transformation ratio is given as x:1,
where x simply denotes the turns ratio of a transformer
given, thus, in the star/delta connection we will get the 1/√3
factor in ratios, as at a particular point, voltage reading on
primary will be proportional to secondary with 1/√3x.

13. Which both connections have the same line

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transformation ratios?
a) Star/star and delta/delta
b) Star/delta and delta/star
c) Star/zig-zag star and delta/zig-zag star
d) Star/star, delta/delta and star/delta, delta/star
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Star/star and delta/delta both connections
have phase transfer ratio of x:1 and line transfer ratio also
equal to x:1, while star/zig-zag star and delta/zig-zag star
connections have line transformation ratio equal to 2/√3x:1.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series –


Transformers.

To practice all areas of Transformers, here is complete set


of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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Transformers Interview Questions


and Answers for Freshers
by Manish
6-8 minutes

This set of Transformers Interview Questions and Answers


for freshers focuses on “Three Phase Bank of Single Phase
Transformers”.

1. For very high voltage transformers which connection is


cheaper on primary side?
a) Star
b) Delta
c) Open delta
d) Can be star/ delta/ open delta
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In star connection with earthed neutral, the
maximum voltage of the phase winding to ground is 1/√3 or
58% of the line voltage, while in delta connection this is
equal to the line voltage in case of earthing of one of the
lines during a fault. Thus, star on HV side is cheaper.

2. In which of the circuit given positive and negative


sequence currents will flow in primary?

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a) Star/delta
b) Star/star
c) Open delta/delta
d) Delta/delta
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The only positive and negative sequence
currents flow in the lines on the delta side. This could also
be achieved by star-connected primary provided the
primary and secondary star points are grounded. But this is
not recommended on account of flow of ground current for
unbalanced secondary loads.

3. When star/star connection is used?


a) Small HV
b) Small LV
c) High HV
d) High LV
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: This case is economical for small HV
transformers as it minimizes the turns/phase and winding
insulation. A neutral connection is possible. However, the Y
/Y connection is rarely used because of difficulties
associated with the exciting current.

4. When delta/delta connection is used?


a) Small HV
b) Small LV
c) High HV

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d) High LV
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: This suits large LV transformers as it needs
more turns/phase of smaller section. A large load
unbalance can be tolerated. The absence of a star point
may be a disadvantage. This connection can operate at
58% normal rating as open-delta when one of the
transformers of the bank is removed for repairs or
maintenance.

5. For using as a step-up transformer which connection is


used?
a) Star/star
b) Delta/delta
c) Delta/star
d) Star/delta
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: This is the most commonly used connection
for power systems. At transmission levels star connection is
on the HV side, i.e. D/Y for step-up and Y/D for step-down.
The neutral thus available is used for grounding on the HV
side.

6. At distribution level transformer with which connection is


used?
a) Star/star
b) Delta/delta
c) Delta/star

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d) Star/delta
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: At the distribution level the D/Y transformer is
used with star on the LV side which allows mixed 3-phase
and 1-phase loads, while delta allows the flow of circulating
current to compensate for neutral current on the star side.

7. Third-harmonic currents have phase difference of


_____________
a) 00
b) 900
c) 1800
d) 270
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The phase difference in third-harmonic
currents and voltages on a 3-phase system is 3 * 120° =
360° or 0° which means that these are cophasal.
Therefore, third-harmonic currents and voltages cannot be
present on the lines of a 3-phase system as these do not
add up to zero.

8. Core flux in the transformer is _______________


a) sinusoidal
b) flat-topped
c) square wave
d) triangular
View Answer

Answer: b

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Explanation: The supply voltage provides the input current


to the transformer primary, here primary current is only
sinusoidal magnetizing current. Thus, this sinusoidal
magnetic current will produce core flux, flat-topped.

9. In delta/delta connection flux is almost


_________________
a) sinusoidal
b) flat-topped
c) triangular
d) square wave
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The supply voltage provides only sinusoidal
magnetizing current so that core flux is flat-topped; but the
third-harmonic emfs induced (cophasal) cause circulating
currents in deltas restoring the flux to almost sinusoidal.

10. Apart from connection which of the following is different


in star/delta or delta/star compare to delta/delta?
a) Flux is flat-topped
b) Impedance offered to third-harmonic currents in delta is
less
c) Impedance offered to third-harmonic currents in delta is
constant
d) Impedance offered to third-harmonic currents in delta is
more
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Because of one delta connection the same

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conditions are obtained as in D/D connection except that


the impedance offered to the flow of third-harmonic currents
in delta is now larger and so are third-harmonic voltages.

11. In star/star connection the voltage can be correctly


expressed as ____________
a) eaN = ea sin 2ωt + ea3 sin 3ωt
b) eaN = ea sin ωt + ea3sin 3ωt
c) eaN = ea sin 3ωt + ea3sin 3ωt
d) eaN = ea sin 6ωt + ea3sin 3ωt
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In the case of isolated neutrals, third-harmonic
voltages are present in each phase as explained earlier.
Further, since these voltages are cophasal, no third-
harmonic voltages are present between lines. The voltage
of phase a to neutral can now be expressed as shown in
option b.

12. Rate of change of voltage in star/star connection is


______________
a) ω
b) 2 ω
c) 3 ω
d) Can’t determine
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: While fundamental frequency voltages in the
three phases have a relative phase difference of 120°, the
third-harmonic voltages in them are cophasal (with respect

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to each other), but their phase with respect to the


fundamental frequency (voltage changes at the rate of 2ω,
twice the fundamental frequency).

13. Voltage at the neutral point oscillates at frequency of


2ω, this phenomenon is called as _________
a) oscillating neutral
b) doubling voltage
c) doubling current
d) doubling neutral
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Voltage of the neutral point oscillates at
frequency 2 ω, phenomenon is known as oscillating neutral
and is highly undesirable because of which the star/star
connection with isolated neutrals is not used in practice. If
the neutrals are connected, it effectively separates the three
transformers. Third-harmonic currents can now flow via the
neutrals.

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Transformers.

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Answers.

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Three Phase Transformers Tests


Questions and Answers
by Manish
5-6 minutes

This set of Transformers Multiple Choice Questions &


Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Tests on Three Phase
Transformers”.

1. In three-phase transformer, the harmonic fluxes are


suppressed because of ____________
a) high reluctance path
b) low reluctance path
c) any reluctance paths
d) independent on reluctance path
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In core type transformer, the third-harmonic
fluxes in all the three limbs are simultaneously directed
upwards or downwards so that this flux must return through
air (high-reluctance path). The high reluctance path tends to
suppress the third-harmonic flux.

2. Suppressing of harmonic fluxes becomes more


prominent in _______

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a) fifth harmonic currents


b) third harmonic currents
c) fourth harmonic currents
d) second harmonic currents
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The phenomenon gets more complex now and
at core densities exceeding 1.5 T, the total harmonic
content (particularly fifth) is very marked in the magnetizing
current (fifth harmonic currents can flow on lines as their
relative phase difference is 5 * 120° = 600° or 120°).

3. To reduce effect of 5th harmonic current ____________


a) separate path must be provided
b) no need of separate path
c) add a resistor in series
d) add a resistor in parallel
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: To reduce the strong fifth harmonic in the
magnetizing current for the star/star connection with
isolated neutral, a path must be provided through iron for
the third-harmonic flux. Hence, the use of a 5-limb core is
adopted.

4. For performing back to back test on 3-phase transformer,


transformers should be ___________
a) non-identical
b) identical
c) they can be identical or non-identical

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d) they should not be identical nor non-identical


View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: According to connection of back to back test,
arrangement of three-phase transformers should be done
by keeping the fact into consideration that both of these
transformers should be identical.

5. In back to back test two secondaries are connected


___________
a) in proper phase sequence
b) in phase opposition
c) in proper phase sequence and with phase opposition
d) in opposite phase sequence
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: According to the connection arrangement for
the back-to-back test on two identical 3-phase transformers.
Then, two secondaries must be connected in phase
opposition and in proper phase sequence.

6. Auxiliary transformer is not needed in the back to back


test.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Auxiliary transformer is needed in the bak to
back test as, we need to circulate the full-load current. This
transformer is connected at secondaries or at primaries of

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the three-phase transformers.

7. Where the auxiliary transformers are connected in back


to back test of 3-phase transformer?
a) Primaries
b) Secondaries
c) In the middle
d) Can be connected to primaries or secondaries as well
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The auxiliary transformer for circulating full-
load current is included in the circuit of the two secondaries;
it could also be included in the circuit of the primaries. Thus,
with only losses (core-loss and copper-loss) supplied from
the mains, a “heat run” test could be conducted on the
transformers.

8. Auxiliary transformer connected to delta/delta


transformer is of the type _______________
a) single phase transformer
b) three-phase transformer
c) two-phase transformers
d) can be of any type
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The primaries are normally excited from the
mains. Each secondary delta is opened at one junction and
a single-phase transformer can be employed to circulate
full-load current in both the deltas.

9. If one of the transformers is removed from the bank of

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only delta-delta, then it will behave as power delivery


transformer of ________
a) 58%
b) 78%
c) 45%
d) 100%
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: It is true as the circuit will still be closed and
the transformer will operate will lesser operating point. This
new circuit so formed is also called as open delta circuit,
which will deliver 58% of output.

10. Three units of single phase transformers and one single


three-phase transformer_____________
a) will be same for one rating
b) can never be made same
c) may be same
d) depends on other factors
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Three single phase transformers and one
single unit of three phase transformer will be same only,
thus, will have same rating. This is done to reduce the cost
and spacing, and to gain various other advantages.

11. A V-V connected transformer can be connected in


parallel to delta-delta connected transformer
but not to _________
a) delta-star

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b) star-delta
c) star-V
d) star-delta and star-V both
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The V-V transformer can be obtained from D-D
transformer. The V-V connected transformer and D-D
connected transformers have same phase displacement, so
they only can be connected in parallel to each other.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series –


Transformers.

To practice all areas of Transformers, here is complete set


of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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