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CasingSeat™ Software,

Release 5000.1.13
Training Manual

© 2014 Halliburton

Part Number 161780 Revision H January 2015


© 2014 Halliburton
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Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1


What is the CasingSeat™ Software? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Course Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Training Course and Manual Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Licensing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


Design Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Preliminary Design (CasingSeat™ Software) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Detailed Design (StressCheck™ Software). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

Required Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2


Formation Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Directional Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Minimum Diameter Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Production Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4


Mud Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Shoe Depths and Number of Strings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Design Constraints and Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Differential Sticking Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Hole and Pipe Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Top of Cement Depths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Directional Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Calculation of Gas Kick Influx in the CasingSeat™ Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Kick Tolerance Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual i


Contents

Chapter 3: Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


CasingSeat™ Software Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

Logging into the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4


Starting the CasingSeat™ Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Creating an Instant Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Main Window Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Title Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Work Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

Files and Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9


What Types of Files Does the CasingSeat™ Software Use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
What is a Template File? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Opening an Existing Template File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Opening a Template from Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Saving Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

Helpful Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12


Online Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Setting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Configuring Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Using the Unit Systems Editor Dialog box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Using The Convert Unit Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15

Chapter 4: EDM™ and the Well Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2

Describing the Data Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3


Well Explorer Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5

Working with the Well Explorer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6


Drag-and-drop Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Instant Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8

ii CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual


Contents

Well Explorer Node Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9


General Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Audit Info Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Project Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
System Datum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Well Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Depth Reference Datum(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Design Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
General Tab (Design Properties Dialog Box). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Depth Reference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Workflow—How to Set Up Datums for a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Changing the Datum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
How This Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20

Concurrency and Multi-user Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22


SAM in the Application Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
SAM in the Well Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Reload Notification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Reload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Ignore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25

Working with Catalogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26

Chapter 5: Using the CasingSeat™ Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


Entering Well Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Using the Well Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Entering General Well Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Using the Wizard Toolbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Defining the Well Trajectory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Entering Wellpath Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Defining Hole and Casing Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Defining Hole and Casing Sizes with the Casing and Hole Size Selector Graphical
Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Defining the Allowable Hole Sizes Using the Spreadsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual iii


Contents

Defining the Allowable Casing ODs Using the Spreadsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8


Specifying the Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Specifying Additional Setting Depths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Setting the Operating Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Specifying Kick Related Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Defining Drilling Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Viewing the Available Well Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15

Defining the Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16


Defining the Lithology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Rules for Defining Lithology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Specifying Pore Pressures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Rules for Specifying Pore Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Specifying Fracture Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Rules for Specifying Fracture Gradients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19
Specifying the Geothermal Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20

Chapter 6: Additional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


Creating Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Displaying Report Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2

Creating Tabs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4

Inventories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Bit/Hole Sizes Inventory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Casing ODs Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7

Chapter 7: Analyzing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1


Reviewing Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Reviewing Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Reviewing the Section View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2

Calculating Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4


Performing a Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Using the Calculate Dialog Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5

iv CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual


Contents

Selecting Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6

Viewing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8


Well Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Accessing Other Solutions and Understanding the Solution Label . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Using the Design Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Reviewing the Casing Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Final Well Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Side-by-side Comparison of Multiple Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
Set Active Well Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Viewing the Active Well Schematic and Active Casing Scheme . . . . . . . . . . 7-23

Chapter 8: Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2

Exercise 1: Creating the Data Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3

Exercise 2: Specifying General Analysis Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7


Exercise 2 Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10

Exercise 3: Analyzing Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19


Exercise 3 Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20

Exercise 4: Sensitivity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-24


Exercise 4 Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual v


Contents

vi CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual


Chapter 1
Introduction
What is the CasingSeat™ Software?
The CasingSeat™ software is a casing seat selection tool that provides
rigorous shoe selection calculation routines to optimize shoe locations,
based on pore pressure, fracture gradients, and user-defined
design constraints.

The CasingSeat software delivers preliminary Well design tools


that support:

• Selection of casings and hole sizes

• Setting depths for the casings

• Determination of the highest allowable cement tops

• Creation and maintenance of mud schedules

The CasingSeat software is fully integrated with the StressCheck™


software to provide a convenient path to detailed design and stress
analysis of the Well completion.

Course Objectives
During this course you should become familiar with:

• Entering all required data to perform a CasingSeat analysis

• Interpreting available results

Training Course and Manual Overview


The purpose of this manual is to provide a reference for entering data
and performing an analysis during the class, and as a refresher during
future review. This manual contains technical information concerning
the methodology and calculations used to develop the CasingSeat
software. For additional technical information, contact your instructor,
and/or review the online help.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 1-1


Chapter 1: Introduction

Licensing
For information regarding Licensing, please refer to the Engineer’s
Desktop Drilling Summary Level Release Notes.

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Chapter 2
Theory and Methodology

Design Methodology

The design process can be divided into two distinct phases:

• Preliminary design (CasingSeat™ software)


• Detailed design (StressCheck™ software)

Preliminary Design (CasingSeat™ Software)


The largest opportunities for saving money are present while performing
this task. This design phase includes:

• Data gathering and interpretation


• Determination of shoe depths and number of strings
• Selection of hole and casing sizes
• Mud weight design
• Directional design

The quality of the gathered data has a large impact on the appropriate
choice of casing sizes and shoe depths and whether the casing design
objective is successfully met.

Detailed Design (StressCheck™ Software)


This design phase includes:

• Selection of pipe weights and grades for each casing string


• Connection selection
The selection process consists of comparing pipe ratings with design
loads and applying minimum acceptable safety standards (that is,
design factors).

A cost-effective design meets all the design criteria using the least
expensive available pipe. Hand designs are possible, but they are
cumbersome and inefficient.

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

Required Information

The following checklist includes data required to perform both the


preliminary and detailed design. Items marked with an asterisk (*) are
required for the CasingSeat software, directly or indirectly.

Formation Properties
• Pore pressure*
• Formation tensile strength (fracture pressure)*
• Formation compressive strength (borehole failure)*
• Temperature profile*
• Location of squeezing salt and shale zones
• Permeability, Porosity, and ROP*
• Chemical stability/sensitive shales (mud type and exposure time)
• Lost circulation zones*
• Shallow gas*
• Location of fresh water sands*
• Presence of H2S and/or CO2

Directional Data
• Surface location
• Geologic target(s)
• Well interference data

Minimum Diameter Requirements


• Minimum hole size required to meet drilling objectives*
• Logging tool OD*
• Tubing size(s)*
• Packer and related equipment requirements*
• Subsurface safety valve OD (offshore Well)*
• Completion requirements*

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

Production Data
• Packer fluid density
• Produced fluid composition
• Worst case loads that may occur during completion, production,
and workover operations

Other
• Available inventory*
• Regulatory requirements*
• Rig equipment limitations*

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

Preliminary Design

Mud Program
The most important mud program parameter used in casing design is the
mud weight.

The complete mud program is determined from:

• Pore pressure
• Formation strength (fracture and borehole stability)
• Casing shoe depths
• Lithology
• Hole cleaning and cuttings transport capability
• Potential formation damage, stability problems, and drilling rate
• Formation evaluation requirements
• Environmental and regulatory requirements

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

Shoe Depths and Number of Strings


Shoe depths and the number of strings are determined historically by the
mud weight and the fracture gradient.
0

2000

Mud Weight
Fracture Gradient
16"
4000

Design Fracture Gradient

6000
Depth, ft

11.75"
8000

9.625"
10000 D
C 7.625"
Pore Pressure B
12000

A
14000
8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00

EMW, ppg

The hole from above point B must be cased; otherwise, the mud weight
required when reaching point A will fracture the formation.

Design Constraints and Other Factors


A number of factors can affect the shoe depth selection:

• Regulatory requirements.

• Kick tolerance. A specified gas influx volume is used to calculate


the maximum length of the open-hole section such that the kick
volume can be circulated up to the surface without fracturing the
formation.

• Hole stability. This can be a function of mud weight, deviation, and


stress at the wellbore wall, or it can be chemical in nature. Often,
hole stability problems exhibit time-dependent behavior (making

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 2-5


Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

shoe selection a function of penetration rate). The plastic flowing


behavior of salt zones also needs to be considered.

• Differential sticking. The probability of becoming differentially


stuck increases with increasing differential pressure between the
wellbore and formation, increasing permeability of the formation,
and increasing fluid loss of the drilling fluid (that is, thicker
mud cake).

• Zonal isolation. Shallow fresh water sands need to be isolated to


prevent contamination. Lost circulation zones need to be isolated
before a formation of higher pressure is penetrated.

• Directional drilling concerns. A casing string is often run after an


angle-building section has been drilled. This avoids keyseating
problems in the curved portion of the wellbore due to the increased
normal force between the wall and the drill pipe.

• Uncertainty in predicted formation properties. Exploration Wells


often require additional strings to compensate for the uncertainty in
the pore pressure and fracture gradient predictions.

Differential Sticking Limit


To best illustrate how this constraint works, depth, pore, and fracture
pressure data has been imported into an Excel spreadsheet, along with
the Differential Sticking Limit. The Upper Constraints Curve represents
the upper limit of mud weight which will not break the formation or
cause differential sticking, whichever is the minimum. The Upper
Constraints Curve values are obtained for each depth by comparing the
difference between the fracture gradient and the pore pressure with the
Differential Sticking Limit. At the depth for which this difference is
greater than 1800 psi (the differential sticking limit), the fracture
gradient (FG) curve is replaced by the pore pressure (PP) plus the
Differential Sticking Limit:

If FG – PP > Differential Sticking Limit at a certain depth,


Upper Constraints Pressure = Pore Pressure + Differential Sticking
Limit at this depth.

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

A spreadsheet was used to better understand how this works. The


depths/lines for which the preceding condition is valid are shown in
bold characters:

The effect of Differential Sticking Limit on the upper design curve


TVD Pore Pressure Fracture Gradient Pfrac- Diff Stick Upper Constraints
Ppore limit Curve

feet ppg psi ppg psi psi psi psi ppg

1 8.60 0 11.00 1 0 1800 1 11.00

1300 8.70 588 12.25 828 240 1800 828 12.25

2200 8.80 1007 13.00 1487 480 1800 1487 13.00

3000 8.80 1373 13.50 2106 733 1800 2106 13.50

3300 8.80 1510 13.80 2368 858 1800 2368 13.80

4500 8.80 2059 14.40 3370 1310 1800 3370 14.40

5000 8.80 2288 14.61 3798 1510 1800 3798 14.61

5500 8.80 2517 14.81 4237 1720 1800 4237 14.81

5600 8.80 2563 14.85 4326 1763 1800 4326 14.85

5700 8.80 2608 14.90 4415 1807 1800 4408 14.87

6000 8.80 2746 15.02 4686 1941 1800 4546 14.57

6500 8.80 2974 15.23 5146 2172 1800 4774 14.13

7000 8.80 3203 15.43 5617 2414 1800 5003 13.75

7500 8.80 3432 15.64 6099 2667 1800 5232 13.42

8000 8.80 3661 15.85 6592 2931 1800 5461 13.13

8500 8.80 3890 16.05 7095 3205 1800 5690 12.87

9000 8.80 4118 16.26 7609 3491 1800 5918 12.65

9100 8.80 4164 16.30 7713 3549 1800 5964 12.60

10000 9.10 4732 16.65 8658 3926 1800 6532 12.56

10500 10.00 5460 16.90 9227 3767 1800 7260 13.30

10800 11.00 6178 17.10 9603 3426 1800 7978 14.21

11000 11.40 6521 17.20 9838 3318 1800 8321 14.55

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

The effect of Differential Sticking Limit on the upper design curve (Continued)
TVD Pore Pressure Fracture Gradient Pfrac- Diff Stick Upper Constraints
Ppore limit Curve

11500 14.00 8372 17.50 10465 2093 1800 10172 17.01

12000 15.50 9672 18.00 11232 1560 1800 11232 18.00

12500 15.80 10270 18.25 11863 1593 1800 11863 18.25

13000 16.00 10816 18.35 12405 1589 1800 12405 18.35

15000 16.40 12792 18.60 14508 1716 1800 14508 18.60

Pore pressure, fracture gradient, and the upper constraints curve, all in
EMW, are plotted as a function of depth (feet) in the following graph.
Notice the Upper Constraints curve shifts to the left across the interval
that is highlighted in the previous table. The operating window is
smaller in the center of the graph due to the risk of differential sticking.
Design Plot in Excel

1000

2000 Pore Pressure ppg


3000 Frac Gradient ppg
Upper Constraints Curve
4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

11000

12000

13000

14000

15000

16000
8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00
EMW, ppg

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

Hole and Pipe Diameters


Hole and casing diameters are based on the following requirements:

• Production - production equipment requirements, including tubing,


subsurface safety valve, submersible pump and gas lift mandrel
size; completion requirements (for example, gravel packing); and
weighing the benefits of increased tubing performance of larger
tubing against the higher cost of larger casing over the life of
the Well

• Evaluation - logging interpretation requirements and tool diameters

• Drilling - minimum bit diameter for adequate directional control


and drilling performance, available downhole equipment, rig
specifications, and available BOP equipment

The preceding requirements normally impact the final hole or casing


diameter. As a result, casing sizes should be determined from the
inside outward.

Large cost savings are possible by becoming more aggressive during


this portion of the preliminary design phase. This has been the principal
motivation in the increased popularity of slimhole drilling.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 2-9


Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

The previous chart displayed in the Casing and Hole Size Selector
mirrors the content of these two spreadsheets. The “Allowable Hole
Sizes” spreadsheet allows you to specify the hole sizes that can be
drilled out of each acceptable casing, while the “Allowable Casing
ODs” spreadsheet allows you to specify what casing you will accept to
run in each of the aforementioned holes.

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

After calculations, the CasingSeat software shows the remaining


options in a schematic called Final Well Configurations.

Top of Cement Depths


Top of cement (TOC) depths for each casing string should be selected
in the preliminary design phase, because this selection influences axial
load distributions and external pressure profiles used during the detailed
design phase. TOC depths are typically based on the following
considerations:

• Zonal isolation
• Regulatory requirements
• Prior shoe depths
• Formation strength
• Buckling
• Annular pressure buildup in subsea Wells

Buckling calculations are not performed until the detailed design phase.
Hence, the TOC depth may be adjusted as a result of the buckling
analysis to help reduce buckling in some cases.

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

After determining the casing-shoe depth, the CasingSeat software


calculates the TOC depth such that the formation will not fracture.

Note

A 16.0 ppg cement slurry is assumed for this calculation.

Directional Plan
The CasingSeat software uses survey data only for MD–TVD
conversions, to get proper hydrostatic pressures, and for gas
kick calculations.

Calculation of Gas Kick Influx in the CasingSeat™ Software


The gas kick is initiated as a gas charged zone is drilled. At time zero,
this zone has zero thickness and, as time progresses, the zone thickness
increases with the specified rate of penetration until a maximum zone
thickness is reached. Gas influx rate is determined from the following
transient gas flow equation1:

Tsc hk [m( p resv ) − m( p well )] kt


qg = where t D =
50,300 p sc T [1.151 log 10 (t D ) + S ] 1688φμcrw2

where:

qg = gas influx in Mscf/day

Tsc = standard condition temperature in Rankine degrees

h = formation thickness in feet

k = permeability in milliDarcys

m = pseudopressure (integral of [2p/μZ] dp) in psi2/centipoise

μ = gas viscosity in centipoise

Z = gas compressibility factor

presv = reservoir pressure in psi

pwell = Wellbore pressure in psi

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 2-13


Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

psc = pressure at standard conditions in psi

T = reservoir temperature in Rankine degrees

tD = dimensionless time

S = dimensionless skin factor

t = flow time in hours

c = gas compressibility in psi-1

φ = porosity

rw = Wellbore radius in feet

The gas compressibility factor, compressibility, and viscosity are given


by general correlations of pressure and temperature for methane. The
gas influx is converted to barrels/day at the local pressure and
temperature for the influx calculations. Total gas bubble volume is
determined by integrating the gas influx rate numerically by using a
Newton-Cotes 5-point formula over short time intervals.

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

The initial wellbore pressure is assumed to be the formation pore


pressure less the specified swab pressure (1). As the gas bubble fills the
annulus, the wellbore pressure is reduced by the gas density over this
vertical interval. Thus, gas influx (2) increases as the thickness h
increases, increases as m(pwell) decreases, and decreases as tD
increases. Thickness h increases with ROP until a specified maximum
thickness (3) is reached, then h is constant from that point forward.

2
1
5
4
6
7
3

As drilling ahead continues, pit gain (4) and differential flow (5) values
are monitored. When either kick detection criterion is satisfied, drilling
ahead continues for the crew reaction time interval (6). At this point,
drilling is stopped, but flow continues for the valve closure time (7).
During this time, the exposed reservoir face has a fixed thickness (3)
equal to the formation thickness at the end of drilling.

Reference: Lee, J. W., Well Testing, SPE Textbook Series, Richardson,


Texas, 1982, p 76.

Kick Tolerance Analysis


In the CasingSeat software, the kick tolerance is determined by
assuming the gas as a single, continuous bubble of methane. The

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 2-15


Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

allowable gas-kick volume can be specified or calculated using the Well


> Design Parameters > Kick Tolerance tab.

Click to specify the


Influx Volume.

Click to calculate the


Gas Influx Volume
based on the kick
intensity, pit gain,
reaction time, and
other parameters.

Wellbore pressures are investigated for the gas bubble positions across
the full range between the last casing setting depth and the influx depth.
Either the casing setting depth or the hole TD is automatically assumed
by the code, depending upon the type of analysis mode: Bottom-Up
Design or Top-Down Design.

By varying the length of the open hole section, a minimum gas volume
required to fracture the formation at the assumed casing setting depth is
calculated and compared against the allowable gas-kick volume.

Gas bubble volume is depth-dependent; it is calculated as a function of


local pressures, temperatures, volume, and compressibility. Bubble top
and base are determined from wellbore volumes calculated from the
wellbore diameter, BHA and drillpipe geometry, and the wellbore
inclination.

Algorithm
The following algorithm describes in detail the kick tolerance
calculations in the CasingSeat software. In this example, it is assumed

2-16 CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual


Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

that there are no other operating constraints other than the kick tolerance
for which a fixed kick influx volume is assumed. All depths used in the
calculation are expressed in TVD.

The step-by-step calculations in the CasingSeat software for the


Bottom-Up Design are as follows:

1. An iterative calculation starts with an initial guess for the casing


setting depth, which is the mid-point between the first casing setting
depth (Well > Design Parameters > General tab) and well total
depth (TD).

Specify the setting depth


of the first casing.

2. The CasingSeat software then calculates a gas bubble height


starting with the bubble at well TD and circulating it out to the
assumed casing setting depth using the Driller’s Method. The
bubble height is limited by the fracture gradient at the depth of the
initial estimate.

Assumption: Since no other operating constraints are considered for


this case, the mud density gradient is considered equal to the

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 2-17


Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

maximum pore pressure gradient in the open hole. If the pore


pressure is increased by selecting other operating constraints, then
the new pore pressure gradient is used instead.

The following formulas calculate the gas height:

Pressure at bit depth (initially Well TD):

Pbit = 0.052( ρ ppBit + ρ kick int ensity )( Dbit )

Pressure of mud column in the open hole:

Pdiff = 0.052( ρ mud )( Dbit − DCS )

The wellbore pressure at the assumed casing setting depth is:

PCS = Pbit − Pdiff + H kick ( ρ mud − ρ kick )

The formation fracture pressure at the same depth is:

PFracCS = 0.052( ρ fracCS )( DCS )

Equating the wellbore pressure with the formation fracture pressure


at the same depth, the height of the gas bubble is obtained:

ΔP
H kick =
( ρ kick − ρ mud )

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Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

where,

ΔP = Pbit − PFracCS − Pdiff

ρ ppBit = Pore pressure gradient at the bit depth

ρ kick int ensity = In the CasingSeat software, this is considered as a


safety margin for shifting (reducing) the fracture
gradient to the left (Kick Intensity specified on the
Well > Design Parameters > Kick Tolerance tab).

Dbit = Bit depth

DCS = Assumed casing setting depth

ρ mud = Mud density

Gas kick density, calculated at specific temperature and


ρ kick =
pressure conditions, assuming methane gas.

3. Assuming a gas kick density at the bottom of the bubble, while the
bubble is at bit depth, the height of the bubble is calculated (step 2
above). This height is then used to calculate the average gas density
(at the mid-point of the bubble) as a function of PVT-z. This new
density is used to recalculate the bubble height, and this iterative
process continues until a convergence for the average gas density
is attained.

4. The previous calculations (steps 2 and 3) are done repetitively for


various gas bubble locations, as the bubble is considered to migrate
up the open hole. For each location, the gas volume required to
fracture the formation is calculated knowing the wellbore geometry.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 2-19


Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology

5. Steps 2 through 4 are repeated for all additional depths of interest


(defined in the Lithology, Pore Pressure, and Fracture Gradient
spreadsheets) in order to find the minimum gas volume required to
fracture the formation at each one of these depths.

6. A minimum of all the gas kick volumes obtained in steps 4 and 5 is


obtained, and then it is compared with the allowable gas-kick
volume. If this calculated minimum volume is less than the
allowable gas-kick volume, a new casing setting depth is assumed
at half the distance between the initial assumption and the bit depth.
All of the preceding calculations are repeated for the new
assumption of casing setting depth (steps 1 through 5).

7. If this calculated minimum volume is greater than the allowable


gas-kick volume, the new assumption of casing setting depth goes
the opposite direction, at half the distance between the first casing
setting depth (user-defined in the Design Parameters dialog box)
and the initial assumption. This calculation is performed until a
convergence is obtained with an allowable tolerance of 5 feet, and
the last valid result is saved.

8. Once the shoe depth is fixed, the same calculations are repeated to
get the next casing shoe depth, assuming this depth as the bit depth
and so on until you reach the first casing setting depth.

9. This process completes one casing scheme solution, assuming that


kick tolerance is the only operating constraint. The entire process is
repeated by starting with a different hole-size and getting various
solutions of casing schemes until the maximum casing OD (Well >
Design Parameters > General tab) is reached.

Similar calculations are performed for the Top-Down Design, except in


this case the variable is the bit depth and not the casing setting depth.

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Chapter 3
Getting Started
At the completion of this section, you should be able to:

• Become familiar with the basic casing design workflow used in the
CasingSeat™ software, as shown in “CasingSeat™ Software
Workflow” on page 3-2

• Log in to the EDM™ database while starting the


CasingSeat software

• Use the Instant Design feature and create a new Prototype Design in
the CasingSeat software

• Navigate the CasingSeat main screen and identify the major


components of the application

The purpose of this section is to provide a quick tour of the application


to explain the main components of the interface.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 3-1


Chapter 3: Getting Started

CasingSeat™ Software Workflow

A typical workflow used in the CasingSeat software is shown below.


This workflow demonstrates how to use the CasingSeat software and
does not include all of the software’s functionality.

Enter general information: Well name and vertical section definition


See “Entering General Well Information” on page 5-3

Enter wellpath data


See “Defining the Well Trajectory” on page 5-4

Enter hole sizes allowed below casing OD for drill-through ops


See “Defining the Allowable Hole Sizes Using the Spreadsheet” on page 5-7

Enter the casing ODs allowed for the hole size


See “Defining the Allowable Casing ODs Using the Spreadsheet” on page 5-8

Enter general parameters used for calculating the casing design


See “Specifying the Design Parameters” on page 5-9

Select the wellbore pressure operating constraints


See “Setting the Operating Constraints” on page 5-12

Define the drillpipe OD, BHA OD, and BHA length


See “Defining Drilling Parameters” on page 5-14

Define the lithology


See “Defining the Lithology” on page 5-16

Define the pore pressure


See “Specifying Pore Pressures” on page 5-18

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Define the fracture pressure


See “Specifying Fracture Gradients” on page 5-19

Define the temperature profile


See “Specifying the Geothermal Gradient” on page 5-20

Calculate results
See “Calculating Results” on page 7-4

Select the case type to view results


See “Selecting Results” on page 7-6

View results of the analyzed case


See “Viewing Results” on page 7-8

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Chapter 3: Getting Started

Logging into the Database

Landmark® drilling applications that use the Engineer’s Data Model™


(EDM) software require login. The login dialog box is used to select the
database and to provide a user ID and password.

Starting the CasingSeat™ Software


You can start the CasingSeat software in two ways:

• From the Start Menu, select All Programs > Landmark


Engineer’s Desktop 5000.1 > CasingSeat.

• Double-click the CasingSeat shortcut on your Desktop.

The following login screen appears when you launch the


CasingSeat software:
Select the database
you want to use from
the drop-down list.

The User
field
defaults to
the last
username
entered.

After you log into the CasingSeat software, the main window displays,
as shown below. At this time, few menu options are available and most
of the toolbar buttons are disabled.

You can select an item from the menu using the mouse or the keyboard
quick keys. To use the quick keys to select an item, press and hold the
Alt key while pressing the underlined character in the menu item. For
example, to open the File menu, press Alt-F.

You must open an existing Design or create a new Design to expand the
menu bar options or to activate additional toolbar buttons.

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Title Bar

Menu Bar

Toolbars
Filter
Recent Bar

Well
Explorer

Associated
Data Viewer

Well
Configuration
Diagram

Reference
Datum
Diagram

Creating an Instant Design


To get familiar with the application’s main screen and all of the menus,
a Design must be open. The Instant Design feature is a quick way to
create a Design with minimal effort.

Select File > New > Instant Design. Keep the default settings, and
click OK.

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Chapter 3: Getting Started

Main Window Layout


The following graphic shows the CasingSeat main window. The main
window displays data entry dialog boxes and spreadsheets. It also
displays results. Several distinct areas within the main window are
shown in the following figure. Most of these options do not become
available until a Design is opened.

Wizard Toolbar
Views Toolbar Results Toolbar

Casing Scheme Selection Plot Toolbar

Tabs Work area (currently displaying the


Well Schematic)

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Title Bar
The Title bar is located at the top of the main window. The Title bar
displays the name of the active Design, and the name of the active
spreadsheet, table, plot, or schematic (if the active window
is maximized).

Menu Bar
The Menu bar displays a number of additional options after you open or
create a Design. Prior to opening or creating a Design, the only options
available are File, View, Tools, and Help.

File Menu
The File menu contains commands that allow you to create and open
Companies, Projects, Sites, Well, Wellbores, and Designs. You can also
open and save templates, import Transfer file (*.xml) and CasingSeat
flat files (*.pdi), send the active Design (as a PDI file) by using the
system’s default email client, and import and export data using the
DEX™ software.

Edit Menu
The Edit menu has commands used to undo changes; cut, copy, and
paste information; insert and delete rows in spreadsheets; view the
selected Well Explorer node’s properties; find Well data, and
manipulate OLE objects.

Well Menu
The Well menu has commands used to enter general Well and wellpath
data, allowable hole sizes, allowable casing outside diameter, Well
configurations, design parameters, and drilling parameters. You can
also manage bit/hole size and casing outside diameter inventories.

Geology Menu
The Geology menu has commands used to specify formation lithology
properties, pore pressure, fracture pressure, and define the geothermal
gradient as a function of depth.

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View Menu
The View menu is used to toggle on/off display of the Well Explorer, to
calculate the results using data defined through the Geology and Well
menus, and to display the results in plots, schematics, and tables.

Tools Menu
The Tools menu is used to customize the CasingSeat software. Use this
menu to access the Toolbars dialog box to select the toolbars you want
to view, configure tabs, specify plot options, configure reports, and
access the unit system.

Window Menu
The Window menu is used to arrange and select windows.

Help Menu
The Help menu has commands to access the online Help system, view
the release notes, and obtain information about the CasingSeat software.

Work Area
The Work Area displays the active view, such as a plot or Well
Schematic. To split the work area into two panes, select either the
vertical or horizontal splitter controls as seen below. To split the view
into four panes, select Window > Split or use both of the
splitter controls.

Click and drag the splitter


controls to divide horizontal
and vertical windows to the
desired location.

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Chapter 3: Getting Started

Files and Templates

In this section, you will learn what files the CasingSeat software uses to
manipulate Well data and transfer information to other users of the
application. Also, the concept of CasingSeat templates is discussed.

What Types of Files Does the CasingSeat™ Software Use?

File Extension What the File Type is Used For

*.DXD Data exchange (DEX) import/export files

*.PDI Well files created using the CasingSeat software


(prior versions)

*.PDT Template files created using the CasingSeat software

*.TXT Wellpath and Read me text files

*.XML Transfer files for data import/export

What is a Template File?


Default data can be entered and saved in the template file. Template files
can be used and reused as defaults for future casing schemes. A template
file typically contains no specific Well data or data that is dependent on
depth. These files are used to describe generic practices and parameters
for general cases. For example, templates can be used to set up default
inventories of Bit Sizes, Casing ODs, Allowable Casing ODs, and
Allowable Hole Sizes spreadsheets.

Templates are applied only once, when initially creating or opening a


Design, and they cannot be reapplied. A Company may provide
templates to users to set policy for certain materials, inventories, casing
schemes, and so on.

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Opening an Existing Template File


Select File > Template > Open from File to open an existing template
file. The template is loaded into memory and is not imported into the
database until it is saved.

A list of existing
template files display.

Opening a Template from Database


Select File > Template > Open from Database to open an existing
template stored in the database. Opening a template from the database
to edit and save it as a system template may not be allowed by your
Company. Company policy may prohibit the use of the Save as System
Template command.

Saving Templates
All templates saved by the CasingSeat software are stored in the
database, as described below. To save user-defined and system

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templates to a file, right-click the template type root folder in the Well
Explorer, and select Export from the menu.

Saving User Templates


After you have opened and perhaps changed a template file, you can
save the file as a User Template with a new name. In this manner, you
can create different templates to meet various requirements. Select
File > Template > Save As to save the template to the database.

Specify a name for


the template.

Saving System Templates


After you have opened and changed a template file, you can save the file
as a System Template with a new name. In this manner, you can create
different templates to meet various requirements. Select File >
Template > Save As System Template to save the template.

System Templates are available to all users. Your Company may


prohibit its use, and disable the Save as System Template command.

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Chapter 3: Getting Started

Helpful Features

This section includes information about CasingSeat features that are not
discussed in the general workflow but are helpful during everyday use
of the application.

Online Help
The context-sensitive Help system can be accessed in several ways:

• Press F1 to view Help on the active spreadsheet, plot, table or


dialog box.

• Select Contents from the Help menu.

• Click the Help button when available on an open dialog box.

• Click the context-sensitive Help icon ( ), and then click the


portion of the window for which you desire Help (such as a toolbar
icon or menu item). This feature is not available if a dialog box
is open.

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Setting Options
To open the Options dialog box, select Tools > Options. This dialog
box is useful to set general plot view, printing, spreadsheet and table
layout, and depth display (MD or TVD) in the application.

Control the appearance of printed documents.

Control the appearance


of the graphical views.
Select MD or TVD
to determine how
depths are
displayed in plots,
Control the appearance
spreadsheets,
of spreadsheets and
and tables.
tables.

Options are not stored as part of the active Design in the Windows
registry, and affect all Designs analyzed with the CasingSeat software
until the options are changed. For additional information, see the
CasingSeat Help.

Configuring Units
In this section, you will learn how to use the Unit Systems Editor
dialog box, and set up unit conversions.

Using the Unit Systems Editor Dialog box


To access the Unit Systems Editor dialog box, select Tools > Unit
System. The CasingSeat software ships with the following default unit
sets: API, SI, API - US Survey Feet, and Mixed API.

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The API, SI, API - US Survey Feet, and Mixed API unit
systems are included with the CasingSeat installation.
Select the unit
system you
want to use in
the analysis
from the drop-
down list.

Click Import to
import a unit
system.

Click New to
create a unit
system.

Click Delete to
delete a unit
system.

Use the Unit Systems Editor dialog box to add, remove, edit, and
switch unit systems. You can also import and export custom unit
systems. The unit system for the Design on which you are working is
stored at the Well level. All unit systems are stored in the database

Note

Be careful when you delete unit systems. Other users may want to use the unit
system you are planning to delete!

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The Status bar at the bottom of the screen displays the name of the unit
system currently in use. Unit system is set at the Well level, and it affects
all Wellbores, Designs, and cases below it.

Unit system displayed in


the Status bar

Using The Convert Unit Dialog Box


To perform unit conversions, select Tools > Convert Unit to enter or
view data in any equivalent unit without changing the unit system
currently in use. Only the value in the cell/field selected is affected.
When you close this dialog box, the converted numerical value you
chose displays in the field, but the unit of measurement is not changed.
If you want to use a new unit system, select Tools > Unit System, which
changes the unit system for all fields. To use the Convert Unit dialog
box, a spreadsheet cell or a dialog box field that is editable must be
selected, and it must have a value associated with a physical parameter.

For example, you may be working in the Design Parameters dialog box
and only know the cost of K-55 Steel in $/kg, but the current unit system
shows K-55 Steel cost as $/ton. You can click the K-55 Steel field and
press F4, select the $/kg unit, and then enter the value you know for the
steel. When you click OK, the value entered as $/kg is converted to the
equivalent $/ton unit of measurement and displays in the Cost of K-55
Steel field. For more information about the unit systems and
conversions, see CasingSeat Help.

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Chapter 4
EDM™ and the Well Explorer
Located by default on the left side of the application window, the Well Explorer functions much
like the Microsoft Windows Explorer. Specifically, it is organized as a hierarchical data tree, and
you can browse the EDM™ database at seven descending levels, though this varies between
applications. This section familiarizes you with the basic Well Explorer functionality available in
the CasingSeat™ software.

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Chapter 4: EDM™ and the Well Explorer

Overview

In this chapter, you should become familiar with Landmark® software’s


common features—the Engineer’s Data Model™ (EDM) database, and
how the data structure is exposed via the Well Explorer. The following
software currently use the common database and data structure:
CasingSeat, COMPASS™, OpenWells®, StressCheck™, Well Cost™,
WELLCAT™, and WELLPLAN™.

In this section of the course, you will:

• Learn about the EDM data structure, common data, data locking,
and how to import and export data

• Become familiar with the Well Explorer components and how to


access data levels

• Understand how datums are handled by the database

• Learn about SAM and concurrent use of data in EDM

• Learn how to access Catalogs in the CasingSeat software

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Describing the Data Structure

Shown below, the EDM database hierarchical data structure supports


the different levels of data required by drilling suite applications.

Database

Company Hierarchical database structure of the


Project EDM database.
Site

Well

Wellbore

Design

Case

Note

The Case level applies to the WELLPLAN software only and is not discussed in
this manual.

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Chapter 4: EDM™ and the Well Explorer

The EDM database structure is exposed through a common Well


Explorer, which is shared by drilling applications, such as CasingSeat
(see the following figure).

Database level
Company level
Project level
Site level
Well level
Wellbore level
Design level

Rig Contractors level

Templates
Workspaces
Catalogs

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Well Explorer Components


In addition to the Well Explorer “tree” previously shown, components
of the Well Explorer (shown below) include the Filter, Recent Bar,
Associated Data Viewer, Well Configuration, and Reference Datum
diagrams.
Filter
The currently selected filter (notice the
“funnel” in the Well Explorer
component that indicates a filter is
applied).
Recent Bar
The last selected data items; it is used
to quickly open recently used items.
Hierarchical “Tree”
The selected node shows the currently
open Design.

Associated Data Viewer


Components “associated with” the
selected data item (the Design, in this
example). Double-clicking on Pore
Pressure, Frac Gradient, or Wellpath
opens the respective editor on
demand.

Well Configuration Diagram


The current Well configuration for the
selected Design, including sidetracks
for complex Wellbores.

Reference Datum Diagram


The current reference datum
information for the selected Design.

For more information about the specific Well Explorer components and
associated features, see CasingSeat Help.

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Chapter 4: EDM™ and the Well Explorer

Working with the Well Explorer

In this section, you will learn some basic operations performed with the
Well Explorer. For a detailed list of all features available in the Well
Explorer, see CasingSeat Help.

Drag-and-drop Rules
“Drag-and-drop” in the Well Explorer functions somewhat like the
Microsoft Windows Explorer. You can use drag-and-drop to copy
Projects, Sites, Wells, Wellbores, and Designs, as well as associated
data items and attached documents.

All drag-and-drop operations copy the data; data is never cut or moved.

To copy data, drag and drop the item from one location, and paste it into
another. The item and all of its associated data are copied and pasted.

You can drag and drop associated items from the Associated Data
Viewer at the base of the Well Explorer (Wellpaths, Pore Pressures,
Fracture Gradients, Geothermal Gradients, Hole Sections, Assemblies,
and so on) into a level of the hierarchy that stores that type of data (for
example, Wellpath is stored at the Design level, so it can only be
dropped into a Design).

Note

The application automatically updates itself with the copied data.

For more information, including the rules associated with drag-and-drop


functionality, see CasingSeat Help.

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Instant Design
To access the Instant Design dialog box, select File > New > Instant
Design; or right-click the Database level and select Instant Design from
the menu. This dialog box allows you to quickly and easily create the
hierarchy required to start a Design, from the Company to the Design.
Instant Design allows you to enter minimal information rather than
creating individual nodes for each level of the hierarchy.

Select the Company, Project, and Site


from the drop-down list of existing
Companies, Projects, or Sites. You can
also enter a new name for the data level.

Enter the name of the Well, Wellbore,


and Design.

Specify datum information.

Import
To access the Import dialog box, select File > Import > Transfer File
(or PDI File); or right-click the Database level and select Import from
the menu. The Import command allows you to import data into the
database that was exported by using the Export command. The import
file contains the entire hierarchy of the Well (Company, Project, and
Site, and any child data, such as Wellbore, and Design).

When you select Import, the Import Well dialog box opens and
prompts you for the XML or PDI filename to import. Enter the file name
or browse for the file, and then click Open. The Well hierarchical data
is then imported into the EDM database.

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Export
The Export command allows you to export the selected node’s data in
XML format. It includes any child information that is associated with
the node. A dialog box opens to allow you to supply a directory and file
name for the XML file.

Attachments
You can associate a folder or a file, such as a document or a picture
(Word, Excel, text file, JPG, and so on) as an attachment. Attached files
can be of any type with a recognized extension. Folder attachments will
open any accessible directory and display the contents of the folder. To
access the Attachment Properties dialog box, right-click any data
hierarchy node and then select New Attachment from the menu.

Description (Optional) Click Browse to navigate to


Enter text that provides brief the location of the file. If you
descriptive information about the know the path, you can enter it
attachment. without using the Browse
button.

Select the Save attachment as a link/shortcut only check box if you want to save the attachment
as a link only. If you select this check box, only the link to the disk file is stored in the database. Any
edits you make are saved to the original disk file. You can edit the document directly from the Well
Explorer, or you can edit the disk file from its disk location; the changes are reflected in both places.
In the Associated Data Viewer, the icon representing a Linked document is shown as a paperclip
with a small arrow in the lower left corner.

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Well Explorer Node Properties


Right-click any Well Explorer data node and select Properties from the
menu to view or edit the selected node’s properties in a dialog box, such
as the Company Properties dialog box shown below.

A brief description of data locking features is provided below. Details of


the differences between the properties dialog boxes for each node, such
as the specific tabs and content, is discussed in CasingSeat Help.

General Tab
The General tab contains data locking features such as the Company is
Locked check box and Locked Data and Company Level password
buttons, which are discussed below. All Well Explorer node Properties
dialog boxes, with the exception of the Database level, contain the
“[Node Type] is Locked” check box.

Company is Locked
Select this check box to prevent editing of the Company data. If this box
is selected and either a Company Level or Locked Data password has
been specified, you will be prompted for the password before you can
deselect this check box.

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Passwords
• Locked Data - Click to specify a password that will be required to
unlock any data associated with the Company, including all
Projects, Sites, Wells, Wellbores, and Designs.

• Company Level - Click to specify a password that will be required


to unlock the Company data. The Company level password is only
active if the “Company is locked” check box is selected.

Audit Info Tabs


In dialog boxes that contain the Audit Info tab, information such as
when the Company was created and last modified (and by whom) is
displayed.

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Datums

Datum terms are defined below and are grouped by the Properties dialog
box in which they are found.

Project Properties
The Project Properties dialog box contains the General tab in which
you can specify System Datum and Elevation.

System Datum
The System Datum represents absolute zero. It is the surface depth
datum from which all Well depths are measured, and all Well depths are
stored in the database relative to this datum. Usually the System Datum
is Mean Sea Level, Mean Ground Level, or Lowest Astronomical Tide,
but it can also be the wellhead, rig floor, RKB, and so on.

Elevation
The Elevation represents the elevation above Mean Sea Level. (If Mean
Sea Level is selected as the System datum, Elevation is grayed out.)

Well Properties
The Well Properties Depth Reference tab is used to specify and define
Wellbore datums.

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Chapter 4: EDM™ and the Well Explorer

Depth Reference Datum(s)


The Depth Reference Datum represents zero MD. It is sometimes
known as the local datum, and it is measured as an elevation from the
System Datum. You can define one or more Depth Reference Datums
for a Well in the Depth Reference tab (in the Well Properties dialog
box). For each Depth Reference Datum, you must specify the elevation
above or below the System Datum.

Elevation above, Depth below: [System Datum]


This read-only label identifies the current System Datum. It also states
that all elevations are measured ABOVE the System datum and all
depths are measured BELOW the System datum. (The System datum is
specified on the General Tab (in the Project Properties dialog box.)

A drop-down list below the label contains all defined Depth Reference
datums. Select the Depth Reference datum you want to use to view and
calculate data. If you do not specify a Depth Reference datum here, a
“Default Datum” with zero elevation above System datum will be used.

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Information about each datum includes:

• Datum - Type, edit, or view the name of the datum.

• Default - When selected, this check box indicates that this is the
default datum. All Designs created below this Well inherit the
default datum.

• Elevation - Type, edit, or view the elevation above the System


Datum (this must be a positive number). If you have a Design
associated with this datum, you cannot edit this field. If a Design is
not associated with this datum, you can edit the elevation.

• Rig Name - Type, edit, or view the name of the rig.

• Date - Type the date on which the datum was created. The program
uses the date field to determine the newest datum, and then uses that
datum as the default for new Wellbores.

Configuration
• For a Land Well - If the Well is a land Well, type the value for the
Ground Elevation above the System Datum (must be a positive
number). Leave the Offshore check box deselected.

• For an Offshore Well - If the Well is an offshore Well:

— Select the Offshore check box to indicate it is an offshore Well.

— Type the Water Depth (MSL to mudline). This is the column


of water.

— Type the Wellhead Elevation (positive above the


System Datum).

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• For an Offshore Well that is Subsea - If the Well is an offshore


Well that is subsea:

— Select the Offshore check box.

— Select the Subsea check box. (The Offshore check box must be
selected before this option becomes available.)

— Type the Water Depth (MSL to mudline). This is the column


of water.

— Type the Wellhead Depth (positive below the System Datum


specified on the General Tab (Project Properties)).

Summary
In the Summary area, a graphic depicts the selected configuration
(onshore, offshore, or offshore subsea), and displays current values. The
following values are calculated and/or displayed:

• Datum - This is the default datum selected in the Well Properties


> Depth Reference tab.

• Datum Elevation - This is the elevation of the default datum above


the System Datum.

• Air Gap - This is the distance from ground level/sea level to the rig
floor. It is used in some calculations for hydrostatic head. Air Gap
is always positive. The application calculates Air Gap as follows:

— (Air Gap, offshore Wells) = Datum Elevation – Elevation (of the


System Datum relative to Mean Sea Level)

— (Air Gap, land Wells) = Datum Elevation – Ground Level


(relative to the System Datum)

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Elevation is set in the Project Properties > General dialog box.


Ground Level is set in the Well Properties > Depth Reference tab.
Datum Elevation is the elevation for the Depth Reference Datum.
Datum Elevation is always positive. If you change the datum
selection, the Air Gap updates automatically.

Note

If you change the datum and it causes a negative air gap to be calculated, a
warning message appears to inform you that you cannot select this datum.

• [System Datum] - Display the current System Datum.

• Mudline Depth (MSL) - (Offshore only) Display the distance from


MSL to the sea bed, which is Water Depth – Elevation (System
Datum offset from MSL, which is set in the Project Properties
dialog box).

• Water Depth - Elevation (System Datum offset from MSL, which


is set in the Project Properties dialog box).

• Mudline TVD - (Offshore only) Display the distance from the


Depth Reference Datum to the sea bed (datum Elevation +
Water Depth).

Design Properties
The Design Properties General tab is used to provide data protection
options and additional information related to the defined Design i.e.
Design Name, Version, Phase and Effective date.

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General Tab (Design Properties Dialog Box)


Use this tab to specify a unique Design name that identifies the Design
and to provide additional information related to the Design. This tab is
also used to lock the Design and/or associated data to protect against
undesired changes to the data associated with the Design. A Design
name is required. Additional information on this dialog box is used for
informational and reporting purposes and is not required.

The following fields are present:

In the Details section:

• Design - Type the name that will be used to identify the Design.
The name must be unique.

Note

If the Design is locked check box is selected, you cannot edit any of the fields.

• Version - Type the version of the Design.

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• Phase - Select the phase of the Design from the drop-down list
(Prototype, Planned, or Actual). The list of phases that appears in
the combo box is filtered; you can only have one Design marked as
“Planned” and one marked as “Actual.” The Planned or Actual
option is removed from the drop-down list if another Design for the
same Wellbore already has it set. You can have as many Prototype
(the default) Designs as desired.

• Effective Date - Select the date from the drop-down list. A calendar
dialog box will open. Use the arrow buttons on the calendar dialog
box to move to the desired month, then click the day. The date you
select populates the field.

Click arrows
to change to
desired
month.

Click on the
desired day.

Depth Reference Information


From the drop-down list of defined Depth Reference datums, select the
datum you want to reference for this Design. After you select a datum,
the Datum Elevation, Air Gap, current System Datum, Mudline Depth,
and Mudline TVD are all recalculated and display the updated values
adjacent to the rig elevation drawing in the Design Properties
dialog box.

Workflow—How to Set Up Datums for a Design


1. Access the Project Properties > General dialog box and select the
System Datum you want to use. If your selected System Datum is
“Lowest Astronomical Tide” or “Ground Level”, provide a value in
the Elevation field. If your selected System Datum is “Mean Sea
Level”, the Elevation field is grayed out.

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Select the System


Datum.

2. Access the Well Properties > Depth Reference dialog box.

If the Well is onshore:

a) Make sure the Offshore check box is not selected, and provide
a value in the Ground Elevation field.

If the Well is offshore:

a) Select the Offshore check box, and provide a value in the Water
Depth field.

b) Select the Subsea check box if the Well is subsea, and provide a
value in the Wellhead Depth field.

3. Define the Depth Reference Datum(s) you want to use, such as


RKB or Rig floor and provide a value in the Elevation field.

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4. Select the Default check box on the right of the Datum you wish to
use as the default datum.

5. Create or import a Design for this Well.

6. In the Design Properties > General dialog box, select the Depth
Reference Datum you want to use for this Design from the
drop-down list of datums you defined in Step 4.

Changing the Datum


When you create a Design and save it for the first time, the EDM
database keeps track of the Depth Reference Datum that was set at the
time. This “original” Depth Reference Datum is not displayed; however,
if you or someone else changes the Depth Reference Datum in the Well
Properties dialog box, and you then attempt to open that Design, a
warning message appears. You are warned that you are trying to change
a datum that is different from the datum in which you originally saved
the data, and any calculations will be invalid unless you change your

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Chapter 4: EDM™ and the Well Explorer

inputs (details provided below). You are given the choice to open the
Design in the original datum or to convert to the new datum. If you
choose to convert your data, the data is adjusted. However, the change
is not saved to the database until you save the Design, at which time the
new datum becomes the “original” datum.

How This Works

If datum is same as original datum


If you open a Design in which the Depth Reference Datum (set at the
Design level) is the same as the datum the data was originally saved in,
the Design opens normally.

If datum is different than the original datum

If you open a Design in which the Depth Reference Datum (set at the
Design level) is different from the original datum, the following occurs:

• The application checks to see if the Well is a slant hole. If positive


inclination exists in wellpaths whose depths would become
negative after the datum shift, the program cannot make the
adjustments; a message pops up to inform you of this. Click Open
to open the Design in the original datum; if you click Cancel, the
Design does not open.

• For Wells other than slant holes, the program issues this message:
“The currently selected Design datum is different to the datum with
which the Design was created.” The application will then attempt to
adjust the data, but some data might be shifted or removed. If you
open the Design, we strongly suggest that you review your input
data; any changes will not be saved to the database until you
explicitly save your data. Please click Open to review the Design
using the datum with which it was created.”

If you want to open the Design with the original elevation, click Open.
If you want to convert the data to the new elevation, click Adjust. Open
is the default.

— If you click Open, data is loaded to the original Design datum,


but the Depth Reference Datum set in the Design does not
change to match the original datum.

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— If you click Adjust, Well Explorer loads the data to the new
Wellbore datum and attempts to adjust the data; however, some
data may be shifted or removed. The program resolves the
deltas in the first depths of column data (strings, wellpaths,
columns, and so on) to adjust for the new gap and read zero
depth on the first line.

Note

After you open the Design, you should review your input data; remember that the
changes are not saved to the database until you explicitly save your data.

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Chapter 4: EDM™ and the Well Explorer

Concurrency and Multi-user Support

EDM supports full concurrency for multiple applications that are using
the same data set. The SAM (Simultaneous Activity Monitor) server
moderates the activity. This messaging server notifies a user of all data
items currently open by other applications and users that are sharing the
same database.

SAM in the Application Status Bar


The SAM icon appears in the application status bar as follows:

Message Description

A green SAM icon in the Status bar indicates that the


Messenger Service is active. If a tooltip is available, the
message “SAM-Connected” displays.

A green SAM icon with a red X in the Status bar indicates that
the Messenger Service is not currently active. If a tooltip is
available, the message “SAM-Disconnected” displays.

A red SAM icon in the Status bar indicates the SAM service is
enabled but has lost connectivity. Hover over the icon to
display the tooltip “SAM - No longer responding”.

No icon When no icon appears in the application Status bar, this


indicates that the Simultaneous Activity Monitor has not been
configured for the application.

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SAM in the Well Explorer


If a data item is open, one of the following icons appears on the
node icon:

Icon Description

A red SAM icon indicates that one or more users on other PCs have
this item open, and the current user is restricted to read-only access.

A blue SAM icon indicates that one or more users on the current
database have this item open, but the current user still has full
read-write access. A user must be careful when making changes to
the data, though this method enables data to automatically flow
between applications. Intentional updates to other live applications
should be anticipated before saving changes.

The first user to open a data item becomes the data item’s owner. When
other users open the data item through an EDM application, that user can
see that the data item is currently being accessed by the first user, which
is the owner. Hover the mouse over the item to display a data listing
tooltip as seen below.

RW indicates that the current user has read-write access.

RO indicates that the current user has read-only access.

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Reload Notification
A Reload Notification dialog box appears when the owner of the active
data item saves changes to the database. SAM then notifies any other
EDM applications of the changes. The Change Notification dialog box
is then offered to the user to reload or ignore the data owner’s changes,
or cancel the dialog box. The dialog box displays the user name for the
owner and the application in which the changes were made. This enables
the user to identify the source of the change that has been posted.

Reload
The Reload option results in the owner’s changes being uploaded into
the current application.

Ignore
The Ignore option gives you the ability to ignore the owner’s changes
and continue working with the current data item.

You may choose to ignore the updates if you own the data item in
another application.

In this instance, you may choose to save later and overwrite changed
data in the other application as a result.

The user with read-only access to the data item may choose to ignore the
owner’s changes in order to continue looking at the previous state of the
data. They may also perform a Save As operation to save the current
data before reloading the changes. The WELLPLAN software does not
support Save As functionality for read-only access.

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Select the Do not ask the question again check box to avoid receiving
any other reload notifications. This check box option is not
remembered between sessions. If you restart an application, you must
select the check box the first time it appears in order to stop the
appearance of the reload notifications.

Cancel
The Cancel option gives you the opportunity to cancel the dialog box.
If this option is selected, the Do not ask the question again check box
is ignored.

Complete details about SAM settings can be found in EDM


Administration Utility Help.

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Working with Catalogs

Catalogs are used as a selection list to design a casing, tubing, liner, or


drillstring. Catalogs are editable and can be customized using Start >
Programs > Landmark Engineer’s Desktop 5000.1 > Tools >
Catalog Editor or you can right-click the catalog node and select Open
from the menu. For more information, see Catalog Editor Help.

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Chapter 5
Using the CasingSeat™ Software
At the completion of this section, you should be able to:

• Enter general and detailed Well information

• View Well configurations

• Define the Geology (lithology, pore/frac pressure,


geothermal gradient)

• Define Drilling parameters

The purpose of this section is to provide an understanding of what


information is entered into the CasingSeat™ software in order to
perform a detailed analysis.

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Chapter 5: Using the CasingSeat™ Software

Entering Well Data

In this section, you will enter Well data such as general Well
information, and the following detailed Well information:

• Trajectory survey points

• Allowable Hole sizes

• Allowable Casing ODs

• Design parameters

• Casing setting depths

• Operating and Kick-related constraints

• Drilling parameters

Using the Well Menu


Well information is entered via the Well menu, which is used to input
most of the analysis data.

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Entering General Well Information


Select the Well > General > Options tab to specify the Well depth and
the vertical section definition.

Using the Wizard Toolbar


The Wizard toolbar provides easy access to common data-selection and
form-selection commands.
To navigate the Wizard,
click the Next and
Previous buttons to move
through the dialog boxes
and spreadsheets
displayed in the
drop-down list.

This drop-down list has dialog boxes, spreadsheets, and plots listed that
can be used to guide you through the data-entry phase of your analysis.
Although you can use the menus and the visual cue of the grayed
commands to determine what commands to select, the Wizard
automatically provides the correct sequence and requires minimal steps
from you to specify data successfully.

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You can immediately jump to any one of the forms listed by opening the
list box and then clicking the appropriate name. However, to ensure that
you do not accidentally overlook important data, use the Previous Form
and Next Form buttons to navigate through the list, particularly for new
CasingSeat users.

If you do not see the Wizard toolbar, go to the Tools > Toolbars dialog
box and select the Wizard check box.

Defining the Well Trajectory

Entering Wellpath Data


Use the Well > Wellpath Editor spreadsheet to define a Wellbore
trajectory description for planar and three-dimensional
directional Wells.
The three preferred methods (MD-INC-AZ, INC-AZ-TVD,
and INC-AZ-DLS) can be used in any combination at
different depths.

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Note

The CasingSeat software allows inclinations up to 89.99 degrees.

The CasingSeat software uses the minimum curvature method to


calculate the well trajectory, except when MD-TVD is input.

Three preferred methods can be used to specify a Well profile. These


methods are used in the preceding example. These methods can be used
in any combination at different depths:

• Measured Depth, Inclination, and Azimuth (MD-INC-AZ)


• Inclination, Azimuth and True Vertical Depth (INC-AZ-TVD)
• Inclination, Azimuth and Dogleg Severity (INC-AZ-DLS)

Note

You must use type 1 (MD-INC-AZ) as the starting type, and not types 2 or 3.

In addition, there is a fourth data entry method which cannot be mixed


with the previous three:

• Measured Depth and True Vertical depth pairs. Any attempt to mix
this type with the other types produces a pop-up warning message.

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Defining Hole and Casing Sizes


In the CasingSeat software, you can define Hole and Casing sizes with
a graphical tool or by manual input to a spreadsheet.

Defining Hole and Casing Sizes with the Casing and Hole Size Selector
Graphical Interface
The Casing and Hole Size Selector allows you to quickly specify the
hole sizes and casing ODs that are available for a Design.

To display a graphical representation of the allowable hole sizes and


casing OD sizes, do one of the following:

• Select Well > Casing and Hole Size Selector.

• Click the Casing and Hole Size Selector icon ( ) on the


Views toolbar.

The Casing and Hole Size Selector displays alternating colored rows of
hole and casing symbols. Holes are represented as circles, and casings
as squares; each is differentiated with a specified size determined by the
selected Unit System.

Holes are associated to casings by a one-directional line with an arrow


between symbols.

Hole Symbol

Association

Casing Symbol

As nodes are added to the Casing and Hole Size Selector, the Allowable
Hole Sizes and Allowable Casing ODs spreadsheets are updated.

For more details about how to use the Casing and Hole Size Selector, see
CasingSeat Help.

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Defining the Allowable Hole Sizes Using the Spreadsheet


Select Well > Allowable Hole Sizes to specify the hole sizes allowed
below the casing OD for drill-through operations. The inventory
spreadsheet determines which casings and holes go together. Initially,
the spreadsheet contains the casing ODs included in the Well >
Inventories > Casing ODs inventory.

The holes sizes defined determine the bit sizes that can be used for
drilling through that casing. Hole sizes are taken in combination with
allowable casing sizes to determine viable Well configurations (that is,
total number of hole/casing combinations from surface to TD).

Each of the cells


under the Allowable
Hole Sizes Below
Casing columns
contain a drop-down
list with all the bit
sizes from the
Well > Inventories
> Bit/Hole Sizes
inventory.

You can use the scroll bar to reach any item from the list.

Hole sizes larger than the casing OD are allowed and represent
under-reaming operations.

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The Casing OD column lists all casing diameters in the inventory, which
are all defined in the Well > Inventories > Casing ODs spreadsheet. All
hole sizes in the inventory are defined in the Well > Inventories >
Bit/Hole Sizes spreadsheet.

Any casing listed can have a maximum of six bit sizes used for drillout.
A row must have at least one bit size entry in order to be considered in
a Well configuration. Limiting the number of casing strings and their
hole combinations is the constraint limiting the number of casing
scheme solutions available.

Rows can be deleted by using the Edit > Delete Row command. When
all rows for that OD are removed, the row is grayed (but not deleted) in
the Casing ODs spreadsheet.

Defining the Allowable Casing ODs Using the Spreadsheet


Select Well > Allowable Casing ODs to specify the casing ODs
allowed for the hole size. Casing ODs are taken in combination with
allowable bit/hole sizes to determine viable Well configurations (that is,
total number of hole/casing combinations from surface to TD). Initially,
the spreadsheet contains the casing ODs included in the Well >
Inventories > Bit/Hole Sizes inventory.

Note

Each drop-down list from the Allowable Casing Size in Hole columns contains the
casing ODs available in the inventory. You have to make sure that you select only
those casing sizes defined in the Casing OD column on the Well > Allowable Hole
Sizes spreadsheet. If you select a casing OD that has not been defined in the Well >
Allowable Hole Sizes spreadsheet, the CasingSeat software will not run.

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The Hole Size column lists all hole sizes in the inventory, which are all
defined in the Well > Bit Hole Sizes spreadsheet. All casing ODs in the
inventory are defined in the Well > Casing ODs spreadsheet.

Each of the cells under the


“Allowable Casing Sizes in
Hole” columns contain a
drop-down list with all the hole
sizes from the Well >
Inventories > Casing ODs
inventory. Be sure you select
only those casing sizes defined
in the Well > Allowable Hole
Sizes spreadsheet. If you do
not, the CasingSeat software
will not run.

Any hole size listed can have a maximum of six casing strings (ODs) run
for that size. A row must have at least one OD entry in order to be
considered in a Well configuration. Each casing specified must have an
OD less than the hole size for that row. Limiting the number of casing
ODs and their hole size combinations is the constraint limiting the
number of casing scheme solutions available.

Rows can be deleted by using the Edit > Delete Row command. When
all rows for that hole size are removed, the row is grayed (but not
deleted) in the Well > Inventories > Bit/Hole Sizes spreadsheet.

Specifying the Design Parameters


Select the Well > Design Parameters > General tab to specify the
following general parameters that are used for calculating the
casing design:

• method used to establish casing-setting depths

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• specific requirements for acceptable casing scheme solutions

• criteria used to rank casing scheme solutions in the results based on


imputed costs

A design can be performed Specify whether the


in two ways: Bottom-Up or completion is going
Top-Down. The to be cased or
CasingSeat software can open hole.
use these options Select the maximum
individually or use both acceptable OD for
simultaneously. the first casing. This
is the casing on
Enter the setting depth of which you plan to
the first casing string. install the BOP, thus
allowing for
Select the minimum kick control.
allowable OD of the last
casing string (if cased
completion). Usually this is
the production string.

Usually, the CasingSeat software generates several solutions for the


same problem. These solutions are listed in an order determined by
the two ranking criteria. The actual value entered in these fields is
relative—it is the proportion between them that is significant.

The Analysis Modes group box is used to select the method for
calculating the casing scheme. Selecting both check boxes allows both
methods to be used.

The Ranking Criteria group box is used to specify the criteria used for
ranking casing schemes in the Casing Scheme Selection drop-down list.
When you select a check box, you must also specify the corresponding
dollar value. Negative values can be specified to rank casing schemes in
inverse order. When the casing cost is calculated, the cost of K-55 steel
is used, and a wall thickness of 1/2” for all casing strings is assumed.
Both check boxes can be selected to determine the combined cost of the
steel for the casing and the cost of the hole volume excavated when the
hole is drilled. When neither check box is selected, the ranking criteria
is defined based on larger-to-smaller casing OD hole size dimensions.

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Specifying Additional Setting Depths


Select the Well > Design Parameters > Setting Depths tab to specify
the vertical depths at which forced-setting of casing is required. You
can specify:

• For bottom-up design, a deeper setting depth for an interval in


the Well.

• For top-down design, a shallower setting depth for an interval in


the Well.

The CasingSeat software automatically sets casing at the setting depths.


For example, the program uses the setting depths you specify when:

• Calculations for bottom-up design result in a shallower depth than


the depth specified.

• Calculations for top-down design result in a deeper depth than the


depth specified.

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Chapter 5: Using the CasingSeat™ Software

Setting the Operating Constraints


Use the Well > Design Parameters > Operating Constraints tab to
select requirements you want included when determining solutions for
casing setting depths. Solutions are derived from Geology > Lithology
spreadsheet values.

Riser Margin is grayed out and not accessible unless:

• The Offshore check box in the Well Properties > Depth


Reference tab is selected.

• The Subsea Well check box in the Well Properties > Depth
Reference tab is selected.
This Differential Sticking Limit The Overbalance Margin constraint option can create a
option can shift the Upper new Lower Constraint Curve for the design process by
Constraints Curve (fracture gradient) shifting the pore pressure curve to the right. The shift
to the left. The values for the new amount will correspond to the values specified in the
curve are obtained for each depth by Overbalance Margin column in the Geology > Lithology
comparing the difference between
the fracture gradient and the pore
pressure with the Differential Sticking
Limit defined in the Geology >
Lithology spreadsheet. If this
difference is greater than the
specified limit, the new value is
calculated by adding the differential
sticking limit to the pore pressure. If it
is less, the fracture gradient value is
used instead.

This Stability Minimum Mud


Weight option can shift the Lower
Constraints Curve to the right if the
values specified in the Stability Min.
MW column from the Geology >
Lithology spreadsheet are greater
than the corresponding sum of the
pore pressure and the
overbalance limit.

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Specifying Kick Related Constraints


Select the Well > Design Parameters > Kick Tolerance tab to specify
the intensity of the kick volume of gas influx, and to calculate the gas
influx volume for a swab kick (initial kick intensity = 0).
The Kick Intensity option creates an
Upper Constraints Curve by
subtracting the specified amount, 0.5
ppg in this example, from the fracture
gradient. The new curve represents a
left shift of the fracture gradient line.
This Influx Volume constraint ensures
that a kick of the specified magnitude
can be circulated out without
exceeding the Upper Constraints
Curve, to fracture the formation. When
this option is selected, the Well >
Drilling Parameters spreadsheet
becomes accessible, and it is
automatically included in the wizard.

Select the Calculated Gas Influx


Volume check box to have the
CasingSeat software calculate the gas
influx based on the parameters
entered in the group box.

The values are used to calculate the pressures from the gas kick, and then
they are compared to the fracture gradients for the formation defined in
the Lithology spreadsheet. The comparison results are used to design a
casing scheme that can tolerate the gas kick.

You can specify Kick Intensity and/or Influx Volume, and then select
the Calculated Gas-Influx check box to have the CasingSeat software
calculate the influx. When both are specified, the CasingSeat software
calculates and designs the casing using a worst-case scenario.

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Defining Drilling Parameters


Select the Well > Drilling Parameters spreadsheet to specify the
drillpipe OD, BHA OD, and BHA length. These parameters must be
defined for each hole size you want considered in the casing scheme
analysis. The CasingSeat software also uses these values to provide
geometric information for kick influx model calculations (Well >
Design Parameters > Kick Tolerance tab).

The Drilling Parameters


spreadsheet is enabled only
after selecting Influx Volume or
Calculated Gas-Influx Volume
kick operating constraints
available on the Well > Design
Parameters > Kick
Tolerance tab.

The editable field (the white area) is


limited by the specification from the
Well > Design Parameters >
General tab. The maximum OD of
the first casing defines the upper
limit: 20”. The lower limit is defined
by the minimum OD of the last
casing: 7”. Furthermore, in the
Well > Allowable Casing ODs
spreadsheet, the largest hole in
which a 20” casing can be run was
defined at 26” while the smallest
hole for running the 7” production This column has exactly the same
casing was defined to be 8 ½”. For content as the Hole Sizes column in the
this example, type the data Well > Allowable Casing ODs
shown above. spreadsheet.

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Viewing the Available Well Configurations


To view the Available Well Configuration chart, click the icon, or
select the Well > Available Well Configurations command.

The chart displays all combination, from surface to total depth of hole
sizes and casing OD’s selected in the:

• Well > Allowable Hole Sizes spreadsheet

• Well > Allowable Casing OD spreadsheet

Configurations are limited by selections made in the Well > Design


Parameters > General tab as follows:

• Initial hole size is limited based on First Casing OD (max)

• Final hole or casing size is limited based on Last Casing OD (min)


or Last Hole Size (min)

Data must be entered in both spreadsheets and the General tab before
available configurations will be displayed in the chart.

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Chapter 5: Using the CasingSeat™ Software

Defining the Geology

In this section you will:

• Define the lithology


• Specify pore pressure, fracture gradients, and geothermal gradient

Defining the Lithology


Select the Geology > Lithology spreadsheet to:

• Name each formation layer (for example, Bunter or Smackover).

• Specify the type and depth of each layer.

• Define the value of the operating constraints selected from the


Design Parameters dialog box.

• Specify properties for each layer.

Permeability, Porosity, and ROP columns are


enabled only when the Calculated Gas-Influx
Specify the minimum mud Volume design constraint is selected in the
weight that will prevent the Design Parameters > Kick Tolerance tab.
formation from caving in
inside the Wellbore.
Each of these columns is editable
only if the corresponding option is
Competent Layer refers to the possibility of setting selected in the Design Parameters
shoe in that layer. If No is selected, the CasingSeat > Operating Constraints tab.
software will not set a casing shoe in that layer.

The Overbalance Margin represents the


trip margin above the pore pressure.
This compensates for the EMW This limit is the maximum pressure differential
reduction when the pipe moves upward between the Wellbore and the formation. If this
while tripping. limit is exceeded, the drill string will probably
get stuck.

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Rules for Defining Lithology


• As a minimum, depth (Layer Top TVD) is required for each row,
and you must have at least one row.

• If you attempt to enter a depth in the first row that is different from
the depth at which the earth begins, you are warned that the first
layer of the Top Depth must be equal to the depth at which the earth
begins. (Refer to the Design Properties in the Well Explorer (Air
gap if onshore, or air gap + water depth if offshore.)

Entering Yes for Competent Layer allows a casing to be set within that
layer, if a calculation is required. Entering No forbids setting a casing
within that layer (from the top of the layer to the next layer’s top), and
the CasingSeat software searches for the first available competent layer
above or below the layer. The algorithm specified (Bottom-Up or
Top-Down) in the Well > Design Parameters > General tab
determines the direction searched for the first (or closest) competent
layer.

Overbalance Margin, Diff Sticking Limit, and Stability Min MW define


upper and lower constraints for pore pressure and fracture gradient
profiles. For example, Overbalance Margin and Stability Min MW are
used to shift the pore pressure gradient positively (to the right) in the
design plot results, and are labeled on the plot as “Design Constraints
Lower.” Conversely, Diff Sticking Limit is used to plot the upper
constraint curve as the highest extension of pore pressure tolerated, and
is labeled “Design Constraints Upper.” These columns are only enabled
on the Lithology spreadsheet when their respective check boxes in the
Well > Design Parameters > Operating Constraints tab are selected.

Values are required for pore and fracture formation pressures for each
row. These values define your base constraints.

Permeability, Porosity, ROP model and Influx kick are used to


determine the kick (volume) quantity generated while drilling through
the layer. These columns are only enabled when the Calculated Gas-
Influx Volume check box is selected in the Well > Design parameters
> Kick Tolerance tab.

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Specifying Pore Pressures


Select the Geology > Pore Pressure spreadsheet to specify formation
pressures or equivalent mud weight at specified depths. You can specify
properties and formation pressures for each vertical depth layer.

Specify the vertical depth


to the top of the layer.

If a layer has a constant EMW/pore


pressure value, a transition zone at the
top and another one at the bottom of
that layer need to be defined. This
allows the definition of two consecutive
data points with the same EMW.

Rules for Specifying Pore Pressures


• Vertical Depth and Pore Pressure/EMW are required for each row,
and you must have a minimum of two rows.

• If you attempt to enter a depth in the first row that is different from
the depth at which the earth begins, you are warned that the first
layer of the Top Depth must be equal to the depth at which the earth
begins. (Refer to the Design Properties in the Well Explorer (Air
gap if onshore, or air gap + water depth if offshore.)

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Chapter 5: Using the CasingSeat™ Software

Specifying Fracture Gradients


Use the Geology > Fracture Gradient spreadsheet to specify fracture
pressures or equivalent mud weights at specified depths. You can
specify properties and fracture pressures for each vertical depth layer.

Specify the vertical depth to the top of


the layer.

Rules for Specifying Fracture Gradients


• Vertical Depth and Fracture Pressure/EMW are required for each
row, and you must have a minimum of two rows.

• If you attempt to enter a depth in the first row that is different from
the depth at which the earth begins, you are warned that the first
layer of the Top Depth must be equal to the depth at which the earth
begins. (Refer to the Design Properties in the Well Explorer (Air
gap if onshore, or air gap + water depth if offshore.)

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Chapter 5: Using the CasingSeat™ Software

Specifying the Geothermal Gradient


Select the Geology > Geothermal Gradient tab to specify basic
three-point formation temperature data (surface, mudline, and Well
TD). The Mudline field only displays when the Offshore check box is
selected in the Well Properties > Depth Reference tab.

A more detailed temperature profile can be entered


by using the Additional tab.

The Temperature at the


Well TD can be specified
directly or entered as a
gradient. When one field
is changed, the other
updates automatically.

The results from your entries are displayed in the View > Input Data
Tables > Geothermal Gradient data table.

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Chapter 6
Additional Features

Creating Reports

Select the Tools > Reports > Titles tab to select, add, delete, and
rename custom reports.

Use the Titles tab to view a list of


available reports.

Click New to
create a
new report.

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Chapter 6: Additional Features

Displaying Report Contents


Select the Tools > Reports > Contents tab to add, remove, and
rearrange the data on the currently selected report.
The name of the
selected report is Use the Contents tab to view or edit
displayed in the the contents of the selected report.
Title bar.

Click Add to add


This tab displays the items to the report.
content of the
currently selected
report. Items can be
added or removed.
To remove an item,
select it, and then
click Remove.

Reports can be constructed from tables, plots, schematics, dialog box


summaries, and individual reports.

The title of the selected report displays above the tab. Use the Tools >
Reports > Titles tab to select a report.

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Chapter 6: Additional Features

Select the Tools > Reports > Options tab to specify pagination, extent
of detailed data and orientation of selected report.

Select the
Current
Result option
Select the All to include
Results option to current view
include all items items in the
specified in the report.
report’s contents list,
in the report.

For more details about adding and printing report content, and
configuring print options, see CasingSeat Help.

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Chapter 6: Additional Features

Creating Tabs

Select Tools > Tabs to open a dialog box to add, delete, rename, and
rearrange window tabs.

Click Up or Down to change


the order of the tabs.

Click New to create a


new tab.
Click Rename to rename the
tab. Outside the Tabs dialog
box, you can access the
Rename Tab dialog box by
double-clicking the tab name,
located at the bottom of the
main CasingSeat window.

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Chapter 6: Additional Features

Inventories

The Well > Inventories submenu contains spreadsheets used to add,


modify, and delete hole size and casing OD inventories used in
other spreadsheets.

Bit/Hole Sizes Inventory


Select Well > Inventories > Bit/Hole Sizes to add, remove, and modify
hole sizes available in the bit/hole sizes inventory spreadsheet. Hole
sizes are the diameter created by the drill bit.

All entries in use, or in other words all bit sizes already selected in at
least one field in the Well > Allowable Hole Sizes or the Well >
Allowable Casing ODs spreadsheets, appear highlighted.

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Chapter 6: Additional Features

Initially, all hole sizes in the Bit/Hole Sizes spreadsheet are from the
template you selected when you created the Design. All hole sizes
currently available in this spreadsheet appear in the drop-down lists for:

• Hole Size cells of the Well > Allowable Casing ODs and Well >
Drilling Parameters spreadsheets

• Allowable Hole Sizes for Casing cells of the Well > Allowable
Hole Sizes spreadsheet

Rows are grayed when:

• The hole size is in use by both the Well > Allowable Holes Sizes
and Well > Allowable Casing ODs spreadsheets.

• The hole size is in use in the Well > Drilling Parameters


spreadsheet.

• The hole size is not editable and not in use. Some monitors display
rows that are not editable, in a lighter shade of gray when used by
the spreadsheets mentioned above.

Rows can be deleted by using the Edit > Delete Row command.
However, this command is disabled for any row in use by any of the
three spreadsheets previously mentioned.

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Chapter 6: Additional Features

Casing ODs Inventory


Select Well > Inventories > Casing ODs to add, remove, and modify
casing ODs available in the inventory spreadsheet.

All entries in use, or in other words all casing ODs already selected in at least one field
in the Well > Allowable Hole Sizes or the Well > Allowable Casing ODs
spreadsheets, appear highlighted.

Initially, all casing ODs in this spreadsheet are from the template you
selected when you created the Design. All ODs currently available in
this spreadsheet appear in the drop-down lists for:

• Casing OD cells of the Well > Allowable Hole Sizes spreadsheet

• Allowable Casing Sizes in Hole cells of the Well > Allowable


Casing ODs spreadsheet

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Chapter 6: Additional Features

Rows are grayed when:

• The hole size is in use by both the Well > Allowable Holes Sizes
and Well > Allowable Casing ODs spreadsheets.

• The hole size is in use in the Drilling Parameters spreadsheet.

• The hole size is not editable and not in use. Some monitors display
rows that are not editable, in a lighter shade of gray when used by
the spreadsheets previously mentioned.

Rows can be deleted by using the Edit > Delete Row command.
However, this command is disabled for any row in use by any of the
three spreadsheets previously mentioned.

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Chapter 7
Analyzing Results

Reviewing Input Data

In this section, you will review:

• General input data


• Section view data

Reviewing Input Data


Select View > Input Data Tables > General to display a general data
table about the Well that is defined through the Well > General dialog
box tabs. Data cannot be edited by using this table.

Summary reports of
certain input data groups
can be accessed from
this menu.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Any changes you make using the Well > General dialog box are
automatically updated in this table after clicking OK in the General
dialog box. You do not have to calculate the changes to view them here.

Input data reports allow you


to review input data
for accuracy.

All input data tables function in a way similar to the one described for
the General input data table. You can print this information by clicking
the icon.

Reviewing the Section View


This plot allows you to quickly check whether the CasingSeat™
software has correctly read the deviation data defined in the Well >
Wellpath Editor.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

The View > Deviation Plots > Section View plot displays the deviated
Wellbore trajectory in vertical-section view, based on user-entered data
in the Well > Wellpath Editor spreadsheet and in the VSection
Definition group box on the Well > General > Options tab.

Section View results reflect current values for Origin N, Origin E, and
Azimuth in the VSection Definition group box on the Well >
General > Options tab.

You can enter values


for Origin N, Origin E,
and Azimuth.

Default settings for these variables are such that the wellhead effectively
serves as the origin for the vertical section, and the vertical section
reference plane is oriented to azimuth 0.0 deg (due North). Origin N and
Origin E describe the north and east distances from wellhead to local
origin. For example, for Origin N = 50 ft and Origin E = -30 ft, the local
origin is, for referencing of the section view, 50 ft north and 30 ft west
from the wellhead.

Vertical section is always calculated with respect to the local origin,


which coincides with the wellhead position only when Origin N and
Origin E values are zero.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Calculating Results

After completion of this section, you should understand how to calculate


results in the CasingSeat software.

Performing a Calculation
Select View > Calculate to open the Calculate dialog box and:

• specify the pore pressure and fracture gradient margins to be


included in the analysis

• specify the layer to be calculated and the amount of layer shift to be


included in the analysis

• perform the calculations

You can access the command to calculate results


in four ways. You can use the F8 key, the View
menu, the Wizard, or click the Calculate
toolbar icon.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Using the Calculate Dialog Box


The View > Calculate dialog box allows you to make three fundamental
changes to the base case, which was defined in all of the previous input
data fields. Based on data input on this dialog box, you may have up to
three additional cases (and solutions). If you only want to analyze the
base case, leave all input fields on this dialog box set to zero.

The Base Case represents the design problem


characterized by the pore pressure and the fracture
Use margins to model the pore pressure and/ gradient as defined in the Geology > Lithology
or the fracture gradient as being smaller or spreadsheet.
larger than the values defined in the
Geology > Lithology spreadsheet. Any
nonzero margins have the effect of shifting the
base case pore pressure and fracture gradient
curves with the amount specified in these
fields. A new Lower Margin design case is
created by teaming up the lower margin pore
pressure with the lower margin fracture
gradient. Another Upper Margin design case is
created by associating the upper margin pore
pressure with the upper margin
fracture gradient.

Use the Depth Shifting of Formation Layer group box to specify a formation that may shift and to
specify how much the depth of the layer may shift. Sometimes a certain layer could be shallower or
deeper than expected. A positive value indicates a downward shift. For an upward shift (shallower),
make sure that the shift amount entered is less than the thickness of the formation layer situated
immediately above the layer selected in the Layer Name field; otherwise, this upper layer is ignored.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Selecting Results

When the calculations are complete, first select the case to check for
solutions, and then select the type of casing scheme results to display.

These icons represent the second and the


quickest case selection mode. You can
switch from one case to another, within all
Click this icon to open the View > four cases, with only a click of the mouse.
Results Selection dialog box. (BC – base case; LM – lower margin;
UM – upper margin; DS – depth shifting.)

Select the type you If you selected the Pore


want to analyze from Pressure and Fracture
the list. Gradient Margins case, you
also need to select the Lower
or the Upper Margin from the
drop-down list.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

The result selections available are:

• Base Case

• Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradient Margins

• Depth Shifting of Formation Layer

The Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradient Margins selection is further


partitioned into Lower Margin (LM) and Upper Margin (UM). LM and
UM are selected by selecting Lower Margin or Upper Margin from the
Range drop-down list. Select View > Results Selection to launch the
Results Selection dialog box.

Note

Accurate results are not available until the Calculate command (View > Calculate
dialog box) is used. Base case is always calculated by default, but in order to display
the other selections you must specify values in the Calculate dialog box.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Viewing Results

Select the View menu commands to view all results for any analysis.
Any solution can be viewed by selecting Well Schematic, Design Plot,
or Casing Scheme. The Final Well Configurations represents an
overview of all solutions, of the hole sizes and casing sizes chosen by
the CasingSeat software. Each of these will be discussed in this course.

All results can be


accessed from the
View menu.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Well Schematic
Select View > Well Schematic to display the casing scheme as a Well
schematic. This schematic automatically displays in the window when a
Design is created. Also, when data is displayed (such as a spreadsheet),
and you use the Split command to divide the window into four panes,
your data displays in one pane and the schematic displays in the
other three.

TOCs are part of the result. The CasingSeat software


assumes a 16 ppg cement slurry and calculates the
maximum height such that the formation will not fracture.

Each casing string is considered as a full string. The


CasingSeat software does not consider the use of a
liner. CasingSeat calculations are generally
focused on the integrity of the open hole.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

To change the display properties of the Well Schematic, right click the
schematic window and select Properties from the menu

Select the check box(es)


under the View Options
group box to enable or
disable specific schematic
properties.

To have an accurate schematic (especially if casing scheme data was


modified), use the View > Calculate dialog box first to calculate
the data.

You can display any casing scheme that is defined in the Design by
selecting it from the Casing Scheme Selection drop-down list located
on the View toolbar. Casing schemes are listed in an order based on the
check boxes selected in the Ranking Criteria-Relative Cost group box
located in the Well > Design Parameters > General tab.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Select the check box under the


Ranking Criteria - Relative
Cost group box to rank casing
schemes based on the cost of
steel for the casing.

You can also display the schematic with any of the casing scheme result
types (base case, pore pressure and fracture gradient margins, and
formation layer depth shifting) by using the View > Results Selection
dialog box or the Results toolbar. You can switch between casing
scheme result types while displaying the schematic.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Accessing Other Solutions and Understanding the Solution Label


The Casing Scheme Selection drop-down list displays, one-by-one,
each casing scheme, Well schematic, or design plot in the order
specified in the Ranking Criteria-Relative Cost group box of the Well
> Design Parameters > General tab.

This is the first solution You can access all solutions by using the Casing
Casing Scheme
calculated and is a Scheme Selection wizard. To view a solution from
Selection wizard.
result of a bottom-up another case, first select the desired case using the
calculation (“b”). case buttons, then select the desired solution from
the Casing Scheme Selection wizard.

All solutions associated with the currently selected case (BC or Base Case in this example) are
listed in the Casing Scheme Selection wizard. The #1 associated with the selected case in the list
represents the best rank. #6 means that there are 5 cheaper solutions, according to the CasingSeat
ranking discussed in the input data. The letter “t” means that this solution resulted from a top-down
calculation. A solution from a bottom-up calculation is symbolized with the letter “b”. The next
number (7, in this case) represents the total number of casing strings required to reach TD.

To display your casing schemes, you must have previously performed


both of the following:

• Calculated results using View > Calculate.

• Selected to view View > Casing Scheme, View > Design Plot, or
View > Well Schematic.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

The order in which casing schemes are displayed is based on the check
boxes marked in the Ranking Criteria-Relative Cost group box. If the
Bottom-Up Design and Top-Down Design check boxes are both
marked in the Analysis Modes group box on the Well > Design
Parameters > General tab, calculations are performed by using both
methods.

The bottom-up and top-down casing scheme solutions are interleaved in


the list and flagged with:

• Letter b for bottom-up design


(Example: 4 3/4” Hole to TD - #373b - 5)

• Letter t for top-down design


(Example: 4 3/4” Hole to TD - #374t - 5)

You can immediately jump to any one of the casing schemes shown in
this list box by opening the list box and then clicking the appropriate
scheme. Alternatively, you can navigate through the list, one-by-one, by
clicking for the previous item listed and for the next item listed.

If you do not see this list box, open the Tools > Toolbars dialog box and
select the Views check box.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Using the Design Plot


Select View > Design Plot to display the casing scheme as a plot based
on EMW versus depth (MD or TVD). This plot shows the pressure
curves in association with the casing schematic.

The effect of all constraints, with the exception of the two influx volume constraints, is
represented in the shape of the Design Constraints Lower and Upper curves. Any change
in the operating constraints is immediately shown in this plot. These two curves (Design
Constraints Lower and Upper) represent the delimitation of the current design space.

This plot displays the following casing scheme data:

• Pore Pressure
• Upper and Lower Design Constraints
• Fracture Gradients
• Mud Weight at Shoe
• Shoe depths
• Casing ODs/Hole Sizes

For an accurate plot (especially if casing scheme data was modified),


use the View > Calculate dialog box first to calculate the data.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

You can display any casing scheme defined in the Design by selecting
it from the Casing Scheme Selection drop-down list located on the
Views toolbar. Casing schemes are listed in an order based on the check
boxes marked in the Ranking Criteria-Relative Cost group box
located in the Well > Design Parameters > General tab.

You can also display the plot with any of the casing scheme result types
(base case, pore pressure and fracture gradient margins, and formation
layer depth shifting) using the View > Results Selection dialog box or
the Results toolbar. You can switch between casing scheme result types
while displaying the plot.

Reviewing the Casing Scheme


Access the View > Casing Scheme by clicking the icon. This
spreadsheet is used to view an explicit display of the solution.

The reason the CasingSeat software has selected each casing


shoe at its depth is presented in this column. All reasons can be
graphically confirmed, with the exception of the fixed and the
calculated influx volume.

Mud weight for each hole section is calculated as a


function of pore pressure and fracture gradient
combined with all the considered design constraints.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

For example, the “Fixed Kick Tolerance Exceeded” reason for setting
the 18 5/8” casing is a consequence of the fixed influx volume
calculation, and it is not represented on the following pressure plot.

The “Differential Sticking Limit” reason to set the 11 7/8” casing, on


the other hand, can be graphically confirmed.

Select View > Design Plot to confirm the reasoning behind the results.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Final Well Configurations


Select View > Final Well Configurations or click the icon to display
a graphical representation illustrating the hole and casing sizes (Well
configurations) selected by the solution algorithm.

These solutions are subsets of the possible Well configurations given in


the Well > Available Well Configurations view. The display of Well
configurations is helpful to quickly determine the casing sizes and hole
sizes available for selecting the final solution.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

The total number of solutions and the exact combinations of hole and
casing sizes match the individual solutions provided in the Casing
Scheme Selection drop-down list for each solutions routine (that is,
Base Case, Lower Margins, Upper Margin, and Depth Shift).

For data to be present in this illustration:

• Data must be entered in the Allowable Casing ODs and Allowable


Hole Sizes spreadsheets (or through the Casing and Hole
Size Selector).

• Values must be selected from the First Casing OD (max) and Last
Casing OD (min.) [or Last Hole Size (min.)] drop-down list of the
Well > Design Parameters > General tab.

Select the OD of the


largest casing used,
from the First Casing
OD (max): drop-down
list

Select the OD of the


smallest casing used,
from the Last Casing
OD (min): drop-down
list. This option is only
available after the
Cased option is
selected in the
Completion Type
drop-down list.

• Data must be calculated by using the View > Calculate dialog box.
An error message appears during calculation when values are not
defined in the spreadsheets and tab.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Side-by-side Comparison of Multiple Solutions


Using a side-by-side comparison of different results is a valuable
analysis tool.

1. Split the work area into two panes.

2. Place a Well Schematic in each of the two panes, if it is not already


there. It should be there because of the default behavior.

3. Click the Base Case icon ( ) and use the Casing Scheme Selection
wizard to select a solution.

4. In the other pane, select another solution from the Casing Scheme
Selection wizard.
Use the Casing Scheme Schematic Properties
Selection wizard to select the configured to not include
Use the icons to select case you want to view. Casing Float Shoe.
the case type.

Notice the top-down solutions will extend each


hole section as long as the design constraints
The window is divided into two using limits are reached. Consequently, the 9 5/8” is
the splitter. extended to 12,308.6 ft. MD.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

5. Split your screen horizontally and select to place a View > Casing
Scheme in both panes.

6. Click the Base Case icon (BC) (or other option) and use the Casing
Scheme Selection wizard to select a solution.

Use the icons to select Use the Casing Scheme Selection wizard
the case type. to select the case you want to view.

7. Click in the other pane to make the other Casing Scheme current.

8. Click the Lower Margin (LM) (or other option) icon. This updates
the Casing Scheme Selection wizard with the Lower Margin set
of solutions.

9. Select another solution from the Casing Scheme Selection wizard.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

10. Notice the case name is displayed in the title bar label of
both panes.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Set Active Well Configuration


Use View > Set Active Well Configuration to make the current Well
configuration the “active” Well configuration. Only one configuration
can be the active configuration. The active configuration will be shared
with other Landmark® EDM™ applications (StressCheck™,
COMPASS™, and WELLPLAN™.)

To access this command, you must first choose a W ell configuration file
from the Casing Scheme Selection drop-down list, then do one of
the following:

• Select View > Set Active Well Configuration (this icon is only
available when the Casing Scheme View, Well Schematic View, or
the Design Plot View is displayed, and there is at least one result for
the selected analysis type). Note that only valid results can be set
active; the icon is grayed out until you calculate results.

• Click the Set Active Well Configuration icon on the Views


toolbar.

Click the Set Active Well Configuration icon to


Notice the name change after the
make the current well configuration active and for use
configuration is marked as set.
in other EDM drilling applications.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

Viewing the Active Well Schematic and Active Casing Scheme


After a Well configuration has been set as the Active Well
Configuration, you can view the Active Well Schematic and the Active
Casing Scheme. You can view the Active Well Schematic and the
Active Casing Scheme by:

• Selecting View > Active Well Configuration > Well Schematic or


View > Active Well Configuration > Casing Scheme

• Clicking the Active Well Schematic icon ( ) or the Active


Casing Scheme icon ( )

Click the Active Well Click the Active Casing


Schematic icon to view Scheme icon to view the
the Active Well Schematic. Active Casing Scheme.

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Chapter 7: Analyzing Results

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Chapter 8
Exercises
The following exercises are designed to reinforce and challenge your knowledge of the
CasingSeat™ software as you take the course, and to act as refresher training in the future.

During the course, your instructor will guide you through the exercises and assist you with any
questions that may arise.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

Overview

The exercises in this book are designed to familiarize you with the
CasingSeat software. All of the exercises analyze a single Well.

Exercise 1: Creating the Data Hierarchy


In this exercise, you will create a new Company, Project, Site, Well,
Wellbore, and Design.

Exercise 2: Specifying General Analysis Data


Using the data hierarchy created in Exercise 1, you will specify
additional data that defines the Design you are analyzing.

Exercise 3: Analyzing Results


The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the management
and presentation of results on the desktop.

Exercise 4: Sensitivity Analysis


The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with Differential
Sticking, Wellbore Stability Minimum Mud Weight, Pore and Fracture
Pressure Margins, and Bottom Up / Top Down Solutions Comparison.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

Exercise 1: Creating the Data Hierarchy

1. Launch the CasingSeat software (select Start > Programs >


Landmark Engineer’s Desktop 5000.1 > CasingSeat).

2. Enter edm as the User ID and Landmark1 as the Password on the


login screen.

3. Create a new Company. From the Well Explorer, right-click EDM


5000.1.13 Single User Db (or latest database), and select New
Company from the menu.

4. Specify Company properties.

a) Select the Company Properties > General tab and rename the
Company Class.

b) Click OK to apply the changes and close the dialog box.

5. Click Yes when prompted to create a new Project.

a) Select the Project Properties > General tab to specify Project


properties. Name the Project Kananga. Use Mean Seal Level as
the System Datum. Do not apply a tight group
(use UNRESTRICTED).

b) Click OK to apply the changes and close the dialog box.

6. Click Yes when prompted to create a new Site.

a) Select the Site Properties > General tab to specify general Site
information. Name the Site Echo. The Default Site Elevation is

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Chapter 8: Exercises

feet above MSL. Do not apply a tight group (use


125
UNRESTRICTED).

b) Select the Site Properties > Location tab and use Grid as the
North Reference.

c) Click OK to apply the changes and close the dialog box.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

7. Click Yes when prompted to create a new Well.

a) Select the Well Properties > General tab to specify general


Well information. Name the Well E3. Use API units and use
UNRESTRICTED Tight Group. Leave other tab fields blank.

b) Select the Well Properties > Depth Reference tab to specify the
Well depth reference, configuration (offshore or onshore), and to
view a depiction of the datum. Create a datum titled DFE with a
125 ft elevation. Select DFE as the default datum (select the
Default check box). Leave the Contractor field blank. This is a
platform Well in 305 ft of water. Specify a 30 ft
wellhead elevation.

c) Click OK to apply the changes and close the dialog box.

8. Click Yes when prompted to create a new Wellbore.

a) Name the Wellbore E3SO.

b) Leave all other fields blank.

c) Click OK to apply the changes and close the dialog box.

9. Click Yes when prompted to create a new Design.

a) Name the Planned Design E3SOP1. Use DFE @125ft (Datum) as


depth reference.

b) Leave all other fields blank.

c) Click OK to apply the changes and close the dialog box.

10. Right-click the Well Explorer Templates node, and import the User
Defined Template.pdt.xml transfer file. This imports a custom
template named “My Template”.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

11. From the Well Explorer, double-click (or right-click and select
Open from the menu) to open the Planned Design E3S0P1. Select
My Template for the pre-design casing analysis.

Configure the Design with six tabs. Name them Work, Schem, Path,
Litho, Design, and Casing.

Note

To add/edit tabs, select Tools > Tabs. The Tabs dialog box opens, in which
you can add, delete, reorder, or rename CasingSeat tabs.

12. Assign views to the tabs as follows:

a) Work—leave as is, this will be a working tab during


the exercises

b) Schem—View > Well Schematic

c) Path—Well > Wellpath Editor

d) Litho—Geology > Lithology

e) Design—View > Design Plot

f) Casing—View > Casing Scheme

13. Click the Work tab, and then select File > Save to save changes to
the Design.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

Exercise 2: Specifying General Analysis Data

1. On the Work tab, add the following additional bit sizes, if they do
not already exist: 42”, 33”, 14 3/4”, and 7”.

2. Select the Path tab, and then import wellpath data from the file
titled E3S0P1_Wellpath for training.txt. What format must the
file be in prior to importing it? Review the survey data. How can
you check if the total depth of the Well, in MD and TVD, is in line
with the survey?

Select File > Close, and click Yes when prompted to save changes
to the Design.

Note

Throughout the remainder of the exercises, if a Change History dialog box appears,
click Save. Optional: to deactivate the display of the Change History Updates
dialog box:

1 Right-click the Database node ( ) in the Well Explorer.


2 Select Change History > Configure from the drop-down menu.
3 Select the Do not display change history update window check box.

Select this
check box to
disable the
display of the
Change
History
dialog box.

4 Alternatively, to turn off the Change History Updates dialog box, activate the
Do not show this message again check box in the lower left corner of the
dialog box. If you want to activate the Change History Updates dialog box
later, perform steps 1 through 3 above, but deselect the Do not display change
history update window check box.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

3. Reopen the E3SOP1 Design and check the Well depth and azimuth
using the Well > General dialog box. You can also access this
dialog box using the Wizard. How do you set the azimuth for
vertical section plan to the azimuth of the Well TD?

4. Specify the Wellbore temperature using Geology > Geothermal


Gradient. The surface ambient temperature is 80 deg F, the
mudline temperature is 40 deg F, and the temperature at TD is
250 deg F. Specify additional temperature data as follows:

• 200 deg F at 11,130 ft TVD

• 240 deg F at 12,630 ft TVD

5. Select the Work tab, and then add a 14 3/4” hole size as an option
for drilling below the 18 5/8” casing OD.

6. What casing sizes are allowed to run in a 14 3/4” hole section? Do


you see the hole size you added in the previous step?

7. Specify the design parameters as follows:

• Allow top-down designs.

• Cased hole completion

• The maximum size of the first casing is 30” and set at 600 ft.

• The last casing size is 7”.

• Prevent fluid influx by requiring an incremental increase in mud


weight above the pore pressure. Do not specify the increase yet.

• Prevent the pipe from sticking to the formation by requiring a


mud weight less than the sum of the pore pressure and a
differential sticking limit. Do not specify the differential sticking
limit yet.

• Use 0.5 ppg difference between the pressure gradient (EMW) of


the kicking Well interval and the pore pressure gradient for the
same interval.

• Assume a 50 bbl influx.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

8. Select the Litho tab. Define the lithology, including each formation
type and depth, as well as other parameters. All layers are
competent for setting a casing shoe. Use the Lithology tab to enter
0.5 ppg overbalance for each layer.

Name Top (TVD, ft) Type Differential


Sticking Limit
(psi)

Mudline 430 Claystone 3000

Upper Miocene Shale 2,600 Shale 3000

Lower Miocene Series 4,500 Sandstone 3000


Shaly

Upper Cretaceous 5,170 Chalk 3000


Group

Salt 10,125 Halite (salt) 3000

Middle Cretaceous 12,325 Sandstone 3000

Save the Design (always save after entering Lithology data).

9. Select the Work tab. Copy and paste pore pressure data into
Geology > Pore Pressure using the data found in the
porefrac.xls file.

Press Ctrl-S to save changes to the Design. Does the Associated


Data Viewer indicate that the data has been updated?

10. Copy and paste fracture gradient data into Geology > Fracture
Gradient by using the data found in the porefrac.xls file.

Review the data. Is there a weak zone?

Press Ctrl-S to save changes to the Design.

11. Where would you specify the drillpipe OD, BHA OD and length for
each hole size you want to consider in the analysis? Select the
values for Drill Pipe OD and BHA OD from their respective drop-
down lists using the data found in the DrillParam.xls file. Enter
BHA Length using the same file.

Why was only some of the data copied into the Drilling Parameters
spreadsheet (for example, some Drillpipe OD, BHA OD, BHA
Length values)?

Press Ctrl-S to save changes to the Design.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-9


Chapter 8: Exercises

Exercise 2 Answers
1. Select Well > Inventories > Bit/Hole Sizes and enter the values (if
needed) in the inventory.

2. Select File > Import > Wellpath. From the Import Wellpath File
dialog box, navigate to the location of the E3S0P1_Wellpath for
EDM training.txt file, select it, and then click Open to import
the wellpath.

From the Wellpath Editor, check the MD and TVD at TD. Next,
select Well > General to specify the Well vertical depth at TD. The
following rules associated with copy and paste of wellpath data can
be found in the CasingSeat Help:

• The file must be tabular delimited text, using any combination of


spaces, tabs, or commas as field delimiters.

• Column 1 is reserved for measured depth, and measured depth


values must be in increasing order.

• Column 2 is reserved for inclination. Inclination values > 89.99°


will be flattened/truncated (see Complex wellpaths).

• Column 3 is reserved for azimuth, and azimuth values must be


0.0° < AZ < 360.0°.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

EDM™ Data Transfer File imports are not supported from paths
containing apostrophes or file names containing apostrophes. Make
sure that you do not use apostrophes in file names or
directory names.

Save the Design.

Important!

Always save, close, and reopen the Design after importing Wellpath data.

3. In the Wellpath Editor, check the azimuth at TD. Next, select


Well > General to specify the vertical section azimuth at TD.

Open the Wellpath


Editor (Well >
Wellpath Editor), and
view the Azimuth
at TD.

Enter the 33.00


azimuth at TD into the
Well > General dialog
box. In this example,
the value is rounded
up to the nearest
whole number.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-11


Chapter 8: Exercises

4. Select the Geology > Geothermal Gradient dialog box, and enter
the following:

Enter values into


the Standard tab.

Enter values into


the Additional
tab.

The geothermal gradient will not be used by the CasingSeat


software, but it will be used by the StressCheck™ software as part of
temperature deration.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

5. On the Work tab, select Well > Allowable Hole Sizes to review the
hole sizes you want to use in your analysis.

Add a 14 3/4” hole size below the 18 5/8”


casing OD.

6. Select Well > Allowable Casing ODs to review all the casing sizes
that are allowed to run in each hole section.

Yes, the 14 3/4” Hole Size is listed in the


Allowable Casing OD spreadsheet.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-13


Chapter 8: Exercises

7. Select the Well > Design Parameters tabs to specify


the information.

Select Top-Down Design


for this exercise.
Note: The Bottom-Up
Design option is the most
commonly used analysis
mode for casing
shoe placement.

Select the Overbalance


Margin check box to prevent
fluid influx by requiring an
incremental increase in mud
weight above the pore pressure.
The Overbalance Margin used
is specified on the Geology >
Lithology spreadsheet.

Select the Differential Sticking


Limit check box to prevent pipe
from sticking to the formation by
requiring a mud weight less than
the sum of the pore pressure
and differential sticking limit.
The Differential Sticking Limit
used is specified on the
Geology > Lithology
spreadsheet.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

Kick Intensity is the difference


between the pressure gradient
(EMW) of the kicking Well
interval and the pore pressure
gradient specified for
that interval.

Select the Influx Volume check


box to specify the volume of the
gas influx.

8. After entering Lithology values, the Litho tab content should


appear as follows:

Important!

Always save the Design after entering Lithology data.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-15


Chapter 8: Exercises

9. Be sure to replace any existing lines in the Geology > Pore


Pressure with those in the Excel spreadsheet.

If the Design is not saved, an Pore pressure data was copied from
asterisk (*) displays to the a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.
right of the Design Name in
the Title bar.

Yes, the
Associated
Data Viewer
updates Pore
Pressure when
you save the
Design.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

10. Be sure to replace any existing lines in the Geology > Fracture
Gradient with those in the Excel spreadsheet. Yes, there is a weak
zone at 13,253 ft TVD.

A weak zone is found


at 13,253 ft.

Weak zone.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-17


Chapter 8: Exercises

11. Select Well > Drilling Parameters and copy/paste the data
provided in DrillParam.xls. When complete, the Drilling
Parameters spreadsheet should appear as follows:

Only the hole sizes with drillpipe ODs that fall between the First
Casing OD (max) to Last Casing OD (min) range, as specified in the
Design Parameters dialog box, are write enabled in the Drilling
Parameters spreadsheet. Furthermore, all solutions are calculated
using only casings that satisfy the Max to Min Casing OD range
specified in the Design Parameters dialog box.

Press Ctrl-S to save changes to the Design.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

Exercise 3: Analyzing Results

1. How do you calculate results using calculation defaults?

2. How do you select a base case for review?

3. Review the Design Plot for the solution titled 7" Casing to TD -
#200t - 7. Is the weak zone accounted for in the Design? Use the
Design Plot tab.

4. Indicate that this solution is the one you plan to use further in the
StressCheck software for performing casing design.

5. Review the casing scheme. Why was the 13 5/8” casing set at
this depth?

6. What does the name of the solution indicate to you?

7. View the schematic of this solution. Include cement placement on


the schematic.

8. Save the Design and close the CasingSeat software.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-19


Chapter 8: Exercises

Exercise 3 Answers
1. Select View > Calculate or press F8 to calculate results. Use
defaults for all calculation parameters, and then click OK.

2. Select View > Results Selection to specify the Base Case type for
review, or click the Base Case ( ) icon.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

3. Select the Design tab to display the Design plot. Select the “Base
Case - 7” Casing to TD - #200t - 7” solution by using the
Views toolbar.
Select the desired solution using the drop-down list from
the Views toolbar.

Shoe set

Yes, the weak


zone is
accounted for.
A casing set is
just above the
weak zone, and
the mud weight
is decreased
over the weak
zone interval.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-21


Chapter 8: Exercises

4. Click the Active Well Configuration icon.

Setting this solution as Active allows for this well configuration to


be further used in the StressCheck software for casing design.

5. Select the Casing tab to view the Casing Scheme. Select the “Base
Case - 7” Casing to TD - #200t - 7” solution. The 13 5/8” casing is
set at this depth because the mud weight could cause the formation
to fracture.
Explanation of the criterion the program used
to determine the setting depth for the casing
is listed in the Reason column.

6. The name of the solution, 7” Casing to TD - #200t - 7, indicates the


Design used 7” casing as the last casing (to TD). It is the 200th
solution. The t indicates the Design is configured for top-down
design analysis mode. The 7 indicates that 7 casings are used in
the Design.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

7. Select the Schem tab to view the schematic. Select the “Base Case -
7” Casing to TD - #200t - 7” solution and make it active.
Right-click anywhere on the schematic and select Properties from
the right-click menu. Select the Cement check box, if not already
selected, to include cement placement on the schematic.

Select the
Cement check
box to show
cement in the
schematic

8. Click the Save icon ( ) to save changes to the Design, and then
close the CasingSeat software.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-23


Chapter 8: Exercises

Exercise 4: Sensitivity Analysis

This exercise examines how the CasingSeat software can be used to


perform the following sensitivity analysis:

• Differential Sticking
• Wellbore Stability Minimum Mud Weight
• Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradient Margins
• Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Solutions Comparison

Perform the following analysis:

1. Differential Sticking - There is a concern about a possibility of


differential sticking in the reservoir interval. What is the impact on
the Top-Down Design solutions if the differential sticking limit in
the reservoir interval (12,325 ft TVD - 13,625 ft TVD) is assumed to
be 2,000 psi?

2. Differential Sticking - Compare the initial solution Base Case


7” Casing to TD - #200t - 7 - E3SOP1 against a new equivalent
solution Base Case 7” Casing to TD - #200t-8. What changes to the
Design may be needed to compensate for the 2,000 psi differential
sticking limit?

3. Wellbore Stability Minimum Mud Weight - What will be the


impact to the initial solution Base Case 7” Casing to
TD - #200t - 7 - E3SOP1 if the following Wellbore stability mud
weight program is applied to the Top Down Analysis?

Layer Top Stability Min. MW

430 8.40

2,600 9.20

4,500 12.00

5,170 12.00

10,125 13.90

12,325 12.00

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Chapter 8: Exercises

4. Wellbore Stability Minimum Mud Weight - Compare the initial


solution Base Case 7” Casing to TD - #200t - 7 - E3SOP1 against
equivalent solution Base Case 7” Casing to TD - #200t - 7. What
observations do you see when comparing the two Design Plots?

5. Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradient Margins - How will an


uncertainty of 0.5 ppg Equivalent mud weight Pore pressure impact
the initial solution?

6. Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Solutions Comparison - For the same


scenario, how will Bottoms-Up solutions compare against
Top-Down solutions?

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-25


Chapter 8: Exercises

Exercise 4 Answers
1. Start the CasingSeat software, and then open Design E3S0P1. Select
the Litho tab to view the Lithology spreadsheet. Change the Diff.
Sticking Limit to 2,000 psi for Layer Top TVD 12,325 ft. Select the
Design tab and recalculate. Notice in solution Base Case 7” Casing
to TD - #200t - 8, the lower Differential Sticking Limit results in a
requirement for one extra Casing string.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

2. Save the initial Design (affected by the Differential Sticking


changes) with a different name; for example
“E3SOP1DifferentialSticking.” Compare it against the initial
Design (reopen the initial Design E3SOP1 to the Design tab,
recalculate, and then select Windows > Tile Vertically).

The active view is highlighted with a dark blue title bar. To activate
the other plot, click any area of the plot.

Notice that a 2,000 psi differential sticking pressure requires a total


of eight strings to complete the Design. Therefore, one additional
shoe may be needed to drill through the reservoir interval compared
to the initial solution to avoid any chances of differential sticking.

Close (save if prompted) the Design “E3SOP1DifferentialSticking”,


and then maximize the E3SOP1 Design Plot view.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-27


Chapter 8: Exercises

3. Save the initial design as E3SOP1stability. Select the Litho tab to


view the Lithology spreadsheet. Notice that all the Stability Min
MW fields are grayed out. To enable the Min MW fields, select
Design Parameters from the Wizard toolbar (or Well > Design
Parameters), and then select the Stability Minimum Mud Weight
check box on the Operating Constraints tab. Click OK to dismiss
the Design Parameters dialog box, and enable the Stability Min
MW fields in the Lithology spreadsheet.

After entering the Stability Min. MW program for each lithology


section, the Lithology spreadsheet should appear as shown below.

Select the Stability


Minimum Mud Weight
check box to enable the
column in the Lithology
spreadsheet

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Chapter 8: Exercises

Select the Design tab, and then recalculate. Find an equivalent


solution that still satisfies most of the casing sizes and hole sizes of
the initial solution. Try solution Base Case - 7” Casing to
TD - #344t - 7. The shoe depth for the 16” and 13-5/8” casings
become shallower.

Save the E3SOP1stability Design (affected by the stability mud


weight program changes).

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-29


Chapter 8: Exercises

4. Reopen the initial E3SOP1 Design, and select the Design tab.
Recalculate if needed. Select Window > Tile Vertically, and then
compare both Design Plots.

Because the 18 5/8” shoe cannot provide enough integrity (MW is


too near to frac) while drilling the 17 1/2” hole, the 16” casing shoe
depth is set at a shallower depth to provide enough integrity while
drilling the next open hole section (14 3/4” hole size with a much
higher mud weight (12.0 ppg stability mud weight)). Similarly, the
13 5/8” shoe is set at a shallower depth to provide enough integrity
(MW too near Frac) while drilling the 12 1/4” hole size section.

Close the E3SOP1stability Design, and then maximize the E3SOP1


Design Plot view.

5. From the initial E3S0P1 Design, select File > Save As, and save the
Design as E3SOP1PorePressureLM.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

Select View > Calculate (or press F8), and then enter 0.5 ppg in the
Pore Pressure Lower Margin (-) field as shown below.

Enter pore Pressure


Lower Margin (-): value

Click OK to Calculate.

Click the LM icon to search within the Lower Margin options.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-31


Chapter 8: Exercises

Look for a six string solution that still satisfies most of the casing
sizes and hole sizes of the initial solution. Try solution 7” Casing to
TD - # 1156t -6.

Note

The impact of a lower pore pressure margin of 0.5 ppg on the initial E3SOP1
Design is a reduction on the total number of the strings to case the Well. The
16” Casing OD run is removed from the design configuration.

Save and close the E3SOP1PorePressureLM Design.

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Chapter 8: Exercises

6. Simplify the complexity of the E3SOP1 Design inputs by reducing


the influx volume to 10 bbl, and then perform a quick
comparison analysis.

a) Open the E3S0P1 Design, select the Well > Design Parameters
dialog box. Select the Kick Tolerance tab, and then reduce the
influx volume from 50 bbl to 10 bbl. Click OK to save and close
the Design Parameters dialog box.

Set Influx Volume


to 10 bbl.

b) Select the Design tab and recalculate.

c) Find an equivalent solution that still satisfies most of the casing


sizes and hole sizes of the initial solution. Try solution Base Case
- 7” Casing to TD - #1930t -6.

Click the Set Active Well Configuration ( ) icon. Save the


design with a new name, E3S0P1TopDown. Close the Design
(click Yes if prompted to save).

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-33


Chapter 8: Exercises

d) Reopen the recently created E3S0P1TopDown Design. Select


the Well > Design Parameters dialog box, and then deselect the
Top-Down Design check box. The Bottom-Up Design check
box should now be selected instead. Click OK to save changes
and close the Design Parameters dialog box.

Select the
Bottom-Up
Design check
box only.

e) Select the Design tab, and then recalculate.

f) Find a solution that still satisfies most of the casing sizes and
hole sizes of the initial solution. Try solution Base Case - 7”
Casing to TD - #1740b -6. Click the Set Active Well
Configuration ( ) icon. Save the design with a new name,
E3S0P1BottomUp. Close the Design (click Yes if prompted to
Save again).

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Chapter 8: Exercises

g) Reopen the E3S0P1BottomUp and then the E3S0P1TopDown


Designs. Select the Design tab views for both Designs
(recalculate if needed). Select Window > Tile Vertically to view
the plots side-by-side as shown below.

h) Notice that the comparison of the two Analysis mode indicates:

• Top down solutions yield longer string sections or deeper


shoe depths as compared to Bottom up solutions.

• In positive pressure trends (Pore and Frac pressure increase


with depth), mud weight programs maximize recommended
mud weight with depth compared to Bottom Up
equivalent solutions.

• A Top-Down solution tends to yield a smaller number of


casing strings in preliminary designs than a Bottom-Up
solution. Although this example does not reflect this, you
can perform this exercise on your own.

7. Close and save both Designs, and then exit the CasingSeat
software. This concludes the exercises.

CasingSeatTM Software Release 5000.1.13 Training Manual 8-35


Chapter 8: Exercises

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