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SAFETY

I. INTRODUCTION TO SAFETY
A. Famous Safety Incidents
1. Flixborough Disaster (United Kingdom, 1974)- cyclohexane oxidation plant
- killed 28 people and 36 people injured
- temporary bypass pipe between reactor 4 and 6 was
installed by not professionally qualified engineers

2. Tenerife Airport Disaster (Spain, 1977)- Boeing 747 collides with another
Boeing 747 taxing on the runway during its take-off
- 538 people died
- miscommunication; zero visibility due to the fog

3. Three Mile Island Accident (United States, 1979)- partial nuclear meltdown
- mechanical failure which allowed large amounts of
nuclear reactor coolant to escape
- no deaths and injuries

4. Bhopal Disaster (India, 1984)- Union Carbide


- gas leak because the water preventer was not closed
- the plant itself is poorly designed
- 4000 to 20000 deaths in a span of 90 minutes

5. San Juanico Explosion (Mexico, 1984)- cause of accident not fully established
due to extensive damage
- hypothesis (gas leak due to pipe rapture)
- 500 to 600 deaths; 5000 to 7000 others suffer severe burns

6. Chernobyl Disaster (Ukraine, 1986)- a reactor overheated because control rods


were not installed during maintenance
- steam explosion killed up to 50 people with estimation that
there may be 4000-7000 additional cancer deaths

7. Tianjin Explosion (China, 2015)- immediate cause was the spontaneous ignition
of overly dry nitrocellulose stored in a container that
overheated
- flames from the initial fire reached the nearby ammonium
nitrate fertilizer of about 800 tons which exploded
- 172 deaths, 8 missing, 797 non-fatal injuries

8. Kentex Slipper Factory Fire (Philippines, 2015)- 74 deaths


B. Major Failures that Lead to Safety Incidents
1. Blind Operation- incorrect, unclear, or too much information
2. Design
3. Inspection and Maintenance
4. Knowledge and Training
5. Management of Change
6. Not learning from Near-misses
7. Operating Practices
8. Permit to Work Systems
9. Emergency Response
10. Human Factors

“To know is to survive and to ignore fundamentals is to count disaster”- H.H. Fawcett (1980)

C. Process Safety- framework for managing the integration of operating systems and
process handling of hazardous substances by application of good
design principles, engineering, and operating practices
- prevention and control of incidents that have the potential to release
hazardous materials and energy
- critical aspect of chemical engineering

D. Safety- the prevention of accidents using applied technologies to identify the hazards
and eliminate them before an accident occurs
- loss prevention

E. Hazard- a chemical or physical condition that has potential to cause damage to


people, property, or the environment
F. Risk- measure of human injury, environmental damage, or economical loss in terms of
both incident likelihood and the magnitude of the loss or injury

G. Ingredients of a Successful Safety Program


S- System
A- Attitude
F- Fundamentals
E- Experience
T- Time
Y- You

H. Good Safety Program- identifies and eliminates existing safety hazards

I. Outstanding Safety Program- has management systems that prevent the existence of
safety hazards
II. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS IN THE PHILIPPINES

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)- concerned with the safety, health,
and welfare of people at work
Occupational Safety and Health Standards- protect every workingman against the dangers of
injury, sickness or death through safe and healthy
working conditions

Rule 1000: General Provisions- include duties of employers and workers and other
personnel, confidentiality of trade secrets
Rule 1010: Other Safety Rules- include work conditions or practices not covered by the
standards and hazardous workplaces
Rule 1020: Registration
Rule 1030: Training of Personnel in Occupational Safety and Health- include training
programs, appointment of safetyman in the workplace,
and duties and responsibilities of safetyman

No. of Workers No. of Safetyman


Hazardous Workplace
200 and below 1 part-time SM
Over 200 to 1000 1 full-time SM
For every 1000 workers 1 full-time SM
Non-Hazardous Workplace
Less than 100 1 part-time SM
For every 1000 1 full-time SM

Rule 1040: Health and Safety Committee- composition of health safety committee,
duties of health and safety committee, terms of office
Rule 1050: Notification and Keeping of Records of Accidents and/or Occupational
Illness- measurement of performance
Rule 1060: Premises of Establishments- danger, do not enter, fire exit, emergency
assembly point, construction and maintenance, space requirements, ladderway
opening, stairway, manholes, railings, toeboards, and 5S
5S: Sort- when in doubt, move it out, red tag technique
Set in Order- a place for everything and everything in its place
Shine- clean and inspect or inspect through cleaning
Standardize- make up the rules, follow and enforce them
Sustain- part of daily work and it becomes a habit

Rule 1070: Occupational Health & Environmental Control- threshold limit values for
airborne contaminants, threshold limit values for noise & permissible noise
levels, illumination, and general ventilation
Rule 1080: Personal Protective Equipment and Device- eye & face protection,
respiratory protection, head protection, hand and arm protection, safety
belts, life lines, and safety nets, use of safety shoes
Rule 1090: Hazardous Materials
Rule 1100: Gas and Electric Wielding and Cutting Operations
Rule 1120: Hazardous Work Processes- underground tank and similar confined spaces
work
Rule 1140: Explosives
Rule 1150: Materials Handling and Storage
Rule 1160: Boilers
Rule 1170: Unfired Pressure Vessels
Rule 1200: Machine Guarding
Rule 1210: Electrical Safety- adoption of the Philippine Electrical Code
Rule 1220: Elevators and Related Equipment
Rule 1230: Identification of Piping System- assist in the proper identification of materials
conveyed in piping systems
Rule 1410: Construction Safety
Rule 1420: Logging
Rule 1940: Fire Protection and Control
Rule 1950: Pesticides and Fertilizers
Rule 1960: Occupational Health Services
Rule 1970: Fees- safety inspection fees, certificates of safety practitioner and consultants
Rule 1980: Authority of Local Government
Rule 1990: Final Provision

III. Laboratory Safety

A. Laboratory Personnel- must be trained in laboratory safety


- they must be aware of the risk involved with each activity and
the measures that must be taken to minimize the risks

B. Access to Laboratory & Emergency Plans- access to laboratory must be restricted to


authorized personnel only
- emergencies are not planned; emergencies preparedness is the
responsibility of everyone
- evacuation plan must include at least two (2) evacuation routes
- primary route should be identified, shortest, and the most direct
means of egress from the facility
- emergency exits

C. Safety Manual- all safety precautions and procedures must be collated here
- must be publicized and accessible to all staff
D. Emergency Equipment- some of the equipment needs to be built in, as part of the fixed
equipment in the laboratory

Eyewash Station- must be placed in an easily accessible location, should be


no more than 100 feet and travel time should not exceed
10 seconds
Deluge Shower- should be capable about a gallon/s with a water pressure of
20 to 50 psi
Fire Extinguishers- the unit should be at least 12-lb unit, no more than 25 ft
Emergency Light
First Aid Kit
Fire Alarm Pull Station
Absorptive Material
Personal Protective Equipment and Janitorial Supplies
Combustible Gas and Toxic Fume Testing Equipment
Oxygen Meter- ensure that the oxygen level is above the acceptable limit of
19.5 %

E. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)- should be understood

F. Chemical Safety Transport Pictograms


IV. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

Industrial Safety- refers to the management of all operations and events within an
industry; for protecting its employees and assets

A. Electrical Safety- assume that all overhead wires are energized at lethal voltages
- stay at least 10 feet (3 m) away from overhead wires during cleanup
and other activities
- if an overhead wire falls across your vehicle while you are driving,
stay inside the vehicle and continue to drive away from the line
- never operate electrical equipment while you are standing in water
- never repair electrical equipment unless qualified & authorized
- have a qualified electrician inspect electrical equipment
- always use caution when working near electricity
B. Fire Safety

Combustion Process- enough oxygen, enough heat, and enough fuel

Major Causes of Fire: - carelessness with smoking, matches, and open fire
- misuse of electricity
- improper rubbish disposal
- improper storage of flammable materials
Fire Classes: Type A- trash, wood, paper
Type B- liquids, grease
Type C- electrical equipment
Type D- combustible
Type K- cooking media

Four Essential Steps When You Discover a Fire:


Rescue- anyone in immediate danger of the fire
Alarm- nearest fire alarm and call your response telephone number
Contain- fire by closing all doors in the fire area
Extinguish- small fires; if fire cannot be extinguished, leave the area

How to Properly Use a Fire Extinguisher:


Pull- the pin, release a lock latch or press a puncture lever
Aim- the extinguisher at the base of the fire
Squeeze- the handle of the fire extinguisher
Sweep- from side-to-side at the base of the flame

When you are on fire: STOP, DROP, and ROLL


V. ISO 18000 SERIES AND HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION RISK ASSESSMENT AND
DETERMINING CONTROLS

A. Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) Management System Model for this
OHSAS Standard

Cycle: Plan => Do => Check =>Act

OH&S Policy => Planning => Implementation and Operation => Checking
and Corrective Action => Management Review => Continual Improvement

B. OHSAS 18001:2007 (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Determining


Controls)

Hazard Identification- recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics
Hazard- source, situation, or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or
ill health

1. Physical Hazards- slippery or uneven grounds


- working at height
- objects falling from height
- inadequate space at work
- poor ergonomics
- manual handling
- trappings, entanglement, burns, and other hazards from arising
equipment
- transport hazards
- fire and explosion
- harmful energy such as electricity, radiation, noise, or vibration
- violence of staff leading to physical harm

2. Chemical Hazards- substances hazardous to health due to inhalation of vapors,


gases, particles; contact with or being absorbed through the
body; the storage, incompatibility or degradation of materials

3. Biological Hazards- biological agents, allergens, or pathogens

4. Psychosocial Hazards- situations that can lead to negative psychosocial conditions


such as stress, anxiety, fatigue, and depression
- excessive workload, lack of communication, physical
violence, bullying, intimidation

C. Hazard Identification Considerations


- Who will be the responsible in identification?
- The way in which the identification reports are processed
- The identification time frame
- The keeping of record of hazards
- A time-frame for reviewing and if necessary, revisiting the methodology

D. Risk Assessment Approaches- qualitative, semi-qualitative, quantitative

1. Likelihood of Occurrence
Inconceivable- is practically impossible, never occurred
Remote- has not been known to occur after many years
Conceivable- might occur sometime in the future
Possible- has good chance of occurring and not unusual
Most Likely- most likely result of the hazard/ event being realized

2. Severity
Catastrophic- numerous fatalities, irrecoverable property damage
and productivity
Fatal- approximately one fatality, major property damage if hazard
is realized
Serious- non-fatal injury, permanent disability
Minor- disabling but not permanent injury
Negligible- minor abrasions, bruises, cuts, first-aid type of injury

E. Prioritization of Identified Risks

1. High- requires immediate action to control the hazard


- action taken must be documented on the risk assessment form

2. Medium- requires planned approach to control the hazard


- apply temporary measure if required
- action taken must be documented too

3. Low- may be acceptable and further reduction may not be necessary


- if risk can be resolved quickly and efficiently, control measures should be
implemented and recorded

F. Hierarchy of Controls

1. Elimination- physically remove the hazard


2. Substitution- replace the hazard
3. Engineering Controls- isolate the people from the hazard
4. Administrative Controls- change the way people work
5. PPE- protect the worker with PPE