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# 4.

## Matrix Ray Tracing

＊ (y, α) method
＊ (nu, y) method
＊ Rigorous ray tracing & Spatial ray tracing

## ＊ (y, α) Ray Tracing

 A B  
 yo       yi 
  －＞  C D   －＞  
α o  Opticalsystem  α i 
 

 yi   A B   yo 
α  ＝    
 i C D  α o 

1. Translation matrix
 yo   yi 
  ＜－t－＞  
α o  α i 

y  1 t   y 
yi = y0 +α0 t； αi＝α0 ∴  i ＝  
o
 
α i  0 1 α o 

2. Refractive surface

R 1 0
 yi     yo 
α  ＝  n − n′ n  α 
 i  o
 Rn′ n' 
n n′

3. Thin lens
1 0
R2  yi     yo 
R1 α  ＝  − 1 1  α 
 i  f   o 

n n′ n
1 =
f
( n′ − n ) n × ( 1 − 1 )
R1 R2
4. Spherical mirror 3-2
1 0 
 yi   yo 
R

  ＝  −2 −1  
α
 i α
R   o 

## R<0 ∵A spherical mirror is equivalent to a thin lens

f = R/2

ex.

M2 M3 M4
M l-1

Ml
M1

 yi   yo   A B   yo 
α  = Ml × Ml-1 … M2 × M1  =    
 i α o  C D  α o 

## 5. Matrix method in thick lens

α3
α1
α0
y2 = y3

y0 = y1
R1 R2

n1 n2 n3
 1 0 
i. at 1 surface (refraction): M1＝  n1 − n2
st
n1  3-3
 n2 × R1 n2 
 1 0 
 y1   y0     y0 
α  ＝M1 α  ＝  n1 − n2 n1  α 
 1  0
 n2 × R1 n2   0 
1 t 
ii. Translation at n2: M2 ＝  
0 1

 y2   y1  1 t   y1 
α  ＝ M2 α  ＝ 0 1 α 
 2  1    1

 1 0 

iii. at 2 surface (refraction): M3＝  n2 − n3 n2 
nd

 n3 × R2 n3 
 1 0 
 y3   y2     y2 
  ＝M3   ＝  n2 − n3 n2   
α 3  α 2  α 2 
 n3 × R2 n3 

∴ Optical system is

 y3   y0   y0 
  ＝M3 M2 M1 α  ＝M α 
α 3   0  0

## Now, thin lens: t → 0 & n1 = n3 = n (n L = n2 )

 1 0  1 0  1 0 
M = ( n L − n ) nL     ( n − n L ) n 
 (n × R) n   0 1   (n L × R1 ) nL 
 1 0
= ( L
n − n 1 1 
 n )( R − R ) 1
 2 1 

1 n −n 1 1
Lens equation: =( L )( − )
f n R1 R2

 1 0
∴ M = − 1 
1
 f
 
6. Calibration of matrix method (y- α ) 3-4

A B
M = 
C D 

n
det ( M ) = AD - BC =
n′
n : refractive index in object space
n′ : refractive index in image space

 1 translation matrix
n
 n′ refraction surface

det ( M ) =  1 for thin lens in air
 −1 reflection surface

 n n ′ thick lens

∴ n = n ′ ⇒ det ( M system) = 1

7. Element of matrix

 y f   A B   y0 

α f  C D  α 0 

α f = Cy 0 + Dα 0

a. 若 D = 0 → α f = Cy 0 = constant

## 無論入射光線與光軸夾角 α 0 值為何，出射線與光軸之夾角 α f 恆為一定

b. 若 A = 0 → y f = Bα 0

## 點與光軸之距離 y f 恆為一定值(僅與 α 0 有關)即像點必落在焦平面上。

c. 若 B = 0 → y f = Ay 0

## y f 定值(僅與 y 0 有關)。即與光軸距離 y 0 之光點發出的任何光線，經光

yf

)即為此光學系統之放大率
2. 求像距時，以 s ′ = ( y f α ′) 3-6

d. 若 C = 0 → α f = Dα 0

2. D = ( α f α 0 )為此系統的角放大率(angler magnification)。

## HW2：if f = 10.0 cm of thin lens= =

in air. so 15 cm & yo 2 cm .

## ＊ NYU Matrix Method

1. Refraction surface
n + n ′ = ( n ′ − n) = P
s s′ r
3-7

u 的符號規定，從幾何關係 Definitions:
y = su = s′( −u′) = y ′  y: height from O.A. 
 
→ s =( y ), s′ =( − y ′)  n: refractive index 
u u  u: slope of the ray 
 
′ ( n′ − n )

nu − n′u′ =y × (n − n) =yp p : power of surface
r
n′u=′ nu − yp
and 
 y = y′

 n′u′ 1 − P   nu 

 y  0 1   y 

## 其中 nu: 光線的數值孔徑 (numerical aperture, NA)

1 − P 

0 1 

2. Translation matrix

ray from A → B
t
∴ y ′ = y + tu = y + × ( nu )
n
also nu = n'u '
 n′u ′  1 0   nu 
=
>  y′  =   
  t n 1   y 

## ↑ called translation matrix in homogeneous medium

3. Thick lens 3-8

1 − P1 
M1 =  
0 1 

 1 0
M2 =  t 
 n′ 1 

1 − P2 
M3 = 
0 1 

M = M3 M2 M1
1 − P2   1 0 1 − P1 
M =  
0 1   t n' 1 0 1 

1 − P2 × ( t ) − ( P1 + P2 − P1 × P2 × ( t )
M = n' n' 
 t 1 − P1 × ( )
t 
 n' n' 

P = P1 + P2 − ( t ′) × P1 × P2
n

1 − P2 × ( t ) −P 
 n′ 

 t 1 − P1 × ( t ′) 
 n′ n 
4. Thin lens 3-9

1 − ( P1 + P2 )
M = 
0 1 

A B

C D 

## ex. By using NYU ray tracing

 n′u′ 1 − P   nu 
1. NYU 折射矩陣：  =  
 y′  0 1   y 

 n′u′  1 0  nu 
2. NYU 轉移距陣：  =  
 y ′  t / n 1  y 

## Pi = (ni − ni −1 ) / Ri i = 1, 2,3 … & initial condition: ( y 0 , n0 u 0 )

Hw. Camera 採用 Cooke 之透鏡組(triplet)結構如下: 3-10

n0 n1 n2 n3 n4 n5

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5

## R1 = 19.4 t1 = 4.29 n1 =1.6110

R2 = -128.3 t2 = 1.63 n0=n2 =1.0
R3 = -57.8 t3 = 0.93 n3 = 1.5744
R4 = 18.9 t4 =12.9 n4 = 1.0
R5 = 311.3 t5 =3.03 n5 = 1.6110
R6 = -66.4 unit: mm
(a) How far behind the last surface must be film place occur to focus paraxial
rays (i.e. s.f.d.)? Also, s.f.l. (Ray tracing by hand and Matlab)
(b) If the second lens is moved 1 mm forward or backward, please calculate
the new focal lengths. (by Matlab)
(c) Place an object (2 m height) in front of the first surface 2 m and to find the
image via the triplet camera lens. (by Matlab)
(d) Please derive the equivalent power of the triplet lens.

## ＊ Rigorous Ray Tracing

 NYU ray tracing in paraxial optics

1. Refraction surface
 n′u′ 1 − P  nu  n′ − n
 y′  = 0 1   y 
where P =
   R

2. Translation
 n′u′ 1 0 nu 
 y ′  = t / n 1  y 
    

## Now, sin θ ≠ θ , cos θ ≠ 1

 Rigorous NYU ray tracing 3-11

1. Refraction surface
 n′ sin u′ 1 − Pr  n sin u 
 y ′  = 0 1   y 
    

## n′ cos θ ′ − n cos θ ( n′2 − n 2 sin 2 θ )1/ 2 − ( n 2 − n 2 sin 2 θ )1/ 2

where Pr = =
R R

2. Translation
 n′ sin u′  1 0 n sin u 
 y′

 = t / n
 r 1   y 

t
where = cos(u )  t = t r cos(u )
tr