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# Fundamentals of Electrical and

Electronics Engineering
EEE-209 Lecture Notes

## Dr. Murat Fahrioglu

METU Northern Cyprus Campus

References:
Lecture notes by Prof. Dr. O. Sevaioğlu, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, METU
Electrical Circuit Analysis 3rd Ed. by Johnson, Johnson, Hilburn, and Scott
G. Rizzoni, “Principl. and Appl. of Electrical Engineering” (4th Ed.), McGraw Hill, 2003.
Electric Circuits 8th Ed. by Nilsson & Riedel
Engineering Circuit Analysis 7th Ed. by Hayt, Kemmerly, and Durbin
First-Order
& Second-Order
Circuits

Lectures 11-13

Murat Fahrioglu 2
Introduction
• When we add resistive circuits to a single storage
element, the resulting circuit is called a first-order
circuit, because the circuit is characterized by a first-
order differential equation.

Murat Fahrioglu 3
Introduction
• When we add resistive circuits to a single storage
element, the resulting circuit is called a first-order
circuit, because the circuit is characterized by a first-
order differential equation.

## • Will next study:

- Circuits without independent sources : Natural response
due to initial energy stored
- Circuits with DC sources : Two additive responses apply –
natural response, and forced response due to the
independent sources
- Circuits with non-DC sources: Responses to step and
pulse sources.

Murat Fahrioglu 4
Natural Response of a Simple RC Circuit
(without sources)
Assumption: The capacitor is already charged (by whatever
means) to voltage V0 at the initial time, or t=0.
iC(t) iR(t)
Need to determine v(t) for t>0:
+ dv v
V(t)
-
C R KCL at the top node: iC  iR  0  C   0
dt R
dv v
which results in the first-order differential equation:  0
dt CR

Murat Fahrioglu 5
Natural Response of a Simple RC Circuit
(without sources)
Assumption: The capacitor is already charged (by whatever
means) to voltage V0 at the initial time, or t=0.
iC(t) iR(t)
Need to determine v(t) for t>0:
+ dv v
V(t)
-
C R KCL at the top node: iC  iR  0  C   0
dt R
dv v
which results in the first-order differential equation:  0
dt CR
dv dt dv 1 t
Solving:
v

RC
  v RC  dt 
  ln (v)  
RC
 k  v  Ke-(t / RC)

## But v(0)  V0 , so : v( 0 )  Ke0  K  V0. Therefore,

v(t )  V0e (t / RC )
Murat Fahrioglu 6
Natural Response of a Simple RC Circuit
(without sources)
i(t) v(t )  V0e (t / RC ) : Natural response of the circuit
This is also the transient response.
v(t ) The response of the circuit after “a long time”
+
V(t) C R V0 is called the steady-state response, as covered
-
earlier.

0 t

Murat Fahrioglu 7
Natural Response of a Simple RC Circuit
(without sources)
i(t) v(t )  V0e (t / RC ) : Natural response of the circuit
This is also the transient response.
v(t ) The response of the circuit after “a long time”
+
V(t) C R V0 is called the steady-state response, as covered
-
earlier.

0 t
Conservation of Energy: 1
The energy at initial time (t=0) stored in the capacitor: C w ( 0)  CV02
2
1 2 1
At any time t : wC(t)  Cv (t)  C V0 e
2 2
(t/RC) 2
 1
 CV0 e
2

2  2 t/RC

##  wC(t)  wC( 0 )e 2t/RC

As t  , the stored energy in the capacitor decays to 0. Through
conservation of energy, the lost energy has to go somewhere in the system:
t
wR (t )   pR ( )d  
t vR2 ( )
d  

t V e 
2
( t / RC )
V02 t 2t / RC V02 e 2t / RC
t

R 0
0
d  e d 
0 0 R 0 R R (2 / RC ) 0
1
2
1
2
1
  
  CV02e 2t / RC  CV02  CV02 1  e 2t / RC  wC (0) 1  e 2t / RC
2

 as expected wC (0)  wC (t )  wR (t )
Murat Fahrioglu 8
Example
i(t)
v(0) = 5 V
+
V(t) 1F 1k 
- Find i) i(t)
ii) max power dissipated by the resistor

Murat Fahrioglu 9
Example
i(t)
v(0) = 5 V
+
V(t) 1F 1k 
- Find i) i(t)
ii) max power dissipated by the resistor

 t / RC  t / 103106
vC (t )  V0e  5e  5e1000t V

Using KVL, this is also the voltage across the resistor (vR  vC )
vR (t )
i (t )   0.005e1000t A
R
v 2 (t )
pR ( t )   0.025e 2000t W
R
Therefore, the maximum power dissipated is 25mW at the time
when capacitor starts discharging (t=0).
Murat Fahrioglu 10
Natural Response of a Simple RL Circuit
(without sources)
Assumption: The inductor is already “magnetized” (by whatever
means) to current I 0 at the initial time, or t=0.
i(t)
Need to determine i(t) for t>0:
+
L V(t) R
KVL : vL  vR  0
- di di R di R
L  Ri  0   i0   i
dt dt L dt L
di R di R R
i
  dt 
L  i    L dt  ln (i)  - t  k
L
R
  t
Take the exponential of both sides: i(t )  Ke L

## But, using the principle of continuity: i (0)  i (0)  Ke 0  K  I 0

R
  t
 i (t )  I 0 e L
Murat Fahrioglu 11
Natural Response of a Simple RL Circuit
(without sources)
There is an alternate way to solve this using characteristic equations.

## 1) Assume a trial solution: Ke st

2) Substitute into the original first-order differential equation:

d R R
( Ke st )  ( Ke st )  0  s( Ke st )  ( Ke st )  0
dt L L
But Ke stcannot be zero because i(0)  0 .
R
Therefore, it must be that s   0 if this equation is to hold.
R L
s  0 is the characteristic equation for the differential equation.
L 
R
 t
R
Solving, s   . Therefore, i (t )  Ke  L 
L R
  t
Using the initial condition as in the previous page: i (t )  I 0 e L

Murat Fahrioglu 12
Example
i(t)
+ vL (t )  10e200t for t  0
VL (t) L 1k  Find i) L
ii) Initial current i(0)
-

Murat Fahrioglu 13
Example
i(t)
+ vL (t )  10e200t for t  0
VL (t) L 1k  Find i) L
ii) Initial current i(0)
-
di
vL   L  Ri  10e 200t
dt
t v t 10 1 200t
iL    L
dt    e  200t
dt  e
0 L 0 L 20 L

iR     iL 
R 1000 100 20 L

## Therefore, L=5 H, and i(0)=1/100=10mA

Murat Fahrioglu 14
Time Constants
The time constant, τ, characterizes the rate of decay for the natural response. It
is defined as the time required for a natural response to decay by a factor of 1/e
(0.37). All currents and voltages (responses) of the first order circuits decay with
the same time constant, τ.
v(V ) i(A)
v0 I0  R 

 t / RC t
v (t )  V 0e i(t )  I 0e  L 
1
e v0 e1I0

  RC t(s) 0   L/ R t(s)
0

By definition: v (t   ) 1 By definition: i (t   ) 1
 
v(t ) e i (t ) e
v(t   )  e 1v(t ) R
  ( t  )
R
  t
V0 e  ( t  ) / RC 1
 e V0 e  t / RC I 0e L
 e 1 I 0 e L

 / RC  1    RC R / L  1    L/R
Murat Fahrioglu 15
Time Constants
The time constant, τ, characterizes the rate of decay for the natural response. It
is defined as the time required for a natural response to decay by a factor of 1/e
(0.37). All currents and voltages (responses) of the first order circuits decay with
the same time constant, τ.
I0
V0 i  I  t
v(V ) v  V0  t i(A)
0

v0   R 
I0  t
 t / RC
v (t )  V 0e i(t )  I 0e  L 
1
e v0 e1I0

  RC t(s) 0   L/ R t(s)
0

By definition: v (t   ) 1 By definition: i (t   ) 1
 
v(t ) e i (t ) e
v(t   )  e 1v(t ) R
  ( t  )
R
  t
V0 e  ( t  ) / RC 1
 e V0 e  t / RC I 0e L
 e 1 I 0 e L

 / RC  1    RC R / L  1    L/R
Murat Fahrioglu 16
Example
4 8 15  t=0
Calculate time constant, τ for this circuit.
2 3 v+
Use it to find voltage v for t>0.
1F DC
- 100 V

Murat Fahrioglu 17
Example
4 8 15  t=0
Calculate time constant, τ for this circuit.
2 3 v+
Use it to find voltage v for t>0.
1F DC
- 100 V

15  63
Req   8  10 
63 Due to continuity principle:
R eq v+ DC
-
100 V v(0  )  100 
10
 40 V v(0 )  v(0 )  40 V
10  15

Murat Fahrioglu 18
Example
4 8 15  t=0
Calculate time constant, τ for this circuit.
2 3 v+
Use it to find voltage v for t>0.
1F DC
- 100 V

15  63
Req   8  10 
63 Due to continuity principle:
R eq v+ DC
-
100 V v(0  )  100 
10
 40 V v(0 )  v(0 )  40 V
10  15
Simple RC model for t>0:

+   Req C  10 s
R eq 1F V
-
v  V0 e t / RC  V0 e t /  40e t /10 V

Murat Fahrioglu 19
Example:Simple RL Circuit
i(t)
+ 2mA @ t  10 ms
i
V(t) L R 100 μA @ t  46 ms
- Find : i) τ ; ii) i(t  0)  I0

Murat Fahrioglu 20
Example:Simple RL Circuit
i(t)
+ 2mA @ t  10 ms
i
V(t) L R 100 μA @ t  46 ms
- Find : i) τ ; ii) i(t  0)  I0

R
t  
i) i(t )  I 0e L
 I 0 e t / 
 0.01/   0.01 0.002 
(1)At t  10ms : I 0e  0.002 A   ln    ln(0.002)  ln( I 0 )
  I0 
 0.046  0.0001 
(2)At t  46 ms : I 0e 0.046/  0.0001A   ln    ln(0.0001)  ln( I 0 )
  I0 
Substitute for ln(I 0 ) from (2) into (1) above :
-0.01 0.046 0.036
 ln ( 0.002 )  ln ( 0.0001 )   τ  0.012s  12ms
τ τ ln ( 20 )
ii) Using (1): 0.01
ln( I 0 )  ln(0.002)   I 0  0.0046 A  4.6 mA

Murat Fahrioglu 21
General First Order Circuits
without Sources
We can apply the previous techniques to circuits that can be
reduced to simple RL or RC.

## Example: Find the time constant of the below circuit:

1 4F
4 20 
12F

Murat Fahrioglu 22
General First Order Circuits
without Sources
We can apply the previous techniques to circuits that can be
reduced to simple RL or RC.

## Example: Find the time constant of the below circuit:

1 4F
4 20  C eq R eq
12F

4 12 5  20
Ceq   3F Req   4Ω
4  12 5  20

τ  Ceq Req  12 s
Murat Fahrioglu 23
Example
Find the time constant of the following circuit:

1 1
38 2
mH
1 1

Murat Fahrioglu 24
Example
Find the time constant of the following circuit:
1 1 First find the equivalent resistance connected to
38 2 the terminals of the inductor. Since the resistors
mH are neither in parallel nor in series, cannot
1 1 directly calculate Req. Instead, can find the ratio
between a test voltage and test current.

Murat Fahrioglu 25
Example
Find the time constant of the following circuit:
+
1 i1
1
KVL (Mesh 1):
2
i v
(i1  i)  i1  2(i1  i2 )  0  2i1  i2  i/ 2...(1)
i2
_ 1 1 KVL (Mesh 2):

## (i2  i1 )  2(i2  i1 )  2i2  0  5i2  2i1  i...(2)

3 3
Add (1) and (2): 4i2  i  i2  i ...(3)
2 8
1 i  7
Substitute for i2 into (1): i1     i2   i ...(4)
2 2  16
KVL (Around Left Loop): v  1 (i  i1 )  1 (i  i2 )  i  7 i  i  3 i  19 i
16 8 16
v 19
 Req   Ω
i 16

Murat Fahrioglu 26
Example
Find the time constant of the following circuit:
+
1 i1
1
KVL (Mesh 1):
2
i v
(i1  i)  i1  2(i1  i2 )  0  2i1  i2  i/ 2...(1)
i2
_ 1 1 KVL (Mesh 2):

## (i2  i1 )  2(i2  i1 )  2i2  0  5i2  2i1  i...(2)

3 3
Add (1) and (2): 4i2  i  i2  i ...(3)
2 8
1 i  7
Substitute for i2 into (1): i1     i2   i ...(4)
2 2  16
KVL (Around Left Loop): v  1 (i  i1 )  1 (i  i2 )  i  7 i  i  3 i  19 i
16 8 16
v 19
 Req   Ω
i 16
L 0.038
   0.032s  32ms
Murat Fahrioglu R 19 / 16 27
Example
+v _
10 mF a) Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit
a b below a-b
3 5 b) Find v(t) for t > -1 if v(-1)=20V
i 1
_
1 + 2i
1

Murat Fahrioglu 28
Example
+v _
10 mF a) Find the equivalent resistance of the circuit
a i eq +veq _ b below a-b
3 5 b) Find v(t) for t > -1 if v(-1)=20V
i 1
_
a) KVL @ upper loop:
1 + 2i
1 5ieq  i  3ieq  veq  0  veq  8ieq  i...(1)
KVL @ lower loop:
2(ieq  i)  2i  i  0  i  2ieq ...(2)
Substitute for i from (2) into (1):
veq
veq  8ieq  2ieq   Req  10 
ieq
 t / RC  t / 102 10
b) v(t )  V0 e  V0 e  V0 e 10t
20
t  1s  v(1)  20V  V0 e10  V0 
e10
e 10t
Murat Fahrioglu
 v(t )  20 10  20e 10(t 1) 29
e
Circuits with DC Sources
Circuits driven by constant (dc) independent current or voltage sources in
addition to having initial stored energies.
t=0
If v( 0- )  V0 , then v( 0 )  V0 by continuity principle

## For t > 0, KCL at top node:

+
I0 R C v
_ dv v dv 1 I0
C   I0  0   v
dt R dt RC C

Murat Fahrioglu 30
Circuits with DC Sources
Circuits driven by constant (dc) independent current or voltage sources in
addition to having initial stored energies.
t=0
If v( 0- )  V0 , then v( 0 )  V0 by continuity principle

## For t > 0, KCL at top node:

+
I0 R C v
_ dv v dv 1 I0
C   I0  0   v
dt R dt RC C
Forcing term independent of
the unknown time functions

Murat Fahrioglu 31
Circuits with DC Sources
Circuits driven by constant (dc) independent current or voltage sources in
addition to having initial stored energies.
t=0
If v( 0- )  V0 , then v( 0 )  V0 by continuity principle

## For t > 0, KCL at top node:

+
I0 R C v
_ dv v dv 1 I0
C   I0  0   v
dt R dt RC C
Forcing term independent of
the unknown time functions
Need a trial v where a linear combination of v and its derivative is constant for
all t>0. Try trial forced solution v f (t )  A :
d ( A) A I
  0  A  I0 R v f (t )  I 0 R is called a forced solution
dt RC C

Murat Fahrioglu 32
Circuits with DC Sources
Circuits driven by constant (dc) independent current or voltage sources in
addition to having initial stored energies.
t=0
If v( 0- )  V0 , then v( 0 )  V0 by continuity principle

## For t > 0, KCL at top node:

+
I0 R C v
_ dv v dv 1 I0
C   I0  0   v
dt R dt RC C
Forcing term independent of
the unknown time functions
Need a trial v where a linear combination of v and its derivative is constant for
all t>0. Try trial forced solution v f (t )  A :
d ( A) A I
  0  A  I0 R v f (t )  I 0 R is called a forced solution
dt RC C
A valid differential equation must also satisfy: v(0 )  v(0 )  V0
Let vn (t ) denote any solution to the unforced differential equation:
dvn vn
  0 But we know from before: vn  Ke t / RC
Murat Fahrioglu dt RC 33
Circuits with DC Sources
Circuits driven by constant (dc) independent current or voltage sources in
addition to having initial stored energies.
t=0
If v( 0- )  V0 , then v( 0 )  V0 by continuity principle

## For t > 0, KCL at top node:

+
I0 R C v
_

Since both forced differential eqn and initial condition needs to be satisfied:
v(t )  vn (t )  v f (t )  Ke t / RC  RI 0 ...(1)
Evaluating at t=0, the initial condition is matched if:
v(0 )  V0  K (1)  RI 0  K  V0  RI 0
Substitute back into v(t) eqn (1):
v(t )  (V0  RI 0 )et / RC  RI 0

## Note at t=0, v(t )  V0 as needed.

Murat Fahrioglu 34
Circuits with DC Sources

## Summary of the method to solve the forced first order differential

equation with constant forcing term and initial conditions:
1. Find the forced solution by using a trial forced solution = A

## 2. Find the natural solution by using a trial natural solution = Ke st and

solving the characteristic equation for s.

## 3. The total solution is the sum (superposition) of natural and forced

solutions. Evaluate at the initial time to find K.

Murat Fahrioglu 35
Example
t=0
i
Find i(t) for t>0.
2 4

DC 1H DC 16 V
12 V

Murat Fahrioglu 36
Example
t=0
i
Find i(t) for t>0.
2 4
DC 1H DC 16 V
12 V Assume before t=0 the circuit has been in
steady state (inductor is a short-circuit):
t = 0- : 12 16
iL    10 A
2 4
By the continuity principle for an inductor: iL (0 )  iL (0 )  10 A

Murat Fahrioglu 37
Example
t=0
i
Find i(t) for t>0.
2 4
DC 1H DC 16 V
12 V Assume before t=0 the circuit has been in
steady state (inductor is a short-circuit):
t = 0- : 12 16
iL    10 A
2 4
By the continuity principle for an inductor: iL (0 )  iL (0 )  10 A
t >0: 1. Forced equation:
i di di
2 KVL :  12  2i  0   2i  12...(1) (forced diff. eqn.)
dt dt
DC 1H Trial forced solution : i f  A. Substitute into (1) : 0  2A  12  A  6
12 V

Murat Fahrioglu 38
Example
t=0
i
Find i(t) for t>0.
2 4
DC 1H DC 16 V
12 V Assume before t=0 the circuit has been in
steady state (inductor is a short-circuit):
t = 0- : 12 16
iL    10 A
2 4
By the continuity principle for an inductor: iL (0 )  iL (0 )  10 A
t >0: 1. Forced equation:
i di di
2 KVL :  12  2i  0   2i  12...(1) (forced diff. eqn.)
dt dt
DC 1H Trial forced solution : i f  A. Substitute into (1) : 0  2A  12  A  6
12 V
2. Unforced (natural) equation (with solution Ke st ):
din
 2in  0  Characteristic eqn : s  2  0  s  2
dt

Murat Fahrioglu 39
Example
t=0
i
Find i(t) for t>0.
2 4
DC 1H DC 16 V
12 V Assume before t=0 the circuit has been in
steady state (inductor is a short-circuit):
t = 0- : 12 16
iL    10 A
2 4
By the continuity principle for an inductor: iL (0 )  iL (0 )  10 A
t >0: 1. Forced equation:
i di di
2 KVL :  12  2i  0   2i  12...(1) (forced diff. eqn.)
dt dt
DC 1H Trial forced solution : i f  A. Substitute into (1) : 0  2A  12  A  6
12 V
2. Unforced (natural) equation (with solution Ke st ):
din
 2in  0  Characteristic eqn : s  2  0  s  2
dt
3. i(t )  in (t )  i f (t )  Ke 2t  6 A

Murat Fahrioglu 40
Example
t=0
i
Find i(t) for t>0.
2 4
DC 1H DC 16 V
12 V Assume before t=0 the circuit has been in
steady state (inductor is a short-circuit):
t = 0- : 12 16
iL    10 A
2 4
By the continuity principle for an inductor: iL (0 )  iL (0 )  10 A
t >0: 1. Forced equation:
i di di
2 KVL :  12  2i  0   2i  12...(1) (forced diff. eqn.)
dt dt
DC 1H Trial forced solution : i f  A. Substitute into (1) : 0  2A  12  A  6
12 V
2. Unforced (natural) equation (with solution Ke st ):
din
 2in  0  Characteristic eqn : s  2  0  s  2
dt
3. i(t )  in (t )  i f (t )  Ke 2t  6 A
Use initial conditions: i(0 )  10  K  6  K  4
2t
Total solution: i(t )  4e  6 A
Murat Fahrioglu 41
Superposition in First-Order Circuits
The total response is a superposition of the initial condition response with all
independent sources killed, and the response to independent sources with the
initial condition killed. i.e. as seen earlier, the total response is a superposition
of the natural and forced response. In addition, the forced response is the
superposition of the responses to each of the independent sources with all
others killed (including initial conditions.)
Example: 1 2
+v_
Find i(t) for t>0 using superposition,
4/5 H i
2 10 A
where i(0-)=2A.
DC 80 V
+ 3v
_

Murat Fahrioglu 42
Superposition in First-Order Circuits
The total response is a superposition of the initial condition response with all
independent sources killed, and the response to independent sources with the
initial condition killed. i.e. as seen earlier, the total response is a superposition
of the natural and forced response. In addition, the forced response is the
superposition of the responses to each of the independent sources with all
others killed (including initial conditions.)
Example: 1 2
+v_
Find i(t) for t>0 using superposition,
4/5 H i
2 10 A
where i(0-)=2A.
DC 80 V
+ 3v
_

1. Compute i due to initial conditions (iic ) with (all) independent sources killed:
4 / 5
+ v _
4 4  di  4
KVL : iic   ic   3v  0, but v  iic using Ohm' s Law
4/5 H i ic 5 5  dt  5
diic
3v   4iic  0  s  4  0  s  4
+
_ dt
Initial Condition: i(0 )  i(0 )  2 A  K  iic (t )  2e4t A
Murat Fahrioglu 43
Superposition Example (continued)
2. Compute forced component i f 1 due to independent voltage source (kill the initial
conditions and all other independent sources):
1
_
KVL @ Mesh1:  80  i1  4(i1  i2 )  0  5i1  4i2  80...(1)
+v 4d 4 di2
4/5 H KVL @ Mesh2: 4(i2  i1 )  i2  3i1  0  4i2  i1   0...(2)
if1 5 dt 5 dt
di
Subst. for i1 from (1) into (2): 4i 2   20
80 V i1 2
4 i2
+ 3v dt
_
Particular soln: Subst. i  A  A  5 
2
 i2 (t )  Ke 4t  5
Homogeneous soln: 4  s  0  s  4
But since the initial conditions are killed: i2 (0 )  0  K  5  i2 (t )  i f 1 (t )  5(1  e4t )

Murat Fahrioglu 44
Superposition Example (continued)
2. Compute forced component i f 1 due to independent voltage source (kill the initial
conditions and all other independent sources):
1
_
KVL @ Mesh1:  80  i1  4(i1  i2 )  0  5i1  4i2  80...(1)
+v 4d 4 di2
4/5 H KVL @ Mesh2: 4(i2  i1 )  i2  3i1  0  4i2  i1   0...(2)
if1 5 dt 5 dt
di
Subst. for i1 from (1) into (2): 4i 2   20
80 V i1 2
4 i2
+ 3v dt
_
Particular soln: Subst. i  A  A  5 
2
 i2 (t )  Ke 4t  5
Homogeneous soln: 4  s  0  s  4
But since the initial conditions are killed: i2 (0 )  0  K  5  i2 (t )  i f 1 (t )  5(1  e4t )

3. Compute forced component i f 2 due to independent current source (kill the initial
conditions and the voltage source):
4 di1 4 di1
2 KVL @ Mesh1:  3(i2  i1 )   (i1  i2 )  0  4i2  4i1   0...(1)
5 dt 5 dt
4/5 H KVL @ Mesh2: (i2  i1 )  2i2  2(i2  10)  0  5i2  i1  20...(2)
if 2 1  _ 2 4 4 di di
i1
v Subst. for i2 from (2) into (1):  (i1  20)  4i1  1
 0  1  4i1  20
i2 5 5 dt dt

+

+ 10 A
Particular soln: Subst.i1  B  B  5  i1 (t )  Ke 4t  5
_
3v
Homogeneous soln: 4  s  0  s  4
But since the initial conditions are killed: i1 (0 )  0  K  5  i1 (t )  i f 2 (t )  5e4t  5

Murat Fahrioglu 45
Superposition Example (continued)
2. Compute forced component i f 1 due to independent voltage source (kill the initial
conditions and all other independent sources):
1
_
KVL @ Mesh1:  80  i1  4(i1  i2 )  0  5i1  4i2  80...(1)
+v 4d 4 di2
4/5 H KVL @ Mesh2: 4(i2  i1 )  i2  3i1  0  4i2  i1   0...(2)
if1 5 dt 5 dt
di
Subst. for i1 from (1) into (2): 4i 2   20
80 V i1 2
4 i2
+ 3v dt
_
Particular soln: Subst. i  A  A  5 
2
 i2 (t )  Ke 4t  5
Homogeneous soln: 4  s  0  s  4
But since the initial conditions are killed: i2 (0 )  0  K  5  i2 (t )  i f 1 (t )  5(1  e4t )

3. Compute forced component i f 2 due to independent current source (kill the initial
conditions and the voltage source):
4 di1 4 di1
2 KVL @ Mesh1:  3(i2  i1 )   (i1  i2 )  0  4i2  4i1   0...(1)
5 dt 5 dt
4/5 H KVL @ Mesh2: (i2  i1 )  2i2  2(i2  10)  0  5i2  i1  20...(2)
if 2 1  _ 2 4 4 di di
i1
v Subst. for i2 from (2) into (1):  (i1  20)  4i1  1
 0  1  4i1  20
i2 5 5 dt dt

+

+ 10 A
Particular soln: Subst.i1  B  B  5  i1 (t )  Ke 4t  5
_
3v
Homogeneous soln: 4  s  0  s  4
But since the initial conditions are killed: i1 (0 )  0  K  5  i1 (t )  i f 2 (t )  5e4t  5

Murat Fahrioglu
4. Using superposition: i(t )  iic (t )  i f 1 (t )  i f 2 (t )  10  8e 4t A 46
Unit Step Function
u(t)

0, t0
1 u (t )  
1, t0
t
0

Murat Fahrioglu 47
Unit Step Function
u(t)

0, t0
1 u (t )  
1, t0
t
0

t=0 t=0 Iu(t)
+

## Vu(t) Vu(t) Iu(t) I

V

Murat Fahrioglu 48
Unit Step Function
u(t)

0, t0
1 u (t )  
1, t0
t
0

t=0 t=0 Iu(t)
+

V

## The shifted unit step: u(t  t0 )

1 0, t  t0
u(t  t0 )  
1, t  t0
t
0 t0
Murat Fahrioglu 49
Unit Step Function
Example : Sketch v(t )  K1u(t )  K 2u(t  t0 ) where both K1 & K 2 are positive

Murat Fahrioglu 50
Unit Step Function
Example : Sketch v(t )  K1u(t )  K 2u(t  t0 ) where both K1 & K 2 are positive
K 1u ( t )

0, t0
K1 K1u(t)  
K1, t 0
t

+ 0

K 2 u (t  t 0 )
K2 0, t  t0
K 2u(t  t0 )  
K 2 , t  t0
t
0 t0

= v (t )
0, t0
K1  K 2 
v(t )   K1 , 0  t  t0
K  K ,
K1
 1 2 t  t0
t
0 t0

Murat Fahrioglu 51
Unit Step Function

## Example : Sketch u(t)  u(t  t0 )

Murat Fahrioglu 52
Unit Step Function

## Example : Sketch u(-t)

u (t)
1

t
0
Example : Sketch u(t)  u(t  t0 )

Murat Fahrioglu 53
Unit Step Function

## Example : Sketch u(-t)

u (t)
1

t
0
Example : Sketch u(t)  u(t  t0 )

u (t )  u (t  t 0 )
This is a pulse function.
1

t
0 t0

Murat Fahrioglu 54
Step and Pulse Response
Step response: The (voltage or current) response of a circuit
having only one independent source, which is a unit (voltage
or current) step function. There is no initial energy stored in
the storage elements until t=0.

## Pulse response: It is the response to a single pulse i.e. there

is a trailing (falling) edge. During the pulse, the response is
identical to a step response. After the pulse, the source goes
back to 0, and the initial conditions for this is set right before
the trailing edge.
* In general, a pulse is an example of sequential switching.
All sequential switching problems can be solved by dividing
the analysis into time intervals corresponding to specific
switch positions.

Murat Fahrioglu 55
Step and Pulse Response
Example: Find the step response of the following circuit, and sketch:

+
v
_
C
vg  u (t ) V

Murat Fahrioglu 56
Step and Pulse Response
Example: Find the step response of the following circuit, and sketch:
R v(0 )  0V since vg (t )  0 for t  0
 
By continuity principle: v(0 )  v(0 )  0 V
+
v
_
C
v 1 dv dv v 1
vg  u (t ) V KCL for t>0: C 0    ...(1)
R dt dt RC RC

1
Solve homogenous eqn: s   0  s  1 / RC  vn (t )  Ke t / RC
RC
Trial forced soln: v f  A  From(1) : A  1
Combining unforced and forced solutions: v(t )  Ke t / RC  1
 t / RC
Using initial condition: v(0 )  0  v(t )  1  e for t  0, and v(t )  0 for t  0

Murat Fahrioglu 57
Step and Pulse Response
Example: Find the step response of the following circuit, and sketch:
R v(0 )  0V since vg (t )  0 for t  0
 
By continuity principle: v(0 )  v(0 )  0 V
+
v
_
C
v 1 dv dv v 1
vg  u (t ) V KCL for t>0: C 0    ...(1)
R dt dt RC RC

1
Solve homogenous eqn: s   0  s  1 / RC  vn (t )  Ke t / RC
RC
Trial forced soln: v f  A  From(1) : A  1
Combining unforced and forced solutions: v(t )  Ke t / RC  1
 t / RC
Using initial condition: v(0 )  0  v(t )  1  e for t  0, and v(t )  0 for t  0
 
Alternatively can write: v(t )  1  et / RC u(t )

Murat Fahrioglu 58
Step and Pulse Response
Example: Find the step response of the following circuit, and sketch:
R v(0 )  0V since vg (t )  0 for t  0
 
By continuity principle: v(0 )  v(0 )  0 V
+
v
_
C
v 1 dv dv v 1
vg  u (t ) V KCL for t>0: C 0    ...(1)
R dt dt RC RC

1
Solve homogenous eqn: s   0  s  1 / RC  vn (t )  Ke t / RC
RC
Trial forced soln: v f  A  From(1) : A  1
Combining unforced and forced solutions: v(t )  Ke t / RC  1
 t / RC
Using initial condition: v(0 )  0  v(t )  1  e for t  0, and v(t )  0 for t  0
 
Alternatively can write: v(t )  1  et / RC u(t )
V(t)
Sketch:
1

1-1/e

t(s)
Murat Fahrioglu 0   RC 59
Step and Pulse Response
Example: Find the pulse response of the following circuit, and sketch:

## ig (t )  6u(t )  u(t  1) A

ig (t ) 5 5H
i

Murat Fahrioglu 60
Step and Pulse Response
Example: Find the pulse response of the following circuit, and sketch:

## ig (t )  6u(t )  u(t  1) A

ig (t ) 5 5H
i

Thevenin Equivalent:
di di
KVL:  5ig (t )  5i  5  0   i  ig (t )...(1)
5
dt dt

Principle of continuity: i(0 )  i(0 )  0 A
di
5H i
0 < t < 1s: g (t )  6, so from (1) : i  6
5ig (t ) dt
t
i Characteristic eqn: s  1  0  s  1  in  Ke
Trial forced soln: i f  A  6
Total soln: i  Ke  6, but i(0 )  K  6  0  K  -6  i(t )  61  e  A, 0  t  1
t  t

di
1 s < t: ig (t )  0, so from (1) : i  0
dt
t
Characteristic eqn: s  1  0  s  1  i(t )  in (t )  Ke (no forcing function)
  1 1
Initial condition: i(1 )  i(1 )  6(1  e )  3.79  Ke  K  3.79e
t 1
Murat Fahrioglu
Total soln: i (t )  3.79e A, t  1s 61
Step and Pulse Response
Example: Find the pulse response of the following circuit, and sketch:

## ig (t )  6u(t )  u(t  1) A

ig (t ) 5 5H
i

Sketch: ig (t ) A

t(s)
0 1
i(t) A
6

3.79
3 . 79 e  t 1

t(s)
0 1

## Murat Fahrioglu 6(1  et ) 62

Second-Order Circuits

## • Second-order circuits contain 2 storage elements

– Of different type, or
– Of the same type but not parallel or series

## • The total response is still the sum of natural and forced

response (like the first order circuits)

## • The natural response of a RLC circuit may consist of

functions other than decaying exponentials (unlike simple
RL and RC)

## • To solve second-order circuits two initial conditions are

required
63
Murat Fahrioglu
Circuits with 2 Storage Elements
• First-order circuits were represented by:
dx
 ax  f (t ) with total response: x(t )  xn (t )  x f (t )
dt
where xn(t) is the natural response obtained by setting f(t)=0
(homogeneous solution with a constant solved using initial condition)
and xf(t) is the forced response that satisfies the forced differential
equation.
d 2x dx
• The second-order circuits are represented by: 2  a1  a0 x  f (t )
dt dt
• A similar procedure as before applies:
2
d xn dxn
1. Unforced (homogeneous) equation:  a1  a0 xn  0
dt 2 dt
d 2xf dx f
2. Forced equation to find the particular solution:  a1  a0 x f  f (t )
dt 2 dt
d 2 ( xn  x f ) d ( xn  x f )
3. Superposition produces:  a1  a0 ( xn  x f )  f (t )
dt 2 dt

64
Murat Fahrioglu
Natural Response
d 2 xn dxn
• Consider the homogeneous equation: 2
 a1  a0 xn  0
dt dt

## • Take xn(t)=Kest as the trial. Substitute into above: Ks e  Ksa1e  Ka0e  0

2 st st st

Ke st (s 2  a1s  a0 )  0
If K=0, no stored energy. More generally: s 2  a1s  a0  0...(1)
Solving, get:  a1  a12  4a0
s1, 2 
2
• Two natural solutions: xn1  K1e 1 and xn 2  K 2e s2t
st

The two distinct solutions individually form a solution. For a linear equation,
any linear combination is also a solution: xn  xn1  xn 2  K1e 1  K 2e 2
st st

## • If we rewrite (1) as: s 2  2 0 s  02  0 i.e. a1  2 0 ; a0  02

where 0  a 0 : undamped natural frequency
a1
  : damping ratio

 
2 a0
then characteristic exponents: s1, 2     ( 2  1) 0
65
Murat Fahrioglu
3 Cases for the General Solution : s=σ+jω
1. Overdamped Case:   1

## • s1 and s2 are real and distinct : s1   1 , s2   2

t  t
• Natural response: xn (t )  K1e  K 2e
1 2

## • For circuits with passive elements driven by independent sources, σ1 and

σ2 cannot be positive. i.e. with independent sources killed (natural
response) the energy stored cannot increase beyond the initially stored
energy. The energy reduces with time or gets ‘damped’.

• Overdamped case is when there is sufficient damping for each term in the
natural response to steadily decay to zero. In lightly damped case, the
damping may have some oscillations.

66
Murat Fahrioglu
3 Cases for the General Solution : s=σ+jω
2. Underdamped Case:   1
• s1 and s2 are complex, and are complex conjugates of each other.

s1    j , s2    j   0

• Natural response:

xn (t )  et K1e jt  K 2e jt 
• For a circuit with purely real element laws and sources, xn is real as well. K1 and
K2 have to be complex conjugates.
   
xn  K1e jt  K1*e jt et  2 Re K1e jt et
• Using Euler’s Identity: e jt  cos t  j sin t
ReK1e jt  ReReK1   j ImK1 cos t  j sin t   ReK1 cos t  ImK1 sin t
 1 
Therefore, Re K e jt  1 B cos t  1 B sin t where B  2ReK  ; B  2ImK 
2
1
2
2 1 1 2 1

n 1 2

## • The damping is oscillatory in this case (multiplied by sinusoids) with frequency

ω rad/s. Therefore, this is called the underdamped case. The ampitude of the
oscillations decays as eσt, so the damping rate varies inversely with σ.
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Murat Fahrioglu
3 Cases for the General Solution : s=σ+jω
2. Underdamped Case:   1

## – Hence ω0 is called the undamped frequency.

68
Murat Fahrioglu
3 Cases for the General Solution : s=σ+jω
3. Critically Damped Case:   1

## • s1 and s2 are real and equal : s1  s2  

t t
• Natural response: xn (t )  K1e  K 2te

t-multiplied form

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Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Parallel RLC Circuit Natural Response
v Nodal Equation (KCL):
v 1 t dv
  v( )d  iL (t0 )  C  ig
ig R L t0 dt 2
R L C 1 dv 1 d v dig
Differentiate:  vC 2 
R dt L dt dt
d 2v 1 dv 1 1 dig
Divide by C:   v
dt 2 RC dt LC C dt
1 1
Characteristic Equation: s2  s 0
RC LC 1
The undamped natural frequency of the (parallel RLC) circuit:  0  a 0 
LC
a1 1 L
Parallel RLC Damping Ratio: P  
2 a0 2 R C
If  P  1, two real characteri stic exponents
If  P  1,  P2  1  0, the characteri stic exponents are complex
If ζ P  1, this is called critical damping - the two real exponents are the same
1 L
Critical parallel resistance can be found from : R cp 
2 C
For R  R cp (  1), underdamped case; for R70  R cp (  1), overdamped case
Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Parallel RLC Circuit with Numbers
v
Ignore the current source for now since looking for
natural response: ig=0
ig 5/3 2H
1/10 Initial conditions (given): v(0 )  4 V ; iL (0 )  0 A
Ω F
Find v(t) for t>0.

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Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Parallel RLC Circuit with Numbers
v
Ignore the current source for now since looking for
natural response: ig=0
ig 5/3 2H
1/10 Initial conditions (given): v(0 )  4 V ; iL (0 )  0 A
Ω F
Find v(t) for t>0. 2
d v 1 dv 1 1 dig
From before: 2
  v
dt RC dt LC C dt
d 2v dv
Plugging in values: 2
 6  5v  0 Note  P  a1  3  1
dt dt 2 a0 5
Characteristic equation: s  6s  5  0  (s  1)(s  5)  0  s1  1 ; s2  5
2

2 real distinct solutions: Overdamped natural response with voltage v  K1et  K 2e5t
Using the principle of continuity on the capacitor: v(0 )  v(0 )  4 V
Using the principle of continuity on the inductor: iL (0 )  iL (0 )  0 A
3 1 dv 3 1 dv dv
KCL @ t=0+: v  iL   0  (4)  0  0  24 V/s
5 10 dt 5 10 dt 0 dt 0
Hence obtained 2 conditions to solve for K1 and K2 in the voltage function:
dv
v(0 )  K1  K 2  4...(1)   K1  5K 2  24...(2)
dt t 0
Solving: K 2  5 and K1  1
Therefore the solution for the natural response
72 is: v  5e5t  et
Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Series RLC Circuit Natural Response
R
1 t di
i KVL: Ri  
C 0
t
i ( )d  v (t
C 0 )  L
dt
 vg
vg L

## C Differentiate and divide by L:

2
d i R di 1 1 dvg
- vC +   i 
dt 2 L dt LC L dt
R 1
Characteristic Equation: s2  s  0
L LC 1
The undamped natural frequency of the (series RLC) circuit: 0  a0 
LC
a1 R
Series RLC Damping Ratio:  S  
2 a0 2 L C
R CS L
Critical series resistance can be found from :  S   1  R CS  2
2 LC C
For R  R CS (  1), overdamped case; for R  R CS (  1), underdamped case

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Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Series RLC Circuit with Numbers
R
d 2i di
i Let L=1 H , C=1/4 F: 2
 R  4i  0
vg L
dt dt
C
Characteristic Equation: s 2  Rs  4  0
1 R R R
0   2 rad/s    
- vC + LC 2 LC 2 4 4
Critically damped case:  1 R  4 

## Undamped case:   R/4  0R  0

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Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Series RLC Circuit with Numbers
R
d 2i di
i Let L=1 H , C=1/4 F: 2
 R  4i  0
vg L
dt dt
C
Characteristic Equation: s 2  Rs  4  0
1 R R R
0   2 rad/s    
- vC + LC 2 LC 2 4 4
Critically damped case:  1 R  4 
s 2  4s  4  0  s    2 (real and identical roots)  i n  K1e2t  K 2te 2t
Overdamped case:   R / 4  1 , for example assume R  5 
s 2  5s  4  0  s1  4, s2  1 (real and distinct roots)  i n  K1et  K 2e4t
Underdamped case:   R / 4  1 , for example assume R  2 
 b  b 2  4c
s  2s  4  0  s1, 2 
2
 s1  -1  j 3 , s2  -1  j 3 (complex conjugates )
2
 i n  K1e t cos 3t  K 2e t sin 3t
Undamped case:   R/4  0R  0
s 2  4  0  s1  j 2, s2   j 2 (imaginary roots)  i n  K1 cos 2t  K 2 sin 2t
75
Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Series RLC Natural Response Sketches
R

i
vg L

- vC +
Overdamped case: Critically damped case:

t t
Underdamped case: Undamped case:

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Murat Fahrioglu
Forced Response
• The method is similar to the first2 order circuits
d xf dx f
• Forced differential equation: dt 2 1 dt  a0 x f  f (t )
 a

## • The forced response is identified through the general linear

combination of f(t) and all of its derivatives.
– If f(t) is a constant, e.g. an independent source, use a trial forced solution
that is a constant, A. [This is what was done with first order circuits so far.]
– What if f(t) is not constant ?
Examples in Table 7.1 Forcing Term f(t) Trial Forced Solution xf(t)
k A
(Jonhnson & Johnson)
t At+B
tn Atn + Btn-1 +...+ Ft + G
When the trial forced solution
est Aest
matches a term in the natural
sin(ωt), cos(ωt) Asin(ωt)+Bcos(ωt)
solution, it is necessary to
.... ....
t-multiply the trial forced
solution.
77
Murat Fahrioglu
Forced Response : Example
8Ω 2H
Find i2.

i1
vg i2 1H

78
Murat Fahrioglu
Forced Response : Example
8Ω 2H
Find i2.
Mesh equations: di1
vg
i1
i2 1H 2  12i1  4i2  vg ...(1)
4Ω dt
di 1  di 
 4i1  2  4i2  0  i1   2  4i2 ...(2)
dt 4  dt 
di1 1  d 2i2 di2 
Differentiate (2):   2  4 ...(2' )
dt 4  dt dt 
d 2i2 di2
Substitute for i1 & di1/dt from (2) and (2’) into (1): 2
 10  16i2  2vg
2
dt dt
d i2 di2
Assume vg=16: 2
 10  16i2  32...(3)
dt dt
Char. Equation: s 2  10s  16  0  (s  2)(s  8)  0  s1  2 , s2  8 (real & distinct)
Natural Response: i2n  K1e2t  K 2e8t
Trial Forced Solution: i2 f  A  Subst. into (3)  16 A  32  A  2
Note: Forced solution i2f can also be found from
Total Solution: i2  i2n  i2 f  K1e2t  K 2e8t  2 dc steady-state equivalent since all
79
Murat Fahrioglu currents/voltages are constant.
Total Response Example: Forced Series RLC

Find the total response i(t), given vC(0)=-6 V, i(0)=1 A.
i
-2t
2e V 1H

¼F

- vC +

80
Murat Fahrioglu
Total Response Example: Forced Series RLC

Find the total response i(t), given vC(0)=-6 V, i(0)=1 A.
i t di
2e -2t
V 1H KVL: 5i  4 i( )d  vC (0)   2 e  2t
0
2
dt
¼F Differentiate: d i  5 di  4i  4e 2t (System Equation)
dt 2 dt
- vC + Total solution is the summation of natural and forced solutions.

81
Murat Fahrioglu
Total Response Example: Forced Series RLC

Find the total response i(t), given vC(0)=-6 V, i(0)=1 A.
i t di
2e -2t
V 1H KVL: 5i  4 i( )d  vC (0)   2 e  2t
0
2
dt
¼F Differentiate: d i  5 di  4i  4e 2t (System Equation)
dt 2 dt
- vC + Total solution is the summation of natural and forced solutions.
Char. Eqn.: s 2  5s  4  (s  1)(s  4)  0  overdamped natural response  in  K1et  K 2e4t
Trial Forced Solution: i f  Ae 2t  Subst. into systemeqn.  2  Ae 2t  4e2t  A  2
Total Solution: i  in  i f  K1e t  K 2e 4t  2e2t ...(1)
2 unknowns require 2 equations:
Using initial condition and total solution (1): i(0)  K1  K 2  2  1  K1  K 2  1...(2)
di di
KVL @ t=0:  2  5(1)  6  0 3
dt 0 dt 0
Differentiating total solution (1) and equating to above:
di
  K1  4 K 2  4  3  K1  4 K 2  7...(3)
dt 0
Solving simulataneous equations (2) and (3): K1  1 and K 2  2

Murat Fahrioglu
Total solution becomes: i  et82 2e4t  2e2t A
Step Response Example: Series RLC
RΩ Find the step response vC(t) for different values of R
(damping scenarios).
i
u(t) V 1H

¼F

- vC +

83
Murat Fahrioglu
Step Response Example: Series RLC
RΩ Find the step response vC(t) for different values of R
(damping scenarios).
i
u(t) V 1H t<0 (initial conditions): i(0)  vc (0)  0 since there is no source
t di
¼F KVL for t>0: Ri  4  i( )d  vC (0 )  1  1
2
0 dt
d i di
- vC + Differentiate:  R  4i  0
dt 2 dt

84
Murat Fahrioglu
Step Response Example: Series RLC
RΩ Find the step response vC(t) for different values of R
(damping scenarios).
i
u(t) V 1H t<0 (initial conditions): i(0)  vc (0)  0 since there is no source
t di
¼F KVL for t>0: Ri  4  i( )d  vC (0 )  1  1
2
0 dt
d i di
- vC + Differentiate:  R  4i  0
dt 2 dt
1. Critically damped case:  1 R  2 L / C  4 
s 2  4s  4  0  s    2 (real and identical roots)  i  K1e2t  K 2te 2t ...(1)
2 unknowns require 2 equations:
Using initial condition, continuity of inductive current, and (1): i(0 )  K1  0...(2)
di di
Using continuity of capacitive voltage and KVL @ t=0+: 1  1 0 1
dt 0 dt 0
di
Differentiating (1) at t=0+ and setting equal to above:  K 2  1...(3)
dt 0
Therefore, using (1)-(3): i  te 2t A
KVL for t>0 to find vC: vC  1  Ri 
di
dt
 
 1  4 te 2t  
dt

d  2t
te

## vC  1  e 2t 852te  2t V (criticall y damped case)

Murat Fahrioglu
Step Response Example: Series RLC
RΩ Find the step response vC(t) for different values of R
(damping scenarios).
i
u(t) V 1H t<0 (initial conditions): i(0)  vc (0)  0 since there is no source
t di
¼F KVL for t>0: Ri  4  i( )d  vC (0 )  1  1
2
0 dt
d i di
- vC + Differentiate:  R  4i  0
dt 2 dt
2. Overdamped case:   R / 4  1 , for example assume R  5 
s 2  5s  4  0  s1  4, s2  1 (real and distinct roots)  i  K1et  K 2e4t ...(1)
Using the previous 2 initial conditions:
i(0 )  0  K1  K 2 ...(2)
di
 1   K1  4 K 2 ...(3) Therefore, using (1)-(3): i
3

1 t 4t
e -e A 
dt 0

## KVL for t>0 to find vC: vC  1  Ri 

di
dt
5
 
 1  e t  e  4 t 
3 3 dt

1 d t
e  e  4t 
4 1
vC  1  e t  e  4t V (overdamped case)
3 3
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Murat Fahrioglu
Step Response Example: Series RLC
RΩ Find the step response vC(t) for different values of R
(damping scenarios).
i
u(t) V 1H t<0 (initial conditions): i(0)  vc (0)  0 since there is no source
t di
¼F KVL for t>0: Ri  4  i( )d  vC (0 )  1  1
2
0 dt
d i di
- vC + Differentiate:  R  4i  0
dt 2 dt
3. Underdamped case:   R / 4  1 , for example assume R  1 / 4 
1  b  b 2  4c 1 255 1 255
s  s  4  0  s1, 2 
2
 s1  -  j , s2  -  j
4 2 8 8 8 8
255 255
 i  K1e t / 8 cos t  K 2e t / 8 sin t...(1)
8 8
di 1 255
Using the previous 2 initial conditions: i(0 )  0  K1...(2)  1   K1  K 2 ...(3)
dt 0 8 8
8 255
Therefore, using (1)-(3): i  e t / 8 sin tA
255 8
di 1 8 255  d  8 255 
KVL for t>0 to find vC: vC  1  Ri   1   e t / 8 sin t    e t / 8 sin t 
dt 4  255 8  dt  255 8 
 255 1 255 
vC  1  e t / 8  cos t sin t  V (underdamp ed case)
 8 87 255 8 
Murat Fahrioglu
Example : Series RLC Step Response Sketches

Notes:
• Overdamped operation delays convergence to steady state
i
u(t) V 1H or ‘slows down’ the operation, so it’s undesirable.
• Similarly underdamped operation delays convergence to
¼F steady state even further, and results in overshoots and
undershoots which can impact reliability and functionality of
- vC +
the circuits respectively.
2

1,5

0,5

0
overdamped critically damped underdamped
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Murat Fahrioglu