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Main aims : 1.

Central Difference -> to accurately locate the MPP ;

2. control the active perturbations in steady state -> reduce the
oscillations around MPP
3. Steepest Descent -> faster dynamic & smoother steady-state
MPPT algorithm based on Extremum value theorem ->
Determining when dp/dv is 0, where p=PV Power and v=PV voltage.
- generally Numerical difference method (Euler) is used
-> finding the Numerical value of a derivative of a given function at a given
-> gives rise to local Truncation errors (deviation of the exact solution from the
numerical scheme) -> true MPP is never exactly located.
- choosing the proper perturbation step size :
-> smaller ∆V -> better accuracy; but lmtd by resolutn of digital controller and
accuracy of measurement; signal to noise ratio is also an issue.

Proposed Algo.
1. Reduction of local Truncation error -> accurately locate MPP :
- central difference method -> Symmetric -> MPP located with better precision.
-> requires 3 point measurement : k-1, k, k+1
-> second order accuracy => better than Euler’s methods
2. Evaluation of Numerical Stability -> Lipschitz condn should be satisfied
C_lip = absolute value of the steepest slope of P-V curve under STC.
- disturbances & measurement noise – 2 major reasons of malfunction of
numerical differentiation.
3. Selection of Tracking Methods :
Steepest Descent or Gradient Descent method
- Step size modulator -> decides how steep each step takes in the gradient
4. Oscillation Reduction :
- stop the artificial perturbations when a local MPP is accurately located
- evaluate if true MPP is found => stop the artificial perturbation => estimate if
MPP has drifted to new location.
- truncation error not completely reduced by CenDiff = condn to select
accuracy used to detect MPP.