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Ruth Jimack

with Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer

upper-intermediate

Teacher’s Guide
Contents
Jetstream upper-intermediate Student’s Book contents 3
Introduction
Letter to you, the teacher 7
Jetstream upper-intermediate components 8
Jetstream approach – a summary 9
Unit overview 12
Unit notes
Unit 1 25
Unit 2 42
Units 1&2 Review 62
Writing skills: Module 1 66
Unit 3 68
Unit 4 85
Units 3&4 Review 100
Writing skills: Module 2 102
Unit 5 104
Unit 6 123
Units 5&6 Review 140
Writing skills: Module 3 144
Unit 7 146
Unit 8 164
Units 7&8 Review 178
Writing skills: Module 4 181
Unit 9 183
Unit 10 197
Units 9&10 Review 212
Writing skills: Module 5 214
Unit 11 216
Unit 12 232
Units 11&12 Review 247
Writing skills: Module 6 250
Tasks
Teacher’s notes 252
Unit 1 255
Unit 2 255
Unit 3 256
Unit 4 256
Unit 5 257
Unit 6 257
Unit 7 258
Unit 8 258
Unit 9 259
Unit 10 259
Unit 11 260
Unit 12 260
Technique banks
Using the video 261
Using memory games 262
Working with mixed-ability classes 263
Ensuring learner autonomy and using technology 263
2 Contents
CONTENTS

Jetstream upper-intermediate
VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION Talking about the meaning of names.


Beginnings
LESSON 1 Collocations Time and tense review 1: Reading: The Angulo Family Talking about the concept of ‘home’
page 7 Breaking free present simple, present Writing an essay on the concept of
continuous, present ‘home’
perfect, past simple, past
continuous
LESSON 2 keep Time and tense review 2: Reading 1: The enigma of Talking about language acquisition
How (not) to learn a past simple, past perfect, language and the best ways of learning a
language present perfect simple, P the sound /ɔː/ language
present perfect continuous Listening: a conversation Writing a story about a childhood
about The Jungle Book event
Reading 2: Rudyard Kipling
LESSON 3 Emotions Time and tense review 3: Listening: a radio Talking about the future
Life soundtrack going to, will future, programme about music Talking about music that has meant a
present continuous for and life lot to you in your life
future, present simple for
future, future perfect,
future continuous
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 6 Expressing disappointment and joy
P the different meanings of you know

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 2 INTRODUCTION Hobbies and Talking about different learning styles


Come to your activities
senses!
LESSON 1 Toys Relative clauses Talking about different toys and how
page 17 Hands on! Manual activities they affect learning
Describing childhood toys
Writing an opinion essay
LESSON 2 Expressions with Hedging: making cautious Listening: a conversation Talking about two paintings
Paint the town red! colours statements about colour associations Talking about colours and how they
P /r/ sound Reading: Colour and how it affect people
affects us Giving a presentation on colour
LESSON 3 Music Verb patterns 1: cause and Listening 1: vox pops about Talking about different music styles
Sounds interesting? Sounds effect music preferences and the music you listen to
Listening 2: a radio Talking about sounds you like
interview about ‘car-aoke’ Writing a poem about sounds
Reading: poem The Sound
Collector
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Talking about advantages and disadvantages
P changing meaning through intonation

REVIEW Units 1&2 page 27; Aspects of culture: Cat cafés and other ideas

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 3 INTRODUCTION Collocations with Talking about languages


Watch your language
language!
LESSON 1 Loan words Comparison: quite a lot Comparing statistics of world
page 29 Worldwide words! lend, borrow, loan more, X times as many, languages
Roots of English the most, by a long way P plurals with the sound /ʤɪz/

LESSON 2 Expressions with Modal verbs Reading: People, curb your Thinking about how often we use the
Say what you mean! can’t enthusiasm word love
Listening: a talk by a Writing a report
life coach on limiting Analysing the poem Chivvy
language Talking about how adults and children
communicate
LESSON 3 Cleft sentences Reading: Popular favourite Talking about the most beautiful words
Favourite words words in English
Writing a story about words
Conducting a survey about words
Writing a report
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 6 Expressing preferences
P using intonation to convey preferences

Contents 3
VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 4 INTRODUCTION Everyday phrases from Listening: a museum audio


Conflict and war and boxing commentary
resolution
LESSON 1 Adverbs and adverb Reading: extract from War Horse Talking about war memorials
page 39 Remembering war phrases Giving a presentation about a
national event
LESSON 2 Hearing and listening Gerunds and Reading 1: extracts from Acting out an interview
War stories About war participles Dispatches Writing a journalist’s report of a war
Reading 2: No place for a lady or battle
P diphthongs /eɪ/, /aɪ/, /əʊ/ Writing an essay about war
LESSON 3 Arguments Future in the past Listening: a conversation between Writing a blog post about conflict
It’s not fair! school boys and a teacher resolution
Reading: West-Eastern Divan
Orchestra
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Strengthening opinions with examples and adverbs
P sentence stress and intonation

REVIEW Units 3&4 page 49; Aspects of culture: Words that are difficult to translate

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 5 INTRODUCTION Fiction genres Discussing opening lines of books


Telling tales Talking about books you have read

page 51 LESSON 1 Narrative tenses Listening 1: opening lines and a Talking about the seven basic plots
Once upon a time … summary of a story of stories
Listening 2: the end of a Writing a well-known story in your
traditional story own words
LESSON 2 Opinions somewhere, Reading 1: extract from Stephen Writing and presenting a
Responses to reading everything, etc King thriller Under the Dome commentary for a video trailer
Listening: readers’ opinions of Group story-telling
Under the Dome Writing a book review
P word stress on positive and
negative opinions
Reading 2: review of Under the
Dome
LESSON 3 ’d = had and would Listening 1: a conversation about Talking about writing, speaking and
How to write – and how the rules of writing editing
not to! Reading: extract from The Maltese Writing a bad beginning to a short
Cat story
Listening 2: information about
writing, speaking and editing
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 6 Agreeing; Politely disagreeing
P stress and intonation in polite disagreements

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 6 Introduction Sports and activities Listening: sports commentaries Defining the idea of ‘sport’
The nature of
sport Lesson 1 Ways of liking and not Articles Reading: The boat race Researching information about a
Two by two liking sporting event
page 61 Writing a description of a sporting
event
Lesson 2 Hobbies and activities Verb patterns 2: Reading 1: Men in trunks Talking about a hobby you do
Sink or swim? verb + -ing form, Listening: a review of the film regularly
infinitive or that Men who swim Giving a presentation of an unusual
clause Reading 2: A different kind of sport
ball game Writing a description of an unusual
P consonant clusters sport
Lesson 3 Prepositions and verbs Phrasal verbs Reading: Welcome to the world Designing a mud run course
This is fun? of movement of mud running Writing an online press
Listening 1: a conversation about announcement for a mud run
a mud run
Listening 2: advice for doing a
mud run
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Expressing views
P changing sentence stress to change meaning

REVIEW Units 5&6 page 71; Aspects of culture: National sports

4 Contents
VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 7 INTRODUCTION Actions associated Acting out favourite lines from films
Heroes and with heroes and
villains villains

page 73 LESSON 1 Adjectives to describe Reporting verbs and Reading: How jokey is the Joker Writing about your favourite villain
What makes a good villains their patterns these days? Giving a presentation of your
baddie? Listening: a talk about Catwoman favourite villain

LESSON 2 Adjectives to describe would and used to Reading 1: A potted history of Writing a paragraph about men or
Homemaker or heroines Modal verbs: women in Hollywood women in films
troublemaker? Nouns with more than speculating about Reading 2: a review of The Girl Talking about a present that had a
one meaning the past with the Dragon Tattoo great influence on you
Listening: an interview with a Writing and presenting a video clip
biographer of Stieg Larsson about your favourite character as
a child
LESSON 3 Reading: summary of The Talking about different biopics and
Unsung heroes and Motorcycle Diaries what they have in common
heroines Listening 1: a conversation about Writing a script for an event in a
The Motorcycle Diaries biopic
P changing syllable stress in
nouns and adjectives
Listening 2: a conversation about
Harriet Tubman
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 6 Making confident and tentative statements
P American v British English pronunciation; changing stress patterns on verbs and nouns

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 8 INTRODUCTION Migration Reading: descriptions of Talking about the population of your
This land is my prominent Americans country
land Listening: four short biographies Investigating your family tree

page 83 LESSON 1 How we walk Reason and result Reading: This land is your land Writing about a big concert
We are one clauses Writing a verse for a song about your
country
LESSON 2 Collocations Purpose clauses Reading 1: Opening doors or Acting out a conversation with an
A controversial issue? building fences? immigrant
Reading 2: A long way from Debating for or against the motion
home that immigration does more harm
than good
LESSON 3 How countries are Contrasting ideas Listening: people talking about Talking about citizenship classes
The modern city organised their city
P word stress in longer words

EVERYDAY ENGLISH Giving a presentation


P pausing for punctuation

REVIEW Units 7&8 page 93; Aspects of culture: Folk heroes

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 9 INTRODUCTION Talking about isolated places


Getting away from
it all LESSON 1 Passives 1 – tenses Reading: two descriptions of Writing an email in reply to an online
The call of the wild people living in remote places ad
page 95 Finding out about earthships

LESSON 2 Requirements for Tag questions Listening: an interview for an Talking about an unusual job
The best job in the a job Passives 2 – modal unusual job description
world? Geographical features verbs Reading: The best job in the Creating a video application for a job
P vowel sounds world? Talking about your ideal landscape
Writing a tweet about your ideal
landscape
LESSON 3 The planets Listening 1: vox pops about Writing a description of a planet
A single to Mars! going to Mars Giving a presentation of a planet
Listening 2: people giving
reasons for not wanting to go
to Mars
Reading: I promised to love her,
no matter what
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 6 Asking for and giving permission
P intonation in polite requests

Contents 5
VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 10 INTRODUCTION Water Finding out about clever


The environment Crossings environmental solutions
Man-made things
page 105
LESSON 1 Bridge It is + adjective / noun Reading: Blowing up bridges isn’t Acting out a public meeting to
A tale of two bridges + to easy! discuss a new airport

LESSON 2 Wet and dry Sequencing events Reading: Three environmental Giving a talk about drought
Environmental pioneers Modifying adjectives pioneers prevention and problems
P showing degrees Listening: a conversation about Writing an essay on drought and
of enthusiasm using collecting water from the air its problems
quite
LESSON 3 Waste just Listening: a conversation about Talking about the advantages and
Doomed? unusual ways of improving the disadvantages of recycling
environment Writing an essay on the truth
about recycling
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Suggesting, agreeing and refusing
P changing intonation for refusing or agreeing

REVIEW Units 9&10 page 115; Aspects of culture: Celebrating the seasons

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 11 INTRODUCTION The seven ages of Mini-story Part 1


Getting older man

page 117 LESSON 1 Success Zero and first Reading: Have you missed the Acting out an interview for a local
Will it be too late? conditionals boat? paper
Mini-story Part 2
LESSON 2 Verbs for thinking Second conditional Reading 1: Reach for the sky Thinking of ideas for a project to help
Changing lives P contrasting /s/ and Third conditional Mini-story Part 3 children
/ɵ/ sounds Reading 2: extract from The One Writing a letter to your local
Hundred Year Old Man who government
Climbed Out of the Window Talking about the idea of escaping
and Disappeared from real life
Mini-story Part 4
LESSON 3 wish / if only Listening 1: If I had my life over Deciding what five things you have to
Life is short Mixed conditionals Listening 2: people talking about do before you die
things they wish they had done Writing a description of something
differently in their 20s you’d really like to do
Mini-story Part 5
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 6 Wishing someone well
P intonation used when making a list

VOCABULARY GRAMMAR READING AND LISTENING SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 12 INTRODUCTION Collecting money Listening: raising money for Choosing a charity you’d work for or
Doing things charity raise money for
together
LESSON 1 Surprise Review 1: conditionals Reading: descriptions of two Talking about organising a flash mob
All together now! and cleft sentences different flash mobs performance
page 127
Review 2: reported Listening: a conversation about Writing an announcement for a flash
speech flash mobs mob performance

LESSON 2 Collocations Review 3: verb tenses Reading 1: Want financial help? Giving a talk about a personal project
Can you help me? The countryside and forms Ask your friends! Writing about crowdfunding
Reading 2: A woman and a Thinking of ideas to celebrate a
donkey country
Writing an essay called Celebrating
my country
LESSON 3 Review 4: questions Reading: For the love of chillies Acting out a meeting
The great chilli cook-off P stress and Listening: a meeting of Creating and taking part in a quiz
intonation in contestants for a chilli cook-off about Jetstream upper-intermediate
questions
EVERYDAY ENGLISH Asking for information, clarification and confirmation
P making statements into questions

REVIEW Units 11&12 page 137; Aspects of culture: Respect for older people

Pages 139 – 151 Transcripts


Pages 152 – 163 Writing skills
Pages 164 – 175 Grammar reference

6 Contents
Letter to you, the teacher
Hello – and a big welcome to Jetstream upper- The Teacher’s Guide
intermediate, the course we’ve written to help your As teachers ourselves, we know how busy and
students learn English (and improve what they already demanding a teacher’s life can be. That’s why Jetstream
know). We’ve used engaging and stimulating topics comes with a Teacher’s Guide which takes you through
and activities so that, we believe, students will study each lesson, step by step. There’s a wealth of support
successfully and enjoyably. online, too, including extra material and practice tests.
Our intention has been to blend the familiar (activities However – and this is important to stress – you don’t
and exercises with which teachers and students feel have to use any of this if you don’t feel like it. It’s there
comfortable) with some newer, different features which in case you want it and find it useful, that’s all. But if
are intended to add extra depth and interest to the you’re happy to ‘do your own thing’, that’s wonderful
learning experience, for example: too. We believe that Jetstream allows you considerable
• Jetstream is thought-provoking. It gets students to flexibility if that’s what you’re after!
think in a variety of different ways, not only about
ideas, but also about the language itself; So this is Jetstream: a course designed to provide
• Because we live in a connected digital society, students with a rich and rewarding learning experience;
Jetstream often invites students to venture beyond a course which we believe is extremely enjoyable to
the Student’s Book itself (if they can) and bring teach with.
what they’ve found and enjoyed back to the
classroom; Have a good time and good luck!
• Jetstream presents a wide variety of people, cultural
settings and topics – because learning how to Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer
communicate also means learning about the world
we all live in;
• Above all, Jetstream encourages students to use the
language they’re learning in a grown-up way that
fits with our increasingly interconnected world.

The thinking behind Jetstream


Underlying everything in Jetstream are a number of
principles that have guided us during the writing
process. We believe:
• that what students bring to the learning experience
(and the Student’s Book) is as important as what’s
between the covers. That’s why students are often
asked for their input, and to share (if they want)
their stories, thoughts, reactions and opinions;
• that providing a range of stimulating topics – and,
crucially, a repertoire of appropriately challenging
activities – is the key to successful student
involvement, and, therefore, learning;
• in providing students with a range of the most
appropriate and useful vocabulary at this level – and
offering them different ways of meeting, learning
and practising that vocabulary;
• that grammar is important (of course!) and that
students need to interact with it in enquiring and
creative ways;
• in providing a range of stimulating and appropriate
practice and production activities which bolster
students’ knowledge whilst at the same time giving
scope for creativity and experimentation.
7
Jetstream upper-intermediate For the teacher:
components Teacher’s Guide with class audio CDs
The Teacher’s Guide contains full teaching notes
For the student: for each unit, including all transcripts, keys and
Student’s Book useful background and cultural information, plus
extra ideas for early finishers and mixed-ability
The Student’s Book contains 12 units, each
suggestions.
consisting of an introductory page plus three
Three class audio CDs contain all the listening
lessons and an Everyday English section at the end.
material for the Student’s Book.
It also contains the following: The Teacher’s Guide also contains the following
• a two-page Review unit after every two units extra material:
• a comprehensive grammar reference section • one task per unit with accompanying teaching
• complete transcripts for the audio notes
• a comprehensive writing reference section. • three ‘technique banks’ giving ideas in the
following areas:
Workbook with audio Using the video
The Workbook contains 12 units of six pages – Using memory games
three pages covering the Grammar, Vocabulary Working with mixed-ability classes
and Listening from the lessons in the Student’s
Book, a double-page spread with a Reading Interactive book for whiteboards DVD-ROM
section, and one page for Vocabulary plus and
E-zone
Everyday English.
Full access to the students’ area plus:
It also contains the following:
• the video for all Everyday English pages
• a Review quiz after every two units
• mp3 audio files
• a Check your progress test after every two units
• downloadable Teacher’s Guide with answer keys
• a ‘do-it-yourself’ dictionary listing the key
vocabulary (with phonetics) for each unit and • Helbling placement test
space for students to write their translations or • Testbuilder containing 12 unit tests covering
definitions. grammar, vocabulary, functions and the four
skills and six progress tests.
E-zone
The e-zone is an online resource for students and
teachers containing:
• the video for all the Everyday English pages
• a cloud book – an interactive version of the
Student’s Book, including all video and audio
• cyber homework – interactive activities
covering grammar, vocabulary, reading,
listening and dialogues. They’re assigned by
the teacher in a virtual classroom and have
automatic feedback. (They can also be used in
self-study mode – see below.)
• mp3 audio files
• online training – pronunciation exercises,
exam practice (Cambridge FCE, TOEFL, IELTS
and TOEIC) and cyber homework in self-study
mode (extra practice)
• CLIL projects.
For more information on the e-zone, see page 11.

8 Introduction
Jetstream approach – a Vocabulary
summary It’s increasingly recognised that vocabulary is just
as important as – or perhaps even more important
Motivation than – grammar when learning a language.
Jetstream has a high vocabulary input so that
Research shows that motivation is key to learning;
students can understand, speak, read and write
to learn, students need to be interested! Jetstream
with ease. Stimulating and unusual pictures and
has been written to be highly motivating for
motivating activities ensure students absorb the
students, and includes the following:
vocabulary easily, and there’s plenty of practice.
• interesting and relevant topics Most of the three main lessons in each Jetstream
• stimulating and often thought-provoking unit have a vocabulary component. In addition,
photos there’s a section focusing on phrasal verbs in many
• lots of personalisation activities where students of the Review units which revises common phrasal
are encouraged to talk about themselves verbs in context.
• communicative activities which give students a
real purpose for completing a task Reading
• highly motivating tasks throughout The main reading focus in Jetstream is usually in
the Student’s Book, and also a bank of Lesson 2 of each unit, but there are often other
photocopiable tasks in the Teacher’s Guide shorter reading texts elsewhere.
There’s a variety of high-interest text types – real-
• at least one Song / Poem / Video / Music /
life stories, articles, quizzes, blogs, etc. Where
Film Link in every unit which encourages
possible, texts are based on real people, places and
students to use their English in a fun and less
events.
formal way
• Activities develop students’ ability to scan
• Everyday English pages at the end of every
a text for its general meaning and guess
unit which provide immediately useful
meaning from context.
conversations practising different functions,
including short video clips • Texts, whether in the form of human-interest
articles or fictional stories, are absorbing and
• plenty of games and game-like activities.
memorable and a key way of learning and
practising language.
Grammar
Other sections that provide very short, high-
Grammar is an important element in Jetstream. It’s
interest texts for additional reading comprehension
dealt with in the following way:
relevant to the topic are:
• It’s introduced gradually – each of the three
• Song / Poem / Video / Music / Film Link
main lessons in a unit usually has a grammar
point. This enables the grammar to be • Did you know?
introduced step-by-step, practised and easily The Aspects of culture section in the Review units
absorbed. also provides additional reading matter. It offers
• It’s revised in the Review units that occur after interesting and practical information on different
every two units. cultures and should lead to stimulating discussions.
• The grammar for a lesson is introduced in
context. The grammar form is highlighted and
students are given activities where they deduce
the form and meaning.
• Activities are realistic and meaningful.
• A clear and straightforward grammar reference
section at the end of the Student’s Book
explains each lesson’s grammar.

Introduction 9
Writing • You first! at the start of some lessons uses a
Regular short Writing sections in the Student’s short question to get students engaged with
Book provide guided writing practice through a the lesson topic immediately.
variety of tasks. The core writing course, however, • Everybody up! sections encourage students
is to be found at the back of the book, which to stand up and move around the class,
includes two full pages of guided writing tasks interacting with each other to find out
per module. In this writing development course, information.
students cover the following areas: • The Link and Did you know? sections in the
• an essay main units, and the Aspects of culture sections
• a formal letter or email in the Review units, also provide platforms for
• a report stimulating discussions.
• a review • The photocopiable tasks in the Teacher’s Guide
• an informal email provide further communicative practice.
• an article giving advice.
Pronunciation
There are reminders of useful expressions and
Short pronunciation activities in one lesson of each
other language features: linking words, indirect
unit and in the Everyday English sections provide
questions, etc.
clear practice of some common areas, including:
Check it! sections allow students to review and
improve their work. • specific sounds
• word and sentence stress
Listening • intonation.
The main listening focus in Jetstream is usually in In addition, students are encouraged to listen
Lesson 3 of each unit, but there are often short to and repeat the main vocabulary groups
listening activities elsewhere. The Everyday English throughout the book.
page provides further listening practice in the form
of functional dialogues. Consolidation and review
To train students in useful and relevant listening
Consolidation of recently acquired language
skills, the listening texts reflect a variety of real-life
and regular revision are crucial to learning. After
situations, including conversations, interviews,
every two units, there’s a Review unit that revises
talks, reports and radio programmes.
key language from these units. Each Review unit
The transcripts of the listening texts can be found
contextualises the language through reading and
at the back of the Student’s Book for students’
sometimes listening texts. There are also grammar
reference and are also reproduced with the
exercises and writing and speaking tasks.
relevant activity notes in the Teacher’s Guide.
The Workbook provides further practice, testing
and extension of the language in a unit. In
Speaking addition, after every two units in the Workbook,
For many learners of English, speaking is the most there’s a Review quiz. This is followed by a Check
important language skill. your progress test.
There are speaking activities at all stages of a
lesson in Jetstream:
• At this level, activities are carefully designed
so that students can express themselves freely
without making a lot of mistakes.
• The main speaking section of a lesson generally
has longer speaking activities than earlier in the
lesson.
• The photos, cartoons, listening and reading
texts all provide stimulating platforms for
speaking activities.

10 Introduction
Online resources – available on e-zone Cyber homework
Interactive activities assigned to students by their
HELBLING Placement Test teacher within an online virtual classroom. Results
Designed to give students and teachers of English and feedback are automatically given when the
a quick way of assessing the level of a student’s deadline fixed by the teacher has been reached.
knowledge of English grammar and usage.
Projects
Online training Open-ended tasks on both cultural and global
Resources and interactive activities for individual themes, where students can embed other
student access. Includes: resources such as web links or files and share them
• exam practice with the teacher and their class.
• pronunciation
• all exercises from the cyber homework in
self-study mode.
Cloud book
An interactive version of the Student’s Book and
Workbook, where students can access all audio
and video content at the click of a mouse or touch
of a screen. Students can complete the activities,
check their results and add their own notes.

How to integrate an LMS (a Learning Management System) into your teaching

Initial assessment

Assessment HELBLING Placement Test

1 Planning
Exam practice 6 >
Testbuilder 2 Scope & sequence
>

Teacher’s Guide
5
> 3 Class routine
Virtual class and self-study practice 4
Lesson enrichment Student’s Book
• Projects Workbook
• Online training
• Cyber homework • Resources
• Student downloads • Videos
• Interactive book for whiteboards
• Teacher downloads

Introduction 11
Unit overview

Video option
Students think or find out about
– and / or take a photo of –
something related to the lesson.
After writing and/or making
notes, they record a short piece to
camera using their smartphones
or tablets (like a video blog). They
can then share their video clip
with other students or upload it
to a video-sharing site such as
Look ahead YouTube if they want.
Most of us like to know where
we’re going before we set out!
This section is designed to give
students a general idea of each
unit (or, in the case of Unit 1, the
whole book), to draw them in
and engage their interest. Giving
them the big picture before they
embark on the detail really helps
motivation.

12 Introduction
Guess
Asking students to ‘guess’
answers before reading or
listening to information not
only gets them to interact,
it also frees them up from
having to know the ‘right’
answer and thus inhibiting
their response. In addition,
it prepares them for the
text and gives a valid reason
for reading or listening to
something – to see if they
were right. For this reason,
it’s very important not to
confirm if students are right
or not in their guesses. Just
say things like Hmm or That’s
interesting or Possibly, etc
and let the text provide the
answers. These exercises are
similar to Predict ones, but
involve more guesswork,
rather than ideas based on
evidence.

Search and think


These exercises invite students to look
through a text that they’ve recently read
or listened to, in order to find particular
grammatical structures (or sometimes
categories of vocabulary) and think about
how they’re used or what they mean,
before going on to practise them in
further exercises.

Introduction 13
Everybody up!
This is a chance for students
to move around the classroom
and use specific language in a
controlled way to get information
from other students. This kind
of short, intensive practice
can be very lively and also very
rewarding if students succeed
in completing the task using the
language resources available to
them. In addition, it allows them
to interact with lots of different
people. The act of physically
getting up and moving around
is also mentally refreshing; being
physically active helps us to
learn. Students may naturally
find that they engage in longer
conversations than the activity
requires. If time allows, this is
good and enjoyable practice for
them. However, it’s a good idea
to set a time limit for this type of
activity.

Link
Each unit contains at least one
Link section, featuring a song,
a poem, a piece of music, a film
or a video clip which relates to
themes and topics in the lesson.
These sections utilise students’
natural interest in these things
to motivate them and transfer Did you know?
the topic language to a new These are very short, interesting pieces
context. The tasks give them of information related to the theme of
the opportunity to listen to / the lesson. The section can usually be
read / view the material and then done at any point in the lesson. The
research online to answer some teacher’s notes sometimes suggest
questions or do a short associated ways of exploiting it, but if students
activity. They then bring the want to know more, they can be
information back to the class, encouraged to search online.
which should often stimulate
lively discussions. There’s a natural
mixed-ability element: more
competent students will be able
to take it further than those who
are less competent.

14 Introduction
You first!
You’ll find a You first! box
on the large photos at the
beginning of many of the
lessons. It has a triple purpose.
Firstly, to engage students and
get them saying something
immediately. Secondly, to allow
students to use what they
already know and boost their
confidence. And thirdly, to
give you an idea of what and
how much they already know
so that you can target your
teaching much more effectively.
What if your students don’t
respond at all? That’s fine. Now
you know. Just move on and
start to teach them something.

Introduction 15
Memory
This symbol represents your brain!
Memory is a crucial component
in learning anything and it’s like a
muscle: the more you exercise it,
the stronger it’ll be. These simple
games ask students to remember
a variety of things: vocabulary
items, facts from an article and
so on. But you can do a lot more
activities than the ones suggested
here (see page 262). And
remember that the more you get
students to exercise their memory
in English, the more it’ll serve
them in other aspects of their life
as well.

Think
This is used to signal a creative
or critical-thinking exercise.
Students are asked to work
something out for themselves,
give their opinions or comments
or use their creativity, rather than
find an answer directly on the
page. A simple example might
be where a text describes a
problem at work and students
are invited to come up with
solutions. Encouraging students
to think creatively means they
increase their engagement with
the material. The increased
Explore online
alertness enhances their learning
capacity. This is an opportunity for students
With these sections – as indeed to go beyond the page and find out
with many others – it’s a good more about some aspect of the topic:
idea to give students a chance a sort of mini project. They should
to look at the material and think do the research online, make notes
about (or even write down) and report back, working either alone
their ideas individually (for say or in pairs. You may want to set this
30 seconds) before they start up in the classroom by suggesting
talking to each other. Some possible websites or just by eliciting
students are quick thinkers and suggestions for words and phrases to
talkers, while others need more type into the search engine. As with
time. Giving them ‘thinking time’ the Link feature (see page 14), there’s
evens it out a little. a natural mixed-ability element to this
section.

16 Introduction
Take a break
Apart from providing tiny practical texts to read, these sections are
there to help students unwind from time to time. Why? Because,
quite simply, we don’t learn well when we’re stressed; we learn
best when we’re relaxed. These little exercises give students the
opportunity to switch off for a few moments, in order to recharge
their batteries and come back to the task in hand with renewed
energy!
If it’s a piece of advice, talk about it with students. If it’s a physical
exercise, students can read it and follow the instructions. Do it there
and then in the classroom if you can. Then you can use it again
and again, whenever it’s useful (see, for example, page 45 of the
Student’s Book, where students are asked to imagine themselves in
a relaxing place).

Introduction 17
Grammar reference
There’s a useful grammar
reference at the back of the
Student’s Book. Each main
grammar point from the
grammar boxes throughout
the book has a relevant section
in the grammar reference.

P Pronunciation
The pronunciation activities
appear in one lesson of every
unit of the Student’s Book,
plus the Everyday English
section. At upper-intermediate
level, there’s work on stress
and intonation, as well as
sounds, as these can often
pose problems for students.
All the pronunciation activities
are recorded so that students
can hear the correct sounds or
stress.

18 Introduction
Predict
Students use different elements
(photos, titles, questions, etc)
to predict what’s in a text. The
idea is to motivate them to
engage with the material; to
give them a very good reason
for reading or listening to see if
they were right!

Listening
This symbol tells you
that there’s recorded material
that goes with the activity. This
can either be a full listening
text or it might be listening to
check answers and / or hear
the correct pronunciation, as
here. Full transcripts are given
in the back of the Student’s
Book.

Finish it
These exercises are personalisation tasks
where students complete short sentence
stems with their own information or ideas,
and then compare with other students
(often in an Everybody up! activity).

Introduction 19
Your story
Students generally enjoy
personalising what they’ve just
learnt; these exercises ask them
to think about some aspect of
the lesson as it relates to them
personally, and then share their
‘story’ with other members of
their group.

20 Introduction
Everyday English
This section provides practice in
the everyday functional language
that students need when
interacting with people, such as
making suggestions, giving advice,
discussing opinions and so on.

Takeaway language
These exercises are optional.
They pull out useful everyday
expressions from a text or dialogue
and present them for students to
think about and ‘take away’ and
use themselves.

Mini-talk
Students write down their ideas
in answer to questions relating
to the lesson and then shape
them up into a short talk, using
digital presentation media where
appropriate. They then present
their talk to a (small) group of
6 Video other students.
The main conversation in the odd-
numbered Everyday English sections
appears on video, which provides extra
contextualisation for the functional
language. (If you don’t have the video
or prefer not to use it, then just play the
audio version.)
See also Using the video on page 261.

Introduction 21
Review
Six Review units revise key
language from the preceding two
units, using a reading text as the
main presentation.

22 Introduction
Aspects of culture
Each of the Review units finishes
with an Aspects of culture section.
This is often an opportunity to
reflect on how people do things
differently (or not!) in different
parts of the world and how we
can begin to be sensitive to these
differences and act accordingly.
There’s usually a short reading
text with a task or questions,
often leading to a discussion and
a comparison with the students’
own culture(s).

Role-play
Students are given a scenario /
roles / questions, often based on
a dialogue they’ve just heard, and
are asked to script a short scene
for themselves, which they then
act out. The level of support given
can be adapted to suit students’
abilities, ranging from allowing
them to look at the original
text as they work to completely
reinventing the conversation off
the top of their head.

Phrasal verbs
This section appears in many of
the Review units and provides
a short text that both revises
and extends phrasal verbs that
students already know and
introduces new ones in context.

Introduction 23
A final word
The features new to Jetstream, which occur 5 People know a lot already – more than they
throughout the units, are informed – in a think. Good teaching and good material can
gentle way – by some of the key principles of help to make students aware of what they
Holistic Learning (sometimes called Accelerated already know and boost their confidence.
Learning*): 6 People are different. Some people are more
1 We learn with our body as well as our mind: outgoing and sociable, while others are more
they are connected. Hence the value we attach introspective and reflective. The former readily
to bringing more physical activities into the enjoy interacting with others, while the latter
classroom and paying attention to students’ often prefer to work on their own. They usually
physical well-being. welcome time to think on their own too,
2 Different learners prefer different kinds of before being asked to participate in an activity.
input. Some people learn more with their eyes, As teachers, we need to try to cater for these
some more with their ears and some more differences.
with their bodies and movement. We aim to
provide a variety of activities to reflect these
preferences.
3 What we learn with emotion, we tend to
remember best. We hope to engage students’
emotions through the use of stories, songs and *The roots of Accelerated Learning go back to the
games – and making them laugh. Bulgarian educator, Georgi Lozanov, who developed
4 Our memory is very powerful … and we can something called ‘Suggestopaedia’ in the early 1960s.
make it work even better. The reason for all the Helping learners feel comfortable, relaxed and confident
little memory-training games is to give students meant that they were able to absorb and remember more
practice in using their memory, and aid their information more quickly. That’s it in a nutshell!
learning.

24 Introduction
1 Beginnings
GRAMMAR: time and tense reviews (the past, present and future)
UNIT VOCABULARY: collocations; keep; emotions
FOCUS FUNCTIONS: expressing disappointment and joy

Introduction p7 C Verona, Italy (in the garden of Juliet’s


house)
Aim D Morecambe Bay, northern England
The focus of this lesson is to give students the 3 A It’s in memory of his courage.
opportunity to get to know each other and to introduce B Because she is the official head of state
the unit through the topics of statues, names and origins. in Australia.
C Because it’s where she supposedly lived.
You first! D Because he came from Morecambe.
There are You first! boxes at the beginning of many 4 Statue A
lessons in the Student’s Book. They have three goals:
firstly, to engage students and get them saying Transcript
something immediately; secondly, to allow students to We asked four people to describe their favourite
use what they already know and boost their confidence; statues – statues that mean something to them.
and thirdly, to give you an idea of what they already 1 One of my favourite statues of all time – really
know so that you can target your teaching much more – is at Morecambe Bay, a seaside town in
effectively. Students can say as much or as little as they northern England. It’s the figure of a dancing
want. For more information about these exercises, see man – one arm and one leg raised. The man
the Introduction, page 15. is Eric Morecambe, a British comedian who,
For this one, students look quickly at the four photos with his partner Ernie Wise, used to have a
and establish that all of them show statues of people. show on British TV. One night, their show had
Then elicit answers to the You first! question from a 27 million viewers – nearly three-fifths of the
selection of students, encouraging other students to say entire population! Eric and Ernie – as people
whether they agree or disagree with the suggestions, called them – always used to end their TV
and why. show by dancing to a tune called Bring Me
1 GUESS When you see GUESS in front of an Sunshine and that’s why the statue is dancing.
instruction, it means students can talk about what Morecambe wasn’t Eric’s real name. He chose
they think the answers are, but they don’t have to it because that’s where he was from! He was
know for sure. For more information about these a keen birdwatcher too, and that’s why the
exercises, see the Introduction, page 13. statue has a pair of binoculars.
Students talk about the questions in pairs. Compare 2 I love the statue of Juliet in Verona, in Italy.
answers as a class to see if there’s consensus. It’s in the garden of Juliet’s house, and people
come in their hundreds of thousands to visit
2 1.2 Play the recording for students to check their – which is weird, because Juliet wasn’t a real
answers to 1. Pause after each section to establish person at all! She’s a fictional character –
which statue the speaker was talking about (1 D, Juliet Capulet – from William Shakespeare’s
2 C, 3 B, 4 A). After the whole recording, students play Romeo and Juliet, one of the most
compare answers with a partner. Check as a class. famous plays ever written. But even though
Then have students talk in pairs about which statue she never lived, people write letters to her and
they like best and why. You could also have a quick they touch the statue for good luck. Recently,
class vote for the most popular statue. they had to replace the statue because all that
touching damaged the original. As I said, it’s
Answers weird, but I love it all the same!
3 I got a huge surprise the other day. I was in
1 A, B and D are of real people (Martin Luther
Brisbane in Australia, outside the parliament
King, Queen Elizabeth II, Eric Morecambe);
building. And there she was – Queen
C is a fictional character (Juliet Capulet).
Elizabeth the Second. A young Queen
2 A Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Elizabeth the Second. It surprised me, because
B Brisbane, Australia (outside the
a lot of people in Australia don’t want her to
parliament building)
be the official head of the state – they want
Unit 1 25
a republic, a country without a monarchy. few minutes to think of a city beginning with each
But it’s a great statue, I think, and what I like letter of their name, and explain that they should
about it is that the Queen is carrying a purse, say them in jumbled order. Then ask students in
and that’s funny. Why? Because in real life, random order to say the cities; the rest of the class
the Queen never carries money around with has to work out the name. If the class is very large,
her! you could divide students into two or more large
4 I was in Atlanta, Georgia – in the USA – a groups for this activity.
few months ago, and I went to visit the
5 Give students a few minutes to prepare answers to
tomb of a hero of mine, the civil rights leader
the questions about their given name(s) and their
Martin Luther King. And right there is a
nicknames (if this isn’t embarrassing for them).
statue known as the Behold Statue. It shows
Encourage them to rehearse how they’re going to
a typical African naming ceremony, when a
say the information in their heads first. During this
father (or an elder) holds the baby up to the
preparation stage, go round the class monitoring
sky and says: ‘Behold the only thing greater
and assisting where needed.
than yourself.’ At the bottom of the statue
are the words ‘Dedicated to the memory of
Dr Martin Luther King Junior for his moral Extra idea: For extra support, present an example
courage and nobility of spirit’. I thought the to the class first, before they move on to 6:
My name’s Liliana. Well, actually it’s Ana Liliana,
whole thing was so moving. I love that statue.
but my parents just call me Liliana. Most of
3 Give students a minute to look at the words and my friends shorten it to Lili. I think it means
phrases and see if they can remember which of the something like ‘the lily flower’. My parents
four statues they refer to. Play the recording again; chose it for me because my grandmother had
students check in pairs, taking it in turns to explain the same name. I’m proud to share my name
how each word or phrase is connected to one of with her. She’s awesome!
the statues.
6 Divide the class into groups of about five or six to
Answers tell each other about their names.
A African naming ceremony; Atlanta, Georgia;
Martin Luther King Jr; The Behold Statue EXPLORE ONLINE
B Australian head of state; Brisbane; Queen The Explore online exercises give students the
Elizabeth opportunity to go beyond the page and find out more
C Juliet; Juliet’s house; Romeo and Juliet; about some aspect of the topic for themselves, on their
Verona, Italy; William Shakespeare computer, smartphone or other mobile device. The
D birdwatcher; Bring me sunshine; comedian; online research can be done individually, or in pairs or
Eric Morecambe; Ernie Wise groups, either in the classroom or at home. If it’s done at
home, you can set it up in the classroom beforehand by
suggesting possible websites or by eliciting suggestions
Extra idea: Ask additional questions about for words and phrases to type into the search engine.
the information in the recording to check more
detailed comprehension (eg A Why is the statue Tip: Students often enjoy using their smartphones
called the Behold Statue? B What surprised the for online searching, so encourage them to
speaker about the statue of Queen Elizabeth? find out information on the internet. If it’s in
What did the speaker think was funny? C Why English, it’s useful extra reading practice; if
did the statue have to be replaced recently? it’s in their own language, it’s also useful, as
D How popular was the TV comedy show it gets them to translate into English.
‘Morecambe and Wise?’ Why is the statue
dancing?). 7 EVERYBODY UP! When you see
If students seem interested, they could research EVERYBODY UP! in front of an instruction, it
more information about one of them for means that this is a chance for students to move
homework. around the classroom and use the language they’ve
learnt. This kind of short, intensive practice can
4 This a fun activity which helps students to learn be very lively and also very rewarding if students
each other’s names at the beginning of the course. succeed in completing the task using the language
If students already know each other’s first names, resources available to them. For more information
you could do this with their surnames, which they about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 14.
will probably be less familiar with. Give students a Students think about the question, then walk

26 Unit 1
around the room comparing names and reasons Reading
with as many other students as they can. After five
or ten minutes, round off by eliciting any similarities 1 GUESS Students look at the photo and guess the
between names and reasons that students have answers to the two questions. Elicit answers from
discovered. a selection of students, but don’t confirm whether
the answers are correct or not at this point.
Tip: Set a fixed time limit for this kind of activity.
2 Give students about 30 seconds to read text A and
This will encourage students not to waste
find out what is strange about the story.
time. You may want to introduce an agreed
signal for indicating the end of walk-around
activities that everyone recognises and which Suggested answer
avoids raising your voice, since these activities At 15, the boy is the first of his siblings (five
can be noisy, for example switching the lights brothers and one sister) to walk out of the
on and off or raising your hand. apartment.
He goes into a grocery store wearing a scary
mask.
8 LOOK AHEAD When you see
LOOK AHEAD in front of an instruction, it
means that students can take a quick look through Extra idea: Students suggest what possible
the pages of the unit or book to react to certain explanations there might be for why Mukunda
items or make predictions. This is a normal part and his siblings haven’t left the apartment
of the reading process and helps to build up before, and why he wore the mask.
anticipation and interest in the lessons that follow.
For more information about these exercises, see the
3 Explain that the mystery will be solved by reading
Introduction, page 12. Encourage students to flick
the other texts (B–F), but that for now, students are
through the whole book and share their reactions
each going to read only one other text. Put them
to specific items that catch their eye.
in groups of five and make sure that within each
group they each choose a different letter (B–F),
Extra ideas: Write these questions on the board;
corresponding to one of the texts. Pre-teach the
students compare their answers with a partner:
term maiden name (= the surname a woman had
1 What do you hope you will have achieved
before she got married and changed it).
by the end of the course?
2 What do you hope it will be like to learn in
Tip: If the number of students doesn’t divide
your group?
exactly into groups of five (one student per
3 How do you think you will feel when the
text B–F), you could have fewer in the group
course is over?
but give stronger students two texts each.
Students write a letter to themselves about their
Alternatively, you could have more in a group
answers to the questions above, put it in a sealed
and double up weaker students on the same
envelope and give it to you to deliver when the
text so that they can help each other.
course finishes.

MA Pair weaker students with stronger ones to


Lesson 1 Breaking free pp8–9 help them with the text.

Give students about 30 seconds to read their text,


Aims then ask them to tell each other in their groups
The focus of this lesson is to revise present and past the key information from what they’ve read. While
tenses, use collocations with home, and put together a they’re reporting, walk round and monitor to make
story from shared extracts. sure they’re not simply reading out their text, but
conveying the main information as far as possible in
You first! their own words. Give assistance at this point only if
Students work in groups to compare with each other requested.
the main rules their parents imposed when they were
When they’ve all reported the contents of their texts,
children. After a few minutes, encourage the class
each group works together and uses the combined
as a whole to summarise. (Ask: What were the most
information to answer the three questions.
common rules you’ve talked about? Were there any
unusual rules you’ve heard about?) You could also ask if
they felt the rules were reasonable or unreasonable.

Unit 1 27
4 Students work in pairs to figure out the meaning
Answers of the words and phrases in blue in the texts.
1 They are the seven Angulo family children Encourage them to deduce the meaning from the
(Bhagavan, Govinda, Narayana, Mukunda, context, but allow them to check in a dictionary to
Krsna, Jagadisa and Visnu) and their confirm their guesses.
mother, Susanne.
2 Probably because they wanted to Tip: Encouraging students to work out the
disassociate themselves from their father / meaning of words and phrases from context is
husband, his religion and his paranoia, and extremely useful, since it’s a real-life skill which
to adapt to a more normal modern life. will enable them to read all kinds of texts
3 During their imprisonment, all they did was without necessarily knowing the meaning of
watch movies and re-enact their favourite vocabulary they’ve not come across before.
scenes. Then, in 2015, Crystal Moselle
made a documentary film about them (The
Wolfpack). Answers
neighbourhood = the area around where you live
intrigued = very interested and a bit puzzled
Extra idea: Give students five minutes to read
sect = a very strict religious group
the texts they haven’t read, and ask additional
work-shy = not willing to work
questions to check comprehension of the whole
welfare cheques = money from the state given
story. Write the questions on the board while
as support to poor people
they’re reading:
homeschool teacher = a person who teaches
B How did the filmmaker meet the boys? (She children who are being educated at home, not
was walking along First Avenue in New York in school
when she saw them walking together. She interacted = communicated
ran after them.) transformation = complete change
C What was the origin of the children’s
names? (They are Sanskrit names.)
5 This activity encourages students to compare their
Are any of them in contact with their
own personal reactions to the Angulo family story
father? (Only one – Bhagavan)
with those of their classmates. Students work in
D Why did the children stay in the apartment
pairs and follow the instructions. Give them a few
almost all the time? (Because their father
minutes to do the sentence writing, dictating,
thought the outside world was dangerous
comparing and rewriting. Then, as a class, elicit
and wanted to protect them.)
sentences from a selection of pairs to see how
E What happened to Mukunda when he
similar or different they are.
left the apartment by himself? (He was
arrested because he was wearing a mask.) EXPLORE ONLINE
Why did he initially refuse to speak to This can be done in class if you have internet access, or
anyone? (Because his father had told him for homework, with the sharing taking place in the next
not to talk to strangers.) lesson. You could either let students choose which topic
F What happened to the film about the they’d like to research or, to facilitate group sharing in
boys? (It won a prize at a film festival.) the next lesson, you could share out the topics so that
each one is covered by approximately the same number
of students.
Background note
It’s important to realise that the story is told in 6 VIDEO OPTION When you see
bits, not in a linear fashion (ie one section does VIDEO OPTION in front of an instruction, it
not follow on from another). This isn’t a text gives students the chance to make a short film on
broken up into six sections; they’re independent their smartphones using the language and topic
extracts which, when they’re shared, form they’ve been studying. For more information about
the basis for the construction of a story in these exercises, see the Introduction, page 12.
whatever sequence students want. Reading Give students a few minutes in class to brainstorm
is being used for a different purpose than the ideas for movies and characters.
usual beginning–middle–end format. It’s one
of the many ways we read, eg when we read MA Students could do this in pairs and interview
about the same story in different newspapers or each other in the video.
magazines.

28 Unit 1
Grammar Time and tense review 1: should use as many past and present verb tenses as
possible.
the present and the past
Stop students when the time’s up and tell them to
1 Students match the tense names and descriptions,
swap their sentences with another student. They
then check with a partner.
should count up the number of (correctly used)
instances of past and present tenses, giving a total
Answers for each tense and an overall total. Assist if requested
present simple: b present continuous: c to confirm whether a tense is correctly used or not.
present perfect: d past simple: a Then compare scores as a class, both for each tense
past continuous: e and for total verb tenses. The winner(s) should read
out their accounts to the class.
MA Elicit from the class and write on the board
an example of affirmative, negative and question Vocabulary Collocations
forms of each of the tenses, with a regular and an 1 Explain that the same word can fill the gap in each
irregular verb (eg play, go) for the benefit of weaker line. Give students a minute to think what it could
students. be.
2 Address this question to the class as a whole. Then
elicit or provide a simple example (eg She goes into Answer
the kitchen and sees a mouse. It’s running across home
the floor to the fridge, etc).
MA If students are struggling to find the answer
Answer because the sentences are incomplete, encourage
The present simple and present continuous are them to look at the word(s) immediately before and
also used instead of past tenses to tell stories, after each gap. This will help them to identify the
jokes and anecdotes and to summarise the plots collocations.
of films, books or plays.
Once the answer is established, go through the
different collocations, checking that students know
3 Give students a few minutes to find examples of the their use and meanings.
tenses in texts A–F, then compare with a partner.

Answers Tip: Encourage students to always write new words


and phrases down in their vocabulary books.
present opens, lives, walks, is, goes,
If they don’t have one, encourage them to
simple walks, do [you] do, make, calls,
is, has, says get one and look back at new language on a
regular basis to help to develop their vocabulary.
present is wearing, is using
continuous
present has chosen 2 This checks the grammatical composition of the
perfect collocations. Give students a minute to decide in
pairs.
past simple ran, was, ran, looked, talked,
asked, said, replied, was, met,
was, fell, got, was, had, gave, Answers
believed, kept, left, didn’t a) a broken home
know, existed, was, earned, b) moved back home
lived, had, was, saw, received, c) the family home, a holiday home, their
arrested, was, stayed, loved,
vacation home
was, interacted, was, started,
d) at home, (work) from home
became, filmed, learnt, won
e) left home
past was walking, was scaring
continuous
Speaking and writing
4 For the competition, give students a fixed time limit, 1 Give students a short time to write down five or
eg five minutes, to write in their notebooks as many more words. Encourage them to think of personal
sentences as they can about a visit to the cinema, associations with home rather than words from the
answering the four questions. Explain that they lesson.

Unit 1 29
2 Students compare their words with a partner, the title of the article? (They are all about
explain their choices and ask for explanations of people who lived without human contact
their partner’s choices. or language in childhood, and deal with
how we learn language.)
3 Still in pairs, tell students to ask, answer and
discuss the questions. Monitor pairs, assisting if
needed. Then explain that they should use these 3 This symbol shows that this is a memory game
four questions as the basis for a short essay about – the first of many in the book. Memory is an
their home. Elicit in what order they would use important part of learning anything, and the more
the points, to establish a rough plan, and set the we exercise our memory by playing these kinds of
writing of the essay for homework. Suggest an game, the better it will be.
approximate length, eg 100–120 words. Put students in pairs to try to remember the
MA You could give weaker students a shorter word answers to the questions without looking back at
length, eg 70–100 words. the article. To prepare students for question 3, you
may need to teach / elicit the meaning of mock

Lesson 2 How (not) to learn a to enable them to work out what a mockingbird
is. Then they read the article again to check their
language pp10–13 answers.

Aims Answers
The focus of this lesson is to revise past tenses and 1 L’Enfant Sauvage
practise phrases using the verb keep. Students also find 2 L’Enfant Sauvage
out about films concerning cases of children brought up 3 Mockingbird Don’t Sing
in seclusion, explore ideas about language acquisition, 4 The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser
and learn about The Jungle Book. 5 Mockingbird Don’t Sing
6 Mockingbird Don’t Sing
You first! 7 The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser
Students ask and answer the question in small groups.
They then compare and find out who speaks the most
languages in the class. Extra idea: Ask additional questions about
the article to bring out more details on the
Reading and speaking questions in 3:
1 When was the boy found? How old was he?
1 GUESS Explain that the three photos on page (In 1798 when he was ‘a pre-adolescent boy’)
10 are stills from a film. Students work in pairs and 2 Who was the kind individual? (A doctor
discuss what they think the film might be about. named Jean Marc Gaspard Itard)
Collect feedback from a selection of pairs, but don’t 3 When and where was the girl found?
confirm the answer at this point. (In California in 1970)
2 Give students five minutes to read the article to How old was she? (13 years old)
check their guesses. Where had she been kept? (In a single room
with no human contact)
4 When and where did this take place?
Answer
(In Germany in the 19th century)
The stills are from François Truffaut’s L’Enfant How old was Kaspar when he was found?
Sauvage (The Wild Child). (17 years old)
Where had he been kept? (In a cellar)
5 Where does she live now? (In an adult care
Tip: Giving students a time limit for reading and a
home)
simple task encourages them to read quickly
How good are her language skills? (Not very
for main ideas and not get distracted by
good – she can use a few words and phrases,
unnecessary details and unfamiliar words.
but not connective grammar)
6 Who should have helped her? (The state and
Extra idea: Ask two additional questions: government agencies)
1 What are the names of the other two films
mentioned? (Mockingbird Don’t Sing and 4 Give students a few minutes to scan through the
The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser) article to find the words, then check answers in
2 How are all three films connected with pairs.

30 Unit 1
Answers 8 The article mentions the idea that when
1 abuse 2 psychologists 3 linguists babies hear language, it’s a form of social
4 agencies 5 cellar 6 invention 7 hindrance interaction with people around them, which
is an important part of learning language.

5 Students work in pairs to discuss the meaning of


the concepts, then check as a class. 7 P 1.3 This symbol shows that this exercise
focuses on pronunciation. Write caught, short,
Answers more, law and bought on the board. Ask students
how they’re pronounced and establish that, despite
1 learning how to understand and
the very different spellings, they all have the same
communicate using a language
vowel sound: /ɔː/. Give students a few minutes to
2 an electronic device that uses binary
read the article again and find all the words that
language to perform tasks controlled by
have this sound. Then play the recording for them
programs known as ‘software’; it may take
to check their answers.
the form of a desktop computer, a laptop or
a tablet Discuss any words that students think should
3 a very important time also be included, and remind them that not all or
4 knowing the rules of the grammatical spellings have this sound. If they’re unstressed, the
systems of a language sound is likely to be /ə/, as in for most of her 13
5 learning using the internet years, for centuries, etc.
6 the time in life when a boy or girl becomes
sexually mature Answers and transcript
7 reading written material such as books, story, California, talked, according, called, or,
newspapers, etc before, important
8 communicating with other people

8 P Put students in groups and give them two


6 Give students a few minutes to find examples in minutes to list as many other words with the /ɔː/
the article, then discuss with a partner why they’re sound as they can. Monitor this activity and note
mentioned. Check as a class. any difficulties students have in distinguishing
this sound from other vowel sounds, or if there’s
Answers a particular spelling which is causing difficulties.
1 The phrase language acquisition itself is not When the time is up, groups do a word count and
in the article, but it does mention that the the group with the most words writes their list on
films deal with the mystery of how human the board. (One student says the words out loud
beings acquire language. while another writes them on the board.) If there
2 The article suggests that we might have a are any mistakes in either pronunciation or spelling,
kind of computer in our heads that converts encourage the rest of the class to identify them. Ask
the language we hear into the ability to members of other groups to say any words in their
produce language. own lists that are not in the list on the board.
3 The article asks if there is a critical period in MA Put a mixture of students with good and less
childhood when children need to learn their good pronunciation in each group so that the
first language. stronger ones can help sort out uncertainties.
4 The article mentions that grammatical
accuracy is needed for effective Extra idea: If students are having difficulty
communication, and later asks whether distinguishing /ɔː/ from certain specific other
a knowledge of grammar is a help or a sounds, you could do some minimal-pair
hindrance in learning a language. repetition, focusing on those sounds, eg pot–
5 The article asks whether the best place to put–port, cock–cook–cork, cod–could–cord;
learn these days, in our digital world, is call–coal, hall–whole, law–low, ball–bowl, etc.
online. Write them on the board too, so that students
6 The article suggests that first language see the spelling.
learning should perhaps take place before
puberty.
9 THINK When you see THINK in front of
7 The article asks whether reading books is
an instruction, it means students should think
the best way of learning a language.
about ideas on their own for a moment before

Unit 1 31
they talk to other students (think–pair–share).
6 has always fascinated C
This type of exercise often asks students to be
7 had never listened B
imaginative or creative, or to work something out.
8 has lost C
For more information about these exercises, see the
9 have made C
Introduction, page 16.
10 never managed A
Check that everyone is clear what the questions 11 has been residing D
at the end of the article are – if necessary, refer 12 had talked B
students back to the article (line 40 to the end) – 13 tried A
and establish that the questions in these paragraphs 14 understood A
are all connected with the final summarising
question at the very end of the article (What is 2 Give students another few minutes to match the
the best way to learn a foreign language?). Put descriptions A–D with the tense names.
students in groups to discuss these questions for
five minutes, then ask a student from each group to
Answers
report their ideas to the class.
1B 2A 3D 4C
Tip: Keep group sizes relatively small (a maximum
of five students) to ensure that everyone has 3 This focuses on the difference in usage between
a chance to contribute to the discussion. If the present perfect simple and present perfect
students are particularly reticent to speak (or continuous. Point out that both forms are correct in
some are much more talkative than others), the examples given and that the time frame is the
give each student a number of counters; same. Give students a moment to think, then elicit
each time they contribute to the discussion, (or if necessary explain) the answer.
they have to ‘spend’ one of their counters. MA Stronger students in the class should be able to
Once they’ve used them all, they can’t say explain this very clearly, so give them the chance to
any more until everyone in the group has do so.
spent their counters.
Answer
Extra idea: You could ask students to write a The difference is in the emphasis of the duration
paragraph or two on what they believe, or what of the past event and its continuation in the
their group decided, is the best way to learn a present. So in sentence 1, the emphasis is on
foreign language. the fact that people started puzzling in the past
and it is still very much an ongoing thing in the
present; have puzzled has a very similar meaning,
Grammar Time and tense review 2: the past but there isn’t as much emphasis on the duration
and the continuation in the present.
1 SEARCH AND THINK When you see
SEARCH AND THINK in front of an instruction
in a grammar or vocabulary exercise, it indicates Extra idea: To clarify the present perfect
that students need to go back through a reading simple / continuous difference, write a few
text or transcript to find particular examples of sentences with verb tenses missing on the
language. For more information about these board and ask students to decide which tense
exercises, see the Introduction, page 13. would be most appropriate: present perfect
simple or present perfect simple.
Give students time to find the 14 verbs in the first
three paragraphs of the article on page 10 (ie lines 1 I _____ (wait) for you for ages. Where are
1–37) and write the past forms used. Then they you? (have been waiting)
should match them with the descriptions. Check as 2 I _____ (just / finish) my homework. Now I
a class. can go out. (have just finished)
3 How long ____ (you / try) to contact Peter?
Answers (have you been trying)
1 had never achieved B 4 That dog is covered in mud! What _____
2 had been B; was A (it / do)? (has it been doing)
3 was never able to A 5 I _____ (see) that film twice already. (have
4 had become B seen)
5 directed A

32 Unit 1
4 FINISH IT When you see FINISH IT in front
Answers
of an instruction, it indicates a personalisation
exercise where students complete short sentence 1 informed 2 busy 3 shirt on
stems with their own information. For more 4 arm’s length 5 calm 6 secret
information about these exercises, see the 7 low profile 8 shut 9 waiting 10 awake
Introduction, page 19.
MA Ask stronger students or early finishers to list
Put students in pairs and give them a few minutes other phrases with keep that they know (eg keep
to complete the sentences in their own words, your hair on, keep quiet, keep an appointment,
in two different ways. Encourage them to use keep a diary, keep something back, keep in with
their imagination. Monitor the pairs and assist if someone, keep yourself to yourself, keep up
required. appearances).
5 EVERYBODY UP! Tell students to walk around 3 Address this question to the whole class.
the room asking questions to find people who
fit the descriptions in their sentences from 4.
Answer
Encourage them to ask further questions to find out
more details. Keep your shirt on and keep your mouth shut
are used mostly in informal conversation. They
MA For the benefit of weaker students, elicit the
would be considered rather rude in more formal
question forms to match the sentences, eg Have
spoken contexts and would be very rare in
you ever …?, beforehand.
writing.

Tip: To encourage maximum interaction, monitor


the activity without interfering, but discreetly 4 Give pairs five minutes to write their conversation.
encourage students to move on if they get Tell them to aim to try to include as many phrases
stuck with the same student for too long. with keep as possible.

5 Give students a few minutes to memorise their


Take a break conversation and act it out. Ask for one or two
These sections are there to help students take a break pairs to volunteer to act out their conversation in
from studying from time to time. You’ll find a simple front of the class, from memory.
Take a break exercise in every unit, usually one that’s MA You could let students who are less confident
easy to do in the classroom – but feel free to do one at do theirs with the ‘script’.
any time. For more detailed information about the Take
a break sections, see the Introduction page 17. Extra idea: Ask students to record or video
Allow students time to think of relaxing words, create a their conversations and share them with the
short poem and recite it to their partner. class online. This is likely to be more popular
with students than acting out in front of the
Tip: Play some very relaxing, quiet, unintrusive class.
background music to create a relaxed and
pleasant atmosphere for these activities.
Listening
Vocabulary keep 1 Address the question to the whole class and invite
suggestions. Don’t confirm the answer at this point,
1 Tell students to look back quickly at the article but the photo on the page should give a clue.
on page 10 to find the phrases and answer the
questions. 2 1.4 Play the recording for students to check.
Then elicit what students already knew about The
Answers Jungle Book – many students will have read the
book or comics as children or seen one of the films.
1 Genie 2 Kaspar Hauser

Answer
2 Elicit any phrases with the verb keep that students
The Jungle Book
know and write them on the board. Students then
work in pairs to do the exercise. Encourage them to
pool their knowledge to complete the sentences,
then check as a class. For each one, make sure that
students understand the meaning of the phrase.

Unit 1 33
Transcript about animals and the jungle. And the stories in
grandpa Now this is the law of the jungle, as old The Jungle Book are about more than just that.
and as true as the sky, and the wolf that shall keep They’re about life and society, that kind of thing.
tim Maybe I should read some of his stuff.
it may prosper, but the wolf that shall break it must
grandpa Yes, why don’t you? Do you some good!
die.
tim Look, sorry, Grandpa, but I have to go.
tim What on earth are you talking about, Grandpa?
grandpa The law of the jungle. From The Jungle grandpa Go? But you’ve only just arrived.

Book by Rudyard Kipling. 3 Explain the activity and show the example in the
tim Rudyard Kipling! I haven’t heard his name in book, then play the recording again. Students work
ages. in pairs to write sentences using the three boxes.
grandpa He was a great writer – especially children’s Check by asking pairs to take it turns to read out an
stories. Like The Jungle Book. You remember The answer each.
Jungle Book?
tim Well, we used to watch that old Disney cartoon
Answers
when we were kids.
Bagheera is a black panther that helps Mowgli
grandpa About Mowgli and his friends.
when he is in danger.
tim Who’s Mowgli? Oh, wait, yes, he’s the boy who
Baloo is a bear that teaches Mowgli ‘the law of
lives in the jungle. And the wolves bring him up as if
the jungle’.
he is one of them – as if he was a wolf cub.
Disney is a film company that made Jungle
grandpa Yes, that’s it. Akela is the wolf leader.
Book films in 1967 and 2016.
tim And they sing songs like The Bare Necessities.
Kaa is a snake that rescues Mowgli from the
grandpa No, not in the original story. That cartoon,
Bandar-log.
the one that was made in 1967 – well, it’s just a
Mowgli is a boy who was brought up by
cheerful little thing for kids, but it’s not like the
wolves.
original stories. They were special.
Rudyard Kipling was a writer who wrote The
tim But Mowgli is the boy who grows up with a
Jungle Book.
family of wolves?
Shere Khan is a tiger that wants to harm
grandpa Yes. And they protect him from the tiger
Mowgli.
Shere Khan. Shere Khan wants to kill the little boy.
The Bandar-log are monkeys that capture
But in the end, Mowgli defeats the tiger with the
Mowgli.
help of his animal friends, but only just.
The Jungle Book is a book (that was) written by
tim Isn’t there a bear? I remember a bear!
Rudyard Kipling.
grandpa Yes, well, there’s Baloo the bear, and he’s
the teacher of the wolves, and he’s the one who
teaches Mowgli the law of the jungle. 4 Students complete the lines from the poem. If
And Bagheera is the black panther who helps necessary, help them with the meaning of the verb
Mowgli when he’s in trouble. And then there’s prosper (= succeed in life financially and grow
Kaa the python, and he rescues Mowgli from the strong and healthy). Play the first bit of recording
Bandar-log when he’s … 1.4 again for students to check their answers.
tim Slow down, Grandpa. I haven’t the slightest Explain that this is the beginning of a poem in The
idea what you are talking about. Jungle Book that explains the rules and obligations
grandpa The Bandar-log – they’re the monkeys who of wolves living in a pack. To check students
capture Mowgli. But Kaa rescues him. I loved The understand the meaning, ask them to rephrase it in
Jungle Book when I was a boy. simple English (eg These rules are very old and wise,
tim What’s made you think of The Jungle Book and following the rules will lead to success in life,
now? but breaking them will lead to death).
grandpa What’s made me think about it? Oh yes,
I was reading on my tablet about the two new Answers
films. Two! That’s funny, isn’t it. Disney Pictures 1 old 2 true 3 keep 4 prosper
have their new version of The Jungle Book and 5 break 6 die
Warner Brothers have something called The Jungle
Book: Origins, I think it is. It’s incredible. That
EXPLORE ONLINE
book is responsible for so many films and plays
Encourage students to search online at home for
and television series and radio programmes. It was
information about recent film versions of The Jungle
written over 120 years ago.
Book, find reviews and watch trailers or video clips.
tim Wow! Amazing!
Then encourage them to share their opinions in class.
grandpa Kipling was a great writer. He knew a lot

34 Unit 1
Reading 2 Tip: Suggesting an approximate length for writing
1 Ask students to give you their impressions of helps students to have a better idea of what
Rudyard Kipling from the photo of him. Elicit or is expected.
explain the meaning of the term Victorian authors
(= British authors who wrote in the reign of Queen Poem link
Victoria, ie 1837–1901) and give students a few Students look up the poem and discuss the questions in
minutes to read the information about Kipling, pairs or small groups.
answer the questions, then check the information
in pairs. Answers
b) keep your head = be calm and rational
Answers never breathe a word = say nothing
1 He was the youngest ever person to receive lose the common touch = lose contact with
the Nobel Prize for Literature (in 1907, ordinary people
when he was 42).
2 Because some say he was a supporter
of king and empire, while others say he Culture note
supported the common man. Kipling’s famous poem If was published in
3 Hundreds of poems and dozens of books, 1910 and was originally addressed to his
including Kim, The Jungle Book and the Just son. It’s seen as a set of good qualities that
So Stories. are recommended for the development of a
‘good’, virtuous human being. Although now
rather dated, and arguably less relevant in our
2 Students can work individually to find the words or
competitive modern world, it’s still considered
phrases in the text.
to have an important message for people in
general. The main characteristics that the poem
Answers recommends are that people should be humble,
1 out of print patient, calm, rational, truthful, dependable
2 the common man and persevering. They should continue to
3 reputation have faith in themselves when others doubt
4 on the contrary them, they must put up with misfortunes
5 respected without complaining, be prepared for and not
be affected by the lies and hatred of wicked
3 Put students in pairs and make sure they have people, and should expect that their own words
their books closed to tell each other what they can may be twisted and used for evil.
remember.

Speaking and writing Lesson 3 Life soundtrack


1 To set the ball rolling, you could tell the class a short pp14–15
anecdote about your own childhood. Then give
students a couple of minutes to think individually Aims
about their own childhood story and make notes of The focus of this lesson is to revise tenses used to express
the key points. future time and expand vocabulary about emotions.
2 Students work in pairs to tell their stories to each
other. Monitor and make a note of any common
You first!
problems. When they’ve finished, you can use some Put students in small groups to discuss the question and
of their mistakes for a quick error-correction activity. compare answers.

3 Ask students to look at the paragraph outline and Tip: Walking around the room, listening and
check that they agree this would be a suitable plan noting any good sentences and mistakes
for the written version of their story. You could ask you hear, is a good way of gaining an insight
them to write the story in class or for homework. into things you might need to practise and
Suggest a word length of about 150 words. review. It also offers ideas for future lessons
MA Weaker students could be given a shorter and enables you to highlight good language
length, eg about 100 words. to the rest of the class in feedback.

Unit 1 35
Listening are Bach’s but you forget that as all the slowed-
down lines cross over each other, and what the
1 GUESS Students look at the photos and piece does is somehow make the music timeless,
think about the question as a whole class. Elicit time-less, so Bach is somehow immortal by the
suggestions from a selection of students. time it has finished. The sound goes on and on in
its weird, sad, poignant, lonely way. [music extract]
2 1.5 Play the recording for students to check
Apparently Nystedt wrote it after the death of his
their ideas. daughter, so that would explain it. That’s where the
sadness comes in, I reckon. My favourite version so
Answer far is by the violinist Steve Bingham. He multi-tracks
They talk about music that’s been important in all the different lines on his violin. I can’t imagine
their lives. how he did it. I think it’s amazing. [music extract]
We’re going back into the studio in a couple
of months to make a new album. That’s me and
Transcript
my band The Worthies. It’ll be our fifth album.
presenter And now it’s time for this week’s edition
We’ll be recording about 70 minutes of music,
of Life Soundtrack, where we invite guests to talk
and we’re thinking of including Immortal Bach,
about music that has been part of the soundtrack
amongst other pieces. We’re hoping to release the
of their lives. This week, our guest is trumpet player
album in time for our world tour. We’re going to
Sally Omabaya. Sally, welcome. What is the first
play in ten different countries, I think it is. By the
track you’ve chosen?
end of August next year, we will have done about
sally My first track is a song that always makes me
60 dates! Can you imagine! We start the tour in
feel sentimental. It’s called Only Remembered. My
January in London and we finish it here, too.
dad used to sing it with his mates when they all
What I love about Immortal Bach is that at the
came over to the house for a party or something.
very end all the musical lines merge again and there
It’s about who’s going to remember us when we are
is peace. Acceptance. Amazing.
gone – we’ll only be remembered for what we have
presenter It’s beautiful, thank you.
done. [song extract]
My dad had learnt it with his singing colleagues 3 Put students in pairs to answer the questions from
in the folk clubs in Birmingham. It’s a great big what they remember of the recording. Then ask if
beautiful old tune, and the message is one that I anyone knows either of the pieces of music, and
can agree with. It’s what we do in life that matters. what they think of them.
[song extract]
I remember as a young girl sitting on the stairs Answers
and listening to my dad and his friends all singing. 1 Only Remembered
It was like listening in to a secret meeting or 2 Immortal Bach
something! He recorded it himself a few years ago,
multi-tracking his own voice at least four times.
4 Give students time to read through the questions
Since he died, I have listened to it quite a lot.
and check they understand that they’ll need to use
I reckon I’ll still be listening to it when I’m old and
some of the names more than once. Then play the
grey! It just makes me happy. [song extract]
recording again for them to do the exercise. Have
presenter Thank you. That’s lovely. And what’s your
them check answers in pairs before checking as a
second track?
class. For question 1, ask what phrase Sally used to
sally My second track is something I first heard
express strong emotion and write it on the board
when I was at music college. I went to a choir
(I was absolutely overcome with emotion). Also
concert, and suddenly they sang this extraordinary
allow Knut Nystedt as an answer if students can
thing. I was absolutely overcome with emotion.
justify their choice (eg by saying that he felt very
Boom. Instant! It was like the craziest techno
strongly about the death of his daughter).
electronic trance music gone wrong, except that it
was real voices and it started with music by Johann
Sebastian Bach, one of the greatest composers Answers
who ever lived. [music extract] It’s called Immortal 1 Sally 2 Knut Nystedt
Bach and it was written by a Norwegian composer 3 Johann Sebastian Bach 4 Sally’s father
called Knut Nystedt – if ‘written’ is the right word! 5 Steve Bingham 6 Sally 7 Knut Nystedt
Nystedt takes a tune by Bach and then he slows 8 Sally’s band
down all the different lines so that some of the
performers start singing at half speed, some at
quarter speed, some at normal speed. All the notes
36 Unit 1
5 Do the first question together with the class as an Grammar Tense and time review 3:
example. Students then work in pairs to make their
four questions. Check as a class and write the correct
the future
questions on the board. Accept any correct variations 1 1.6 Play the recording for students to write
of the suggested answer key. what Sally says using the verbs in the box. Then
MA Stronger students could be given six or eight let them check their answers from the penultimate
questions to write instead of four. paragraph of transcript 1.5 on page 139 of the
Student’s Book.
Tip: Asking students to choose four out of the
nine items is a useful tool for helping them Answers
to feel more in control of their learning. They It’ll be our fifth album.
still have to read all the items and assess By the end of August next year, we will have
them to make their choice. done about 60 dates!
We finish it / the tour here, too.
We’re going back into the studio in a couple of
Suggested answers
months (to make a new album).
1 What kind of singing did Sally’s father and We’re thinking of including Immortal Bach,
his friends do? amongst other pieces.
2 What is the name of the piece of music We’re going to play in ten different countries.
written by Knut Nystedt? We’ll be recording about 70 minutes of music.
3 What nationality was Knut Nystedt? We’re hoping to release the album in time for
4 What is the song that Sally’s dad sang our world tour.
called? / What song always makes Sally feel We start the tour in January in London.
sentimental? / What song did Sally’s dad
sing with his friends? / What song did Sally’s
dad record himself? Transcript
5 What is there at the end of Immortal Bach? We’re going back into the studio in a couple of
6 Who is / are going back into the studio to months to make a new album. That’s me and
make a new album? my band The Worthies. It’ll be our fifth album.
7 Who used to sing Only Remembered? / We’ll be recording about 70 minutes of music,
Who used to sing with his mates? / Who and we’re thinking of including Immortal Bach,
recorded Only Remembered? amongst other pieces. We’re hoping to release the
8 Who recorded Sally’s favourite version of album in time for our world tour. We’re going to
Immortal Bach? play in ten different countries, I think it is. By the
9 What are Sally and her band going on soon? end of August next year, we will have done about
60 dates! Can you imagine! We start the tour in
TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE When you see January in London and we finish it here, too.
6
TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE in front of an 2 Establish that all the verb forms in 1 refer to future
instruction, it indicates a focus on colloquial time, although they use a variety of different forms.
language that’s not featured elsewhere. For Students match the sentences with the meanings,
more information about these exercises, see the then check in pairs. Then check as a class, writing
Introduction, page 21. each verb form on the board and eliciting the
tense names. Point out that future forms are often
For this one, give students a minute to complete the
interchangeable (eg going to and future simple for
phrases. Then check they understand their meaning
future plans), so the choice is not always clear-cut.
and use.

Answers Answers
1 It’ll be our fifth album. (future simple)
a) feel sentimental
2 We’re going to play ... (going to)
b) over to the house
3 We’re going back into the studio ... (present
c) that matters
continuous)
d) explain it
4 We’ll be recording ... (future continuous)
e) at half speed
5 We’re thinking of including (be thinking of
f) how he did it
+ -ing)
1 that would explain it

Unit 1 37
6 ... we will have done about 60 dates! Extra idea: Ask students questions to
(future perfect) encourage them to apply the phrases to their
7 We’re hoping to release ... (be hoping to + own experience:
infinitive) 1 When and why do people hide their
8 We start the tour ... we finish it ... (present emotions?
simple) 2 Can you remember a time when someone
you know was overcome with emotion?
3 What kind of emotions can be
3 This exercise practises the use of the various future
overwhelming, and when?
forms. Students work individually, then compare
4 How does having pent-up emotions affect
their answers in pairs. Ask them to explain the
you?
reason for their choices.
5 Is it always a good thing to show your
MA Weaker students could refer to the grammar
emotions?
reference section to help them with this exercise.

2 Ask if anyone has seen the movie Inside Out. Ask –


Answers
or if nobody knows, explain briefly – what it’s about
1 going to cry (see Background note below). Give students a few
2 will have been born seconds to look at the picture and identify the
3 ’m / am meeting emotions.
4 ’s / is going to move / ’s / is moving
5 ’re / are hoping to work
Extra idea: Ask students if they think they’re
6 ‘ll / will be
good personifications of the emotions. You
could focus on the colours used and ask, for
4 YOUR STORY When you see YOUR STORY example, if blue is associated with sadness in all
in front of an instruction, it indicates that students cultures.
have an opportunity to personalise the language by
talking about a situation that they’ve been in that is
similar to the one they’ve just read about or listened Answers
to. For more information about these exercises, see A Anger B Disgust C Joy D Fear
the Introduction, page 20. E Sadness
Give students a minute or two to write their own
sentences, then another minute to compare their Background note
sentences in pairs. Monitor and assist if necessary.
Inside Out is a Disney/Pixar animated movie
Vocabulary Emotions released in 2015. It’s about the adventures and
emotions of an 11-year-old girl, Riley, whose
1 Ask students which of the phrases in the box Sally world changes when her family moves house
used in the recording to describe how she felt from the mid-west of the USA to San Francisco.
(overcome with emotion) and what provoked that Her experiences and feelings are presented from
emotion (hearing Immortal Bach for the first time). the point of view of her changing emotions,
Go through the phrases in the box with the class represented by the animated characters in the
and make sure they understand them. Students do picture.
the exercise individually, then compare answers in
pairs. Point out that about to (as used in item 2 – 3 Divide the class into groups and give them a time
about to explode) is another way of referring to the limit to work on their emotions word map. They can
future. help each other and use dictionaries to check the
meaning of the words in the box and to add words
Answers of their own. When the time’s up, they pass their
1 overcome with emotion maps on to another group to compare.
2 pent-up emotions
3 hide their emotions Tip: Give each group a large piece of paper or
4 show their emotions card and marker pens for drawing their
5 overwhelming emotion maps. Then the maps can be displayed on
the board / walls, and students can look
at all of them. This makes it more fun and
encourages sharing of ideas.

38 Unit 1
4 This is a fun activity and provides an opportunity Students watch or listen to the first part of the
for students with strong visualisation skills to shine, conversation. Play and pause as necessary.
while at the same time practising vocabulary. You
could do it as a class game. You (or a volunteer) Answers
draw the first one on the board, and the first
1C 2C 3D 4C 5C 6D
student to guess the emotion correctly has the
next turn to draw. Alternatively, it could be done in
groups of four to five students. Ask a couple of questions to check comprehension
of the basic situation in the conversation, eg
Speaking and writing What did Charlie want? What happened? Was he
surprised? Why? / Why not? (He wanted to play as
1 MINI-TALK When you see MINI-TALK in a musician at a gig in the East Village, but he wasn’t
front of an instruction, this is a chance to get accepted. He was surprised because he thought his
students talking and writing more. However, giving practice session went well.)
a talk to the whole class can be intimidating, so if
they prefer, they can just do it for a small group. Transcript
For more information about these exercises, see the
dana Hey, Charlie!
Introduction, page 21.
charlie Oh, hi, Dana.
Give students time to read the instructions and dana Wow, Charlie. What’s wrong? You look

prepare their talk. Walk around and offer help and bummed.
useful language as needed. Students then give their charlie Yeah, well, it’s just that I didn’t get this gig I

presentations in small groups. was really hoping for.


dana What gig? You mean the one down in the
2 This encourages students to be active listeners. At East Village?
the beginning of the presentations, remind students charlie Yeah. It seemed really promising, you
to note down ideas for questions while they’re know? And I practised forever. I think they really
listening, then make sure time is allowed at the end liked my stuff – at least, that’s what they said.
of each presentation for the questions to be asked dana I thought so, too. I remember when you came
and answered. back from the practice session and you seemed
really happy about it.
Tip: Encourage students to ask questions that the charlie I was! I thought it all went down so well.
speaker should be able to answer, for example But I guess I was wrong.
about the speaker’s experience or opinions. dana I’m sorry, Charlie. That’s horrible.
They should not be tests of knowledge charlie Thanks. Yeah, well, it’s a real bummer. I’m
designed to catch the speaker out! just really disappointed it didn’t work out. I mean,
I really liked the guys I was jamming with and we
had a good thing going. It sounds lame, but I really
Everyday English p16 had my heart set on this working out. On top of
everything, it was pretty good money, too!
This page provides practice in the functions that
dana Yeah, I remember you said that. I know it’s
students need when getting around in English and
hard. And I’m sure it seems really unfair, but I bet
interacting with people. The main conversation in the
something else will come up. I mean, you know how
odd-numbered units has a video which provides extra
this kind of thing goes – you think you’ve missed
contextualisation and is fun to watch. (See page 261
some great opportunity and then something else
for suggestions on exploiting the video.) If you don’t
comes along that you never expected.
have the video or prefer not to use it, then just play the
charlie Yeah, you mean one door closes and
recording.
another one opens.
Expressing disappointment dana Pretty much.
charlie I guess that’s a better way to look at it. I
1 GUESS Allow a short time for students to make just wish they had told me sooner, since I stopped
guesses about the photos and compare ideas with a looking for another gig when I thought that one
partner. Tell them they’ll find out the answers in the was in the bag.
video / recording that they’re going to watch / listen to. dana You always have to have a backup, Charlie.
You know that! Nothing’s ever for sure. But don’t
2 1.7 6 Decide whether you’re going to use
worry. Something will work out.
the video or simply play the recording (you may not
have the video or the necessary video equipment).

Unit 1 39
3 Ask who said these phrases from the dialogue
(Charlie). Allow students a minute to try to express Suggested answers
them in other words, then invite suggestions. 1 up 2 up – down 3 down – up 4 up

Suggested answers 9 P Play the recording again, pausing after each


1 I wanted it very much. sentence, for students to practise the intonation.
2 I thought they liked what I did. They can say it all together, but address their
3 I thought I was certain to achieve what I partner in pairs so it feels more natural.
wanted.
Answers
4 Allow students a few seconds to decide in pairs, 1 To reassure the listener
then get feedback. 2 To clarify which bag
3 As a filler while the speaker finds the next
Answers words
4 To check if he knows her friend Bill
2 Sentences 2, 4 and 5
3 All three sentences
Expressing joy
5 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Explain that this
10 1.10 6 Play the recording / video once. Check
exercise focuses on four very colloquial phrases that
the answer and ask a couple more questions to
were used in the dialogue, and that they would only
check basic comprehension of the situation, eg
be used in very informal situations. Students work
What is Dana’s news? When is she going to start?
in pairs to match the phrases from the conversation
How does she feel about it? (She’s got an internship
with the meanings. If possible, play again the parts
with an online food company, starting in a couple
of the conversation where they appear so that
of weeks. She’s very happy / excited, etc.)
students can hear them again in context.

Answer
Answers
Actually
1d 2c 3b 4a

Transcript
6 Play the video / recording again for students to
focus on finding the two reasons. dana Actually, I’ve got some good news.
charlie Oh, yeah? What’s that?
dana Well, I just heard that I got that internship
Answers
with that online food company!
b and c charlie Really? Wow! Wasn’t that the one you
really wanted, with that lady who does food boxes
7 P 1.8 Write the sentence on the board and or something like that?
play the recording twice for students to hear the dana Exactly! Yeah! I’m really excited about it.
intonation pattern clearly. Get feedback and mark charlie I bet. I’m very happy for you, Dana.
the intonation with an arrow. dana Thanks, Charlie. I think I’m supposed to start
in a couple of weeks. That should give me some
Answer time to catch up on my graduate work. I can’t wait
to start, actually!
His voice goes up on you know?.
charlie Man, you’re going to be busy. Will you still
The effect of you know is to include the listener,
have time for your old friends?
not ask for confirmation or a reply.
dana Come on. Of course I will, Charlie! This is just
something I’ve always wanted to do.
8 P 1.9 Play the recording for students to charlie I know. Good for you, Dana.
focus on the intonation used on the words you dana It’ll work out for you, too, Charlie. I know
know. Show on the board the arrows to write it. We’ll both be doing our dream jobs before you
for rising and falling intonation. Pause after each know it.
sentence and replay it for students to focus on the charlie If you say so ...
intonation. Note that intonation can be very subtle;
it’s more important for students to hear and copy 11 Students work individually, completing the extract,
the variations than to ‘correctly’ identify the ups then compare their answers in pairs. Then play the
and downs. conversation again for them to check answers.

40 Unit 1
Answers
1 excited about it 2 happy for you
3 can’t wait to start
4 I’ve always wanted to do
5 Good for you 6 doing our dream jobs

Extra idea: Students take the parts of Dana


and Charlie and read the dialogue.

12 Elicit opinions from the class.

Answer
He tries to sound more cheerful in response
to Dana’s good news, but he still sounds
rather gloomy and unconvinced whens he
replies If you say so … to Dana’s words of
encouragement at the end.

13 Students guess, then check in a dictionary or online.


Confirm the meaning of the expression, then give
students time to think and make notes about their
situations.

14 Students work in groups of three or four to talk


about their disappointing situations. Encourage
them to use the phrases from 2, 3 and 11 in their
accounts. Monitor groups as they practise and
discreetly make a note of common problems.

Tip: To avoid discouraging students from


expressing themselves, don’t interrupt pair–
or groupwork unless something is going
badly wrong.

Unit 1 41
2 Come to your senses!
UNIT GRAMMAR: relative clauses; hedging: making cautious statements; verb patterns1: cause
VOCABULARY: toys; manual activities; expressions with colours; music; sounds
and effect

FOCUS FUNCTIONS: talking about advantages and disadvantages

Introduction p17 NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming), should not


be about pigeon-holing / categorising people;
it’s about degrees of preference, and how to
Aims exploit that and develop new areas and to give
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the unit topic of people more choices.
the senses and to encourage students to start thinking The next three lessons take each of the three
about how the different senses relate to learning and featured senses (sight, hearing and touch) in
doing various activities. turn and explore each one a little.

You first!
3 1.11 Play the recording for students to find out
Students look at the four photos to establish what
the three senses that help us most to learn, then
each one actually shows, then discuss the questions
match them with the a, b and c options in the quiz.
in pairs or small groups. Write some extra questions
Students check in pairs, then check as a class and
on the board (Name the senses. Are there five or six
write the answers on the board.
senses? Or more? Which senses do you associate
with each of these photos, and why? Are any senses
not represented?) and encourage students to discuss Answers
them too. Get feedback from the class and establish if The three senses related to the options are
the class as a whole shows any general trends in their a) visual (sight), b) auditory (hearing) and
preferences. c) kinaesthetic (touch).
MA For the benefit of weaker students, you could write
on the board the basic five senses (hearing, sight, smell,
Background note
taste, touch).
Question 4 in the quiz may seem less related
1 Students do the quiz individually. Make sure they’ve to the three senses, but it is. The belief is
read the white note explaining what each of the that people with visual preference are more
numbers 0–4 means, and point out that there isn’t concerned how they look; for people with
just one answer each time – they should write a kinaesthetic preference, what’s most important
number in every box. is feeling comfortable; and people with auditory
Assist with vocabulary difficulties if students ask (eg preference don’t care very much about this kind
uncluttered, figure-hugging, fidget), but encourage of thing.
them to guess meanings before you supply an
explanation. Transcript
MA Weaker students could do the quiz in pairs and man Hi. How was your day?
help each other with vocabulary. woman Oh, it was great. We had a training day.
man Good?
2 Students add up their scores, then compare in
woman Yeah, really interesting. About how we
a small group and try to work out together any
experience the world through our senses.
implications of their scores.
man Yeah, I know that already.
woman OK, but did you know that some people
Background note have a preference? Not everybody, but some people
The answers relate to different sensory may have one sense which is stronger than the
preferences: others.
a) visual man Really? We use all our senses, don’t we?
b) auditory woman Yes, of course we do, and not everybody
c) kinaesthetic (feeling, touch and movement) has a strong favourite, but some people are
Make sure that students understand that these more visual, some more auditory, and some more
are tendencies and preferences, not hard-and- kinaesthetic.
fast categories. This theory, which comes from man Some more what?

42 Unit 2
woman Visual, you know, using your eyes; auditory,
using your ears … Usually people don’t have smell or taste
man Yeah, I know those. What was the last word
as their favourite senses. They have vision,
you said? Kinny …? hearing, or feeling and movement.
woman Kinaesthetic! It means moving your body,
3 You can help yourself to learn in two ways:
or feeling or touching things. play to your strengths and make sure that
man Oh! Never heard that word before. It’s rather
you get information in a way that helps you
nice. Kin … learn or absorb information better; and you
woman Kinaesthetic.
can also develop the senses you like less by
man Kinaesthetic. It doesn’t sound like a sense.
taking up new activities that involve those
I thought the senses were vision, hearing, taste, smell senses so you practise them. This makes life
and touch. more interesting.
woman Yeah, I think kinaesthetic is touch or
physical sensation or movement. 5 THINK Students take a few seconds to think
man What about smell and taste? individually, then they discuss the questions in pairs
woman Well, according to this theory, which is from or small groups.
NLP …
man NLP? Extra idea: Students decide what more they’d
woman Neuro Linguistic Programming – people like to know about these ideas, and write some
don’t usually have smell and taste as their favourite questions. This helps to lead into the next
senses. They have vision, hearing or feeling and section.
movement.
man Oh, I see. So what’s the point? What do you
EXPLORE ONLINE
do when you’ve identified your favourite senses? This can be done in class using smartphones or tablets,
woman Well, basically the idea is that you can do
or otherwise for homework. Encourage students to
two things to help yourself learn. share and compare the VAK tests they found and to
man Presumably you can play to your strengths?
compare their results. Sharing could be done in groups
Make sure you get information in a way that helps or, if the class is quite small, as a whole class.
you absorb it?
woman Exactly. And you can also develop the 6 Give students a few minutes to discuss the
senses you like less by trying out new kinds of questions in groups. You could then draw a Venn
activities. Makes life more interesting! diagram related to the three senses (V, A, K) on the
man So what could you do, for example? board (as shown below) for joint completion with
woman Well, if you didn’t use your kinaesthetic the ‘other activities’ (question 3). Activities involving
sense as much as the others, you could take up a more than one sense go in the intersecting parts.
new physical activity, like dancing, so you get more
V
skilled at using that sense.
man Oh, wow! So how can you find out what your
favourite senses are?
woman Apparently there are lots of quizzes online.
Do you want to check it out?
man Yeah. Great.

4 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Play the


recording a second time if necessary for students
A
K
to catch more detail or check their answers. Then
check answers as a class.
Tip: Appoint a scribe to complete the Venn
Answers diagram, entering the activities as each group
1 Visual means using our eyes, auditory suggests them. This makes students feel more
means using our ears, kinaesthetic means involved and autonomous, and less teacher-
moving the body or feeling and touching dependent.
things.
2 We all experience the world through all our
senses, but some (though not all) people Extra idea: Ask the class: What would be ideal
have a preference for one sense over the jobs for people with strong visual, auditory or
others in how they experience things. kinaesthetic sensory preferences?

Unit 2 43
7 PICTURE OPTION When you see
Tip: Mime using one of the toys yourself initially
PICTURE OPTION in front of an instruction, it
to set the ball rolling. This will encourage
means that students create a picture (or pictures),
any reluctant students to be less inhibited
or find or take a photo (or photos) of something
about doing the miming themselves.
related to the lesson. They may need to write a
If some students still don’t seem to be
caption or some notes to go with each picture. They
convinced of the benefit of miming, explain
can then share their picture(s) with other students
that, apart from being fun, it does actually
or, if they are photos, upload them to a photo-
help in the memorising of the vocabulary,
sharing site such as Instagram.
since it involves thinking about the object
You could ask students to do this activity in their and repetition of the words.
own time, and allot five minutes in the next lesson
for students to discuss the shared pictures in
groups.
Answers
A Super Soaker B Lego C Mindflex
MA Students could do this in pairs or groups. You
D Koosh ball E Frisbee F beach ball
could make sure that each pair or group has at least
G hula hoop H Rubik’s Cube I yo-yo
one strong visual learner in it.

Extra idea: You could get the class to vote on 2 Still in pairs or small groups, students choose two
their favourite picture for each category. If the questions to talk about; give them one minute to
sharing has been done online, the voting could do so. If they’re having difficulty with questions 3
be done that way too. and 4, write a list of decades on the board (1920s,
1930s, 1940s, 1950s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s)
for them to match the toys with.
8 LOOK AHEAD Encourage students to flick
through the unit looking at pictures and headings Check as a class by eliciting suggested answers
(they don’t need to actually read) in order to find from different pairs.
out. MA Stronger students and fast finishers could talk
about all of the questions.
Answer
Lesson 1: kinaesthetic Lesson 2: visual Answers
Lesson 3: auditory 1 There may be several points in common:
they all involve using your hands (except
hula hoop and Mindflex); all are brightly
Lesson 1 Hands on! pp18–19 coloured (except Mindflex); several are
made of plastic; several involve throwing
and catching.
Aims
2 All involve using eyes; most involve using
The focus of this lesson is to consolidate and extend hands; the Frisbee, beach ball and hula
students’ knowledge of relative clauses and manual hoop involve legs (to run or move with); the
activity verbs, while exploring the topic of kinaesthetic hula hoop involves using your whole body:
activities and their benefits. arms, legs, waist, hips, neck.
3 The oldest is the yo-yo, which first became
You first! popular in the 1920s (but its first recorded
Put students in groups to compare answers to the historical appearance was in around 500bc
question. Encourage them to expand on toys they’ve in Ancient Greece).
played with. (Ask / Write on the board: When? How old 4 1920s yo-yo; 1930s beach ball; 1940s Lego
were you? Did you enjoy it? Why? / Why not?) (1949); 1950s hula hoop*, Frisbee; 1970s
Rubik’s Cube; 1980s Koosh ball; 1990s
Speaking Super Soaker; 2000s Mindflex
(* Description g in 3 states that the hula hoop has
1 Students match the words with the photos (or
been popular for centuries, but it only became widely
actual objects if you have them in class). After
available as a toy in the 1950s.)
checking the answers, have pairs or small groups do
the miming and guessing.
3 Allow a couple of minutes for students to silently
read the seven descriptions and match them with
seven of the nine toys. They can compare their
answers in pairs.
44 Unit 2
Answers Extra ideas: Ask further questions to check
a Super Soaker b yo-yo c Rubik’s Cube students’ knowledge of other basic rules about
d Mindflex e beach ball f Frisbee relative clauses which they should know, eg
g hula hoop 1 Which type of relative clause (defining or
non-defining) adds extra, non-essential
information to a sentence and could be
Grammar Relative clauses
removed and the sentence still make sense?
1 SEARCH AND THINK Give students time to (Non-defining)
individually find the relative clauses in the quiz on 2 Why can’t you remove the other type of
page 17 and in the toy descriptions in Speaking 3, relative clause from the sentence? (The
and think about the answers to the questions about sentence no longer makes sense, it’s
them. Then they compare answers in pairs. incomplete.)
3 In which type of relative clause can we use
Answers that instead of which or who? (Defining)
4 When is it possible to omit the relative
1 The quiz has four relative clauses, the toy
pronoun? (In defining relative clauses when
descriptions have seven.
the relative pronoun is the object of the
2 A place where you can listen to music;
verb in the relative clause)
figure-hugging ones [clothes] that look
5 In which of the sentences from the quiz and
good; easy-to-move-in clothes that feel
toy descriptions does the relative pronoun
good; the man who invented this […] cube;
refer to a whole clause (as opposed to a
the toy that many people now use for
thing or person)? (This ball … is inflatable,
fitness
which makes it easy to carry around.)
3 An audio recording, which you can listen to
again; the high-powered gun, which can fire Give a few more examples of reduced relative
water up to distance of 15 metres; this toy, clauses, and show how the past participle
whose history goes back perhaps to Ancient represents a passive verb and the present
Greece; your brainwave activity, which it participle represents an active verb, eg The
uses to guide a ball through a series of person playing football over there is my brother.
obstacles; This ball, invented in the 1930s, (= who is playing); The prize given to the
is inflatable, which makes it easy to carry winner was a free trip to the UK. (= which was
around; Yale University students, who played given); Mr Gregory, sitting in the front row,
catch with plates didn’t notice what had happened. (= who was
4 Non-defining relative clauses have commas sitting); This picture, drawn by a five-year-old, is
separating them from the main clause(s); remarkably complex. (= which was drawn).
defining relative clauses do not have
commas. 2 Write the questions What kinaesthetic activities
5 In ‘The toy (that) many people use for are mentioned? What are their benefits? on the
fitness’, the relative pronoun that can be board, and allow students a minute to read the
missed out in a defining relative clause four short texts and find the information. Students
because it refers to the object of the check in pairs. Assist with specific vocabulary items
sentence, not the subject. if requested, but encourage students to guess
meanings before you supply them (words which
Draw students’ attention to the question and point might cause difficulty are cognitive (= related to
about reduced relative clauses in the Grammar spot. thinking), mental faculties (= abilities of the mind),
dread (= fear very much), soothing (= comforting,
Answer calming).
The words which was are missing.
Tip: Encourage students to engage with the
content of a grammar practice text before
MA To underline the essential difference between
doing the actual grammar activity by asking
defining and non-defining relative clauses, write
one or two simple information questions for
on the board very clear examples of each type and
initial reading.
demonstrate, by rubbing out the relative clause,
how the sentence with the defining relative clause
becomes meaningless without it. Allow students time to identify and categorise
the relative clauses in the texts and add

Unit 2 45
commas where necessary. Check as a class and
write the non-defining clauses on the board to Answers
establish where the commas go. A (Koosh ball)
MA Weaker students could work in pairs. 2 Stillinger, who was an engineer, first tied
lots of rubber bands together to make a
Finally, elicit which relative clause is an example ball.
of one that refers to a whole clause rather 3 The name of the ball, which was chosen
than a thing or person (which in turn can help after a lot of consultation with children and
improve performance – which refers to the fact adults, was inspired by the sound it made
that playing with a Koosh ball can help reduce when it was caught.
stress). The name of the ball, which was inspired
by the sound it made when it was caught,
Answers was chosen after a lot of consultation with
1 Lego, which has grown tremendously in children and adults.
popularity over the years, has been … (non- 4 The balls, which are made from around
defining) 2,000 natural rubber fibres, are sold in a
... a number of skills which are important in variety of colours and sizes.
their cognitive development. (defining) The balls, which are sold in a variety of
2 ... people who do this have a better chance colours and sizes, are made from around
… (defining) 2,000 natural rubber fibres.
... people who play the piano and other B (Lego)
musical instruments … (defining) 5 These building blocks, which can be
... those whose regular activities include combined in a huge number of different
things like … (defining) ways, allow children to be really creative.
3 ... people who had an increased risk of These building blocks, which allow children
developing Alzheimer’s disease showed … to be really creative, can be combined in a
(defining) huge number of different ways.
... a disease that many people dread. 6 The blocks were invented in 1949 by Ole
(defining) Christiansen, who was a carpenter.
Swimming and other water activities, 7 They were patented in 1958 by a Danish
which are easier on the joints, are … (non- company whose name means something
defining) like ‘play well’.
4 Playing with a Koosh ball can help reduce 8 By 2011, the company had produced more
stress, which in turn can help improve than 320 billion bricks, which was roughly
performance. (non-defining) 52 bricks for every person on the planet at
that time.
3 Go through the example, then students work
in pairs (or individually if you prefer) to join the
Extra idea: Write the following sentence on
sentences. Point out that there are sometimes two
the board: Just six of the Lego blocks can be
possible solutions, but they only need to find one
combined in 102,981,500 different ways! and
for each sentence.
ask students to read the number out loud.
MA Pair up weaker students with stronger ones to
help them with the exercise.
Speaking
Monitor pairs as they work and assist if needed
with vocabulary items. Make a note of any recurring 1 Students work in pairs to describe using a hula
grammar or vocabulary errors in order to address hoop. Then gradually build up a class description
them afterwards. on the board, based on suggestions elicited from
different pairs.
Check answers and write them on the board,
eliciting correct punctuation too. Note: there’s only Extra idea: If you have a hula hoop and
one defining relative clause (sentence 7). All the rest someone in the class who knows how to do
are non-defining and therefore need commas. it, they could demonstrate the actions for the
other students to describe.

46 Unit 2
2 MINI-TALK Give students time to read the 3 YOUR STORY Students talk in small groups
instructions and prepare their talk individually. about their toys or games and childhood
Walk around and offer help and useful language as possessions (or those of their own children, if they
needed. Students then give their presentations in have any). They appoint a spokesperson, who
small groups. You may decide to set the preparation reports their group’s findings to the rest of the class.
of this for homework, and have students give their
talks in the next lesson, in order to give them more Extra ideas: Before they start, instruct
time to prepare and research their item. students to ask their partner at least three more
questions about the things they talk about. You
Tip: Keep groups relatively small (four or five could suggest a few examples, eg Why did you
members at most) for maximum efficacy. In like it? Who gave it to you? etc.
larger groups, students may get bored waiting At the end, ask: Do children nowadays have
for their turn, and they may lose focus. similar preferences? Why? / Why not?

Vocabulary Manual activities Take a break


If students are unsure what to do here, perform this
1 Set the ball rolling by miming one of the verbs
activity at the same time as them, which will help them
yourself, without saying which one it is. Ask the
get the idea of the two ways of interweaving. If you’ve
class to say which verb it is. Then give students
decided on some specific ‘take a break’ background
two minutes to mime the verbs in groups of three.
music, play it during the activity.
Instruct them to take it in turns to choose one
of the verbs (in random order, not in the order
Writing
they’re listed in the book) and mime it for the other
members of the group to guess which one it is. 1 Refer back to the conversations in Vocabulary 3
If there are verbs that some groups don’t know, above and ask students if there was any noticeable
suggest they omit them for the moment. distinction between the male and female toys and
favourite possessions. If there was, ask if they think
After two minutes, elicit what the verbs all have in it matters.
common, then focus as a class on any verbs that Students then read the short text and share
weren’t known, and either get any student that their reactions to the idea with their group. Add
knows to mime it for the class, or, if no one knows some more questions on the board to extend the
the meaning, mime it yourself. discussion, eg
Do you think girls have a natural preference for
Answer dolls, or is it a learnt preference because of the toys
They’re all movements you do with your hand they’re given?
or hands. Are Barbie dolls any different from other dolls?
Why might they encourage passivity?
Do girls in your country often play with Lego and
2 Demonstrate with one verb to clarify this task. Write Meccano?
catch on the board and elicit suggestions from the How common is it in your country for girls to
class for objects of the verb, ie things that you can study / have studied science and engineering?
catch. Write all correct suggestions up on the board Do you think there’s a connection between toys we
after the word catch (eg catch a ball, a Frisbee, a play with and what we choose to do as adults?
fish, a (runaway) dog / horse, a thief, a cold, etc).
Point out that some of these involve more figurative 2 Go through the basic opinion essay plan and make
meanings, and advise students to focus on the sure students understand it. Also underline the
literal meanings of the verbs in this exercise on need to use appropriate linking words as suggested
manual activities. Then give students about two to show the reader the direction of the argument.
minutes working in their groups of three to write Students could do the writing at home, or you may
down at least one object for each verb, more if want them to start the writing in class and finish it
possible. At the end, elicit various suggestions for for homework.
each verb and write them on the board. For more detailed work on opinion essays, see the
Writing skills section at the back of the Student’s
Tip: Give a clear time limit for pair- and Book (pages 152–153). It’s probably advisable to do
groupwork, as it helps students maintain it at the end of Unit 2, since it takes up the theme
focus on the task in hand. of music, which comes up in Unit 2 Lesson 3.

Unit 2 47
Lesson 2 Paint the town red! • Beryl Cook (1926–2008) was an English
artist whose work often featured people
pp20–23 going about everyday activities. She only
took up painting in her thirties, but her
Aims flamboyant and often comical characters
The focus of this lesson is to practise ways of hedging, quickly became popular. Beryl herself was
specifically making cautious statements, and expressions very shy, and the figures in her paintings are
with colours. Exploring the visual senses topic, students sometimes seen as an expression of how
also read an article about how colour affects us, and she would have liked to have been. Beryl
they get the chance to talk about colours and their painted at least one other picture entitled
associations. Elvira’s Café (in 1993), but in this one,
painted in 2000, you can see her son, John,
You first! through the window, serving breakfast to
Students discuss in pairs how important cafés are to customers.
them. Write extra questions on the board to increase
speaking and learner interaction (eg How often do you go 3 Make sure students have covered the paintings
to a café? When do you go? Who with? Do you ever go before they start this activity. Give them a minute to
alone? What do you do there? How long do you stay?). choose a question and follow the instructions. They
then compare with a partner and finally uncover
Speaking the paintings to assess their answers. When they’ve
finished, ask students how successful their efforts
1 Give students one minute to look at the two
were and what strategy they used for the activity.
paintings, find differences in pairs and say which
(Normally they have to recreate the image in their
one they prefer. Encourage them to express the
mind.) Explain that this is a very useful exercise for
differences rather than point by doing one with
enhancing visual memory, and is good practice for
them (eg Painting A shows a quiet café, whereas
keeping our brains working.
painting B shows a noisy one), and also encourage
them to explain the reason(s) for their preference. 4 PICTURE OPTION You’ll need to agree with
At the end of a minute, ask them how many students when they can feasibly take the photo
differences they’ve found. The pair with the most of their café. Organise the groupwork to take
differences reports the ones they’ve found, then place in the next lesson after that. (If you want the
other students add any further differences they interaction to take place in this lesson, you’ll need
spotted. Establish whether the class has a general to have already asked students to take a photo of
preference for one café or another, and why. their café in a previous lesson.) Ask more questions
for them to talk about: Is your café like either of the
2 GUESS Students work in pairs and guess the
ones on page 20? How is it different?
answers to the questions, with reasons.
5 Students choose a colour and explain their choice
Answers to a partner.
1 A
6 Students talk about the questions in pairs. In
2 A German (August Macke)
question 3, they could also ask: Which are the
B English (Beryl Cook)
secondary colours?
3 A Turkish Café B Elvira’s Café
During class feedback, check the meaning of any
4 B is the most recent, painted in 2000.
colours that students may not be sure of, eg indigo,
A was painted in 1914.
maroon, lime, turquoise.
Also remind them how we commonly refer to
Background notes combinations of colours, eg blue-green (or bluey-
green), reddish-brown, orangey-pink, etc.
• August Macke (1887–1914) was a German
If there are designers in the class, they may also
painter and a leading member of the
come up with printing ink colour names, eg cyan
Expressionist group, Der Blaue Reiter.
and magenta.
Although he lived most of his life in Bonn,
he travelled throughout Europe and was
influenced by the Impressionist and Post-
Answers
Impressionist movements in France. He was 1 Main colours in wheel: red, orange, yellow,
killed on 26 September, 1914, in the First green, blue, purple
World War, a few months after completing
this painting.
48 Unit 2
their hand), pause the recording, write the word on
2 Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo,
the board and elicit or explain the meaning.
violet (ie the colours of the rainbow)
3 Primary colours: red, blue, yellow (They MA Weaker students, who may not catch a lot of
cannot be created by mixing other colours.) the words, could look at the transcript on page 140
Secondary colours: green, orange, purple while they’re listening.
(Each is created by mixing two primary
Transcript
colours, eg blue and yellow to make green.)
Complementary colours: orange and blue; anger, bad luck, calmness, cheerfulness, cold,
green and red; yellow and purple (Colours cowardice, creativity, danger, death, energy,
opposite each other on the colour wheel, environment, good luck, happiness, heat,
which are thought to go very well together) innocence, jealousy, joy, love, money, mourning,
4 Lime is between green and yellow; maroon nature, peace, purity, sadness, spring, summer,
is between blue and red (this is a ‘false warmth, warning, weddings, winter
friend’ in many languages); cream is not
2 For this activity, where possible, in a multilingual
there; turquoise is between blue and green.
class, have students in pairs with someone from a
5 Suggested answers: black, grey, white,
different culture. Students compare their answers
brown, beige, cream, gold, silver
with their partner, identifying and circling the ones
they agree on.
7 Make sure students understand what they have
to do, then allow just a few seconds for them As class feedback, elicit from a selection of pairs
to follow the instructions and say the colours as their main agreements and also any differences
quickly as possible. that surprised them. Make sure that the different
cultures represented in the class have a chance to
8 THINK Give students half a minute to read the explain colour associations in their culture.
questions and think, then discuss what happened in
pairs. Extra idea: Invite students to suggest any other
concepts that have a clear colour association for
Background note them, whether cultural or personal.
The Stroop effect is named after John Ridley
Stroop, an American psychologist who first
published the effect in English in 1935. Background notes
The actual experiment is to read a list of words Common associations in Europe and America
that are the correct colour first, then the list of white: purity, innocence, weddings, cleanliness
words in different colours; you then work out black: death, mourning, martial-arts expert
the difference in timing between the two and red: danger, warning, blood, stop, passion, heat,
what it tells you. This is an abridged form of the love, anger
experiment. yellow: spring, joy, sun, cowardice
There are two theories: blue: calmness, sadness, water, winter, cold
1 The Speed of Processing Theory says the green: new beginnings, nature, the environment,
interference occurs because we’re able luck, money, spring, jealousy
to read words faster than we can name orange: energy, warmth, cheerfulness
colours. purple: creativity, royalty, wealth, luxury, power,
2 The Selective Attention Theory says that mystery
interference occurs because naming colours pink: health, romance, femininity
requires more attention than reading words. Common associations in Asia (particularly China)
red: good fortune, joy
green: health, prosperity, harmony
Listening and speaking white: brightness, purity, fulfilment (also death
and mourning)
1 1.12 Tell students to think about their own
yellow: beauty, prestige, neutrality, good luck,
culture and what different colours are associated
heroism (Yellow was the emperor’s colour in
with. Students listen the recording and individually
Imperial China.)
write each word or phrase under a colour in the
chart (you’ll probably need to pause the recording
briefly after each word to give them time to 3 1.13 Students listen, note their answers, then
write). If there are any words that students don’t compare answers in pairs.
understand (they can indicate this by putting up

Unit 2 49
Answers Answer
1 red, green, white, black The colour most frequently used in flags is red.
2 Red
America: stop, danger, blood, warning
China: luck, good fortune, happiness,
Vocabulary Expressions with colours
celebration 1 Make sure you have in your classroom a variety of
Green pictures and / or more colour charts (apart from
America: lucky, nature, growth, the the colour circle on page 20) to illustrate all the
environment, jealousy, envy different shades of colour in this exercise.
China: also lucky, money
White Use the pictures / charts to elicit / show the
America: purity, innocence, weddings difference between dark, light / pale, bright, deep
China: unlucky, death, mourning and muted. Students should already be familiar
Black with all these, apart from muted.
America: death, mourning, karate
Then introduce the words in the box, which can
China: also karate
also be used with colours; students work in pairs to
match them with colours.
Transcript
man Did you know that the word for red in Russian Answers
– krasny – means ‘beautiful’? 1 blood red, brick red
woman Does it? That’s interesting. What does it
2 navy blue, midnight blue
mean to you? 3 olive green, sea green
man Red? Oh, stop at the traffic lights! Danger!
4 lemon yellow, mustard yellow
Blood! Warning! Things like that. It can mean 5 coral pink, salmon pink
anger, too. It’s a very hot colour.
woman Oh no! For us in China, it’s the luckiest
2 Students try to identify the colours from 1 on the
colour. It brings good fortune and happiness. We
colour chart and students’ clothes / accessories. Use
wear it to celebrate things.
the pictures you brought to clarify the shades of the
man Oh, really? Green is a lucky colour for
others. You could show examples of all ten shades
Americans. And it’s the colour of nature and growth
for students to try to distinguish.
and the environment.
woman Oh, is it? It’s a lucky colour in Chinese
culture, too. Not as lucky as red, but it often Extra idea: Ask students which of the colour
symbolises money. combinations can be used without the colour
man Does it? It’s also the colour of jealousy for
word (the most common ones that can be used
Americans. We say ‘green with envy’. without the colour word are navy, olive, coral,
woman Green with envy? That’s interesting. And
eg a navy jacket).
what about white? What does white mean to you?
man Oh, purity, innocence, weddings …What 3 To introduce this exercise, ask students if they can
about you? remember the colour expression the American man
woman No! White’s a very unlucky colour for us in recording 1.13 used about envy (green with
Chinese. It’s the colour of death and mourning! envy). Students work in small groups to pool their
man Really? I didn’t know that. For Americans, knowledge to complete the expressions and work
black is the colour of death and mourning. out their meanings. Check as a class, writing the
woman Yes, I know. But it’s not always a sad colour, complete expressions on the board.
is it? A black belt’s a karate expert, isn’t it? The best
colour in karate! Make sure that students are aware of the
man Yes, it is! And that’s universal!
difference between gold and golden (gold is
noun and adjective for the material; golden is the
EXPLORE ONLINE adjective meaning ‘having the colour of gold’ or,
This can be done in class, if you have internet access, metaphorically, very special. Compare a gold watch
or for homework, with the sharing of the results of with golden hair or golden sands.
the research taking place in the next lesson. Encourage
students of different nationalities to present their flags
and explain images in them.

50 Unit 2
Answers Tip: Swapping students’ work around from time
2 have green fingers = be good at gardening, to time encourages collaboration and shared
able to make plants grow successfully learning and can reduce inhibitions. Don’t
3 a golden opportunity = a very good do it too often, though, or it could become
opportunity, not to be missed predictable and repetitive!
4 the black market = unofficial / illegal buying
or selling Reading
5 catch somebody red-handed = catch them
in the act of doing something bad 1 Students discuss the questions in small groups.
6 as good as gold = very well behaved
2 Students read the article Colour – How it affects
7 white-collar workers = office workers (Blue-
us on page 22 to check their ideas. Unless you
collar workers are people who do manual
specifically wish to give them practice of extended
work, eg in a factory.)
individual reading in class at this point, make the
8 (see things through) rose-coloured glasses
reading more interactive by splitting the article
(or rose-coloured spectacles) = see things
between students and have them report back to
from a very optimistic point of view, think
the group on their section(s). Either students work
things are nicer than they really are
in groups of five, each reading one paragraph and
9 as white as a sheet = very, very white, when
sharing information, or they work in pairs, with
you feel ill or shocked
Student A reading sections A, B and C, and Student
B reading sections D and E.
4 Students compare colour expressions used in their
MA Weaker students could be given a lighter
different languages.
reading load when sections are being shared out.
5 P 1.14 Students listen to the dialogues to
Remind students to ignore the fact that some words
identify the sound being focused on. are in red for the moment.

Answer Tip: You could give the class a choice of the three
the sound /r/ possible ways of reading (individual, pairs or
groups of five) and let them choose. If they’re
6 P Students practise the dialogues in pairs. Some in pairs or groups of five, let each group
nationalities have particular difficulty with this decide who reads which section(s) rather
sound (eg the Chinese, the French); for them, you than imposing the allocation yourself. Giving
may find it useful to replay recording 1.14, pausing learners a choice promotes their feeling of
every few words, for students to imitate the being in control of the learning process and
pronunciation heard, before they practise in pairs. encourages learner independence.

7 In pairs, students create another short dialogue


If students ask for explanations of unknown
containing a number of /r/ sounds, which they then
vocabulary during initial reading, encourage
practise saying.
them to manage by guessing the approximate
MA Write a list of words with /r/ sounds (in meaning and understanding as much as they
different combinations with other sounds) for can without assistance. Reassure them that
students to try to include in their conversations. you’ll deal with vocabulary in the text later
This will ensure that they get useful pronunciation in the lesson. This helps students to gain
practice. confidence as independent readers who can
obtain the necessary information without
Monitor the pairs as they practise, assisting with
necessarily knowing every single word.
pronunciation where needed.
Students convey the content of their section(s)
Extra ideas: Students with particular difficulties to their partner / group (if they’re sharing
could be given extra minimal–pair practice the reading), then discuss the answers to the
focusing on confusing sounds (eg l / r for questions in pairs or groups. Check the main
Chinese native speakers: lane / rain, brown / information as a class.
blouse, fry / fly, glass / grass, etc) to do by
themselves.
For more practice, students could swap their
dialogues and practise each other’s.

Unit 2 51
Answers 5 T (lines 37–38: ‘Colour analysis … is to do
with finding out which colours suit us best ...’)
1 Colour is light of different wavelengths.
6 F (lines 39–44: ‘The approach has evolved …
2 Warm colours (red, orange, yellow) are
from a seasonal one, which categorised people
supposed to make us feel warm, raise our
into one of four seasons ... , to a slightly more
heartbeat, boost energy, and make us feel
refined seasonal one, which placed people in
positive and happy.
one of twelve seasonal subdivisions … and
Cool colours (green, blue, purple) have a
finally to a highly personalised one.’)
cooling effect, promote balance, harmony,
7 T (lines 53–56: ‘... there are many types of
relaxation, creativity, spiritual connection.
red: some warmer, some cooler, some darker,
3 Reactions are both subjective and cultural.
some lighter, some clearer, some more muted.
4 Personal appearance and colouring and
There’s bound to be one out there somewhere
psychology affect what colours look good
that will suit you.’)
on us.

4 Students find the words and phrases individually,


3 Give students about five minutes to work
then check in pairs.
individually to decide on their answers. Remind
them that this will involve reading the whole article MA Weaker students could work in pairs and find
again and finding specific evidence to support half the words each.
their answers. Insist on the evidence-finding – they
should either underline the relevant parts of the text Answers
or make a note of the line numbers. Students can 1 effects 2 affect 3 are aware of
check answers in pairs. When checking as a class, 4 raise; boost 5 enhance 6 evolved
elicit the evidence too, not just the answers. 7 unique 8 suit 9 incorporates 10 outfit

Tip: Checking the evidence for the answers 5 Students work in pairs to figure out the meaning
of reading comprehension tasks takes a of the words and phrases in red. Make sure they
bit longer than just checking the answers do the working-out stage before checking in a
themselves, but is worth it to encourage dictionary.
good reading comprehension task habits.
Students who think they know the answers
Suggested answers
from memory after a quick reading without
checking the evidence are sometimes caught state of mind = mood or mental state at a
out in exams because they haven’t looked at particular time
the details of the text carefully enough. contradict = deny the truth of a statement by
saying the opposite
widespread = existing in a large number of
Answers people
1 T (lines 1–6: ‘Colour psychology is the study besides = too, as well
of the effects that colour has on our brain signal = communicate a message
and, therefore, on our state of mind … soothing = calming
Different colours have different wavelengths mourning = (showing) grief over someone’s
… We are not consciously aware of these death
effects …’) refined = improved and more precise
2 F (lines 8–9: ‘... there is still a lot of research
that remains to be done in this area ...’) 6 Allow a few minutes for students to choose and
3 F (lines 14–23: ‘Warm colours … raise our discuss two of the questions in groups, then report
heartbeat and boost our energy … gets back to the class.
us ready for action! ... Cool colours …
Monitor their discussions discreetly, noting any
soothing and relaxing.’
common grammar or vocabulary difficulties that
4 F (lines 26–30: ‘Many of our reactions to
come up so that you can address them at the end.
colour are … very subjective, and have to
do with experiences we have had in our
personal life. … Responses to colour can Extra idea: Students shut their eyes and
also vary from culture to culture ...’) describe exactly what their partner’s wearing
from memory.

52 Unit 2
Grammar Hedging: making cautious
Answers
statements
Paragraph B
1 Allow about a minute for students to discuss the ... there seems to be ... (line 12)
questions in pairs. Then check as a class. ... do tend to produce ... (lines 14–15)
Red is said to raise ... (line 16)
Answers It is often used to ... (line 17)
Orange is supposed to be ... (line 18)
1 Sentence a) is not necessarily true or the
Yellow is thought to be ... (line 19)
writer’s own opinion.
... it can make us feel ... (lines 19–20)
Sentence b) is presented as a fact with no
Green is generally considered to be ...
room for doubt.
(lines 21–22)
2 (Some) people say that red raises our
Blue is often seen as ... (lines 22–23)
heartbeat.
Purple is believed to enhance ... (lines 23–24)
3 Sentence a) is tentative or cautious and allows
Paragraph C
for discussion. Sentence b) is categorical and
Responses to colour can also vary … (line 30)
can produce a polarised response.
... in one culture could mean something ...
(line 31)
2 Ask students for any other verbs that can be ... in Europe it’s usually black. (lines 34–35)
used in the impersonal passive like is said to to Paragraph D
make a statement more tentative or cautious ... our personality, which can also influence ...
(believe, consider, think, etc). (lines 46–47)
Paragraph E
Students then complete the sentences from
Somebody might say ... (line 52)
memory, with information that they remember
There are times when you could well need ...
from the article. Only once they’ve finished should
(line 56)
they look back at the article to check the actual
… red socks could help. (line 59)
sentences in the article. Point out that students’
sentences may be grammatically correct even if
they’re not exactly the same as in the article, and 4 Using the picture as a prompt, elicit ideas and
check any answers that students are unsure of. opinions from the class about mind maps, and ask
if and when they personally find them useful. Then
Answers give students a minute to read the text.
Sentences in the article:
Extra idea: Ask more questions to check the
1 Red is said to raise our heartbeat and boost
information:
our energy.
Why are mind maps more memorable than a
2 Orange is supposed to be a very cheerful
list of notes?
colour.
What is the advantage of the non-linear
3 Yellow is thought to be an optimistic colour.
approach?
4 Green is generally considered to be the
How can mind maps be useful to a student?
colour of balance and harmony.
5 Blue is often seen as soothing and relaxing.
6 Purple is believed to enhance our creativity 5 Students work in pairs to rewrite the italicised
and give us a sense of spiritual connection. section, using language from 2 and 3. Point out
that there’s no single right answer – many variations
are possible. Monitor pairwork, note any general
3 SEARCH AND THINK Go through the various
problems and assist where needed. Pairs could
structures presented and allow a few minutes for
swap their versions to compare.
students to search through the article for examples.
Allow them to pool their results in pairs before
checking as a class, then elicit and write on the Suggested answer
board the main structural differences: Colours and pictures are generally considered
• active say / think / believe + that + clause to be a key feature of mind maps: they can give
• passive starting It + that + clause … a map more impact and tend to make it more
• passive starting with subject + to + infinitive memorable. Mind maps are also non-linear,
• active tend + to + infinitive apparently reflecting how the brain works, and
• modals + bare infinitive so it is believed that they enable us to make
• possibly / perhaps, etc + full verb (active or
passive)
Unit 2 53
3 In the same groups, students brainstorm other
new connections between ideas. Because of types of music and try to define them in a similar
this, they can often be useful for planning a way. When checking as a class, elicit just one type
piece of writing or preparing a presentation. of music and definition from each group, and
continue round the groups until there are no more
Speaking suggestions.
MINI-TALK Give students time to read the
instructions and prepare their talk individually. If you Answers
want them to use colour, make sure you have a supply Students will probably come up with some or all
of coloured pens for all groups. Walk around and offer of the following:
help and useful language as needed. Students then give country, dance, folk, indie, Latin, new wave,
their presentations in small groups. You may decide R&B / soul, rap, rock / hard rock, heavy metal,
to have students give their presentations in the next swing, techno, trance, funk, disco, etc
lesson, in order to give them more time to research any
ideas they want to. 4 1.15 Students listen to the recording of different
MA Weaker students could have the option of pieces of music and write down words that come
preparing and giving the presentation in pairs. to mind. Check answers after the first piece so all
students are clear on the task. From then on, pause
Lesson 3 Sounds interesting? after each piece for students to compare their
words and opinions in their groups.
pp24–25
Answers
Aims
Student’s answers will vary, but the types of
The focus of this lesson is to practise verb patterns used
music recorded are:
to express cause and effect, to revise vocabulary for
1 classical (suggested words: traditional,
different kinds of music, and to expand vocabulary for
beautiful, regal, formal)
different sounds. Students also get a chance to listen to
2 rock (suggested words: loud, strong
and talk about reactions to music and poems.
rhythm, heavy, intense)
You first! 3 folk (suggested words: catchy, rhythmic,
happy)
Allow students a few minutes to say which different
4 new age (suggested words: moody,
types of music they think are represented by the seven
calming, relaxing, eerie)
photos and to discuss the question in pairs. Encourage
them to explain the reasons for their preferences.
Extra idea: Ask extra questions for more
Speaking discussion:
1 Students work in pairs to label the photos with 1 Do you sing any kind of music yourself or
some of the types of music in the box. play a musical instrument?
2 If you were to design a piece of new-age
music, what sounds from nature would you
Answers
include?
1 electronic 2 jazz 3 blues 4 hip hop 3 What five songs / pieces of music would
5 reggae 6 pop 7 new age you want to have with you if you were cut
off somewhere isolated or marooned on a
2 Before students start, pre-teach / check desert island?
understanding of the words synthesisers, devices,
spirituals, improvise, syncopated rhythm, beat, 5 In the same groups, students talk about the
catchy. Students then work in groups on the questions. Then regroup the class, with each group
matching task. formed of half of two old groups, for them to
compare their findings.
Answers
1 electronic 2 blues 3 jazz 4 hip hop Listening 1
5 new age 6 reggae 7 pop
1 1.16 Play the first few seconds of the recording
to establish which of the questions are asked (Do
you listen to music while you’re driving? What kind

54 Unit 2
of music do you listen to? Do have a favourite song 8 man I always listen to Teoman – Mavi Kuş ile
that you listen to?). Students then listen to the rest Küçük Kız.
of the recording of ten people’s replies to these interviewer Um, I’m sorry? I don’t think I know
questions and note down their replies. Students that one.
compare their notes in pairs. man No, it’s Turkish!
9 I listen to Magic FM and I absolutely love
Answers listening to Queen. Especially Don’t Stop Me
SPEAKER 1: Yes; musicals – Rent, Evita, Les Mis Now! And I sing along at the top of my voice!
(= Les Miserables); no favourite song 10 I don’t listen to music. I listen to audio books.
SPEAKER 2: No
I’m listening to The Godfather – Mario Puzo –
SPEAKER 3: Yes; John Denver Take Me Home,
at the moment.
Country Roads 2 Students answer the questions individually from
SPEAKER 4: No memory, then compare with a partner. Then play
SPEAKER 5: Yes; country music; Tanya Tucker Some the recording again for them to check answers and
Kind of Trouble tell their partner which response is closest to their
SPEAKER 6: Yes; classical music stations, whatever’s own.
playing, especially strings, eg Mozart
violin concerto Answers
SPEAKER 7: No
1 Three people sing along (Speakers 1, 3 and 9).
SPEAKER 8: Yes; Teoman – Mavi Kuş ile Küçük
2 Three people listen to a particular style:
Kız (Turkish)
Speaker 1 (musicals), Speaker 5 (country)
SPEAKER 9: Yes; Magic FM, especially Queen –
and Speaker 6 (classical).
Don’t Stop Me Now
3 Four people don’t listen to music: Speaker
SPEAKER 10: No
2 learns Russian, Speaker 4 thinks, Speaker
7 listens to talk radio, eg phone-ins, and
Transcript Speaker 10 listens to audio books (The
interviewer Do you listen to music while you’re Godfather at the moment).
driving? What kind of music do you listen to? Do
have a favourite song that you listen to? Song link
1 Yes, I do. I love listening to musicals – Rent, This activity could be done in class (on smartphones
Evita, Les Mis – I don’t have a favourite song, or tablets) or at home. Students can compare answers
really. I love them all. And of course I sing along with a partner.
– loudly. I know them all by heart!
2 Oh, I don’t listen to music at all. Ever. I spend
Answers
two hours in the car every day – an hour
getting to work and an hour getting home 1 West Virginia
again – so I’m teaching myself Russian – dobroe 2 She’s late with her rent, her boyfriend has
utro! someone else, she loses her job
3 I listen to John Denver, Take Me Home, Country 3 Because they’re having such a good time
Roads again and again. I just love it. And yes,
I sing along. I sing really badly, but who cares!
Culture notes
There’s no one to hear me.
4 I don’t listen to anything at all. It’s the only • John Denver (1943–1997) was one of
time in the day when I’m on my own and I can America’s most popular singer-songwriters
get to think! I can’t think at work – there’s too of the 1970s. He performed and recorded
much going on – and I can’t think at home – mostly solo, accompanying himself on an
once I’ve put the kids to bed, I’m exhausted. So acoustic guitar, and sang about his joy in
I think in the car! nature, his enthusiasm for music, and his
5 Oh, country music. Definitely. Tanya Tucker relationship problems. Throughout his life,
Some Kind of Trouble. But I don’t sing along – Denver recorded and released over 300
I just like listening to her. songs, about 200 of which he composed
6 I listen to classical music stations. Whatever’s himself. Denver’s most famous songs were
playing. I’m not fussy. I do like strings, though. Take Me Home, Country Roads, Annie’s
Mozart violin concerto? Lovely. Song, Rocky Mountain High, Thank God
7 I don’t listen to music. I listen to talk radio. I’m a Country Boy and Sunshine on My
Phone-ins and stuff. You get to hear some really Shoulders. Take Me Home, Country Roads,
interesting things. released in 1971, became one of his most
Unit 2 55
beloved songs and is still very popular 2 1.17 Explain that you’re going to play a
around the world today. It describes West recording in which a psychology professor answers
Virginia, as ‘almost heaven’ and is now the the questions in 1. Students listen and make notes,
official state song of West Virginia. then compare the professor’s views with their own
• Tanya Tucker (1958–) is a popular American and evaluate them. They can discuss the answers in
country music singer who had her first pairs.
hit, Delta Dawn, in 1972 at the age of
13. She continued to be successful over Answers
the following decades and had several
1 It’s more fun, less boring, keeps us awake
successful albums and hit songs, such as
on long journeys.
What’s Your Mama’s Name? and Blood
2 Singing along to songs at the top of your
Red and Goin’ Down (1973), Lizzie and
voice as you drive.
the Rainman (1975) and Strong Enough
3 We lose concentration.
to Bend (1988). Some Kind of Trouble was
4 Some people bounce around on their seat
released in February 1992 and describes
as if dancing, or mime playing an instrument
the problems of someone who can’t afford
or singing with a microphone, which are
to pay the rent, who finds out that her
dangerous because they reduce their
boyfriend is cheating on her and that she
response time.
has lost her job.
5 Fast, loud music, because it increases your
• Teoman is the stage name of Fazlı
heartbeat and gets you excited, which
Teoman Yakupoğlu (1967–), a popular
makes you drive faster. Hip hop makes
Turkish rock singer and songwriter. He
women more aggressive, and heavy metal
originally studied business administration
has that effect on men.
and mathematics at university, but formed
6 Music with the same tempo as our
his first band, Mirage, in 1986. He was
heartbeat, ie around 60–80 beats a minute.
a member of several other bands before
finally having a hit with Ne Ekmek Ne de Su
in 1996. Transcript
• Queen are a British rock band that formed presenter Good evening and welcome. With us here
in London in 1970, consisting originally of in the studio tonight is psychologist Professor Lewis
Freddie Mercury (lead vocals, piano), Brian Carter, who’s been doing some interesting research
May (guitar, vocals), Roger Taylor (drums, about how listening to music can affect our driving.
vocals) and John Deacon (bass guitar). Good evening, Professor, and welcome.
Queen’s early works were influenced by professor Good evening. Nice to be here.
progressive rock, hard rock and heavy presenter You’ve been researching this for quite a
metal, but the band gradually evolved, while, I believe? Tell us a bit about it. What have
incorporating more conventional arena rock you found out? Is it advisable to listen to music
and pop rock into their music. while we’re driving?
Don’t Stop Me Now, written by Freddie professor Well, it’s obviously more fun – listening to
Mercury, featured on their 1978 album Jazz music makes driving less boring, and especially on
and was released as a single in 1979. long journeys, it can stop us from falling asleep and
keep us awake …
presenter Do I hear a ‘but’ coming?
Listening 2
professor Yes, you do! And we call it car-aoke!
1 PREDICT When you see PREDICT in front presenter Karaoke, but spelt with a ‘c’ for car?
of an instruction, it means students should make professor Yes, singing along to your favourite songs
predictions about what they’re about to read or as you drive. Often at the top of your voice!
listen to based on information on the page. For presenter Car-aoke! I like it. So, what’s the ‘but’?
more information about these exercises, see the What’s wrong with singing along?
Introduction, page 19. professor Well, research shows that it causes us to
Allow a couple of minutes for students to look at lose concentration when we’re singing along at the
the photo and talk about the questions in pairs. top of our voice.
Point out that they should say what they personally presenter Yes, I can see that. And the problem is
think at this stage. They’re not expected to have that some people don’t just sing, do they? The
factual knowledge of the topic. music makes them want to move, and they bounce
around on their seat as if they’re dancing!

56 Unit 2
professor Yes, they do, or they mime playing an
instrument or sing into a pretend microphone as if Culture notes
they’re performing on stage! • Ride of the Valkyries is one of Richard Wagner’s
presenter I passed someone doing that on the best-known pieces. It comes from the beginning
way here this evening. But it isn’t funny, is it? All of Act 3 of The Valkyries, the second of the four
of those things can have a huge effect on your operas by Wagner (1813–1883) known as The
response time if something happens. Ring.
professor Too right. They can really reduce your • Requiem is a musical setting of the Roman
response time and slow you down in an emergency. Catholic funeral mass for four soloists, double
presenter Yes, so it’s potentially quite dangerous. choir and orchestra by Giuseppe Verdi (1813–
professor Very. 1901). Dies Irae (Day of Wrath) is a medieval
presenter I read something somewhere that some Latin hymn that forms part of the funeral mass.
music or songs are more of a problem than others. • Hey Mama is a popular song released in 2004
Is that right? by the American hip-hop band, The Black Eyed
professor Well, music that is fast and loud is more Peas. Used in both the original TV advert for the
dangerous because it increases your heartbeat and iPod and the film Garfield: The Movie, it was a
gets you excited. Excited drivers tend to speed up hit in many countries.
to match the beat of the song and then they have
to brake at the last minute! There have also been
some studies that suggest that women who listen
Grammar Verb patterns 1: cause and effect
to hip hop and men who listen to heavy metal 1 SEARCH AND THINK Students look through
often drive more aggressively. transcript 1.17 on page 140 of the Student’s Book
presenter Really? Mmm, that’s interesting. So what’s again to find examples of the verb patterns and list
the best music to play to help prevent accidents them in their notebooks. Point out that they should
from happening? be able to find one example of each. Make sure
professor Something which has the same tempo as they’ve noticed the grammatical differences (bare
our heartbeat – which is around 60 to 80 beats a infinitive after make, to infinitive after cause, (from)
minute. -ing after stop and prevent).
presenter Oh, I think I heard somewhere that you
can find a playlist of songs with that tempo online? Answers
professor Yes, you can. Just search for ‘safe driving
... listening to music makes driving less boring ...
songs’ and you’ll see it.
... it can stop us from falling asleep ...
presenter Brilliant. Professor Carter, thank you very
... it causes us to lose concentration ...
much for coming.
The music makes them want to move ...
professor Thank you.
... what’s the best music to play to help prevent
3 Keep students in their pairs and give them about accidents from happening?
five minutes to write out the interview with the
professor, using the questions in 1 and their notes 2 Students complete the summary with verbs from 1,
to help them. Stress that their dialogue doesn’t then check in pairs.
need to be exactly the same as the recording, but it
should convey the same information. When they’ve Answers
finished, they compare their version with transcript
1 make 2 makes 3 stop / prevent
1.17 on page 140 of the Student’s Book to check,
4 cause 5 stop / prevent
then act it out.

Monitor the pairwork discreetly, providing 3 FINISH IT Give students a couple of minutes to
assistance or redirection only where needed. Make complete the sentences with their own ideas. They
a note of common language problems, but save then share their sentences with one or two other
them and address them at the end, in order not to students in pairs or groups of three. You may need
interrupt the flow of the activity. to remind students what speed bumps are.
EXPLORE ONLINE
Students could do this in class on smartphones or Tip: During specific language practice activities,
tablets, or at home. Whichever format you choose, it’s useful to correct errors in the target
allow a short time in class for students to share their structure when they occur, to reinforce
opinions in small groups. accuracy. However, interrupting to correct
other, unrelated, language errors can be
counterproductive, causing students to lose
Unit 2 57
focus. Rather than ignore them completely, whistling: a person; a referee to give signals
however, keep a note of other persistent during a match; a sports trainer; some
errors and address them later – either at the kettles when they boil; wind
end of the lesson or in another lesson. 2 arguing, barking, breaking, clattering,
clicking, crashing, gasping, humming,
knocking, laughing, moaning, purring,
Extra idea: For extra practice, or if not many ringing, roaring, rumbling, screaming,
students in the class actually drive, ask students shouting, singing, sloshing, smashing,
to make up more sentences using these verb splashing, squeaking, swishing, tapping,
patterns about travelling by public transport or wheezing, whining, whirring, whispering,
cycling. yelling

Vocabulary Sounds Reading


1 Give students a minute to think about the ten 1 Students work in pairs to complete the poem with
sound words and the question, then ask for the sounds. You could use the recording in 2 for
volunteers to make some of the sounds. students to check answers.

2 Students work in groups to pool their knowledge


about the sound words. Only allow them to check
Answers
in dictionaries after they’ve gone through all the 1 whistling 2 ticking 3 crunching
words. 4 scraping 5 hissing 6 bubbling
7 drumming 8 gurgle 9 crying 10 creaking
MA Make sure that weak and strong students are
shared evenly across groups.
Extra idea: Ask students to identify any other
Tip: Allow time for students to think and pool sound words in the poem and help them to
their collective knowledge of unfamiliar guess the meaning of any unfamiliar ones (eg
vocabulary in groups, rather than volunteering purring, popping, squeaking, swishing).
explanations or allowing dictionary use
straight away. Between them, they’ll know
a lot more than individually. This promotes 2 1.18 Play the recording for students to check the
collaborative learning and can help give them answers to 1 and to answer the question.
a sense of empowerment and confidence.
Culture note
The Sound Collector is by English poet Roger
Suggested answers McGough, taken from his collection of poems
1 bubbling: water or other liquid boiling; a entitled All the Best, published in 2004. For
stream more about McGough, see the Culture note
creaking: an old wooden door moving; old that accompanies the Explore Online section on
wooden floorboards or stairs when you step page 59.
on them
crunching: eating something crisp, eg an 3 THINK Give students a minute to think about
apple, a raw carrot, crisps, a biscuit, etc; the questions on the poem silently; they then share
walking in crisp, thick snow or on gravel their thoughts in groups.
crying: a hungry baby; a sad person; seagulls
drumming: a person playing a drum; fingers VIDEO link
on hard surface; heavy rain on car roof Ideally, show this to the class as a whole, as it provides
gurgle: a baby; water in a sink or bath going excellent illustration and sound effects. Alternatively,
down the plug hole students can watch it in groups on smartphones or
hissing: a snake; air coming out of a hole, eg tablets. Allow a few minutes for them to discuss the
a punctured tyre or a balloon; gas leaking questions.
scraping: using a knife to get burnt food off
an oven dish; using a tool to get dry paint Answer
off a surface 1 black and white
ticking: a clock; a watch; a time bomb

58 Unit 2
4 In groups, students divide up the poem and share in pairs. It could be done in class, but allowing
out the verses between them. They take it in students to do it at home would give them more
turns to read a verse, while the rest of the group time to add sound effects. They could either present
make the sounds, a bit like a Greek chorus. The it to their group in class or share the videos online.
performances could be done in front of the class, MA Weaker students could create their poems in
with students voting on the best performance. pairs, with dictionaries if necessary.

Extra idea: In groups, students take it in turns


to mime a line from the poem for others in the Everyday English p26
group to guess which line it is.
Talking about advantages
EXPLORE ONLINE and disadvantages
Students do the research either in class or at home,
then share information and poem choices in small 1 GUESS Elicit what three activities the photos
groups. show (playing chess, playing the guitar, doing
graphic design), then students talk in pairs about
Extra idea: Students could research a what could be difficult about learning each activity.
contemporary poet from their own country and
give a short presentation about them. 2 1.19 Students listen to the recording to find
answers to the three questions, then compare
answers with a partner.
Culture note
Roger McGough (1937–) is an award-winning Answers
poet, playwright, broadcaster and children’s 1 a few months ago
author, born in Liverpool, England. McGough 2 learn to the play the guitar
is one of Britain’s best-loved poets, who has 3 online
published over 50 books of poetry for adults and
children, along with several plays. He has also
Transcript
always been a very active performance poet as
rosa I was reading an article recently which said
well as a writer.
McGough is best known for being an accessible that learning something new keeps your mind
and down-to-earth poet who is in touch with active.
pete Oh yeah?
the world of the commonplace and the ordinary
rosa Yeah – it even stops you getting Alzheimer’s,
person. His voice epitomises the working-class
Liverpool of his childhood: unpretentious, apparently.
pete It’s a bit early to be worrying about that, Rosa!
dry, witty, ironic and sceptical. He engages
rosa You never know!
in mischievous word-play, playing with the
tina I’ll be all right! I started to learn chess a few
ambiguities of words and inventing his own
words or word combinations, and he mocks months ago. Joined a chess club.
pete What’s that like?
clichés and other overly-familiar expressions.
tina It’s fun.
McGough encourages children to question the
pete Fun?
world around them and not take things at face
tina Sure. What’s good about the club is that I
value; in his poetry for adults, through humour
and deceptively simple style, he addresses all learn by playing with other people. They’re really
kinds of serious subjects such as lost youth, encouraging – well, most of them are, anyway –
parenthood, illness, the downsides of city life and and they’re great with advice!
pete So it’s all good? Tina Walker is going to be a
old age.
grand master!
tina I don’t think so, unfortunately. Tina the failure,
Speaking and writing more like! I’m finding it difficult to keep up. I mean,
if you want to get good, you have to go regularly,
1 Students compare ideas in pairs. Encourage them to
but there are days when I’m just not in the mood.
use idiomatic expressions as shown in the examples.
Still on the whole, it is good way to get started.
2 VIDEO OPTION Students write their own pete Perhaps I should have done it that way.

poems using favourite sounds and film themselves tina You play chess too? You never said.

reading it using smartphones or tablets. You could pete No, not chess. Guitar. I started learning to play

give them the option of doing it individually or the guitar about a year ago.

Unit 2 59
tina What, you got yourself a teacher?
pete No, I thought I could do it by myself, online. Answers
There are hundreds of free videos online. You can skill / method advantages disadvantages
play along with them. That’s what’s so good about activity of
it. learning
rosa True. And I suppose that another advantage Tina chess joined fun; other difficult to keep
of doing it like that is that you can learn at your a chess people are up; need to go
own pace – whenever you have time available. club encouraging, regularly, but
give advice some days not
tina In the comfort of your own home!
in the mood
pete That’s right.
Pete guitar online at your feels isolated;
rosa So it’s all good, then.
with free own pace, hard to stay
pete Well, the only drawback was that I felt quite videos whenever motivated
isolated. I found it quite tough. Still do. you have
tina Tough? time; at
pete Yes. The most difficult thing is staying
home
motivated if there’s no one there to keep you at it. Rosa graphic online can talk prefers face-to-
But I’m going to keep at it. I like studying on my design course with other face; gets on
students better learning
own. Just me. No one else in the way. and ask in a group
rosa Yes, I totally get that, even if it’s not my style. questions; at
Did I tell you I started a course in graphic design just home
recently?
tina You said you were going to, Rosa, but I didn’t
5 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE Explain that this
know you’d actually started. What’s it like?
focuses on some very common everyday phrases
rosa It’s pretty good. It’s online, but you can talk
used in the conversation. If necessary, play the
with the other students and ask questions, so
recording again, pausing briefly after each phrase is
it’s better than studying by yourself. Well, in my
used.
opinion, anyway. But I’d still prefer face-to-face
classes – but on the other hand, that means you
Answers
can’t study from home. Goodness, I don’t know!
tina Well, all I know is that I get on much better 1f 2e 3a 4c 5b 6d
when I’m in a group learning together with other
people. 6 Point out that this looks at expressions and phrases
pete Each to his own, I guess. that were used in the dialogue for expressing
tina / rosa Her own, Pete! advantages and disadvantages. Allow a few
minutes for students to complete the sentences
3 Students copy the chart and complete as much
from the dialogue and compare with a partner.
as they can from memory.
They can then check transcript 1.19 on page 141
4 Play the recording again for students to add any for the correct answers.
missing information to the chart from 3. They can
check in pairs, then collect answers on the board in Answers
class feedback. 1 Another advantage of
2 That’s what’s so
3 The most difficult thing
4 The only drawback
5 On the other hand
6 What’s good about
7 It’s better than

7 Give students a few minutes to categorise the


completed phrases from 6 as ways to talk about
advantages or disadvantages. Encourage students
to write the complete phrases, not just the words in
the box in 6.

60 Unit 2
Answers Answers
talking about advantages a) enthusiastic: dialogue 2
Another advantage of doing it like that is that … b) mildly interested: dialogue 1*
That’s what’s so good about it. c) interested, perhaps: dialogue 5*
What’s good about [the club] is that … d) intrigued / curious about the idea: dialogue 4
It’s better than ... e) completely unenthusiastic: dialogue 3
* The difference between these two is very slight, so
talking about disadvantages students may transpose these answers.
The most difficult thing is ...
The only drawback was that ... Transcript
On the other hand, that means you can’t …
1 woman Why don’t you enrol on a language
course at a language school?
8 Students work in pairs to think of advice. If man Mmm.
necessary, elicit / revise ways of giving advice 2 woman You could learn how to play the tin
(eg I think you should … Why don’t you …? whistle by watching videos online.
You could …). man Mmm.
3 woman Why don’t you start going to the gym if
Possible answers you want to lose weight!
tina: I think you should enjoy the game and stop man Mmm.
worrying about how well you’re playing. 4 woman You could always go and do a
pete: Why don’t you try and find someone you postgraduate degree at university.
can practise the guitar with? man Mmm.
rosa: You could look for an evening class in 5 woman Why don’t you start your own group on
design that you could attend after work. social media?
man Mmm.
9 EVERYBODY UP! Give students a few minutes 11 P In pairs, students take it in turns to make
to walk around the room and find out from three suggestions and react saying Mmm, using
other people about a new skill or activity they’ve intonation to show their degree of enthusiasm.
been learning. At the end of the allotted time,
round off by eliciting any similarities between skills 12 Each student writes down three things they’d
and methods that students have found out. like to learn and then explains their choices to a
MA For the benefit of weaker students, before partner. Pairs take turns to give each other advice
starting, you could elicit and write on the board about the best ways to learn these things, then use
the questions students will need to ask to get the the phrases from 6 to discuss the advantages and
information, eg disadvantages of these methods. Encourage them
What skill or activity have you learnt or have you to use each phrase at least once.
been learning recently? EXPLORE ONLINE
How have you been learning it? / How did you learn Students do research about their choices from 12,
it? either in class with their smartphones or tablets, or at
What are / were the advantages of learning it like home. Either way, allow a few minutes of lesson time
that? for them to share the information they found.
Are / Were there any disadvantages?

10 P 1.20 Remind students how important


intonation is for conveying meaning in English
conversation, and demonstrate this by saying,
for example, oh in various different ways, eg
enthusiastic, suspicious, vaguely interested,
disappointed, etc. Play the recording for students
to identify the way Mmm is said each time. Pause
briefly after each dialogue for students to choose
the best option.

Unit 2 61
Units 1&2 review pp27–28

Aims the photos. They should ignore the numbered gaps


for the moment. Check and elicit what clues in the
To review the vocabulary and grammar covered in
text helped them to decide. You may need to help
Units 1 and 2. Students also read about the Montessori
with the word uncluttered (line 5), but for any other
method of education and customs connected with pets,
vocabulary queries, encourage them to guess the
and explore some expressions using animal metaphors.
approximate meaning from context.
Reading and grammar
Answer
1 Students look at the photos and, in pairs, say
Photo A (clues: children working in groups at
what the children are doing and describe the
tables or on mats on the floor, flowers, colours,
environment. As feedback, elicit the main
encourage children to select and evaluate their
differences between the environments.
own learning activities)
MA Encourage more able students to use
expressions of comparison, eg whereas, on the
other hand, while, to explain the differences. Tip: Remind students of good reading strategies.
Encourage them to guess meaning of
Answers unfamiliar words from context rather than
immediately looking them up in dictionaries
The children are learning, at school.
or on smartphones.
• Photo A shows an informal classroom
without desks, but lots of space. There are
a few small tables and coloured chairs and 4 Students now focus on the numbered gaps in the
a variety of different activities for children to text and complete them with the correct verb forms
do sitting on the floor. The children are all or relative pronouns. They work individually, then
doing different things. It’s a friendly room check with a partner.
with coloured flowers and other objects.
The teacher is crouching down on the floor Answers
helping one of the children. The children 1 won’t / will not find 2 will see 3 whose
are wearing a uniform. 4 where 5 have changed / have been changing
• Photo B shows a more formal, traditional 6 use / are using 7 who 8 whose
classroom environment, with all the children 9 who 10 began 11 was taking
sitting side by side at neat rows of desks, 12 had already done 13 have attended
all facing the teacher, with books and 14 learn 15 will encounter 16 are using
notebooks in front of them. The teacher 17 which 18 is not standing 19 is sitting
is at the front of the class in front of a 20 attended
board which has writing on it. It looks as
if the teacher is talking and the children
5 Students work individually to match the verbs and
are listening. The walls are bare, with no
descriptions, then check with a partner.
pictures or other decoration.
MA Weaker students could work in pairs.

2 Allow a couple of minutes for students to discuss


the statements in pairs. Make sure they explain the Answers
reason(s) for their opinions. Monitor the discussions, a) began, attended
assisting where needed. b) use, learn
c) are using, is not standing, is sitting
3 Ask students if any of them have heard of the d) have changed, have attended
Montessori Method. If they have, invite them to e) was taking
give a brief summary of what it involves to the f) have been changing
rest of the class. Then allow a few minutes for g) had already done
students to read the text and match it with one of h) will encounter

62 Units 1&2 Review


6 Students work in pairs to focus on the relative 8 THINK Students have a minute to think about
pronouns they selected in the text and answer the the questions silently. Then in groups, give them a
questions about the following clauses. couple of minutes to discuss the question of their
MA For the benefit of weaker students, go through choice. Monitor, assist where needed and keep a
the answers about the first relative pronoun note of common errors, which you can deal with
(3 whose) to make the task very clear, then give the later.
numbers of the gaps that are relative pronouns MA More able groups could discuss more than one
(3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 17). question.

Answers Listening and speaking


3 whose (defining, because there are no
1 1.21 Ask the class as a whole: Did you enjoy
commas and the clause can’t be omitted)
your time at school? and elicit what kinds of thing
4 where (defining, because there are no
caused them to enjoy their schooldays or not. Elicit
commas and the clause can’t be omitted)
single points from a number of different students
7 who (defining, because there are no
without getting into too much detail (eg making
commas and the clause can’t be omitted)
friends, activities, the teachers, punishments,
8 whose (defining, because there are no
bullies, the journey, etc). Then students listen to
commas and the clause can’t be omitted)
the recording and mark each person 3, 7 or ? as
9 who (defining, because there are no
instructed. Don’t go into details when checking.
commas and the clause can’t be omitted)
17 which (non-defining, because there are
commas and the sentence makes sense if Answers
we omit the clause) 13 27 37 4? 53
The non-defining relative pronoun can’t be
omitted because it’s not the object. Transcript
1 We did a lot of art and drama at our school.
7 Students answer the questions from memory Everyone had to learn a musical instrument
in pairs. They should only look back at the text to and study art, which was meant to help us
check after they’ve answered all the questions. express our emotions. At the end of the
year, we all took part in a school play.
Answers I think that the drama had a very good effect
1 Montessori classrooms don’t have rows on me because it made me more confident,
of desks, but groups working at tables and now I’m not afraid of speaking to
or on mats on the floor. There is a calm, people or trying out new things.
comfortable environment, with sofas, rugs, 2 My school was quite traditional and rather
flowers and quiet corners for reflection. strict. There were lots of rules, and if we
There are mixed-age groups in the class; didn’t obey them, we had to stay late after
children learn from each other, and the school. I know that rules are supposed to
teacher sits with students instead of be good for children, but I think it made us
standing at the front. too obedient! I think in the end it probably
2 It’s child centred, and it encourages prevented us from being adventurous or
independence and individuality. Learning taking risks.
from each other is more like the real world 3 I went to boarding school, and it was really
beyond school. quite difficult for me. I didn’t know anyone
3 To appeal to all senses and motor skills, and found it difficult to make friends.
encourage children to select and evaluate I think boarding school is often seen as a
their own learning activities. way of strengthening your character, but for
4 Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon, and Sergey me it was quite the opposite. I became very
Brin, co-founder of Google. They’re both shy and just learnt to hide my emotions.
founders of hugely successful modern 4 All I remember about school is that we
businesses which have changed our lives – had a lot of tests! We were constantly
and they both attended Montessori schools. competing against each other to get the
best marks. It kept us motivated and made
us focus on our goals, but on the other
hand, there’s more to learning than just
tests – isn’t it supposed to be fun as well?

Units 1&2 Review 63


5 The education at my school was very
Extra idea: Students ask at least three
hands-on. We learnt by doing and making
questions about their partner’s story, after their
things. For example, we learnt about
partner has spoken for a minute. If necessary,
geometry and trigonometry by building a
supply some question words on the board to
canoe and learning to navigate it. We also
prompt them (eg Why…? What happened …?
learnt to work in a team and solve problems
What did X do / say / think …? Who …? How
together. I think I remember a lot more
long …? etc).
from my school days because my physical
senses and emotions were so engaged
while we were learning. Tip: Getting students to ask questions about their
2 Students work in pairs for a few minutes using partner’s story to probe for further information
the prompts to try to piece together from memory encourages them to be active listeners.
roughly what each person said. Explain that they
don’t need to remember word for word, just the EXPLORE ONLINE
main points. You may need to remind students of Students do the online research either in class using
the meaning of boarding school (speaker 3). smartphones or tablets, or at home before the next
MA To make sure all students understand how to lesson. You may want to give students a list of some
use the prompts, demonstrate the first one with the specific non-traditional methods for them to choose
class: elicit suggestions and build up a sentence or from, eg virtual learning, home schooling, Steiner
two on the board round the prompts. Waldorf education, co-operative and collaborative
learning, democratic schools (eg Summerhill School,
Students listen again to check their answers. Sands School), distance education, paperless classroom,
e-learning, the flipped classroom, etc.
Suggested answers
1 They did a lot of art and drama and learnt
4 MINI-TALK Give students time to read the
instructions and prepare their talk. Walk around
a musical instrument. The drama (they took
and offer help and useful language as needed. They
part in a school play at the end of the year)
then give their presentations in small groups.
had a good effect on the speaker, it made
her more confident.
2 This speaker’s school was strict and had
Aspects of culture
a lot of rules they had to obey, otherwise a Ask the class as a whole if they have any pets, and
they had to stay late. The speaker thinks if so, what animals. Students read the information
it probably prevented him from being about customs connected to animals and choose
adventurous or taking risks. the custom that appeals to them most and least.
3 This speaker went to boarding school, They should explain why to a partner.
which some people think is a way of
strengthening your character, but it was the Extra idea: In groups of three, each member
opposite for the speaker. She just became reads the introduction plus a different section of
shy and learnt to hide her emotions. the text. They then present ‘their’ custom to the
4 They had a lot of tests, which kept them rest of the group.
motivated and made them focus on goals.
5 They learnt to work in a team and solve
b Students read the whole text again and answer the
problems together. This speaker remembers
questions about it in small groups.
a lot from school because her physical
senses and emotions were so engaged
while learning. Suggested answers
1 Cat cafés are popular in big cities like Tokyo
3 YOUR STORY Students tell a partner about the where many people live in flats and aren’t
best thing that happened to them when at school. allowed pets.
They should aim to talk uninterrupted for about a Keeping crickets as pets used to be and still
minute, then answer any questions their partner is popular in China because of their song
asks. – the louder they sang, the more valuable
they were.
MA More capable students who finish early could
Keeping songbirds is popular in Vietnam
also tell each other about the worst thing they
because of their beautiful song, and the
remember from their schooldays.
habit of showing them off in the park
before work.
64 Units 1&2 Review
2 Cat cafés are unusual because, in the
Western world, we have cats at home, but
animals aren’t usually allowed in cafés.
Owls, rabbits and goats are even more
unusual, since owls and goats aren’t usual
pets at all.
Crickets are unusual, as people in the West
don’t think of them as pets at all, more as
pests, and it seems odd to have a pet that
only lives for a month.
Songbirds in cages aren’t so unusual
(although some people believe it’s cruel),
but taking them to the park with you in the
morning is.

c Students pool their knowledge and resources to


find out the meaning of the animal metaphors,
and say if their own language(s) has / have similar
expressions using animal metaphors.

Answers
• a wolf in sheep’s clothing = a bad / cruel
person pretending to be good / nice / kind
• smell a rat = sense that something is wrong,
be suspicious
• from the horse’s mouth = (when you hear
some information) from its source, not
second hand via someone else
• (She thinks she’s) the cat’s whiskers. = (She
thinks she’s) better / more important than
anyone else.
• let the cat out of the bag = reveal a secret,
usually unintentionally
• kill two birds with one stone = achieve two
things at the same time
• hold your horses = wait a moment, don’t
rush

Units 1&2 Review 65


Writing skills
Module 1 Answers
Writing an essay pp152–153 Conclusion B is the best. It weighs up both sides
of the argument already mentioned and makes
Before you start a decision based on them.
Conclusion A is in favour of on one side of the
1 In pairs or small groups, students talk about the argument without referring to the other side,
questions. Then focus on just one or two questions and gives an additional advantage of live music,
and invite groups to share their opinions with the which should go in a previous paragraph.
class. Conclusion C gives another new point on the
side of recorded music, it doesn’t conclude.
Language box
This lists common words and phrases that are
5 Students read through the list of statements and
particularly useful for the type of writing being dealt
decide which ones are true, ie descriptions of a
with. Go through them and make sure students are
good conclusion, and which false, ie not a good
familiar with their meaning and use.
conclusion.
2 Students work alone, then compare answers with a
partner. Check answers and answer any queries. Answers
1 False 2 False 3 True 4 True 5 True
Answers
1b 2a 3b 4a 5a 6b 6 Students do the exercise alone, then compare
with a partner. Check and write the answers on
the board under the relevant headings (opinion,
Understanding the task addition, contrast / concession, examples,
3 Students read the model essay and talk about the conclusion). Elicit more phrases for giving examples
questions in pairs. After checking answers, ask (for example, such as).
students to identify what’s missing (The conclusion).
Answers
Answers 1 some people believe, There is no doubt
1 By contrasting the amount of time we that, obviously, I think that, I think
spend listening to recorded music with the 2 First of all, Also, and, Furthermore, Firstly, In
preference of some people for live music. addition, Finally
2 They say it’s a special experience; it’s 3 However, On the other hand, but
entertaining to watch a singer / band in 4 for instance
action; the lights, clothes and dancing add 5 All things considered, In conclusion
to the enjoyment; it’s exciting being in a (Furthermore is used, but isn’t appropriate
crowd of fans. for introducing a conclusion.)
3 The sound quality is better and more
adaptable; you’re not disturbed by the Practice
noise of fans; it’s practical – you can listen
anywhere, any time. 7 Students decide the correct order of the sentences,
then compare answers with a partner. Elicit the
correct order and also what linking words are
4 Students read the three possible conclusions and
used in the sentences and their function (Finally,
choose the best one, then compare answers in pairs
also, and (= addition); For example, such as (=
and discuss why (and what’s wrong with the other
introducing examples); as (= reason). Make sure
two). Check the answer and reasons with the class.
students understand how important they are
in signalling the direction of the argument, and
therefore making it easy to follow.

66 Writing skills: Module 1


Answers Sample answer
1b 2e 3c 4d 5a We all love downloading music from the
internet, and it’s great when it’s free. But
should we have to pay for all music that we
Extra idea: Point out that linkers of reason and
download?
result are also very useful in this kind of essay,
and elicit some examples of each (reason: as, Once music is on the internet, there are
because, since; result: so, therefore, as a result). no production costs involved. For instance,
the record company doesn’t have to pay
for burning CDs or retail distribution.
8 Students practise forming their own well-
constructed paragraphs in a controlled way, Furthermore, there are many musicians
expanding from a given topic sentence. Working in who don’t have a record deal and want to
pairs, they create their paragraphs, then compare get their music better known, so they’re
sentences with another pair. Monitor the pairwork happy for people to download it for
and assist if requested. At the end, for each nothing. Free tracks can also promote an
paragraph, one student could write their version on album or forthcoming concert.
the board. However, there are still some costs involved
in producing music – such as the musicians,
Now you the studio, the engineers, the album cover
9 This essay task is in the style of a Cambridge ESOL – and these can only be paid for if people
FCE exam task. Give students a minute to read buy the music they download. In addition,
it and check they’ve understood. Emphasise the artists can only earn a living from their
importance of thinking and planning an essay music if people buy it.
before starting to write, and explain that the six In conclusion, I believe that we should
stages help them do this. Allow time for students to pay for most of the music we download
discuss them in small groups. to ensure that the music industry can
After stage 1, elicit the advantages and continue. But there are some situations
disadvantages they’ve found and build up a list on
when it is beneficial to both the musician
the board. If the list is long, point out that they’ll
and the music lover to download a track
need to choose just a few points to cover in their
for free.
essays.
For stage 2, point out that all three options are
acceptable viewpoints.
For stage 4, elicit suggestions for ‘your own idea’.
You could suggest some points, eg the cost of
producing the music, the relative fame of the artist,
piracy.
For stage 5, point out that all three plans are
acceptable approaches, as long as the argument is
coherent and integrates the notes given in the task.

Suggested answers
6 1I 2C 3I 4X 5C

10 Students could write their essay at home.


Encourage them to use the Check it! list before
submitting their essay to make sure they’ve done
everything as well as possible. Before they hand
them in, students could swap essays in pairs and
apply the checklist to their partner’s essay, drawing
attention to any points on the list that haven’t been
addressed.

Writing skills: Module 1 67


3 Watch your language!
UNIT GRAMMAR: comparison; modal verbs; cleft sentences
VOCABULARY: loan words; roots of English; expressions with can’t
FOCUS FUNCTION: expressing preferences

Introduction p29 Answers


1 c 6,000
Aims 2 c Mandarin Chinese
The focus of this lesson is to introduce the unit topic 3 b English
of language by getting students to think about and 4 d Papua New Guinea has around 840
compare languages, language abilities and the role languages, then India (780), Nigeria
of languages and to explore phrases with the word (just over 500) and Indonesia (over
language. 300), but there is some disagreement
about the exact numbers.
You first! 5 a Basque
Students compare their language abilities in small 6 a Kannada, according to most sources,
groups. As part of feedback, you could find out who but there is some argument claiming
speaks the most languages in the class. Tamil is the oldest, and some claims
that Sanskrit is the oldest.
1 1.22 Play the recording, pausing after each 7 c, d Esperanto and Turkish
speaker for students to identify the language and
say if they speak it.
Background notes
Answers • Breton: A Celtic language spoken in
1 Dutch 2 French 3 German Brittany, north-west France
4 Spanish 5 Welsh • Kannada: A language spoken mainly by the
Kannada people in Southern India, mainly
in the state of Karnataka. There is evidence
Transcript
of written tradition dating from 450ad but
1 Mijn naam is Piet. Ik denk dat ik wil een of oral tradition before the third century bc.
politicus te zijn. Ik ben niet zeker maar ik • Sanskrit: The ancient language associated
denk het wel. with India, considered to be the ‘language
2 Bonjour, je m’appelle Angélique Grenier, je of the gods’, and by some to be the oldest
viens de Tours, en France, mais j’habite à language in the world, being at least 6,000
Paris. Je suis étudiante de la littérature à la years old.
Sorbonne. • Proto-Indo-European (or PIE): The language
3 Hallo, ich bin Ingrid, ich bin sechs und that all modern Indo-European languages
zwanzig Jahre alt. Ich wohne in Frankfurt. are descended from. It was spoken by a
Ich liebe reisen und wandern im Natur. people who lived from roughly 4500 to
4 Hola, ¿qué tal? Me llamo Simón, y soy de 2500bc and left no written texts.
Madrid. Yo vivo en las afueras, entonces • Tamil: A language spoken mainly by the
tengo que viajar para ir a mi trabajo. Trabajo Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka and the
en ... en una escuela porque soy profesor, Tamil diaspora. It is an official language of
más o menos me gusta mi profesión, los Singapore and Sri Lanka and is one of the
niños son muy graciosos. longest-surviving classical languages of the
5 Helo. Myfanwy fy enw i. O ble wyt ti’n dod? world, dating from about 300bc.
Sut wyt ti heddiw? • Esperanto: A constructed international
language devised in 1887 by Dr Ludwig
Extra idea: Ask more questions: What language
Lazarus Zamenhof; the aim was to create
do you use most of the time? Do you use any
an easy-to-learn, politically neutral language
other languages as well? Which ones, and why?
that would transcend nationality and foster
peace and international understanding
2 Students do the quiz in pairs. Encourage them to between speakers of different languages.
explain and discuss their guesses together.

68 Unit 3
Did you know? 4 In pairs, students talk about question 1; for
question 2, they take turns to explain phrases, ie
Students read about the Universal Declaration of
give an English definition, synonym or paraphrase,
Human Rights. Between them, students probably know
without using the phrase itself, and their partner
several things about it and what’s included in it, so
guesses which phrase it is. You could start the ball
groups could brainstorm the questions before reporting
rolling by explaining one yourself for the class to
back.
guess, eg a language which is no longer spoken,
like Latin or Ancient Greek (= a dead language).
Answers
• The 30 clauses of the Universal Declaration
Answers
of Human Rights outline all the basic
human rights, eg the right to freedom; 1 Colloquial language and everyday language
equality; life; nationality; a home; family; are similar.
property; movement; democracy; food; Dead language and extinct language are
education; work; security; a fair trial; similar, but not quite the same (dead = not
freedom of thought and expression; and spoken, but may be still used in written
a life without discrimination, slavery or form; extinct = no longer used at all by
torture. anyone anywhere).
• Official UN languages: English, French, First language and native language.
Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Mandarin Chinese Foreign language and second language can
mean the same.
Living language and modern language
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could mean the same.
Students should try to answer the questions first in
Strong language and offensive language
groups, then divide up the questions between them
can mean the same.
and check online. Finally they report back to the group.

Answers 5 EVERYBODY UP! Students walk around the


class and find several people to ask and answer the
• German is an official language in: Germany, questions with. Instruct them to aim to talk to at
Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, least three or four different people in three minutes.
Liechtenstein. Once the time is up, students return to their groups
• Spanish is not an official language in: Belize, and report back on the people they interviewed.
Brazil, French Guyana, Guyana, Surinam.
• Thousands of languages are spoken in
Tip: Set a time limit and clearly signal when the
Africa. Some of the most widely spoken
time is up. This, combined with a quantified
are: Arabic (Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea,
task (at least three or four different people),
Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia,
keeps students focused and discourages them
Algeria, Libya, Morocco); Swahili (south-
from wasting time.
east Africa – Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda);
Berber (Morocco, Algeria); Somali (Somalia);
Amharic (Ethiopia); Hausa (Sahel); Igbo and 6 LOOK AHEAD Students look at the titles
Yoruba (west Africa), Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans of Lessons 1–3 to see which one sounds most
(South Africa). interesting, then compare their opinions in pairs.
Encourage them to explain the reason why a title
sounds interesting, and to say what they expect to
3 Allow a minute for students to go through the list
focus on in that lesson.
and decide which words collocate with language.
Check the meaning of unfamiliar phrases that
students ask about. Lesson 1 Worldwide words!
pp30–31
Answer
All of them except: Aims
• broken (which collocates with the name of
The focus of this lesson is to practise language of
a language, eg broken English)
comparison and to explore loan words and the roots of
• maternal
English.
• mother (which collocates with tongue)
• weak

Unit 3 69
You first! Answers
Students look at the ten pictures and share their
algebra = Arabic
reactions with a partner. Avoid answering queries about
anchovy, mosquito = Portuguese
vocabulary for the items, as this will be dealt with in
biro, coach = Hungarian
Vocabulary 1, 1 and 2.
broccoli, piano = Italian
Vocabulary 1 Loan words chocolate = Nahuatl
cockroach, cocoa = Spanish
1 Students refer vocabulary queries to each other in coffee = Turkish
small groups. Don’t supply answers or allow them jumbo = Swahili
to consult dictionaries at this point; insist that they karaoke, manga = Japanese
rely on themselves and their classmates. ketchup = Chinese
polka = Polish
Tip: It’s useful to get students into the habit robot = Czech
of sharing their vocabulary knowledge, as samovar = Russian
opposed to being dependent on a dictionary shampoo = Hindi
or teacher. It promotes a collaborative taekwondo = Korean
learning experience. wiki = Hawaiian (= fast)

2 Give students a couple of minutes to go through Draw students’ attention to the Vocabulary spot and
the list in pairs and match ten of the words to the make sure they know the difference between lend
pictures. and borrow (verbs) and loan (noun). Point out that in
American English, loan is also commonly used as a verb,
Answers instead of lend.
1 shampoo 2 cockroach 3 manga 4 biro 5 GUESS Give students a few seconds to absorb
5 broccoli 6 ketchup 7 chocolate 8 coffee the information in the table and the pie chart and
9 mosquito 10 piano write three questions on the board:

• What does the pie chart show? (The


3 Students divide up the remaining 12 words percentages of words in English that have come
between them in pairs or groups of three, and from different languages)
explain, mime or draw their words – whichever
• What does each different coloured segment of
method works best for each word. They can judge
the pie chart represent? (A different language)
each other’s efforts according to how clearly the
meaning of the word comes across. Then they • What is missing from the pie chart? (The labels
discuss the questions. or key indicating which colour represents which
languages, and the actual percentages)
MA Allow weaker students to consult a dictionary
for this exercise. • What information should be in the table?
(The missing info, the languages and the
percentages)
Answers
1 They are all loan words, borrowed into Give students a few minutes to guess in pairs which
English from other languages. language each colour represents, and to work out
the approximate percentages from the size of the
4 Students spend a couple of minutes in pairs segments. When giving the answers, ask if there’s
guessing the origins of the words in 2, choosing anything students found surprising about the data.
from the languages in the box. Remind students
that we talk about ‘loan words’ when the word that Extra idea: Monitor the pairwork, and if it’s
has been borrowed remains relatively unchanged clear that students’ guesses of languages
– it stays more or less the same in terms of are wildly wrong, give them some clues; for
pronunciation as it was in the original language example, write on the board the language
(although the spelling my change considerably!). names to choose from (French, Germanic
Note that there is some debate as to the origin languages, Greek, Latin, other languages,
of ketchup – other possible source languages are proper names).
Malay and Arabic – but students are asked to
choose from the languages in the box.

70 Unit 3
Answers Answers
red Latin 29% construction – building, detest – hate,
blue French 29% error – mistake, expect – wait, flower – blossom,
green Germanic languages 26% forest – wood, insect – bug, pain – ache,
orange Greek 6% present – gift, type – kind, vacation – holiday.
purple other languages 6% 1 There are some small differences in
yellow proper names 4% meaning, eg detest is stronger than hate,
expect is more specific than wait (and wait
MA If necessary, ensure that students understand requires the preposition for), blossom is only
the terms Germanic languages (languages that have used for flowering trees or bushes, a forest
evolved from the same branch of Indo-European is usually bigger than a wood, bug is more
and which include German, Dutch, Frisian, informal than insect, ache is a particular
Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic) and proper kind of pain (eg toothache, headache,
names (the names of people or places). stomach ache), vacation is preferred to
holiday in American English.
Extra ideas: Have a competition to see how 2 The Latin origin words tend to be used in
many words in each category students can find more formal and academic contexts.
(they will probably need to do some online
research). If necessary, give them the following
words to start them off: Background note
Latin: plumber Due to the complex history of Britain and its
French: machine people, with successive invasions of the islands
Germanic: butter and also a great deal of travel and interaction
Greek: data abroad, there were multiple influences on the
other languages: guitar English language. Words of Latin origin entered
proper names: hoover the language at different times in history, often
Ask students to use the data to write a short via French (Norman), and were juxtaposed with
written report. Supply some phrases for earlier existing Germanic origin words, with
expressing proportions for students to use, eg which they coexisted, and in many cases, still
The three main sources…, more than three- coexist today. The tendency is for the Latinate
quarters, just over a quarter, a very small words to be used in more formal contexts,
proportion of, etc. and the Germanic ones in less formal contexts.
This is partly because of the Norman invasion
in the 11th century. The Normans represented
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the upper social classes and ruled England, and
This would work well for a multilingual class. In a
this is reflected in French (ie Latin origin) loan
monolingual class, students could choose different
words from that era. Common examples are the
languages from 4 to research.
words for animal vs meat, eg cow and sheep
Students may already know of some loan words
(Germanic) vs beef / veal and mutton, reflecting
between their own language and English, but
the fact that the peasant farmers reared the
encourage them to do the research online to explore
animals, while the (Norman) rulers were more
the topic further.
interested in eating the meat. Latin words
Students could share their information online or report
are also often used in scientific and technical
back in groups in class.
words, medical terminology, academic and legal
Vocabulary 2 Roots of English terminology.
Lists of Latin and Germanic words can be found
1 This section focuses on the Latin and Germanic online.
roots of the English language and looks at the
existence side by side of different words for the 2 First ask students to establish the differences
same concept, each from a different root. Students between the words in pairs, using a dictionary if
work on their own initially to do the matching, necessary. Check that they’ve understood; students
then check in pairs and talk about the questions. then ask each other questions in pairs. Monitor the
Allow students to consult a dictionary to check pairwork and make sure they’re using the target
question 1. words correctly.

Unit 3 71
Vocabulary notes by a long, long, long, long way
more than a million
• Anniversary is a day that celebrates a past
quite a lot more words than …
event on the same date of the year as the
twice as many as …
initial event – eg wedding anniversary – but
the most words of any language
can’t be used for or instead of birthday.
many more words than …
• Ancient means ‘extremely old’ and can be
25 times as many
used for history, a monument, etc. If it’s
a much more extensive vocabulary than …
used for people, it’s not very respectful.
the most words
• An infant is a baby, ie younger than child.
• Tongue can mean ‘language’ in some
1 Patriotism, perhaps?
phrases, eg mother tongue, but otherwise
2 Stephen Fry
refers to the part of the mouth.
3 English
4 Arabic
Extra idea: Suggest to students who are 5 Greek vocabulary
interested that they do more research online 6 Arabic
into the difference between Latin and Germanic 7 No
root words in English and their history.
4 Students focus on the phrases in bold and answer
the questions in pairs. Draw their attention to the
Grammar Comparison
degrees of difference expressed in the phrases. Ask
1 GUESS Elicit a selection of guesses from the if students know any other ways of emphasising the
class. Don’t confirm or reject any suggestions. degree of difference – write their suggestions on
the board, and establish whether the difference is
2 Give students a minute to read the text to find out big or small, eg
the answer to 1. Establish that it doesn’t give a clear
• far as in far more, by far the most (big
answer, and ask further questions:
difference)
Which languages are candidates? (English, Arabic, • nearly as in not nearly as many / extensive (big
Greek) difference)
What are the three estimates of the number of • nowhere near as many (big difference)
words in English? (250,000; 600,000; over a • not quite as in not quite as many (small
million) difference)
How many words are there in Greek? (5,000,000, • times as in five times more (as well as five times
according to The Guinness Book of Records) as many) (quantifiable difference)
In what fields does Greek have a particularly large
number of words? (Medicine, mathematics, science, Answers
astronomy)
1 25 times as many words as
3 SEARCH AND THINK Students underline all 2 by a long, long, long, long way
the comparison language in the text in 2, then 3 many more, much more
answer the questions in pairs, orally. They should 4 quite a lot more
be familiar with all the phrases of comparison, but 5 the best, the largest, the most
explain any they’re unsure of. Draw their attention
to: 5 Make sure students keep the text in 2 covered
• the use of very in the very best while they individually complete the phrases for
• the use of by a long way comparison that were used in the text. They should
• twice / 25 times as many only uncover the text at the end, to check.
• the use of quite a lot, many and much in quite MA Weaker students could look back at the text
a lot more words, many more / much more earlier, but not before attempting the task from
extensive. memory.

Answers If a large number of students find this activity very


difficult, supply them with options to choose from
Underlined:
for each gap.
the very best in the world
the largest vocabulary

72 Unit 3
Tip: Adapt activities to make them achievable 5 There are almost twice as many Arabic
for weaker students, but make sure they speakers as Japanese speakers.
don’t miss out on the guessing and memory-
training activities, which are particularly
Did you know?
useful for improving their learning ability.
Students could find out more about Taki Taki online
and report back. They could also find out about other
Answers languages in danger of dying out.
1 the very best 2 1.23 This exercise focuses on plurals ending
2 the most with the sound /ʤɪz/ and word stress in those
3 the largest; a long (, long, long, long) way words. In pairs, students take turns to say a plural,
4 quite a lot; than then agree and mark where the main stress is on
5 as many; as both the singular and the plural. Play the recording
6 times as many; as for them to check the stress, then play it again,
7 much more; than pausing for students to repeat each word.

Extra idea: Students write more sentences Tip: Choral repetition works well for this kind of
comparing the languages that they have short repetition exercise based on recorded
some experience of in terms of, for example, model words.
difficulty, usefulness, how much pleasure
they give them, how well they speak them,
Answers
how long they’ve been studying them. You
could write prompting questions on the age – ages advantage – advantages
board, eg How difficult? How useful? How badge – badges
much pleasure? How well? Length of study? disadvantage – disadvantages edge – edges
Encourage students to give an indication how fridge – fridges image – images
great the difference is by using qualifying words language – languages page – pages
with the comparisons, like much, many, far, village – villages
quite a lot, x times as many, etc.
Extra idea: Check the stress rules by asking a
Speaking few simple questions:
On which syllable does the stress usually fall?
1 Elicit the figures for Spanish and Portuguese and (The first)
write them on the board. Elicit comparison phrases How many exceptions to this rule are there in
that could be used to describe them (eg far more, this list? (Two: advantages, disadvantages)
a lot more, nearly twice as many, etc) and draw Where does the stress come on those words?
students’ attention to the example given for this (The third syllable from the end in the plural,
sentence. After students have completed the second from the end in singular)
remaining sentences individually, they can check in
pairs. Then elicit answers and write them on the
board. 3 1.24 Students practise asking the question
in pairs, making sure they place the word stress
MA If necessary, give weaker students a few words
correctly. Play the recording for students to check
as prompts to help them reach a correct answer.
the stress, then play it again for them to repeat.
Stronger students and fast finishers could write
more sentences comparing other languages in the 4 VIDEO OPTION Students discuss the question
table. in 3 in pairs, then make notes of the main points
covered and any vocabulary they want to remember
Suggested answers that’s useful for talking about these points. They
2 There are more than four times as many then repeat the discussion, this time filming
Chinese speakers as Hindi speakers. themselves on smartphones or tablets. Ideally, all
3 There are half as many Lahnda speakers as pairs should upload their film to an agreed video-
Russian speakers. sharing location so they can watch each other’s
4 There are quite a lot more Spanish speakers videos.
than English speakers. MA Weaker pairs could use a dictionary while
preparing their discussion.

Unit 3 73
Lesson 2 Say what you mean! 3 Give students a few seconds to agree in pairs on
the correct summary.
pp32–35
Answer
Aims b
The focus of this lesson is to revise and practise modal
verbs and expressions with can’t. Students also read
4 Students work in pairs to figure out the meaning
about the effects of exaggeration and negative self-talk,
of the words and phrases in orange. Demonstrate
listen to advice from a life coach and talk about the way
with the first one (trend) how to use the context to
adults talk to children.
infer meaning: show / elicit that the writer starts by
Warm-up saying generally that language is always evolving,
and more specifically that now people are resorting
Write the following three pairs of words / phrases
to exaggeration and we’re too quick to reach for
on the board: quite nice / fantastic, a bit annoying /
superlative words … This describes something
disastrous, quite amusing / hilarious. (Teach hilarious =
people are doing a lot now that they weren’t doing
very funny if students don’t know it.) Ask: What’s the
before, and it’s referred to later as this unhealthy
difference between the words in each pair? Elicit that
practice – so clearly trend is a word meaning ‘a
the second word in each pair has a similar meaning to
tendency / new habit / direction in which something
the first, but is much stronger. Then give students a
(in this case, how we react) is changing or
minute to work in pairs and, for each word or phrase,
developing’.
think of an event or situation that could be described
using that word or phrase. Elicit a few answers for each MA Support weaker students by supplying them
one; this should show the difference between the kinds with two (or three) options to choose from for each
of event we describe with the two expressions in each word or phrase, or a jumbled list of the meanings.
pair.
Answers
Reading trend = tendency
sensible = reasonable, less extreme
1 Pre-teach / Elicit the meaning of any words from
creeping = moving slowly and quietly
the pictures and article title (page 32) that you think
cool = trendy, fashionable, modern
some students won’t know, eg awesome = brilliant,
a mere inconvenience = something that’s just
fantastic; Wow! = expression of great admiration or
a little bit troublesome or difficult (ie not very
surprise; LOL = laugh out loud; epic fail = extremely
serious)
embarrassing mistake or disastrous situation;
apt = suitable, appropriate
curb (v) = limit, keep under control. Point out that
crawling [with examples] = full of, there are lots
awesome, wow, LOL and epic fail are all modern
of [examples] there
terms commonly used on social networking sites.
overwhelmed = strongly affected emotionally
Then give students a few minutes to talk about the
brutally honest = honest in a way that may be
questions in pairs. Don’t confirm answers yet.
painful
2 Give students about five minutes to read the article devalue = reduce the value or strength of
and check their ideas in 1. They then check in pairs something
before class feedback.
5 Explain to students that they should do the exercise
Answers without any further assistance with vocabulary –
1 They are all expressions of strong, extreme they’ll be able to ask more vocabulary questions
reaction. and / or look up words later. Remind them that
2 The title and the text suggest that extreme they don’t have to know every single word to be
reactions, showing excessive enthusiasm, able to extract the main information from a text.
are greatly overused these days, often in They do the exercise individually, then check in
situations that don’t merit such strong pairs. When they disagree, they should look again
feeling, so they should be controlled or at the relevant part of the text to find the evidence.
suppressed. When checking answers, elicit each answer from
a different student and ensure that they quote the
evidence from the text to support their answer.

74 Unit 3
Tip: Being a good reader includes being able to 4 An unpleasant or embarrassing truth, eg
cope with a text without necessarily knowing your new outfit / hairstyle looks awful,
all the vocabulary, so make sure students get your essay was hopeless, you’re completely
plenty of practice at that. Don’t be tempted unsuited to this job, your behaviour has
to answer all their vocabulary questions caused a lot of problems, you don’t stand a
from the beginning – do at least some chance of winning / succeeding, etc
comprehension tasks beforehand.

Extra idea: Ask: What other phrases could we


Answers use to give unpleasant information apart from
1 T (lines 11–18: ... began on the street … ‘to be brutally honest with you’? (I’m sorry to
by ‘street’ I mean … Facebook status say …; I’m afraid …; I hate to say this, but …;
updates, tweets, hashtag trends and I’m not being funny, but ...)
dialogue between fully grown adults
trying to be cool ...) 7 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE This exercise
2 T (lines 24–27: Missing a train or a bus focuses on colloquial phrases used in the article.
is not an epic fail. An epic fail was the Students match up the expression parts and then
sinking of the Titanic … ship.) the meanings. Suggest they try it from memory,
3 F (lines 29–32: ... the words ‘immense’ then look in the article to confirm the expressions
and ‘awesome’. They’re misused so and likely meanings before checking in pairs. Write
often, their meanings have almost the complete expressions on the board during class
corrupted.) feedback.
4 T (lines 41–52: ... things that make me
catch my breath … chocolate from Answers
the shop as an unexpected gift …
1 a marked difference = a very big /
Kind, yes. Generous, even. But not
significant difference
awesome.)
2 grasp at straws = try anything in a
5 F (lines 60–61: The workplace is now
desperate situation
crawling with examples of this.)
3 hit reply = send a response to a message or
6 T (lines 69–74: An ex-colleague of mine
email
had a habit of using ‘to be brutally
4 bring out the big guns = use your most
honest with you’ when she had very
powerful tools / people
ordinary news to deliver.)
5 the wow factor = a quality that makes you
7 T (lines 81–84: Unless we limit
go ‘wow!’
superlatives, we devalue our language,
6 the worst offenders = things which are the
leaving us without adequate adjectives
biggest problems
suitable for remarkable occasions.)
7 pause for thought = stop to think
8 everyday occurrences = things that happen
Note: When checking the evidence for question every day
1, refer students to the Glossary at the end of
the text or explain the term zeitgeist, which is
Extra ideas: Allow students to ask which
a German word sometimes used to mean the ​
words or phrases they’d like explanations for, or
general set of i​deas, ​beliefs, ​feelings, etc that’s ​
check their comprehension of the following by
typical of a ​particular ​period in h​ istory.
supplying a list of definitions on the board for
them to find the words or phrases in the text,
6 Students discuss their two chosen questions in or supply the list of words and phrases.
groups. Groups can report their ideas to the class.
Draw attention to the cartoon below the exercise, Verbs
too. intervene = take part in to change the result
resort to = do something because you can’t find
any other solution
Answers
precede = come before
1 The sinking of the Titanic when it was misuse = use wrongly
marketed as unsinkable (= impossible to corrupt = change in a negative way
sink).

Unit 3 75
Adjectives and adverbs
immense = very big (literal) * Note that we can use should / shouldn’t
subjective = based on personal feelings and to express a fairly confident expectation
opinions that something is the case, ie somewhere
objective = not influenced by personal feelings between possibility and certainty, eg Jane
and opinions should be at home now – she usually is at
vastly = greatly this time. Ivan shouldn’t be late – he rang
similarly = in the same way an hour ago and he was already on the bus.
peculiar = strange
adequate = enough 2 SEARCH AND THINK Give students a few
minutes to search through the article for examples
More questions for further discussion: of modal verbs matching the ideas listed in 1.
1 The article says that One of things that
makes language fascinating is that it’s
Answers
always evolving. Do you agree? Why? /
Why not? we have to intervene (line 4) – obligation
2 Should some changes in language be they really ought to know better (lines 17–18)
prevented? If so, what kind of changes? – something is advisable
Why? / Why not? You may have seen it (line 20) – possibility
(about the past)
someone bringing you back a bar of chocolate
Speaking and writing … could be awesome (lines 48–50) – possibility
SWMA may be more apt (line 57) – possibility
1 Students read the short text, then, over a period of
(about the present)
two days, follow the instructions. They should do
we should all communicate (lines 75–76) –
it for the language spoken where they are, either
something is advisable
English or their own language. Allot a few minutes
in the following lesson for students to compare
may have seen is in the past.
their findings in groups.

2 Students follow the instructions to present their 3 Elicit and write on the board the modal verbs in 1
findings in a written report. They could do the that weren’t in the article (can, can’t, couldn’t,
writing in class or at home. If necessary, assist them don’t have to, must, mustn’t, shouldn’t, oughtn’t
with the planning, sections and headings. You to, may not, might, might not). Students work in
could show them some reports on other subjects. pairs to create five sentences using them. Then
Point out that reports are usually written in fairly pairs join to make groups of four and exchange
formal, factual, unemotional style, which means sentences. They should try and identify which
they could make use of passive verbs. As a round- of the ideas from 1 each sentence is an example
up activity, ask them to summarise the similarities of. Monitor the pair- and groupwork, clarify any
and differences between the different reports. uncertainties on modal use and make a note of
common problems. You can address these with the
Grammar Modal verbs whole class at the end of the activity.
1 Point out that several verbs will match with each
idea, not just one. Students do the matching task Extra idea: For more practice, play a ‘modals’
individually, then check in pairs. Monitor the pairwork game in groups of four or five. Supply each
to see if they’re going to need more support on group with 16 small blank cards. Students write
modals and if so, in which areas of meaning. a different modal verb from 1 on each card,
then shuffle the cards and place them face
down. Students take turns to pick up a card,
Answers
and say a sentence including that modal verb.
1 can / can’t, could / couldn’t If the sentence is correct, the student keeps the
2 can / can’t, could / couldn’t, may / may not, card; if it’s incorrect, the card goes back to the
might / might not, should / shouldn’t* bottom of the pile. The other members of the
3 must / mustn’t, can / can’t group are the judges of correctness, but can ask
4 must, have to / don’t have to you for help in deciding if they can’t agree. The
5 can / can’t, may / may not, could / couldn’t, student who has collected the most cards at the
mustn’t end is the winner.
6 should / shouldn’t, ought to / oughtn’t to

76 Unit 3
4 PREDICT Students talk about the questions in
Answers
pairs. Draw their attention to the picture above the
article, too. 1 Notice when you use can’t, identify if you
mean can’t or don’t want to. When you
5 Students read the article and check their answers say can’t about something we want to do,
to 4. ask yourself What would help? or What
would make it possible?, so you focus on
Answers solutions.
1 Some modals are very negative when 2 Ask yourself Is it really necessary? or What
they form part of our internal dialogue, makes it necessary?
especially I can’t, which stops us from 3 Ask yourself Who says? and establish
achieving; modals of obligation and advice, whether it’s in your best interests.
like must, mustn’t, should, shouldn’t, ought 4 With ought to or should, you can change
to, ought not to, put a lot of pressure on them to could whenever you can. So
us, and when used in the past, they make instead of saying I should do that, say
us feel bad about the past (should(n’t) have, I could do that, so it becomes something
ought (not) to have). that’s possible, not something you’re
2 Mind your modals means ‘watch out for obliged to do, so there’s no pressure.
your modals’; in other words, be careful of
how and when you use modal verbs. It’s Transcript
important because they can have a very presenter Hello and welcome to Language Alive.
negative effect (see answer to question 1 With me in the studio today is Annie Banks. Annie
above) if we’re not careful – they can limit is a life coach, and she’s going to be telling me
us or the person we’re talking to and make about how changing the words we use when we
us and them feel unhappy and stressed. talk to ourselves can change the way we think and
feel. Good morning, Annie. Nice to have you here.
6 THINK Allow students half a minute to think annie Nice to be here, George.
about the questions and choose the one they want presenter So, what’s the problem with verbs like
to discuss. They should then form small groups with can’t and must, etc? We use them all the time,
other students who have made the same choice. don’t we?
Allow a couple of minutes for the groups to discuss annie Well, yes, and that’s the problem. We don’t
the question, then report back to the class. think twice about them and yet they can really
MA More capable students could discuss both influence how we think and behave.
questions. presenter Can you give us an example?
annie Take can’t for instance. If I go round telling

Listening myself I can’t do something, then I’m not even likely


to try to do it. Result? I’m proved right in thinking
1 PREDICT Ask for suggestions for ways of it’s not possible!
‘minding our modals’. presenter OK. So what can we do about that?
annie Well, the first thing is to begin to notice
2 1.25 Students listen to the recording, find out
when we use these verbs. And just check if that’s
what advice a life coach gives about strategies
what we really mean. With can’t, you need to ask
for minding our modals, and make some notes in
yourself if you really mean can’t or if you mean
answer to the question. They can listen a second
don’t want to. Don’t want to is a choice and that’s
time to add to their notes, then check in pairs.
fine. Can’t is a limitation. It’s saying you have a lack
of ability, and that’s not fine.
Extra idea: Alternatively, split the task, with
presenter It’s tricky to notice your own language
four different groups of students listening out
though, isn’t it?
for advice on the four different sets of modals.
annie Yes, it is, especially when it’s just thoughts
Check in groups, then regroup and report.
in your head! But you can do it! There are some
useful questions you can ask yourself, too. If you
catch yourself saying can’t about something you
really want to do, a couple of good questions to
ask are What would help? or What would make it
possible?.
presenter So you’re looking for solutions rather
than getting stuck in the problem?
Unit 3 77
annie Exactly! 2 If I tell myself I can’t do something, I won’t try,
presenter What about other words? so I’m proved right that I can’t do it.
annie Well, with must and have to, a great question (= what happens is evidence that what I said
to ask yourself is Is it really necessary?. was true)
presenter Or What makes it necessary?. 3 It’s good to focus on finding a solution instead
annie Yes, you’re getting the idea! And another of getting stuck in a problem. (= reaching a
really good question for verbs like must and mustn’t point where you can’t find a solution)
is Who says?. 4 Obligations from other people might not be in
presenter Who says? your best interests. (= the best thing for you,
annie Yes, Who says you mustn’t speak your mind?, bringing some benefit to you)
for example – because these obligations often come 5 The obligations may no longer be relevant –
from the outside world – from somebody else – they’ve passed their sell-by date. (= are out of
and they may no longer be helpful or in your best date and no longer relevant or useable)
interests.
Then students create their examples in pairs.
presenter Yes, that’s interesting. They’ve passed
their sell-by date! Vocabulary Expressions with can’t
annie Exactly! That’s a very good way of putting it!
presenter And what about ought to and should? FINISH IT Check that students understand the
annie Well, if you find yourself using ought to or meaning of the five expressions – elicit or explain the
should, you can change them to could whenever meanings, and elicit what verb form follows each one
you can. So instead of saying I should do that, say (1, 2, 3: + -ing form or noun; 4, 5: + infinitive). Students
I could do that. That makes it something that’s individually make true sentences about themselves,
possible, rather than something you’re obliged to then compare in groups. You could ask each team to
do, and it feels very different. It doesn’t put you appoint a spokesperson to report back to the class.
under any pressure.
presenter Oh, I think I should start doing that
Song link
immediately! Elicit what the class knows about Elvis Presley and if
annie Yes, you could start doing that right now!
anyone knows the full title of the song. Finding and
listening to it could make an enjoyable homework task.
3 Students do the activity in pairs, following the
advice in the recording from 2. Make sure students Answers
understand that they’re challenging their own inner He can’t help falling in love with you.
voice, not someone else. Point out the example 1 That only fools rush in.
given for guidance and encourage students to 2 To the sea
expand their challenges with an explanation
or justification. Monitor students as they work,
then pairs compare answers. Accept any correct Extra idea: Copy the lyrics and leave some
variations in their answers. gaps for students to complete when they listen
to the song.
Suggested answers
2 We could be on our best behaviour, if we Culture notes
want.
• Elvis Presley (1935–1977) was an American
3 Who says? It’s not necessary to look good
singer and actor, now regarded as an
all the time.
important cultural icon and one of the
4 What would make it possible? I could get
most celebrated and influential musicians
my friend to help me learn.
of the 20th century. He is often referred
5 Who says? We can spend what we like –
to as ‘the King of Rock and Roll’ or simply
we have plenty!
‘the King’. He was commercially successful
6 I could go to Pilates classes, if I have time.
in many genres, including pop, blues and
gospel, and is the best-selling solo artist
4 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE This focuses on in the history of recorded music. He was
some colloquial language from the listening. Help famous for his energised interpretations of
students to guess the meanings of the phrases, songs and sexually provocative performance
by quoting or paraphrasing the context from the style, his chart-topping records, successful
transcript, eg network television appearances, and his
1 Annie says we don’t think twice before using Hollywood films and their accompanying
words like can’t and must. (= hesitate) soundtrack albums.
78 Unit 3
• The song I can’t help falling in love is a well-
Tip: Encourage students to upload and share
known pop ballad recorded by Presley, and
their video clips, but give them the option of
featured in his film Blue Hawaii (1961). The
doing it or not, so that they feel they have
melody is based on a popular 18th-century
some autonomy.
romance, Plaisir d’amour, by Jean Paul
Egide Martini, and topped the British charts
in 1962. During the following four decades, Take a break
it was recorded by numerous other artists, You could use this section at any time in the lesson,
including British reggae group UB40, whose not necessarily at the end. One logical point would be
1993 version topped the US and UK charts, immediately after the listening section where students
and Swedish pop group A-Teens. learn about how to challenge damaging negative
thinking patterns. This is related, since it’s based on the
Speaking and writing idea that positive thinking (I can) is empowering. Give
students a few minutes to think of something they
1 Students read the poem and answer the questions want to do and focus on their ability to do it.
in pairs. They could then share their idea in groups – both what
they want to achieve and how this activity made them
2 1.26 Play the recording for students to check
feel.
their ideas.

Answers Lesson 3 Favourite words


1 1 up 2 your mouth full pp36–37
3 your nose 4 up 5 please
6 door behind you 7 your feet Aims
8 hankie 9 out of your pockets The focus of this lesson is to practise using cleft
10 up 11 straight 12 thank you sentences for emphasis, and explore the subject of the
13 interrupt 14 you’re funny comparative popularity of different words.
15 off the table 16 Can’t you make your
own mind up about anything? Warm-up
2 See gap 16 above
Ask: Do you have a favourite word in your own
3 Tell someone repeatedly to do something, nag
language? Elicit suggestions from anyone who says yes;
find out what it is, what it means, and why they like
3 In groups of about four or five, students prepare it. Keep this warm-up activity brief and in whole-class
to perform the poem: they decide how they’ll share format. There will be chances for students to talk more
out the lines, and whether they’ll include actions, extensively about favourite words in pairs and groups
gestures or mime as part of the performance. They later in the lesson – this is just to get them thinking
learn their lines, rehearse and then perform for the about words in this way.
class.
MA Weaker students can be given fewer lines to Speaking and writing 1
remember, or use a script to help them.
1 Allow a few seconds for students to look at the
4 YOUR STORY Students tick the poem and picture of the face and write down the first four
make a list as instructed, then share their ideas with adjectives they see in it. They’re not supposed
their group. Encourage them to add other common to spend time searching. Then they discuss the
things that parents say to children in their culture questions in pairs. Get brief feedback from a number
that don’t appear in the poem. of pairs to establish whether they felt the words
described them or not.
5 VIDEO OPTION Students work in pairs to
brainstorm ideas about things that children say, but 2 PREDICT Students read and then answer the
then they write their own short poem individually. question. Quickly elicit several suggestions from the
Suggest they give their poem an appropriate title. class, with brief reasons.
They then film themselves reading their poem, with
3 1.27 Students listen to check their predictions,
appropriate gestures, and if they want, share their
then in pairs decide what the most beautiful word
video clip with the rest of the class.
was according to the survey. (The word is not
actually mentioned, but it can be easily deduced
from what is said about it.)

Unit 3 79
5 Give pairs a few minutes to guess the words from
Answer the letters given and the clues. Then write them
mother on the board. Students continue to discuss their
opinions of the words for another minute or so.
Transcript
a Well, I’m really surprised that so many people
Answers
said it was their favourite word. It isn’t a 2 passion 3 smile 4 love 5 eternity
particularly beautiful-sounding word. 6 fantastic 7 destiny 8 freedom
b Oh, I disagree. I like the way it sounds. It’s very 9 liberty 10 tranquillity
soft and gentle. The sound of the word fits with
its meaning. And it’s a very important concept. 6 Students follow the instructions, first on their own
Perhaps that’s why people chose it. (1), then in pairs or threes (2), and finally in small
c Yes, she is usually the first person we know, groups (3). Allow a reasonable time for the writing
and it’s often the first word we say. In fact, for – eg ten minutes – remembering that group writing
most people, she’s probably the most important will inevitably take a bit longer than individual
person in their life. It’s a word that inspires really writing. Suggest a rough length to aim at – eg
deep feelings. So it makes sense it should come 100–150 words – but point out that quality is more
top. important than length in this activity. Finally a group
a I’m not sure. It’s difficult in surveys, isn’t it? member is appointed to read out the story to the
Sometimes people give the answer they think rest of the class, and the class votes for the best
they should give or that people expect them to story.
give, rather than one they actually want to give.
I don’t think native speakers would have chosen Monitor groupwork to make sure students are
it. Perhaps non-native speakers chose it because working collaboratively and assist where necessary:
it’s simple? if they get stuck, can’t agree on which words to
c And perhaps because many people live in choose, etc. Make a note of recurrent language
quite matriarchal societies, where she is a very errors with a view to dealing with them later.
important figure. What about the word father? Ask: If you do this exercise in your mother
Where did that come? tongue, are the words you choose the same or
b Nowhere. It wasn’t on the list at all! different?
c Really? And how many words were on the list?
b Seventy.
Extra idea: Use the face at the top of page
4 Students discuss the questions in pairs; play the 36 (where students found four adjectives in
recording again (if they want) for them to confirm 1) as a vocabulary wordsearch activity. They
their answers. could compete to see who can find the most
adjectives in the face within a time limit of two
Tip: Sometimes allow students to decide whether minutes. The student with the most writes the
they need to hear the recording again or not. list on the board, and other students suggest
That way, they avoid getting bored if they’ve other items to add. You could focus on the
already understood everything and completed meaning of tricky ones as the list on the board
the task; if they haven’t, they get the support is built up.
they need and feel a sense of control. Adjectives in the face: calculating, caring,
charismatic, compassionate, courageous,
critical, dependent, dramatic, eccentric, elegant,
Answers eloquent, empathetic, genuine, graceful, grave,
1 It’s soft and gentle; the sound fits the happy, helpful, honest, impatient, insecure,
meaning; it’s an important concept; she’s lethargic, lovely, loyal, naïve, outgoing,
the first person we know; it’s the first word outspoken, overdramatic, passionate, patient,
we say; she’s the most important person peaceful, polite, reserved, restless, romantic,
in our life; it inspires deep feelings; it’s very secure, sentimental, steady, stubborn, sullen,
important in matriarchal societies sweet, talented, thoughtful, tired, trusty,
2 It’s not particularly beautiful-sounding. understanding

80 Unit 3
Reading 3 That effort was top for older people and
1 Students read the article, identify the questions and freedom much lower, whereas freedom was
think of possible answers. Check they’re all clear on top for younger people in their twenties.
what the questions are: 4 That security was so high and freedom so
low.
1 Why was there such a difference in the
top words and the position of the word
freedom between young and old Japanese 3 Students individually choose two words or phrases
people (freedom top for young people, from the article that were unfamiliar to them but
much lower for older people, with effort which they want to learn and use in the future.
being their top word)? They compare their choices in small groups and
2 Was the fact that security came third and explain why they’ve chosen these particular items.
freedom so low in the Americans’ choices
4 Students decide on words from the article they
a sign of changes in Americans’ world and
could associate with the photo, and explain their
their concerns?
choices. Accept all suggestions if they’re backed up
3 What were the implications of the
with a valid reason.
fact that words like compensation and
acknowledgement were so popular among
Americans? Did they feel entitled to these Suggested answers
things? freedom, peace, fun, health
4 What words did Michalko expect to see
that weren’t there? 5 PICTURE OPTION Students could do this in
Then give students a few minutes to compare their own time outside the classroom, and share
answers in pairs. their photos with their group online or show them
in a later lesson.
Suggested answers Grammar Cleft sentences
1 For the older generation, success through
effort and hard work is most important. 1 Students study the sentences and answer the
For the younger generation, their freedom questions in pairs. After checking the answers, ask:
matters most. What verb would join the two parts of this kind of
2 It could be that in this age of terrorist sentence if the first clause was in the present, eg
attacks, Americans now value security ‘What strikes me … that the results are not very
above freedom. different …’? (= is)
3 American society is now a ‘blame culture’,
where people expect to be compensated Answers
when things go wrong, even when it’s an 1b 2 was
accident and no one is at fault.
4 Words that Michalko might have expected
2 Students find the example in the article and identify
to see: honour, pride, honesty, integrity,
the word used to join the two clauses.
kindness, responsibility, patriotism.

Answer
2 Students answer the questions in pairs from
memory, without looking back at the article. They It was also the absence of many words he
then reread the article to check their answers. At expected to see that surprised Michalko.
this point, you could give assistance with some The word that joins the two clauses.
vocabulary items students ask about or allow them
to use dictionaries, eg aspirations, sincerity, security, 3 Go through the example sentences with students,
prosperity, compensation, acknowledgement. pointing out that both the that clause (that the
kitchen was in a dreadful state) and the noun clause
Answers (the dreadful state of the kitchen) could be used
in the first two sentences; in the third sentence, a
1 peace, love, freedom, health
noun clause fits more neatly; if you wanted to use a
2 thanks in the Japanese survey is a similar
that clause to explain it, you would need to add the
concept to acknowledgement and
fact that … (It was the fact that the kitchen was in
compensation in the American survey.
a dreadful state that shocked me.)

Unit 3 81
Allow students to work in pairs creating sentences
from the words given.
Everyday English p38
MA You could give weaker students a little more Expressing preferences
support by supplying the first word for them and
suggesting some information options for them to 1 Students look at the pictures on the page and tell a
choose from for the second clause. partner whether they like them or not.

Sample answers Extra idea: Students number the pictures 1–5


2 What I really need is a lot more free time. in order of preference.
3 One thing that intrigued them was the
anonymous letter left outside their house. 2 GUESS In pairs, students talk about which works
4 It was her sister’s possible reaction that she of art Jerome likes and which Marianne likes. As
was really worried about. they don’t yet know anything about Jerome and
5 What we are so pleased about is the Marianne, other than they are male and female,
fantastic response from the public. this is really an exercise in thinking of positive and
negative opinions for each work of art.
Speaking and writing 2 3 1.28 6 Decide whether you’re going to use
the video or simply play the audio (you may not
1 THINK Give students a minute to read the
have the video or the necessary video equipment).
questions and think about them on their own; they
Students watch or listen to the conversation and
then form groups to compare and discuss ideas.
find out who likes which works of art.
2 Allow sufficient time (eg a week) for students to
conduct their surveys outside the class and write a Answer
short report of the results; they then present it to Marianne likes the paintings, Jerome prefers the
their group in a particular prearranged lesson. Make sculptures.
sure all students know the time frame and in which
lesson they’re going to present their report.
Transcript
3 This moves on to the related topic of least favourite, marianne This is nice!
or most hated words. Students read the information jerome Yes, I came in here by chance a few weeks
and talk about the questions in pairs or small ago and I thought you’d like it.
groups. In question 1, they should use dictionaries marianne Yes, I do. Thanks for suggesting coming.
to check the meanings. For question 3, you could The paintings are fabulous.
ask each pair or group to write their six words jerome Yeah, they’ve got some nice stuff.
from question 2 on the board in rows. The most marianne This one’s lovely. I love the colours.
frequently recurring word on the board should be jerome Hmm, I think they’re a bit too garish, too
the class’s most hated word. bright.
marianne Oh. Well, I like it.
Did you know? jerome I prefer my colours a bit more, oh, I dunno
Encourage students to speculate about why so many – muted?
people find the word hashtag annoying. marianne Well, what about this one over here? Is
this more your cup of tea? Not too bright?
Culture note jerome Yeah, this one’s more my sort of thing.
People get annoyed by the inappropriate and Although I find it a bit gloomy, actually!
excessive use of hashtag in speech – when marianne Too garish and then too gloomy! There’s
it’s used to precede anything someone wants no pleasing you!
to draw attention to. The hashtag is only jerome Well, I do quite like the sculptures. I’m more
functional in Twitter, but there’s a growing into sculpture than painting.
trend for people to use it in other contexts, marianne Yes, I know. But don’t you think that
seemingly to show off how trendy they are, to one’s gorgeous?
make others think they’re part of the modern jerome Hmm, it doesn’t do much for me, I’m afraid.
social networking community. Whereas I think this sculpture is the best thing here.
What do you think of it?
marianne Mmm, let’s just say it’s not one of my
4 VIDEO OPTION Students do this individually
either at home or in class, then share their video clip favourites. I don’t think it’s as good as that painting.
jerome Oh well, I guess we’re never going to like
online.
exactly the same things, are we?
82 Unit 3
marianne I guess not! But it’s still fun to come out 8 Students try to remember the phrase. Replay the
to the gallery together, though, isn’t it? middle few lines of the video or audio recording
jerome Yeah! We should do this more often – go that includes Jerome’s speech (around 1’15”), so
somewhere nice at the weekend. As long as it’s not students can hear it again without getting bored.
an exhibition of abstract art!
marianne Oh, that’s a shame. I was going to Answer
suggest going to the Rothko exhibition that’s
I guess we’re never going to like exactly the
coming next month.
same things, are we?
jerome Oh …
marianne I’m joking! Don’t worry! I won’t make
you come to that. 9 1.29 P Play the recording twice; students mark
jerome Thanks! Maybe we could go and listen to the stress, then compare in pairs.
some live music next time? That’s what I’d really like
to do. Answers
marianne Yeah, sure – that sounds like fun. Let’s do jerome Well, I do quite like the sculptures. I’m
that next Saturday, then. more into sculpture than painting.
jerome Nice. I’ll find out what’s on. marianne Yes, I know. But don’t you think that
one’s gorgeous?
4 Students decide if the phrases are positive, negative
jerome Mmm ... it doesn’t do much for me, I’m
or neutral, then check with a partner. Make sure
afraid. Whereas I think this sculpture is
students understand the difference in strength of
the best thing here.
the phrases. Also point out how in English, negative
comments are often rather indirectly stated and
apologetic (not one of my favourites, I’m afraid). 10 P Students answer this in pairs.

Answers Answer
1+ 2+ 3? 4+ 5– 6– The stressed words are emphasised – they
become the most important words. They
are also used for contrast (in I’m more into
5 This focuses on language we use to compare and
sculpture than painting).
contrast. Students complete the sentences as far as
they can, then listen to the recording again to check
their answers. 11 P Students listen again, then practise the extract
with a partner. Go round monitoring the pairs,
Answers encouraging them to keep to the rhythm of the
recording and only stress the words stressed there.
1 too; too 2 a bit more 3 a bit
It may help to beat time with a pencil on a desk as
4 the best 5 as good as
they speak. If students aren’t getting the rhythm
right, play the recording again, pausing after each
6 Students write their sentences on their own, then sentence, for students to copy the stress pattern
share them in groups of three. Monitor their work and rhythm closely. They can say it all together
and assist if needed. but address their partners in pairs so it feels more
natural.
7 TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE In pairs, students
try to remember what was being referred to, then
Tip: Most learners find the stress timing of
they watch or listen again to check.
English very difficult to reproduce, especially
if their L1 is a syllable-timed language. It may
Answers therefore be worth doing regular practice
1 A painting that Marianne thinks is gorgeous; it of short extracts of dialogues like this with
doesn’t do much for me = I don’t really like it a focus on stress timing and rhythm. Don’t
2 A painting that Marianne finds that is less be afraid to use choral repetition for short
bright; your cup of tea = something that extracts for this kind of focus.
you like
3 The same painting as in 2; my sort of thing
12 Give pairs a minute or two to decide their roles,
= to my taste
how they could express their preferences using
4 Jerome saying that he doesn’t want to go
the phrases given and phrases from 5, and what
to an exhibition of modern art; that’s a
reasons they could give for their preferences.
shame = that’s a pity

Unit 3 83
Monitor groups as they have their conversations
and discreetly make a note of common problems
with grammar or vocabulary. You can address
these at another time so as not to lose focus in this
lesson.

Extra idea: Students produce written versions


of their conversations.

13 ROLE-PLAY When you see ROLE-PLAY in


front of an instruction, it indicates an opportunity
for students to act out a dialogue or situation that
they’ve just heard or seen, often substituting their
own ideas and details. For more information about
these exercises, see the Introduction, page 23.
In pairs, students role-play a conversation with
Jerome about options for weekend activities. Make
sure that students swap roles, too. The student
playing Jerome will be the one making most use of
the phrases for expressing preferences, as he reacts
to the suggestions.

Monitor the role-plays, but only interrupt if students


are losing focus or going off track.

EXPLORE ONLINE
Students do the research at home and share their
findings in groups in the next lesson. They could
capture pictures of paintings they find interesting on
smartphones or tablets to show them to their group.

Answer
Jerome wouldn’t like it because he doesn’t like
paintings with bright colours.

Culture note
Mark Rothko (1903–1970) was an American
painter of Russian Jewish descent. Although
Rothko himself refused to adhere to any art
movement, he’s generally identified as an
Abstract Expressionist. He was a prominent
figure among the New York School painters,
and he moved through many artistic styles until
reaching his signature 1950s motif of soft,
rectangular forms floating on a stained field of
colour. Some of the works that he’s best known
for are images which feature large, luminous
colour blocks. Heavily influenced by mythology
and philosophy, he insisted that his art was
filled with content and ideas.

Did you know?


Interested students could find out more about the Mark
Rothko Art Centre in Latvia.

84 Unit 3