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Focus: Sociological-Anthropological Foundations of Education

(including Values Education)

1. The adoption of scientific techniques to control and manipulate

environment such as modern methods for farming and fishing is called
A. social change C. cultural change
B. technological change D. discovery change

2. Heavily sanctioned folkway which no one dares to question because they

embody moral laws are called
A. beliefs C. mores
B. customs D. tradition

3. What is that inevitable folkway which no one dares to question because

they embody moral laws are called
A. change C. progress
B. development D. evolution

4. Nora Aunor became a legend in the showbusiness because of her talent,

determination and hard work. What role does this illustrate?
A. achieve role C. hereditary role
B. ascribed role D. temporary role

5. Pinning veil around the bride and the groom/exchange of rings, releasing of
doves, etc. during wedding ceremony show that culture is
A. symbolic C. historical
B. continuous D. changeless

6. Aling Maria has taught her daughter how to prepare good and delicious
desserts from local fruits and vegetables. What cultural transmission
process is this?
A. observation C. enculturation
B. acculturation D. indoctrination

7. Mr. Francisco was teaching something on mores, folkways, customs and

beliefs in his Social Studies class. What was his lesson about?
A. material culture C. tangible culture
B. non-material culture D. hereditary culture

8. It was the first day of school. Miss Dela Rosa prepared activities which will
make her Grade III children sing, play, talk, learn and introduce themselves
to the class. What process did the teacher emphasize?
A. enculturation C. indoctrination
B. socialization D. acculturation

9. Mildred, an accountant, who now lives with a married man was disowned
by her family and friends. This punishment is a form of
A. isolation C. ostracism
B. deportation D. character assassination

10. When a certain culture is acceptable to one group and questionable to

others, it shows that:
A. culture is borrowed C. culture is varied
B. culture is a shared product D. culture is relative

11. The teaching and learning of religion and values mostly make use of
A. enculturation C. culturation
B. indoctrination D. acculturation

12. In order to achieve the goals for change, all include the following strategies
A. Change must involve all sectors of the society
B. Change must be centralized where only a few initiate the change
C. Change must be holistic that focuses on the individual and the system
D. Change should come from the leaders and the people

13. Which change is bought about by discovery or modernization to increase

A. cultural change C. technological change
B. societal change D. social change

14. Central to cultural renewal and social change is a revolution of expectations

from ourselves as well as from our institutions. This concept includes the
following resources from Filipinos, EXCEPT:
A. Assertiveness of Filipino families
B. A colonized education
C. A cultural-fair media
D. A religious that upholds justice and righteousness

15. Which of the following factors is the reason for communication gap in many
A. Lack of parental guidance

B. Modern technology
C. Inadequate education
D. Highly urbanized lifestyle

16. Which of the following statements regarding the Values Conceptual

Framework is TRUE?
A. It is imposing on every student
B. It is prescriptive of many desirable traits
C. It is specific for practical usefulness
D. It is flexible that suits to every human individual’s needs

17. The goals of Values Education that need to be changed include all the
following EXCEPT:
A. To become aware of the National Issues and Problems that beset the
B. To encourage OFWs to continuous work abroad in order to help the
National Economy.
C. To develop deep sense of responsibility and accountability
D. To initiative action-centered community organizations

18. Which of the following is NOT an example of economic values?

A. Hard work and frugality C. Self-determination
B. Work values D. Responsible parenthood

19-20. Which among the strategies show negative concerns for

environmental protection?
A. Campaign against wrong health and environmental practices
B. Suggest the use of synthetic substances instead of organic ones
C. Link with organizations with projects on waste management
D. Cut tall trees and plant ornamentals to beautify the surroundings

21. Filipino’s love for socials, fiestas and celebrations is manifestations of which
Filipino’s character?
A. Spirituality C. Superstitious
B. Family Solidarity D. Joy and Humor


1. An organized and systematized manner of learning where expectancies are

controlled by the teacher is termed as:
A. teaching C. schooling

B. education D. motivation

2. A social agency that makes a child learn to value himself and eventually
others is
A. home C. group
B. school D. society

3. What will surely takes place whenever society adapts modernization

A. There is peace. C. There is progress.
B. There is harmony. D. There is confusion.

4. When a person fails to adjust to the fast changing world, he is likely to

suffer from
A. culture shock C. culture change
B. severe headache D. extreme loneliness

5. What is enculturation?
A. Handing down of culture by a teacher
B. Handing down of culture without any question
C. Handing of culture from one generation to the next
D. Handing down of culture from one who knows to somebody who
doesn’t know

6. Which of the following functions cannot be done by the school?

A. perpetuation of specie
B. changing cultural practices
C. socialization among children
D. development of attitudes and skills

7. Filipinism could be taken as having the same connotation as a sense of

A. responsibility C. nationhood
B. professionalism D. philosophy

8. The process of individual and group change caused by contact with various
A. acculturation C. culturation
B. enculturation D. indoctrination

9. All people have culture and therefore share a common humanity. This
shows that
A. culture is universal

B. culture is organized
C. culture is a product of change
D. culture is the sum total of human experiences

10. Which of the following sciences below is more connected with the study of
social traditions?
A. theology C. sociology
B. psychology D. anthropology

11. Which of the following situations presents a value conflict?

A. The parent expects her child to do what he tells him; the child obeys so.
B. The parent wants to his child to be in the Dean’s list; the child studies
C. The child has many friends; the parent allows him to spend time with
them during week-ends
D. The parent’s priority is for her child to be an A student, the child’s
predominant interest
12. Why can’t the school implement programs for social reconstruction?
A. Most of the students are poor and passive
B. Some teachers do not like teaching career
C. Some teachers have no dedication to the profession
D. Most teachers belong to Low Socio Economic Status (SES)

13. Which of the following best illustrates a sense of responsibility that a

professional teacher is expected to have?
A. Is humble C. Has pleasant disposition
B. Makes good use of time D. Tutors own student for a

14. When an individual or a group adapts the culture of others, practice them
and becomes habitual, this is:
A. culture lag C. culture shock
B. culture change D. culture difference

15. The proper sequencing of grade levels according to chronological ages of

learners is called
A. status C. agency
B. organization D. institution

16. Divorce is legal in the United States but is not acceptable in the Philippines.
What does it show?
A. culture is illegal C. culture is relative
B. culture is uniform D. culture is phenomenon

17. A school operates not only to cater her students but for all the people
where it is located can be called a
A. public school C. societal school
B. private school D. community school

18. What is the responsibility of a newspaper editorial in values processing?

A. Interprets the news for the sale of readability
B. Analyzes the relevance of the personal experience with the news
C. Explains the message of the editorial
D. Introduces socialized recitation

19. When does the “Kanya-kanya” syndrome become positive?

A. When one can discover what he likes in life
B. When the benefit of others is viewed as one loss
C. When one protects the individual interests
D. When one becomes self-reliant and can stand on his own.

20. Which situation shows a desirable relationship between teachers and other
groups of people?
A. Miss Sison issues report cards only if she remembers.
B. Mr. Fajardo never entertains parents’ complains; he feels they are only a
C. As a class adviser, Mr. Magalang has not had a single conference with
the parents of his students.
D. Mrs. Vergara is glad that the parents of her Grade III class volunteer to
her in certain class activities

21. Does valuing process used as a teaching strategy?

A. Focus on the affective processing of value learning
B. Emphasize on the effective component of learning
C. Emphasize on the processing rather than on concept
D. Concentrate on the concept, process and behavioral components of

22. When statement can be considered features of our present educational

A. Knowledge is power
B. Knowledge does not change
C. Knowledge begins in the senses
D. Knowledge can be known only by reason

23. When does a teacher of Values Education a good facilitator of learning?
A. Monitors action learning plans for the students
B. Provides cognitive inputs such as lecturette
C. Clarifies the students values by the use of processing questions
D. Imposes her own beliefs on her students

24. “One cannot give what he does not have” is a popular statement which
presupposes the following:
A. Facilitators of values must grow in their own personal total development
B. Values education is a lifelong process
C. The home is the primary source of basic values
D. The school has the sole responsibility to educate the youth

25. Which is not an anthropological view of education?

A. Education is a social institution
B. Education is the process of teaching and learning
C. Education is an agent of change and modernization
D. Education is boundary breaking between social classes

Focus: Geography (Philippine and World)

1. The following statements refer to the characteristics of the Philippines as

one of the important territories of Asia, except for one

A. It is a tropical country and geographically located in the northeastern
part of the world.
B. Philippines has one of the highest literacy rates in Asia with existing
policy of free and compulsory six years in elementary.
C. The establishment of the first Philippine Republic gave birth to the
first constitutional democracy in Asia
D. The free port of Manila is one of the world’s busiest ports, compared
with other Southeast Asian nations

Answer: D

Option A is definitely correct since the geographical coordinates of the Philippines is

4º23’ - 21º30’ North Latitude and 116º 00’ -127º 00’East Longitude.

Option B is also correct with a literacy rate of 93.5% is high compared with other
Asian countries.

Option C is already an established fact among our history books and historically

Option D is the incorrect statement since Singapore is the true busiest free port in
Southeast Asia and Manila people has to work even harder to gain its reputation considering
that it has one of the best natural harbors in the world.

2. Globes are essentially important tool in the study of Geography. A map is

more convenient to use but all map projections have some errors in
presentation of distance and shapes. Given these conditions, which among
the known mapping projections will we use to give the true size and shape
of the earth’s land masses?
A. Azimuthal Mapping C. Equal Area Mapping
B. Conformal Mapping D. Equidistant Mapping
Answer: C
Option A is a map projection that preserves true directions from a control point to
other points on the maps. This type of map is very popular for navigation but it shows only
half of the world either North Pole or the South Pole as the center.

Option B is map projection that preserves angles around individual points and
shapes of small areas. These projections are often identified by the interaction of meridians
and parallels at right angles.

Option D is map projection that preserves the distance of Great Circles Routes.
Great Circles Routes refers to meridians and their bisection of the earth into two equal
halves. It is very important because they represent the shortest distance between two
points in earth but this mapping projection has a limited ability to hold true distance on a
global scale.

Option C is the right answer since this kind of projection recognizes the interaction
of parallels and meridians. It does not indicate shape distortion and generally preserve the
most important property required in maps, which is AREA. Equal area Map is often needed
for analytical test and comparing area and its impact on the entire projection of the map.
For example, Asia represents the 15% of the8 earth’s surface, Equal Area projection will also
shows 15% on the map. It is important to determine the intended use of the map that will
best suit our needs.
3. Most scientists believe that El Niño phenomenon which was greatly
experiences in 1982, 1983 occurred when trade winds that normally blow
from east to west slow down and actually change direction. The winds
blow warm water toward South America where the normal weather
patterns are changed for a time. Given this global change, which among
the following conditions is not considered as direct effect of the El Niño
A. Occurrences of hurricanes and heavy rainfall in the mid-Pacific region
in a normal condition
B. Some species of fish like cold-water loving salmon disappeared along
the west coast of the United States but tuna and shrimp were
attracted to the warm waters
C. The gradual warming of the earth is known as the Greenhouse effect
could dramatically change climates worldwide
D. Water temperature in some parts of the Pacific Ocean rose to as
much as 14 degrees higher than to normal condition
Answer: C

Option C is not considered as direct effect of El Niño phenomenon because

Greenhouse effect is caused by the pollution generally coming from industries burning fuels
and use of chemicals like Chlorofluorocarbons or CFC’s.

Option A, B and D are all conditions experienced by territories within the Pacific
basin, where most hurricanes, similar to typhoons are formed. Due to changes in the normal
weather pattern, temperatures of water in some parts of the world were drastically changed
from cold to warm and vice versa.

4. China has over one fifth of the world’s population and its leaders believe
that its large population hinders the economic progress of the country and
to address this problem they want to achieve equal death rate and birth
rate in population. This government action to limit the population is known
as the
A. Baby Boom C. Population pyramid
B. Population distribution D. Zero population growth

Answer: D

Option D is incorrect since this term refers to a period of extremely high birth rates.

Option B is known as the population pattern of the world that shows the continent
or countries with large or small population.

Option C is also incorrect because population pyramids are use by demographers

(people who study human population of an area at a glance whether the population of an
area is mostly old or young male or female). It also tells the life expectancy and growth rate
in a particular area.
Option D is the correct answer because this policy seeks a condition wherein death
rate and birthrate are equal and therefore population does not increase year after year.
5. Given the current condition of Africa, it is still considered as the most rural
and least urbanized continent in the world. With these characteristics,
which among the following sentences is the least contributory factor to the
current socio-political and economic problems of Africa?
A. Few states are ethnically homogenous and infancy of a strong sense
of national unity among tribal leaders
B. Insufficient capital technology, political instability and poorly trained
workforce to push development among the African nations
C. The increasing percentage of school-age children who did not attend
school low literacy rate and a grate number of world’s AIDS deaths
D. The replacement of Christianity among the Islamized society in Africa
along with the continuous practice of animism among few villages
Answer: D

Recent condition of Africa is still considered as the most rural and least developed
continent in the world due to traditional values like tribalism and multilinguistic society that
hindered the development of national unity among Africans, so Option A is definitely a
contributory factor to the current socio-political and economic problems of Africa.

Option B is also a major economic problem among African nations but South Africa is
trying to industrialized its country.

Option C is the worst condition in terms of education due to increasing number of

students not attending classes that resulted to a very low literacy among African natives and
the alarming 90% of the world’s accounted AIDS victims.

Option D is the least contributory factor to the current socio-political and economic
problems of Africa because various religious practices are being tolerated in most parts of

6. The biggest and most populated island in the Philippine Archipelago

A. Cebu D. Mindanao
B. Leyte E. Negros
C. Luzon

7. As of 1996, what sector of Philippine economy shows an increase near to


A. Agricultural Sector D. Service Sector
B. Energy Sector E. Tourism Sector
C. Mining Sector

8. Which of the following is not included in the main geographical and

political-cultural subdivisions of Asia?
A. North Asia D. Southeast Asia
B. Northwest Asia E. Southwest Asia
C. South Asia

9. This continent is the largest and it covers almost 33% of the earth’s surface.
It is consider as the most diverse continent and home for earliest
civilization and major religions of the world
A. Africa D. Europe
B. Asia E. North America
C. Austria and Oceania

10. Which area of the world has been described as the “symbol of worldwide
demographic, environmental and societal stress/problems”?
A. Africa D. North America
B. Asia E. South America
C. Austria/Oceania

11. Which of the following continent is considered as the world’s most

productive in agriculture?
A. Africa D. North America
B. Australia and Oceania E. South America
C. Europe

12. If the Caribbean Islands may be combined with Mexico and Central
America, it could be collectively and properly described as:
A. Latin America D. South America
B. Middle America E. The Americas
C. North America

13. The name “Oceania” is widely used to refer to the scattered group of
A. Central and Southern Pacific Ocean D. Micronesia (Little islands)
B. Central and Western Pacific Ocean E. Polynesia (Many islands)
C. Melanesia (Black Islands)

14. What country is considered as largest producer of Diamond, although few
of its diamonds are of gem quality?
A. Australia D. New Zealand
B. Canada E. South Africa
C. Mexico

15. The world’s largest island is:

A. Australia D. Greenland
B. China E. Madagascar
C. Iceland

16. What sea is often included in the physical definition of North America?
A. Baltic Sea D. Read Sea
B. Caribbean Sea E. South China Sea
C. Mediterranean Sea

17. It is the longest mountain chain in the world

A. Andes D. Kunlun
B. Himalayas E. Pamir
C. Karakoram

18. What religious group suffered heavily in Europe during the Nazi Holocaust?
A. Atheist D. Jewish
B. Buddhist E. Muslim
C. Christian

19. Most of the people in Latin America during the colonial period came from
what known place in the world?
A. Amazon Rainforest D. Oceania
B. Andes Mountain E. Scandinavian
C. Iberian Peninsula

20. It is considered as one of the worst eruption of the century that almost
affects the earth’s atmosphere due to its ash falls
A. Mt. Hibuk-Hibok D. Mt. Pinatubo
B. Mt. Kanlaon E. Taal Volcano
C. Mt. Mayon

21. Which part of the earth where we can experience six (6) months of
continuous daylight and six (6) months continuous darkness each year?
A. Greenland D. North Pole
B. Greenwich, England E. Pacific Ocean

C. Iceland

22. In what part of the world can you approximately find the International Date
Line (IDL)?
A. Atlantic Ocean D. Pacific Ocean
B. Greenwich, England E. South Pole
C. North Pole

23. In what part of the world can you find the longest and largest coral reef
which is also known s the “Great Barrier Reef”?
A. Africa D. North America
B. Australia E. South America
C. Europe

24. It is a common knowledge that all bodies of water are interconnected with
one another but this ocean covers 1/3 of the world from Arctic to Antartica
A. Arctic Ocean D. Pacific Ocean
B. Indian Ocean E. South Atlantic Ocean
C. North Atlantic Ocean

25. Which of the following countries is not part of the Association of the South
East Asian Nations (ASEAN)?
A. Malaysia D. Taiwan
B. Philippines E. Thailand
C. Singapore

26. Among the South American nations, this country is the only Portuguese
speaking country
A. Argentina D. Mexico
B. Brazil E. Peru
C. Chile

27. The first African nation that tried to establish industrialization to lessen the
worsening unemployment rate of the country
A. Bostwana D. South Africa
B. Egypt E. Zaire
C. Kenya

28. It is known to the ancient and modern world that this is the home of rich
and key cities of the world. It is also of the major tourist destination and it
provides a well designed airports and railways across the continent
A. Africa D. Europe

B. Asia E. South America
C. Australia

29. The opening of the Suez Canal connects the trading route between these
two bodies of water
A. Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean D. Mediterranean Sea and Red
B. Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico E. South China Sea and
Philippine Sea
C. Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal

30. This is the known Peninsula in Europe that occupied by Norway, Sweden,
Denmark also included is Iceland and Finland
A. Apennines D. Jutland
B. Balkan E. Scandinavian
C. Iberian


Direction: Encircle the letter of the best answer.

1. Map projections have particular purposes; specifically what do we call

projections that show all areas on Earth’s surface in proper proportion to
visualize patterns of distribution with spatial area?
A. Albers conic projection D. Lamber azimuthal projection
B. Equal area projection E. Mercator projection
C. Gnomonic projection

2. When these imaginary lines are used in combination, it gives you a unique
destination to every point on Earth?
A. International Date Line (IDL) D. North Pole and South Pole
B. Lines of Longitude and Latitude E. Prime Meridian & Equator
C. North, East, West and South Hemisphere

3. Earthquakes and volcanic activities were frequently experienced by the

Philippines due to:
A. Climatic change in Asia for a long period of time
B. Erosion caused by heavy winds and typhoons all year round

C. High and low humidity brought by Northeasterly and Southeasterly
D. Short, sharp and shift flowing rivers from Luzon to Mindanao
E. Unstable Pacific floor under the Philippine territory

4. Manila has a good medical facilities but there is a great need for medical
people specially in the rural areas, the main factor for this situation is:
A. Great exodus of medial practitioners like Nurses, Medical Technician
and Medical Doctors going abroad
B. Low quality of graduates that cannot passed both local and
international standards for medical practices
C. Political unrest and security of rural hospital across the nation due to
terrorism and local conflicts
D. Small number of medical graduates like medical doctors and nurses
to support the needs of the country
E. Traditional medicine is a strong competitor for the scientific
advancement of our Medicinal Science in rural areas

5. The “Rood of the World” may be associated to:

A. Diverse ethnic group of Asia
B. Frequent occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
C. Numerous islands, arranged in a series of arcs
D. Series of high mountains and plateaus
E. Super continent Pangaea and its cultural heritage

6. In the 19th century, most Europeans considered Africa as “The Dark

Continent” because:
A. Most African nations had been subjected to European domination
B. Most inhabitants are literally black or dark people of this continent
C. Most of its economic and political activities were dependent to
industrialized nations
D. Most of the African land area is covered by vast desert and rugged
E. Most of the African interior was unexplored and not colonized by
European and other neighboring nations

7. The following statement refers to the general characteristics of African

people in terms of their cultural traits except for:
A. Few nations have developed a strong sense of national unity among
its people
B. Imposition of colonial boundaries among African people further
divide the continent
C. Indigenous churches brought common traditions and practices
among African people

D. Traditional values prevailed over the African Tribes
E. Various languages further perpetual tribal identities over and above
national identity

8. The population statistics as of 2004 shows evidences that population

explosion will bring:
A. A 100% increase by 2050 in terms of population
B. Africa to its greatest annual increase among the other continents
C. Declined life expectancy in developing countries due to famine and
D. One child policy to Asian nations
E. Stability in terms of population growth rate

9. One of the major issues between US and Mexico which led US government
to take action against the growing population of Mexico.
A. Assist rapid economic growth of Mexico to eliminate poverty
B. Control the great demand of farmers for the south flowing Colorado
River for dry region
C. Control the increase of illegal crossing of Mexicans to the US border
in search of employment
D. Manifest a virtual veto power of US towards Mexico’s economic
E. Support peasant rebels stage war against the state

10. What do you call the new racial type created due to intermarriages of most
Caucasian and African slaves brought to Brazil and Colombia?
A. Aborigine D. Mulatto
B. Indian E. Native American
C. Mestizo

11. Which of the following is not a human activity that threats the incredible
biological diversity of the Amazon Wildlife?
A. El Niño Phenomenon D. Massive deforestation
B. Development of rural settlement E. Road construction
C. Increased in demand for lumber

12. The word “Narcotraficantes” is associated with:

A. Annual occurrences of El Niño Phenomenon
B. Colombia’s illegal drug trade
C. Destruction of the Amazon Forest
D. Trading of Black slaves from Africa
E. Volcanic and earthquake activities in the Andes mountains

13. Which of the following reasons why people cannot establish a permanent
settlement in Antartica?
A. Danger of nuclear weapons testing over the territory
B. Environmental problems like oil spills
C. It is the coldest place on earth and experiencing the strongest wind
D. Ozone concentration in the area above the continent
E. The growing controversy over the claims of different nations over the
14. The three leading financial centers of the world included the following key
cities of:
A. Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Seoul D. Hong Kong, Paris, Rome
B. Beijing, Sydney, Washington DC E. London, New York, Tokyo
C. Berlin, Mexico City, Singapore

15. The leading industry both for value and employment of many people in
A. Electronics & information technology
B. Food processing
C. Forestry and fishing
D. Production of machinery for transportation
E. Tourism

16. Chernobyl will be remembered as

A. Commonwealth of Independent States
B. Economic bloc of former USSR to European Community
C. Place of the nuclear reactor explosion
D. Site of the 1992 Olympics
E. Space launcher of Russian Cosmonauts that blasted

17. The following are general characteristics of an industrialized country except

for one.
A. Economic and political stability
B. High literacy rate
C. Longer life expectancy
D. Low infant mortality
E. One child policy per family

18. Below are listed 5 continents

1 Africa 4 North America
2 Antartica 5 South America
3 Europe

Arrange the continents from biggest to smallest in terms of land area.

A. 3 1 2 5 4 D. 4 3 2 5 1
B. 2 3 4 1 5 E. 5 2 4 1 3
C. 1 4 5 2 3

19. Based on the early historical accounts of Europe these two nations had
strong ties with the European culture and the Asian nations.
A. Australia and New Zealand D. North Korea and South
B. India and Sri Lanka E. Turkey and Russia
C. Iran and Iraq

20. Among the 5 continents below

1 Africa 4 Australia/Oceania
2 Antartica 5 Europe
3 Asia

Arrange the continents from smallest to biggest in terms of its population

based on the estimated 2004 data
A. 5 3 1 2 4 D. 1 3 4 2 5
B. 3 1 4 5 2 E. 4 5 1 3 2
C. 2 4 5 1 3
21. The following statements refer to the African condition that hinders its
potential towards economic growth except for one:
A. Diverse natural resources
B. Insufficient capital technology
C. Political instability
D. Poorly trained workforce
E. Small purchasing power

22. Which of the following Asian countries has historical ties with European city
and it was considered as the heart of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empire?
A. Iraq (Mesopotamia) D. Saudi Arabia
B. Israel E. Turkey
C. Russia

23. The following occurrences are all natural hazards that the world is
experiencing across the time except for one:
A. Deforestation D. Tsunami
B. Diastrophism E. Volcanic Eruption
C. El Niño and La Niña

24. This is known super continent that broke up million and million years ago.

A. Atlantis D. Pangaea
B. Gondwanaland E. Tethys
C. Laurasia

25. Among the developing Asian nations, it is widely promoted to be one of the
better solution to poverty and unemployment problems
A. Cooperation D. Privatization
B. Importation E. Urbanization
C. Industrialization

Philippine Government with New Constitution

Practice Test
1. All of the following constitute the meaning of political science except:
A. A basic knowledge and understanding of the state.
B. It is primarily concerned with the association of human beings into a
political community.
C. Common knowledge every events taking place in the society.
D. It deals with the relationship among men and groups which are subject to
the control by the state.

2. It refers to the community of persons more or less numerous, permanently
definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the
great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from
external control.
A. Sovereignty
B. Nation
C. Citizenship
D. State

3. It refers to the agency through which the will of the state is formulated,
expressed and
carried out.
A. Government
B. Sovereignty
C. Constitution
D. Laws

4. What are the four elements of state?

A. people, territory, sovereignty, government
B. people, constitution, territory, government
C. government, law, peace, territory
D. constitution, people, land, independence

5. What theory asserts that the early states must have been formed by deliberate
and voluntary compact among the people to form a society and organize
government for their common good.
A. Necessity Theory
B. Devine Right Theory
C. Social Contract Theory
D. Social Compact Theory

6. Government exists and should continue to exist for the benefit of the people.
A. The statement is a general truth.
B. The statement is just an assumption.
C. The statement is a fallacy.
D. There is no basis for judgment.

7. What are the forms of government in which the political power is exercised
by a few privilege class.
A. Oligarchy and Aristocracy
B. Aristocracy and Monarchy
C. Theocracy and Fascism
D. Democracy and Tyranny

8. The pre-colonial Philippines has no established government. Its villages and

settlements were called barangays.
A. Only the first statement is true and correct.
B. Only the second statement is true and correct.

C. Both statements are true and correct.
D. Both statements are untrue and incorrect.

9. There were four social classes of people in the pre-colonial barangays. They
were the nobles, freemen, serfs, and the slaves.
A. Only the first statement is true and correct.
B. Only the second statement is true and correct.
C. Both statements are true and correct.
D. Both statements are untrue and incorrect.

10. What are the two known written codes during the pre-Spanish era in the
A. Maragtas and Kalantiaw Codes
B. Sumakwil and Sulayman Codes
C. Panay and Subanon Codes
D. Hammurabi and Ur Nammu Codes

11. Under the Spanish colonial government, who directly governed the
A. The Governor-General
B. The Viceroy of Mexico
C. The Royal Audiencia
D. The King of Spain

12. What is the first city to be established in 1565 in the Philippines?

A. Manila
B. Davao
C. Cebu
D. Iloilo

13.The government which Spain established in the Philippines was defective. It

was a government for the Spaniards and not for the Filipinos.
A. Only the first statement is true and correct.
B. Only the second statement is true and correct.
C. Both statements are true and correct.
D. Both statements are untrue and incorrect

14. What was the secret society founded in 1896 that precipitated the glorious
revolution against the Spaniards.
A. The Katipunan
B. The Kalahi
C. The Biak na Bato Republic
D. The Ilustrado

15. Arranged the sequence of governments during the revolutionary era:

1. The Dictatorial Government
2. The Revolutionary Government
3. The Biak-na-Bato Republic
4. The First Philippine Republic

A. 2314
B. 3 1 2 4
C. 3 4 1 2
D. 1234

16. Arranged according to its establishment during the American Regime:

1. The Commonwealth Government
2. The Military Government
3. The Civil Government
A. 123
B. 2 3 1
C. 3 2 1
D. 213

17. What was the civil government established during the Japanese occupation
of the Philippines?
A. The Japanese Imperial Government
B. The Philippine Republic
C. The Puppet Government of Japan
D. The Philippine Executive Commission

18. The Constitution used by the Philippine government from the

commonwealth period until 1973.
A. The Malolos Constitution
B. The Biak-na-Bato Constitution
C. The 1935 Constitution
D. The 1901 Constitution

19. What kind of government was installed under the 1973 Constitution under
the Marcos regime?
A. Modified Presidential system
B. Modified Parliamentary system
C. Military system
D. Bicameral system

20. A de facto government acquires a de jure status when it gains wide

acceptance from the people and recognition from the community of nations.
A. The statement is true and valid.
B. The statement is an assumption.
C. The statement is a fallacy.
D. The statement is doubtful.

21. It is defined as written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the

government are established, limited and defined and by which these powers are
distributed among the several departments or branches for their and useful
exercise for the benefit of the people.
A. Laws
B. Statutes
C. Constitution

D. Ordinances

22. There is no Constitution that is entirely written or unwritten.

A. The statement is true and correct.
B. The statement is incorrect.
C. The statement is partially correct.
D. There is no basis to conclude.

23. Requisites of a good written constitution.

A. Brief
B. Broad
C. Definite
D. All of the given options

24. Who has the authority to interpret the constitution?

A. Private individual
B. Courts
C. Legislative and Executive departments of the government
D. All of the given options

25. “We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God , in
order to build a just and humane society and establish a government that shall
embody our ideals and aspirations, promote our common good, conserve and
develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings
of independence and democracy under the rule of law and the regime of truth,
justice, freedom, equality and peace, do ordain and promulgate this
What part of Constitution is this?
A. General Provision
B. Amendments
C. Preamble
D. National Patrimony

Economics, Taxation, Land Reform, and Cooperative

Practice Tests
1. The problem of scarcity _____.
A. arises only in poor countries.
B. exists because the price of goods is too high.
C. exists because of limited resources.
D. will eventually be solve by better planning.

2. “If an individual is to maximize the utility received from the consumption, he or

she should spend all available income…” This statement assumes ________.
A. that saving is impossible.
B. that the individual is not satiated in all goods.
C. that no goods are “inferior.”
D. both A and B.

3. An individual’s demand curve
A. represents the various quantities that the consumer is willing to purchase of a
good at various
price levels.
B. is derived from an individual’s indifference curve map.
C. will shift if preferences, price of other goods, or income change.
D. all of the above.

4. What is a firm?
A. A president, some vice presidents, and some employees
B. Any organization that wants to make a profit.
C. Any accumulation of productive assets.
D. Any organization that turns inputs into outputs

5. If more and more labor is employed while keeping all other inputs constant, the
marginal physical productivity of labor _____.
A. will eventually increase.
B. will eventually decrease.
C. will eventually remain constant.
D. cannot tell from the information provided.

6. In general, microeconomic theory assumes that the firms attempt to maximize

the difference between ______.
A. total revenue and accounting costs.
B. price and marginal cost.
C. total revenues and economic costs.
D. economic costs and average cost.

7. In a competitive market, efficient allocation of resources is characterized by

A. a price greater than the marginal cost of production.
B. the possibility of further mutually beneficial transactions.
C. the largest possible sum of consumer and producer surplus.
D. a value of consumer surplus equal to that of producer surplus.

8. Price controls _______.

A. are always popular with consumers because they lower prices.
B. create shortages.
C. increase producer surplus because firms can now sell a greater quantity of a
good at a lower price.
D. are necessary to preserve equity.

9. The excess burden of tax is ____.

A. The amount of which the price of a good increases
B. The loss of consumer and producer surplus that is not transferred elsewhere.
C. The amount y which a person’s after-tax income decrease as a result of the new

D. The welfare costs to firms forced to leave the market due to an inward shift of
the demand curve.

10. In the opening of the free trade, if world prices of a good are less than domestic
prices of that same good, _________.
A. domestic consumers will experience a loss of surplus.
B. domestic prices will drop to the world price level.
C. all domestic producers of that good will try to find another market because
they can’t compete with foreign producers.
D. domestic producers will increase the quantity supplied in order to crowd out
the foreign produced goods.

11. It states that as the price of the commodities increase the amount of goods the
consumer is willing to purchase decrease and as the price of the commodities
decrease the willingness of the consumer to buy increases and other factor remain
A. Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility
B. Law of Gravity
C. Law of Supply
D. Law of Demand

12. A deliberate attempt to recognize and transform existing agrarian system with
the intention of improving the distribution of agricultural incomes and thus
fostering rural development.
A. Millennium Development Plan C. Water Reform
B. Land Reform D. Development Goals

13. What is the process by which the productive capacity of the economy is
increased over time to bring about rising levels of national output and income?
A. Economic growth C. Economic development
B. Industry D. Employment

14. A system whereby the determination of exchange rate is left solely to the
market forces.
A. Foreign exchange liberalization
B. Import liberalization
C. Terms of trade
D. Foreign investment

15. All are possible results when a high population growth rate continues in the
Third World except
A. growth of slums
B. spread of diseases due to poverty and poor sanitation
C. not enough schools, hospitals, roads, bridges, etc.
D. increased Gross National Product

16. Which of the following is the nature of power of taxation?

A. It is inherent in sovereignty.
B. It is legislative in nature.

C. It is subject to constitutional and inherent limitations.
D. All of the above

17. A kind of tax based on the rate of which decreases as the tax base or bracket
A. Progressive C. Regressive
B. Graduated D. Proportional

18. Agrarian reform program, Philippine experience is a success.

A. The statement is generally true.
B. The statement is doubtful.
C. The statement is untrue.
D. There is no basis to conclude.

19. It is also known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL)

A. Presidential Decree # 2
B. Presidential Decree # 27
C. Republic Act 6657
D. Republic Act 5766

20. The Cooperatives Development Program of the government is designed

primarily to support the agrarian reform program. It aims to achieve a dignified
existence for the small farmers free from pernicious institutional restraints and
A. Only the first statement is true and correct.
B. Only the second statement is true and correct.
C. Both statements are true and correct.
D. Both statements are untrue and incorrect.

1. This major division of economics is concerned with the analysis of the
behavior of individual decision making units within an economic system,
from specific household to specific business firms.
a. Macroeconomics
b. Microeconomics
c. Traditional economics
d. Political economy

2. A division of economics dealing with the analysis of aspects of the economy

as a whole.
a. Macroeconomics
b. Microeconomics
c. Traditional economics
d. Political economy

3. Which of the following is true about the law of demand?

a. As the price of the goods increases, demand tends to increase as well
b. Given all other factors constant, there is a direct proportion between
prices of goods and the demand of consumers
c. Given all other factors constant, prices of commodities are directly
proportional to the demand
d. None of the above

4. Which of the following is true about the law of supply?

a. Given all other factors constant, there is a direct proportion between
prices and supply
b. As the price of the goods decreases, supply tends to increase and
c. Supply is dependent upon the production inputs
d. All of the above

5. What are some of the factors that determine the supply of a particular
goods and services?
a. income, taste, and preferences
b. income, labor, technology and capital
c. land, labor, capital, and technology
d. land, capital, and income

6. What are some of the factors that determine the demand of a particular
goods and services?

a. income, taste, and preferences
b. income, labor, technology and capital
c. land, labor, capital, and technology
d. land, capital, and income
7. Market economy is to capitalism while command economy is to
a. Communism
b. Centralized capitalism
c. Socialism
d. Mercantilism

8. Command economy is to public ownership: market economy is to

a. State ownership
b. Government ownership
c. Private ownership
d. Public ownership

9. Which economic system state that the consumer determine the goods and
service to produce?
a. Advance market economy
b. Pure command economy
c. Pure market economy
d. Mixed economy

10.The following except one are roles of the government in a mixed economy.
Which is this?
a. Minimize market inefficiency
b. Promote exportation and importation
c. Promote low levels of inflation
d. Provision of public goods

11.Which of the following approaches might suggest that forgetting to pick his
mother up at the airport was Henry’s unconscious way of saying that he did
not welcome her visit?
a. Psychoanalytic
b. Behavioral
c. Humanistic
d. Cognitive

12.Which of the following approaches has the most optimistic view of human
a. Humanisn

b. Behaviorism
c. Psychoanalysis
d. Structuralism

13.Which of the following historical events created a demand for clinicians

that was far greater than the supply?
a. World War I
b. The Depression
c. World War II
d. The Korean War

14._______________ psychology examines behavioral processes in terms of

their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations.
a. Clinical
b. Cognitive
c. Evolutionary
d. Physiological

15.Critical thinking skills:

a. are abstract abilities that cannot be identified.
b. usually develop spontaneously through norman content instruction.
c. usually develop spontaneously without any instruction.
d. need to be deliberately taught because they ofetn do not develop by
themselves with standard content instruction..

16.Which of the following is not a characteristic of language?

a. It is generative.
b. It is nomothetic.
c. It is symbolic.
d. It has structure.

17.Which of the following is the smallest unit of meaning in a language?

a. genome
b. morpheme
c. phoneme
d. phonogram

18.Research suggest that bilingualism has a negative effect on:

a. language development
b. cognitive development
c. metalinguistic awareness.
d. none of the above.

19.Chomsky proposed that children learn a language:
a. because they possess an innate language acquisition device.
b. through imitation, reinforcement, and shaping.
c. as the quality of their thought improves with age.
d. because they need to in order to get their increasingly complex
needs met.

20.The linguistic relativity hypothesis is the notion that:

a. one’s language determines the nature of one’s thought.
b. one’s thought determines the nature of one’s language.
c. language and thought are separate and independent processes.
d. language and thought interact, with each influencing the other.

21.In a description of Sociology, we would not make reference to which of the

a. Scientific study
b. Individual motivations
c. Human society
d. Social interactions

22.As a field, sociology is most interested in:

a. mental processes
b. unconscious behavior
c. creating the perfect society
d. social behavior

23. Which of the following best describes the main goal of sociology?
a. To understand the social behavior
b. Unconscious behavior
c. To improve society
d. To help people with their problems

24.Which of the following is an example of an issue a sociologist would study?

a. What is the interaction between chemicals and behavior?
b. Which political system is best?
c. Why is the unemployment rate rising?
d. How do police actions influence crowd behavior?

25.In which of the following disciplines is most closely related to sociology?

a. Psychology
b. Cultural anthropology
c. Political Science
d. History

26.Anthropologist are most likely to study?
a. Large post industrial societies
b. The culture of advanced civilization
c. Groups and institutions
d. The culture of small pre-industrial societies

27.As a social psychologist would be most likely to study:

a. Racial segregation in the schools
b. Drug use in high school
c. The factors that produce conformity in a group situation
d. The role chemicals play in human behavior

28.When sociologist study the political system they are most likely to be
interested in:
a. Political theory
b. How it affects other institutions in society
c. The actual operations of the government
d. Voting behavior

29.Which of the following is NOT true about the concept of culture?

a. It includes behavioral patterns passed on through the genes
b. It taught learned through social interactions
c. All human groups have culture
d. Culture is a blueprint for living in a particular society

30.The reaction people may have when encountering cultural tradition

different from their own is known as:
a. Ethnocentrism
b. Culture shock
c. Cultural relativism
d. Sheltered culturalism

31.The document which provides the basic law of the state is the:
a. Republic Act
b. Executive Order
c. Constitution
d. Presidential Decree

32.The civilian authority is supreme over the military

a. at all times
b. during peace time

c. during war time
d. when the military consents it

33.The Constitution states that we have a democratic and republican state and
all government authority emanates from the:
a. Congress
b. People
c. President
d. Supreme court

34.The right of a person to freely choose his place of residence is called:

a. Right of counsel
b. Right of bail
c. Right of abode
d. Guided democracy

35.The Malolos Constitution of 1899 followed the political philosophy of:

a. Liberal democracy
b. Social democracy
c. National democracy
d. Guided democracy

36.The Filipino citizenry should be made aware that the people, territory,
government and sovereignty are the elements of a:
a. Nation
b. Country
c. State
d. Society

37.Even during the period of suspension of the Privilege of the habeas corpus,
a person arrested or detained should be released from such detention if he
is not judicially charged within:
a. Two days
b. Four days
c. Three days
d. Five days

38.In the Constitution, political power is distributed among the people and in
a. Society
b. Government
c. Schools
d. Church

39.The constitution requires the congress to convene its regular session once
a. Third Monday of July
b. Fourth Monday of July
c. Second Monday of July
d. First Monday of July

40.All educational institution shall be include the study of the _____________

as part of the curricula.
a. Bible
b. Koran
c. Constitution
d. All of these

41.Which is the ultimate objective of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform

a. The establishment of owner-cultivated farm
b. The cultivation of all idle lands
c. The abolition of shared tenancy in favor of lease tenancy
d. The distribution of arable lands in the country

42.Which assumption underlines the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform

a. Filipino’s dependence on landlords is a cultural fact
b. Land as a natural resource is a public property
c. It is a sin to be rich and a virtue to be poor
d. Men always work harder when they work on that which is their

43.Taxes imposed by the local government such as cities, municipalities, or

a. Local tax
b. Excise tax
c. Property tax
d. Regressive tax

44.Tax imposed on both employees and employers.

a. Local tax
b. Income tax
c. Property tax
d. Regressive tax

45.Taxes imposed for special puposes, the process of which go to certain
special fund.
a. Special tax
b. General tax
c. Proportionate tax
d. Progressive tax

46.Agrarian reform means remedying the defects in the distribution and

utilization of the land in the hope of increasing its productivity
a. To improve the economy of the country
b. To raise the standard of living of the people
c. To improve the traditional forms in agriculture
d. To improve the agriculture sector

47.What system of taxation is provided in the Constitution?

a. Regressive
b. Uniform
c. Progressive
d. Incremental

48.The rule of taxation shall be uniform and ______________.

a. Nonpartisan
b. Revocable
c. Equitable
d. Progressive

49.What is the meaning of the Basic Principle of Taxation known as “Fiscal

a. Tax burden should be proportionate to the tax payers ability to pay
b. Tax laws should be capable and convenient, just and effective
c. Source of revenue should be sufficient to meet the demands of
public expenditures
d. The power of taxation in inherent

50.All residential houses, regardless of their assessed value, may be

considered as belonging to one class-residential property and is made
subject to the same tax rate but different amounts of tax on the basis of
their assessed value. This situation illustrates what in taxation?
a. Uniformity in Taxation
b. Equality in Taxation
c. Progressive in Taxation
d. Equity in Taxation

51.Direct and indirect taxes are kinds of taxes classified according to
a. subject matter of the tax
b. how the amount of tax due is determined
c. purpose of the tax
d. who shoulders the tax burden

52.What holds true in progressive system of taxation?

a. The rate if tax increases as the income tax base or income bracket
b. The rate of tax increases as the income tax base decreases
c. The rate of tax decreases as the income tax base increases
d. The tax is equal regardless of class and place

53.The BEC 2002 is designed to empower the Filipino learner so that he or she
can become the following except one. Which is the exception?
a. A self-developed person
b. A self-centered Filipino learner
c. An individual who has the skills of learning how to learn
d. A person who is Maka-Diyos, Makatao, Makabayan and

54.The most noble reason for coming up with the revised BEC 2002 is
a. to try-out modern ways of teaching.
b. to empower the learner for lifelong learning.
c. because the old curriculum was to crowded.
d. because the subjects’ content was no longer relevant.

55.The five learning areas of the BEC 2002 are:

a. English, Filipino, Science, Music, and Physical Education
b. Makabayan, GMRC, Filipino, English, Science, Math
c. English, Filipino, Math, Science, Makabayan
d. Sibika/Hekasi, Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan, Musika,
Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan, GMRC

56.Experiential learning is demonstrated when

a. the teacher shares her personal experiences with the children
b. the students are allowed to read stories about experiences of
characters in a story
c. the children reflect on and learn to learn from their own experiences
d. teachers gave the learners opportunity to experience failure and

57.Collaborative learning among children is demonstrated in the following
situation except in one.
a. Children learn to work in different situations in different contexts
with different teams
b. Learners known how to deal with their classmates, with their
teachers and with other people
c. Learners demonstrate leadership and teamwork and group work
d. Learners do a lot of reflection and intelligent decision-making.

58.Which of the following is not a good practice of a teacher in helping

children learn to read?
a. Encourage children to read by themselves silently, for increasingly
longer periods.
b. Teachers read to children and explain to them what’s reading all
c. Expose children to a wide variety of story forms and good use of
d. Attention to correct oral reading has priority over understanding.

59.Every Child a Reader Proram or ECARP aims to help each learner become a
reader ideally by the end of
a. grade six
b. grade four
c. grade three
d. grade one

60.A learner is declared a reader at the beginning of grade 3 if he/she is able to

a. read at least a complete paragraph.
b. read at least one sentence with fluency.
c. read words and match each word with the correct picture.
d. read at least one paragraph and understand the meaning of what
was read.

1. It is also known as the behavioral sciences.
a. Natural Science
b. Humanities
c. Social Sciences
d. Philosophy

2. An economist who argued that production depends on the ownership of

the means of production.
a. Adam Smith
b. Karl Marx

c. Alfred Marshall
d. W. Rostow

3. Which of the following best describes the nature of characteristics of

human needs?
a. Human needs are limited
b. All human needs are attainable
c. Human needs are unlimited
d. Human needs are unattainable

4. Which among the following best describes economic resources?

a. Resources are infinite
b. Resources are finite
c. Resources are unlimited
d. There is abundance of resources

5. In the process of production, which of the following factors are most

a. land, human, resource, inputs, technology
b. land, human resources, capital, entrepreneur
c. land, labor, capital, technology
d. land, labor, technology, manager

6. The following except one are basic question s addressed by any economic
a. what goods and services to produce
b. for whom and how much to produce
c. how to produce
d. what goods and services to trade

7. A basic economic principle in economics which refers to the process of

ignoring unimportant details is solving a particular economic problem.
a. economic theory
b. abstraction
c. economic model
d. rational decision
8. Which of the following is true about the state of the wolrd’s resources?
a. The world’s resources are naturally limited
b. There are no poor countries, only mismanaged economies
c. The world’s resources are not enough to sustain the needs of its
d. The world’s resources are equitably distributed to the world’s entire

9. A basic principle in economics referring to the value of the next best
alternative that the decision forces the decision-maker to forgo.
a. rational decision
b. opportunity cost
c. abstraction
d. economic theory

10.Which of the following shows an example of the opportunity cost of a

particular decision?
a. The government decides to allocate more budget to the military thus
reducing its budget to education
b. A student decides to save half of his/her allowance thereby cutting
the expenses
c. A group of student activists attends a rally and therefore missing
their classes
d. All of the above

11.Adopted children’s similarity to their biological parents is generally

attributed to _____________; adopted children’s similarity to their
adoptive parents is generally attributed to _______________.
a. heredity; the environment
b. the environment; heredity
c. the environment; the environment
d. heredity; heredity

12.Which of the following statements represents the most logical resolution of

the nature-nurture controversy?
a. Environment is most important, at least for those individuals who
have a normal genotype.
b. Heredity and environment interact to affect an individual’s
c. Heredity is most important, but a high-quality environment can make
up for genetic defects.
d. The environment is like a rubber band that stretches to meet the
needs of an individual’s genotype.

13.In evolutionary theory, fitness refers to:

a. the ability to survive.
b. the ability to adapt to environment demands.
c. reproductive success.
d. the physical skills necessary for survival.

14.Albert Bandura:
a. was the first to describe species-specific learning tendencies.
b. was the founder of behaviorism.
c. pioneered the study of classical conditioning.
d. pioneered the study of observational learning

15.Getting information into memory is called ______________; getting

information out of memory is called ______________.
a. storage; retrieval
b. encoding; storage
c. encoding; retrieval
d. storage; encoding

16.Which of the following approaches to explaining the origins of

homosexuality had received the most empirical support?
a. Behavioral
b. Biological
c. Psychoanalytic
d. All of these approaches equally

17.Harvey Hedonist has devoted his life to the search for physical pleasure and
immediate need gratification. Freud would say that Harvey is dominated
a. his ego.
b. his superego.
c. his id.
d. Bacchus.

18.Freud believe that most personality disturbances are due to:

a. the failure of parents to reinforce healthy behavior.
b. a poor self-concept resulting from excessive parental demands.
c. unconscious and unresolved sexual conflict rooted in childhood
d. the exposure of children to unhealthy role models.

19. Which of the following did Carl Rogers believe fosters a congruent selp-
a. Conditional love
b. Appropriate role models
c. Immediate need gratification
d. Unconditional love

20.What need was Abraham Maslow expressing when he said, “What a man
can be, he must be?”
a. The need for superiority
b. The need for unconditional love
c. The need for self-actualization
d. The need to achieve

21.The tendency to judge other culture in terms of one’s own customs and
values is known as:
a. Normative culture
b. Material culture
c. Mores
d. Norms

22.All the things human beings make, and use from small hand held tools to
skyscrapers are known as:
a. Normative culture
b. Material culture
c. Mores
d. Norms

23.Hypotheses are:
a. testable statement about the relationship between two or more
empirical variables.
b. statements that everyone agrees are correct
c. neither provable nor disprovable
d. the results of theoretical testing

24.In order for hypotheses to be useful they must be:

a. realistic
b. theoretically reliable and valid
c. formulated after a theoretical trial
d. provable or disprovable in terms of things or events that can be
observed directly or indirectly

25.An operational definition is:

a. a statement that is obviously true
b. a statement of the features that describes the things that are being
c. the results of theoretical testing
d. the last step in a theoretical evaluation

26.A variable is:

a. a testable statement about the relationship between two or more
b. anything that can change
c. a statement or causality
d. a statement o association

27.In order to modify and explicit the environment human use:

a. Norms
b. Mores
c. Material culture
d. Non-material culture

28.The totally of knoledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behavior
that specifies how people should interact and how they may solve their
problems is referred to as:
a. Material culture
b. Mores
c. Non-material culture
d. Normative culture

a. Comprise the totally of knowlegde, beliefs, values, and rules for
appropriate behavior that specifies how people should interact and
how they solve their problems
b. Are the specific rules of behavior that are agreed upon and shared
within the culture to prescribe the limits of acceptance behavior
c. Are the strongly held rules usually have a moral connotation and are
based in the central ideas of the culture
d. Are all things human make and use, from small hand-held tools to

30.Normative culture consists of:

a. The norms, mores, folkways people follow
b. The thinking component of culture consisting of what the world is
c. Expectations of what people should do under perfect conditions
d. A culture’s general orientation toward life

31.The party-list representatives of the House of Representatives have been

envisioned to constitute:
a. 15% of the total number of representatives
b. 20% of the total number of representatives
c. 30% of the total number of representatives

d. 25% of the total number of representatives

32.The Philippines renounces was as an instrument of national policy and

adopts as part of the law of the land generally accepted principles of:
a. Civil law
b. Penal law
c. International law
d. Administrative law

33.Executive power is vested on the President of the Republic who is elected

directly by the people for a term of:
a. six years
b. four years
c. five years
d. three years

34.As a democratic and republican state, sovereignty in the Philippines resides

in the __________ and all government authority emanates from them.
a. Barangay leaders
b. People
c. Appointed officials
d. Elected officials

35.Which of the following is NOT the power of the datu during the Pre-Spanish
a. Budget officer
b. Judge
c. Chief executive
d. Legislator

36.The term of office of a Senator is limited to a two consecutive terms of:

a. three years for each term
b. four years for ech term
c. six years for each term
d. five years for each term

37.The 1987 Constitution established a:

a. Unitary Government
b. Regional Government
c. Federal Government
d. Controlled Government

38.The 1987 Constitution distributed governmental powers to the following,
a. Judiciary Department
b. Legislative Department
c. Executive Department
d. Education Department

39.The constitution provides that the prime duty of the Government is to

serve and protect the:
a. Supreme court
b. People
c. President
d. Congress

40.What is the composition of the Supreme Court?

a. Chief Justice and 10 Associate Justices
b. Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices
c. Chief Justice and 16 Associate Justices
d. Chief Justice and 12 Associate Justices

41.If the taxpayer is married with 2 dependents, his personal tax exemption is:
a. 7, 500
b. 20,000
c. 32,000
d. 48,000

42.The 1987 Constitution recognizes the power of the state to imposed taxes
on the people provided that the taxation system is:
a. regressive
b. minimal
c. progressive
d. comprehensive

43.Which of the economic system is otherwise known as free enterprise?

a. Totalitarianism
b. Mixed Economy
c. Capitalism
d. Communism

44.The following are elements that make nations produce goods and service,
a. Natural Resources
b. Capital

c. Geographical
d. Labor Force

45.Which inherent power of the government is exercised through laws,

ordinances and enactments for the promotion of the welfare of the people.
a. Police Power
b. Taxation
c. Executive Power
d. Eminent Domain

46.The authority to make laws and to alter and repeal them is vested in:
a. The Cabinet
b. President
c. Congress
d. Supreme Court

47.The public announcer of the promulgation of the new rules and regulations
of the Barangay.
a. Chieftain
b. Bultong
c. Umalohokan
d. Alaw

48.The settlements composed of villages consisting of more or less 100

a. Ciudad
b. Himaraw
c. Pueblo
d. Barangay

49.One of the social classes in the Barangay composed of datu and his family.
a. Maharlika
b. Timawa
c. Saguiguilid
d. Namamahay

50.Name of Malayan sailboats used in going to the Philippines.

a. Barangay
b. Balangay
c. Vinta
d. Sampan

51.Makabayan as the “laboratory of life” means that it provides the
environment for
a. the development of a holistic personal and social well-being
b. the development of skills for computer technology
c. the practice of cultural and political values
d. the improvement of skills in tool subjects

52.Content-based instruction in the language subjects such as Filipino and

English means that
a. the content for English and Filipino is based on learning
competencies in the BEC
b. the content for English is taken from Science and Filipino from Social
c. instruction in English and Filipino is focused on content rather than
communication skills
d. the teachers of English and Filipino should be competent of their
subject content

53.As a Facilitator of learning, the teacher of the BEC 2002 is expected to do

the following except one.
a. Manages the interactive process among the learners
b. Demonstrates a non-threatening learning atmosphere
c. Should do more of the talking so that the children will learn more
from her
d. Encourages learners to become active in asking questions and
expressing themselves

54.The teacher promotes interactive learning in the following situations except

a. The children are allowed to talk among themselves about a lesson.
b. The learners are encouraged to learn from materials through
information technology
c. The instructional materials like textbooks and workbooks stimulate
interest of learners.
d. The learners are instructed to copy and memorize lessons from the

55.The teacher practices integrative teaching in the following except one.

a. Teaches values incidentally in any of the subject ares or lessons.
b. Goes beyond her/his lesson content and includes related subject
matter whenever necessary
c. Conducts thematic teaching along with one or more teachers on a
specific theme for a set of related competencies

d. Conducts team teaching with other teachers in a specific subject area
o lesson.

56.Which one of the following is more effective way in teaching beginning

a. Teach children how to read in English to facilitate reading in Filipino.
b. Teach reading in Filipino or dialect before teaching English.
c. Teach reading in English and Filipino at the same time.
d. Teach reading alternatively with English and Filipino.

57.Remedial reading instruction should be done only before or after classes.

This is
a. true, because remedial reading is not part of the regular class period.
b. true, because pupils read better outside the regular period.
c. false, because the teacher should do this in all subject areas from
grade 1-6.
d. False, because every learner may need remedial reading anytime.

58.The teacher as a values education teacher is expected to

a. inculcate values as the need arises.
b. teach values only during homeroom period.
c. integrate values strictly in her lesson everyday.
d. teach values in EKAWP and integrate them in her lessons.

59.EKAWP as separate subject is conducted through

a. a complete lesson aimed to develop a certain value.
b. extra-curricular activities.
c. girl or boy scouting.
d. modeling.

60.The teacher is a model if value. This means

a. the teacher is religious.
b. values are learned only from model teachers.
c. the teacher demonstrates the values that he/she teaches.
d. values are better learned from the teacher than from anybody.

3rd Floor Room 310/310-A Abalos Bldg.
Gen. Aguinaldo St., Iligan City


Set A
1. The most important contribution of the Phoenicians to civilization is ______
a. alphabet c. trading
b. Tyrean dye and wood d. ship building
2. Which country is not part of Southeast Asia?
a. Indonesia c. Thailand
b. Philippines d. Japan

3. Why is it that despite the richness of Southeast Asia when it comes to its natural
resources, the countries which belong here has still slow economic progress compared
to the countries in Europe and America?
a. The region has a hot climate not fit for employment
b. People do not have innate intelligence and ability to put up industries
c. The region is experiencing calamities such as typhoons, tsunamis, and earthquakes
which destroy crops and industries.
d. People do not have the ability to exploit natural resources and to put up industries
4. Which is the primary resources found in Southwest Asia, like Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Jordan and Kuwait?
a. Olive oil and cement c. Oil and gas
b. Barley d. Sheep and camel

5. Almost one half of the world’s population is found in Asia. What is the implication of this
information to the continent’s economic status?
a. Need for employment and food in Asia is greater than the other continents in the
b. People in Asia have more ability to create ideas and products than the other
continents in the world.
c. The increase of population in Asia is the key to the industrialization of the continent.
d. Countries in Asia have high Per Capita Income
6. What is the socio-economic factor where man must fit into cities which is the center of
communication, trade and culture?
a. Industrialization c. Assimilation
b. Urbanization d. Modernization
7. This is the period/age where man started to hunt and domesticate animals and reside in
small communities.
a. Paleolithic Age c. Mesolithic Age
b. Neolithic Age d. Metal Age
8. During this period, hunting and gathering food is the main source of living.
a. Paleolithic Age c. Mesolithic Age
b. Neolithic Age d. Metal Age
9. The most beautiful burial place in the world which is found in Agra, India and built by
Shah Jahan for her wife, Muntaz Mahal
a. Angkor Wat c. Taj Mahal
b. Pagoda d. Dome of the Rock
10. Which of the following rivers is NOT found in Asia?
a. Irrawady- Myanmar c. Lena- Russia, Mongolia, buryat, yakut
b. Mississippi- US d. Brahmaputra- china, india and bangladesh
11. The system of writing invented by the Sumerians.
a. Sanskrit- language of hinduism c. Cuneiform
b. Heiroglyphics d. Arabic
12. The flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina on 622A.D. is known as ____________
a. hegira c. urdu
b. medina d. shahada

13. This is considered as the first literary piece in the world.
a. Beuwolf c. Epic of Gilgamesh
b. Ramayana d. Ang Terra Cotta
14. The following are contributions of Sumerian civilization to the world EXCEPT
a. Cranial operation c. concept of alphabet
b. wheel d. lunar calendar
15. Why did Shih Huang Ti build the Great Walls of China?
a) to protect Chinese people from barbarians
b) to keep out invaders from the North
c) to prevent Chinese emigration to the North
d) to prevent influx of foreign cultures to China.
16. Though the continent of Asia is bigger than Africa, why it is that Africa is considered as
the “Center of Evolution?
a. It is where the first civilization started
b. Rich agricultural products are found here
c. It is where the fossils and artifacts of the first species of man are found
d. It is where Adam and Eve met
17. All species must undergo certain change in order to fit to the condition of the
environment he lived in. What principle is referred to?
a. An eye for an eye c. Survival of the fittest
b. Natural selection d. Stairway to heaven
18. In searching for the ‘missing link”, there are many remains found by the archeologists
believed to be of the first humans. Which group is believed to have knowledge on how
to use their hands in making tools?
a. Australopithecus c. Homo Habilis
b. Homo erectus d. Homo sapiens
19. The first civilization in India started in the river valleys of Indus. Which group of people
are the first to reside?
a. Hindu c. Aryans
b. Dravidians d. Buddhist
20. King Hammurabi of Babylonian was known in Mesopotamia and West Asia. How is he
a. He spread his religion
b. He gathered the laws
c. He discovered a system of writing
d. He married 4 muslim princesses
21. The Torah is an important foundation of the monotheistic belief of the Hebrew. What do
you mean by Monotheism?
a. Belief on one God c. Belief on many gods
b. Belief on the Holy Trinity d. Belief on Monster gods
22. Alexander the Great established and spread a civilization which is a mixture of Asian
and Greek culture. The civilization is known as ____________
a. Hellenes c. Hellenistic
b. Hellenic d. Lydian

23. A terrace of plants and flowers was built by Nebuchadnezzar of the Chaldean Empire.
This is referred to _____________
a. Great Wall c. Rice Terraces
b. Leaning Tower d. Hanging Gardens
24. Asia is the biggest continent in the world and covers almost 1/3 of the total area. What
is the total land area of Asia?
a. 30, 243,910 kilometro kwadrado
b. 44, 391,000 kilometro kwadrado
c. 10, 355,000 kilometro kwadrado
d. 57, 098,815 kilometro kwadrado
25. Japan joined forces with two European countries forming the AXIS Powers against the
Allied Powers. What were the two European countries?
a. Italy and Greece c. Germany and Austria
b. Italy and Germany d. Germany and Russia
26. The aim of Taoism is to have world balance. This is composed of yin and yang. Yang
symbolizes ______________
a. women c. youth
b. men d. aged
27. The form of writing by the Chinese.
a. Cuneiform c. hieroglyphics
b. Calligraphy d. scribbling
28. In the Babylonian Empire, the confederacy of laws is known as ______________.
These laws is engraved in stone of more or less eight feet in height.
a. Laws of Dravidian c. Vedic
b. Koran d. Code of Hammurabi
29. Which of the following is NOT in lined with the teachings of Hinduism?
a. They believe in continuous cycle of life and death of man to make the soul pure. At
this point, one attains Nirvana.
b. The lowest member of the Caste System are the Untouchables
c. The doctrine of Hinduism is the Four Noble Truths
d. The main gods of Hinduism are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva
30. The religion Islam is based on the Five Pillars. These are Shahada, Salat, Sawm, Hajj
and _______.
a. Nirvana c. Sutee
b. Zakat d. Seljur
31. The religious temple of the Sumerians is known as _______
a. augur c. shul
b. gobekli d. ziggurat
32. The former name of Myanmar.
a. Laos c. Constantinople
b. Burma d. Anatolia
33. On what dynasty is the Great Wall of China built?
a. Qin c. Han
b. Chan d. Sui
34. The former name of Iran.
a. Persia c. Asia Minor
b. Anatolia d. Formosa

35. In Jainism, the use of force and it is important to act peacefully such as not harming any
form of life. This is called as the absence of violence or ___________
a. ahimsa c. aparigraha
b. asteya d. Brahman
The three main principles of Jainism are ahimsa (non-violence), anekantavada (non-
absolutism) and aparigraha (non-possessiveness).
36. An Economic principle which considers the no. of gold and silver that the country
possesses as the basis of its wealth and power.
a. Socialism c. Communism
b. Merkantilism d. Capitalism
37. In Christianism, the belief that there are three persons in one God: The Father, The Son
and the Holy Spirit is called ___________.
a. Hegira c. Holy Communion
b. Holy Trinity d. Ahimsa
38. In Vietnam, as a protest of the Christian policy of President Ngo Dinh Diem against the
Buddhist, one Buddhist monk burn himself to death. The famous act of burning oneself
is known as __________.
a. self-annihilation c. self-mortification
b. self-condemnation d. self-immolation
39. The series of campaign made by European Knights to recover Jerusalem from the
hands of the Moslems.
a. Mass campaign c. Dark Knight
b. Divine Campaign d. Crusade
40. Which is NOT True of the religion Islam.
a. In Muslim community, Abu Bakr was the first Caliph
b. Ramadan or the Month of Fasting for the Muslims ends with Eidul-Ftir
c. Zakat is the act of praying for the Muslims five times a day- salat
d. Muslims believe that Jesus Christ is a prophet and not a God.
41. The Southeast Asian Nation is one of the regional associations in Asia. How does the
association help the member-states?
a. Freedom and Peace is maintained
b. Giving of information about development
c. Giving of financial aid to the members
d. Training of the leaders of the member-countries
42. The Chinese civilization flourished in the Yellow River basin between 1600 BC and well
into the twentieth century. In around 600 BC, Lao Tzu was born. What religion did he
a. Taoism c. Confucianism
b. Buddhism d. Zoroastrianism
43. The Magna Carta was published by the King of which country?
a. France c. Austria
b. Italy d. England- King John
44. The Indus Valley civilization is still somewhat of a mystery to archeologists because
a. the Aryans destroyed all the remains of the civilization
b. the writing system has not been deciphered
c. the small size of the civilization makes it difficult to excavate
d. the isolation from the rest of the world limited trade an diffusion

45. What ideas do Hinduism and Buddhism have in common?
a. universal salvation c. reincarnation
b. the caste system d. monotheism
46. What is the largest ocean in the world?
a. Indian ocean c. Atlantic ocean
b. Arctic ocean d. Pacific ocean
47. All of the following are characteristics of classical civilizations EXCEPT
a. central government c. social stratification
b. organized bureaucracy d. democratic institutions
48. The ancient people started to reside in communities and establish a government,
created religion and developed culture and means of living. What was the reason why
the ancient people stopped from being nomadic or from a wandering way of life in order
to build civilization?
a. the discovery of a system of writing
b. man discovered agriculture and learned to domesticate
c. the discovery of metal
d. the discovery of astronomy
49. The Philippine currency and its stability is projected and supervised by ___________.
a. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP)
b. National Economic and Development Administration
c. Bureau of Treasury
d. Boy Scout of the Philippines (BSP)
50. The Mongols became one of the greatest conquerors because of their skill in ______
a. Diplomacy c. Work as herders
b. Use of weapons d. Horse riding
51. Known for his liberalism, he was the most loved among the Spanish governors-general.
a. Jose Basco y Vargas c. Rafael Izquierdo
b. Carlos Ma. De la Torre d. Sianon Anda y Salazar
52. Which led to the creation of Pakistan as a nation in 1937? Religious differences
between _________.
a. hindus and muslims c. christians and muslims
b. hindus and Christians d. hindus and Buddhists
53. Which biome contains the greatest biodiversity in the world?
a) tropical rainforest c) taiga
b) savannah d) deciduous forest
54. Which does Not belong to the Homo Sapiens group?
a. Neanderthal Man c. Cro-Magnon
b. Java Man- erectus d. Tabon Man
55. What inference can you make in the saying “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” in the
Code of Hammurabi?
a. Punishment served must be based on the degree of the
crime committed
b. If one commits murder, he must be imprisoned
c. Hammurabi’s punishment for the offenders is cruel
d. Eyes and teeth will be removed for those who have committed a crime
56. What is the inevitable force in history which takes place from time to time?
a. Change c. Development
b. Progress d. Evolution

57. Which basic principle was introduced by Spain to the Philippines?
a. union of church and state
b. separation of church and state
c. separation of power
d. slavery
58. To assure the citizenry of a “government of laws and not of men” which kind of judiciary
is necessary?
I. free II. Independent III. Partial
a) I, II, III c) I and III
b) I and II d) II and III
59. Quran is to Islam as Vedas is to ____
a. Christians c. Jews
b. Hindus d. Buddhists
60. When we say Islam is a way of life, it means that Islam is manifested in the ______
a. economic aspect c. political way of life
b. religion d. all of the above
61. Which of the following behaviors bespeaks of a professional teacher?
a. speaks ill of the Filipino ways
b. advocates the theme of nationhood
c. imparts his personal beliefs and ideology
d. seeks the cooperation of the parents for his own interest
62. Which shows a desirable relationship between teachers and other groups of people?
a. Mrs. Labor, a newly assigned principal to Barangay San Andres calls on the
barangay chairman.
b. The new teacher was requested by the barangay council in a case involving one of
her students. He declined.
c. Mr. Baluyos feels that the barangay council is against his plans, so he does not
consult the council even if there is a need for it.
d. The principal does her own way of campaigning for cleanliness in and outside the
school; she never gets involved with the same campaign of the barangay officials.
63. As a matter of principle, which is renounced by the Phil. As an instrument of national
a. civilian authority
b. nuclear weapons in its territory
c. autonomy of local government
d. war
64. What maybe the reason why the highly pigmented, dark skin evolved in the tropics?
a. as protection against intense sunlight
b. consequence of mild sunlight
c. crucial for the body’s ability to make vitamin D
d. for absorption of more light
65. In the theory of evolution, Australopithecus undergo physical and biological changes to
adopt in the new environment where they live in. Which is not included?
a. bipedalism
b. changes in the size of teeth
c. changes in the size of the brain
d. changes in blood pressure
66. Which religion tells that there is a fight between good and evil?
a. Judaism c. Zoroastrianism

b. Hinduism d. Taoism
67. Who wanted a mixture of Eastern and Western civilization?
a. King Philip II c. Queen Elizabeth
b. Julius Caesar d. Alexander the Great
68. Which is NOT a factor that contributed to the development of early civilization?
a. technology c. centralized religion
b. language d. large community
69. Which is NOT a river valley civilization?
a. Huang Ho c. Persia
b. Indus d. Mesopotamia
70. Asia can be best described as _______
1. Cradle of civilization
2. land of diverse and enthusiastic culture
3. Colonial basket of the world
4. Origin of religion
a 4, 3, 2 c. 2, 3 , 4
b. 1, 2, 3 d. 1 - 4
71. Ziggurat is ____
a. community c. city-state
b. temple d. palace
72. Which country does NOT belong in North Asia?
a. Tajekistan c. Georgia
b. Azerbaijan d. Saudi Arabia
73. These wedge-shape characters were instrumental for recording the achievements of the
Summerians and later Mesopotamians.
a. Hieroglyphics c. Cuneiform
b. Hieratic script d. Stylus
74. In the Philippines, it seems that the best candidates to a position or a job do not always
get hired. Which practice prevents the “best and the brightest” fro being hired for
a. merit system c. nepotism
b. networking d. meritocracy
75. For which reason was the southeast treaty organization (SEATO) as a regional
organization conceived?
a. to fight communist aggression in the region
b. to assist member nations in international disputes about
c. to engage nation in the region in cultural cooperation
d. to help member nations work for mutual economy progress
76. Which issue caused for estrangement of the relations between the Philippines and
Malaysia in the past?
a. terrorists’ issue
b. the founding of MAPHILINDO
c. shipping of the federation of Malaysia
d. the Philippine claim of Sabah
77. What does the statement “today the peso is worth about twenty-five centavos”
a. depression c. deflation
b. inflation d. recession

78. From which do archaeologists reconstruct pre-history?
a. excavated tools c. written records
b. ethnic customs d. tribal folklore
79. Which of the ff. was known to man before the Neolithic period?
a. making pottery c. using fire
b. practice of agriculture d. domestication of animals
80. Which is a proof that the Philippines was inhabited as early as 21,000 years ago?
a. skull cap discovered in Tabon cave, Palawan
b. mummies found in Timbac cave in Benguet
c. chinaware unearthed in Calatagan, Batangas
d. boat fragments excavated in Butuan river banks
81. When I conclude that my students are cheaters because I caught one of them cheating,
I commit the fallacy of:
a. false cause c. accident
b. faulty analogy d. hasty generalization
82. Because of the onset and proliferation of AIDS cases, which social problem gained
renewed attention and concern?
a. child labor c. prostitution
b. drug addiction d. pornography
83. To practice Yin-Yang principle, a person must:
a. Be kind c. live in a natural environment
b. Be disciplined d. live a simple life.
84. The use of seal approved in the Sumerians’ business transaction was:
a. based on trust c. more systematic
b. rigid d. complicated
85. While studying the violence in the Middle East for their contemporary issues class, the
teacher reminded the class that the first civilization is located in Iraq. Which civilization
is this?
a. Chaldean c. Akkadian
b. Babylonian d. Sumerian
86. Which term refers to all life zones – plants, animals other organisms and the physical
environment in a particular area?
a. Tundra c. Savanna
b. Ecosystems d. Rainforests
87. What artificial waterway allows water transportation from Europe to enter Asia without
going around Africa?
a. Panama canal c. Canal Grande
b. Suez canal d. Erie Canal
88. Which is not a legacy of the sexagesimal system?
a. 60 seconds on a minute
b. 60 minutes in an hour
c. 360 degrees in a circle
d. None of the above
89. What proves that early civilization were theocratic?
a. The people created temples for deities.
b. The people usually had a patron god or goddesses.
c. The people worshipped many gods and goddesses
d. The leaders were usually the high priest or seen as representatives of the gods.

90. What is oftentimes erroneously referred to as holy war, when it actually translates to
struggle in the way of Allah?
a. Salat c. Jihad
b. Hajj d. Zakat
91. Many of the Arab contributions to education happened during the Golden Age of Islam.
In which caliphate dit it happen?
a. Rashidun c. Abbasid
b. Umayyad d. Fatimid
92. What was the term for the traditional Chinese concept that the powers of authority of the
emperor came from heaven and emperors should then be regarded as Sons of Heaven?
a. Confucianism c. Chung Kuo
b. Taoism d. Mandate of Heaven
93. Islam’s central doctrine is the _________, which says that there is no God except Allah
and Muhammad is his prophet.
a. Zakat c. Shahadah
b. Saum d. Salat
94. We give credit to the oriental philosophers for their contributions to their ideas in
education. Who does not belong to the group?
a. Buddha c. Lao Tze
b. Confucius d. Mencius
95. What were the secrets of the Hittites for their success in warfare?
a. Consulting the stars before going to war
b. Iron implements and war chariots
c. War ships
d. Plunder and intimidation
96. Though not a political power, they made lasting contribution for their belief that would
become the three major faith in the world right now.
a. Chaldeans c. Persians
b. Phoenicians d. Hebrews
97. Some schools patterned their school’s mission and vision after the Greek ideals like
excellence, courage, and honor in Homer’s epic poems, namely the:
a. Dialogue and Republic c. Works and Days
b. Iliad and Odyssey d. Aeneid and Eclogues
98. Which statement does not describe the Spartans?
a. The people had a militaristic orientation
b. They trained their warriors not to fear death
c. They led the Peloponnesian League
d. The valued the Golden Mean.
99. Which statement does not describe the Athenians?
a. They value moderation
b. They value the Golden Mean
c. They granted equal rights to the women
d. They cherished freedom of thoughts and speech.
100. Which among the following is not a civilization in the ancient America?
a. Aztec c. Olmec
b. Harappa d. Incan

3rd Floor Room 310/310-A Abalos Bldg.
Gen. Aguinaldo St., Iligan City


Set B
1. In India and Pakistan, feelings of nationalism are intertwined with religious conflict
between _________.
a. buddhists and hindus. c. christians and muslims.
b. taoists and buddhists. d. muslims and hindus
2. The Arab oil embargo against the United States in 1973 was initiated because of U.S.
support for __________
a. Egypt in the Suez crisis.
b. Iraq in its conflict with Iran
c. Israel in the yomkippur war.
d. Greece in its conflict with Turkey
3. The Nazis blamed most of Germany’s pre–World War II social and economic problems
on Jews and the ______
a. communists. c. industrialists.
b. military d. catholics
4. In 1900, anti-foreign sentiment in China led to an uprising known as the __________
a. Nian Rebellion.
b. Boxer Rebellion.
c. Taiping Rebellion.
d. Sepoy Rebellion.
5. Jewish and Christian beliefs differ from the Greco-Roman tradition in matters concerning
the importance of
A the role of law.
B individual morality.
C belief in one God
D the family unit.
6. Who believed that in an ideal society the government should be controlled by a class of
“philosopher kings”?
a. Muhammad
b. Plato
c. Lao-tzu
d. Thomas Aquinas
7. Which of these is a source for the ideas outlined in the Japanese Constitution?
a.charter of the united nations
b.legal writings of Thomas Hobbes
c.writings on constitutions by Voltaire
d.United States constitution
8. Which of the following is a concept from classical Athens that is central to Western
political thought today?
a. Individuals should fight against nature and society to achieve greatness.

b. Individual achievement, dignity, and worth are of great importance.
c. Individual recognition impedes societal progress.
d. Individuals play an insignificant role in shaping ideas, society, and the state.
9. “. . . for the administration of justice . . . is the principle of order in political society.” From Aristotle’s
statement, it can be inferred that __
a. monarchs protect citizens from tyranny.
b. laws only elected officials should impose
c. laws maintain the stability of the nation
d. majority rule ensures a stable government
10. The English philosopher John Locke argued that life, liberty, and property are _____
a. natural rights that should be protected by government.
b. political rights to be granted as determined by law.
c. economic rights earned in a capitalistic system.
d. social rights guaranteed by the ruling class
11. Both the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the
Rights of Man emphasized the idea that governments must _______.
a. guarantee economic prosperity
b. protect the rights of people
c. support established religious beliefs
d. operate on a system of checks and balances
12. What document best exemplifies the natural rights philosophy: “Emphasizes individual
rights to life, liberty and property” ?
a. The Communist Manifesto
b. Plato’s Republic
c. Luther’s Ninety-five Theses
d. The Declaration of Independence
13. How did the Magna Carta (1215) contribute to the development of the English
a. It created a two-house parliament.
b. It extended voting rights.
c. It provided for a bill of rights.
d. It limited the power of the monarch.
14. Unlike the French Revolution, the American Revolution produced _____
a. women’s suffrage. c. strategic alliances
b. short-term military rule d. a lasting constitution.
15. Which leader was inspired by the ideas of the American Revolution and the
Enlightenment to lead the liberation of much of South America protest would play a role
in the French from Spain?
a. Simón Bolívar
b. Padre Miguel Hidalgo
c. José Martí
d. Antonio López de Santa Anna
16. The principles of the American Revolution and French Revolution are similar in many
ways. Which of the following best summarizes their similarities?
a. Both favored representative governments.
b. Both limited voting rights to an economic elite.
c. Both retained certain hereditary rights for aristocrats.
d. Both supported equal rights for women.

17. When members of the Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath (1789) at the start of the
French Revolution, they were attempting to ____.
a. establish a military government.
b. draft a new national constitution.
c. restore the king to power.
d. persuade Napoleon to take power.
18. Which of these first demonstrated that popular protest would play a role in the French
a. the reign of the Committee of Public Safety
b. the trial of Louis XIV
c. the fall of the Bastille
d. the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
19. What was one factor that enabled Napoleon to seize control of France?
a. the weakness of the French government
b. the endorsement by foreign governments
c. the support Napoleon received from French autocrats
d. the strong democratic reforms Napoleon advocated
20. Louis Pasteur’s research into germ theory is significant because it —
a. created safety standards for machine workers.
b. led to techniques that increase crop
c. identified the importance of vitamins to nutrition
d. proved that cleanliness helps to prevent infection
21. To increase production output during the Industrial Revolution, businesses primarily
invested in ____.
a. workers’ wages. c. training
b. machinery. d. marketing
22. At the end of the 1800s, colonies were generally seen as a _____.
a. place to banish criminals.
b. sign of a country’s relative power.
c. location to train military forces.
d. method for suppressing nationalism.
23. Economically, what enabled Japan to become a colonial power after 1894?
a. Agricultural advances increased the population and forced Japan to look for new land.
b. Japanese trade wars against the United States removed regional competition for
c. Industrialization allowed Japan to expend resources on military and colonial
d. The Japanese were forced to acquire colonies in Asia when European trade was
24. In the late nineteenth century, the British commonly referred to the Suez Canal in Egypt
as the “Lifeline of the Empire” because it ____
a. held large deposits of coal needed by British industries.
b. provided a strategic shipping route to British
c. served as a ship-building center for the British navy.
d. irrigated several cash crops in the British colonies.
25. The collapse of the last Chinese Empire in 1912 was caused by the imperial
government’s failure to ___.
a. control foreign influence
b. educate the masses

c. enter into alliances with other nations.
d. repel communist guerrillas.
26. Mohandas Gandhi used his philosophy of nonviolent noncooperation in an effort to
a. form a Marxist government in India
b. convince his fellow Indians to support the Allies in World War II
c. persuade Pakistanis to separate from India.
d. achieve India’s independence from Great Britain.
27. By 1914, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African countries to ___.
a. establish democratic governments.
b. develop industrial economies.
c. retain their independence.
d. colonize other nations.
28. Why did Great Britain, France, and Russia form the Triple Entente in 1907?
a. to protect their colonies from invasion by other nations
b. to develop an economic alliance based on open markets
c. to suppress minority nationalists in their own countries
d. to respond to the increased military power of Germany
29. During World War I, U.S. propaganda posters often portrayed German soldiers as
a. honorable opponents.
b. violators of human rights.
c. unbeatable enemies.
d. liberators of oppressed peoples.
30. Great Britain’s stated reason for declaring war on Germany in 1914 was the
a. French attacks on German colonies.
b. U.S. entry into the war.
c. Serbian assassination of Archduke Franz
d. German invasion of Belgium
31. Why did most of the combat on the Western Front in World War I take place in a
relatively small area?
a. There is only a small amount of flat land in all of Europe.
b. The armies became immobile because of trench warfare.
c. Each side cut off the fuel supply of the other.
d. Germany’s military tactics were based on “static warfare.”
32. Which of the following most affected the course and outcome of World War I?
a. Allied withdrawal from the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli
b. British victories in the Sinai that secured the Suez Canal
c. American military and financial intervention in the war
d. The switch in allegiance of Italy from the Central Powers to the Allies
33. One contribution of overseas colonies to the Allied effort during World War I was that
they provided
a. large numbers of soldiers to reinforce the Allied armies.
b. protected sites for new Allied industrial factories.
c. most of the agricultural labor in the Allied nations.
d. places of refuge for displaced Allied civilian populations..
34. President Wilson said that his Fourteen Points would provide a framework for
a. a lasting and just peace.
b. determining war reparations.
c. expanding colonial empires.

d. punishing aggressor nations.
35. What basic idea was shared by both Britain and France at the Paris Peace Conference
in 1919?
a. Italy should give up its colonies in Africa.
b. Germany should be divided into occupation zones.
c. German military power should be permanently restricted.
d. The Central Powers should divide the cost of the war equally.
36. After World War I, the territories of the Ottoman Empire in Southwest Asia were
partitioned. Into which area did nearly 400,000 Jewish people immigrate between 1919
and 1941?
a. Syria c. Israel
b. Jordan d. Iraq
37. The collapse of the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires during World War I
contributed directly to the
a. formation of the European Union.
b. start of the Cold War.
c. development of the Marshall Plan.
d. creation of new nations in Eastern Europe.
38. One way fascist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s gained popular support was by
a. promising to maintain peace with other countries.
b. attracting foreign investment for industrial development.
c. limiting military influence in the government.
d. appealing to national pride.
39. Stalin’s “Great Purge” from 1934 to 1939
a. eliminated the army’s dominance in state decisions.
b. expanded Soviet agriculture at the expense of industry
c. brought about the death of millions of people.
d. replaced agricultural workers with technology
40. Lenin hoped that the Russian Revolution of 1917 would
a. inspire the Russians to continue the European was war effort.
b. incite similar socialist rebellions throughout Europe.
c. persuade the combatants in Western Europe to sign an armistice.
d. counter U.S. military presence in Eastern Europe.
41. Which of the following does not describe Hitler’s Germany, Mussolini’s Italy, Stalin’s
a. They were all totalitarian governments.
b. Political opponents were killed in each state.
c. All three nations wanted to expand borders.
d. Marxist principles governed all economic activity.
42. In 1939, France and Great Britain declared war on Germany as a direct result of the
a. annexation of Austria.
b. occupation of the Rhineland.
c. seizure of the Sudetenland.
d. invasion of Poland.
43. Which nation sought to establish the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere between
1931 and 1945?
a. Japan c. China
b. India d. Korea

44. Following the United States’ entry into World War II, American and British leaders
decided that their highest priority would be to
a. recapture Pacific possessions lost to the Japanese.
b. invade Europe and defeat Germany.
c. send armies to the Russian Front to help the Soviet Union.
d. strike directly at the Japanese home islands.
45. Early in World War II, Allied leaders decided that the enemy they had to defeat first was
a. the Ottoman Empire.
b. the Soviet Union.
c. Imperial Japan.
d. Nazi Germany.
46. Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy . . .—from a speech by
President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Congress…The purpose of Roosevelt’s speech was
to persuade Congress to
a. end all trade with Japan.
b. declare war on Japan.
c. condemn Japan’s aggression in China.
d. support dropping an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
47. Which of the following countries suffered high casualties because it was invaded and
partially occupied during World War II?
a. Great Britain c. the United States
b. the Soviet Union d. Japan

48. What was one outcome of World War II?

a. England and France increased their overseas colonial possessions.
b. The communists gained control over most of Western Europe.
c. Japan and Germany became dominant military powers in their regions.
d. The Soviet Union emerged as an international superpower.
49. Which of the following was a primary cause of the Cold War between the United States
and Soviet Union?
a. a competition for political influence over other countries
b. direct, armed conflict between the two nations
c. a deep reduction in military expenditures
d. the founding of the United Nations
50. What crisis brought the Soviet Union and the United States to the brink of nuclear war in
a. an attempt by leaders in communist Hungary to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact
b. the creation of East Germany as a separate Soviet military occupation zone
c. an invasion of South Korea by armed communist forces from North Korea
d. the installation in Cuba of Soviet offensive intermediate-range missiles
51. Greeks established city-states known as polis. What is that part that is located in the
hills or upper part of the city?
a. metropolis c. metropolitan
b. acropolis d. colony
52. Greece had entered into so many wars before. In which war or battle they were
defeated by King Philip II of Macedonia?
a. Chaeronea c. Peloponnesean
b. Granicus d. Thermophylae

53. One of the contributions of the Romans is seen in terms of architecture. The open
theater where battle of the gladiators are fought is known as
a. Pantheon c. Triumphal Arch
b. Colosseum d. Hippodrome
54. What is Silk Road?
a. A 4.000 mile long ancient trade route linking Chine to the
b. A Chinese philosophy that emphasizes strict obedience to
c. A group of people traveling together.
d. A type of cloth worn by a Chinese in a road parade
55. Buddhism believes in four _____ .
a. paths c. noble truths
b. castes d. tenets
56. Which of the following instances shifts the supply curve to the left?
a. better technology
b. decrease in the cost of production
c. decrease in number of sellers
d. increase in the number of sellers
57. Which of the following inventions started the fast weaving process of cloth?
a. flying shuttle c. power loom
b. cotton gin d. spinning jenny
58. This invention produced electricity that greatly improved works of the machineries;
a. air breaks c. petroleum
b. dynamo d. internal combustion
59. Asians established different organizations in order to show the world that:
a. they are culturally bound to another
b. they are capable of developing their own resources
c. they are interested to help each other
d. Asia is for the Asians
60. The ruler who ordered the burning of the Confucian classic was:
a. Shih Huang Ti c. Pan Chao
b. Tai Tsung d. Kublai Khan
61. Which was true of the Spanish colonial government from 1565 to 1821?
a. Directly ruled by the king of Spain
b. Indirectly governed by the king of Spain through Mexico
c. Directly ruled by Mexico
d. Administered by the Spanish courts
62. What is one-China policy?
a. Maintaining diplomatic relations with the a Republic of China.
b. Acknowledging that China is the People’s Republic of China.
c. Acknowledging that the People’s Republic of China consists
of Taiwan, Macau and Hong Kong.
d. Acknowledging that the Republic of China consists
of Taiwan, Macau and Hong Kong.
63. What do the Japanese people believe about themselves?
a. They are a blending of the East and the West.
b. They are a superior race.
c. They are like cherry blossom every sprig time.

d. They are the descendants of the gods and goddesses
64. What is the name of the route that connected China to the rest of the world through
trade and the spread of ideology?
a. Great Wall of China c. Caravan
b. Silk Road d. Hindu Kush pass
65. Renaissance started first in
a. Russia c. England
b. France d. Italy
66. The Last Super , a famous renaissance painting was a master piece of
a. Leonardo da Vinci c. Raphael
b. Michael Angelo d. Titian
67. With which of the following is the term Liberty , Equality and Fraternity associated ?
a. Industrial Revolution c. Russian Revolution
b. French Revolution d. Olympic Games
68. The author of the American Declaration of Independence was
a. Lafayette c. George Washington
b. Jefferson d. Thomas Paine
69. The Industrial Revolution First took place in
a. France c. Germany
b. England d. America
70. The discovery of sea-route from Europe to India was made by
a. Columbus c. Vasco-da-Gama
b. Marco Polo d. Magellan
71. What was the name of the atom bomb dropped by USA on Hiroshima in Japan during
the second world War ?
a. Little Boy c. Little Fly
b. Little Devil d. None of these
72. German attack on Poland was the immediate cause of
a. West Asian Crisis c. Cold War
b. Second world War d. First World War
73. Which was the second city destroyed by the atom bomb in second World War ?
a. Tokyo c. Nagasaki
b. Hiroshima d. Asaki
74. The War of Independence of America was fought against the
a. Britain c. France
b. Royal People of America d. Denmark
75. In the year 1815, the Battle of Waterloo was fought between
a. Britain and France c. Britain and Germany
b. Japan and China d. Austria and Russia
76. Who was the author of the Republic , a famous classic ?
a. Plato c. Aristotle
b. Herodotus d. Alexander
77. The most important achievement of Abraham Lincoln was
a. None of these
b. The abolition of slavery
c. The strengthening of democracy
d. The establishment of the supremacy of the north over the

78. Who among the following commanded the American force during American war of
independence ?
a. Hamitton c. Theodore Roosevelt
b. Thomas Jefferson d. George Washington
79. With what is the Japanese art of bonsai concerned?
a. miniature Trees c. coniferous trees
b. cuttle trees d. cute trees
80. Which two Middle-Eastern countries fought a war from 1980 to 1988?
a. Iran and Iraq c. Oman and Yemen
b. Israel and Palestine d. Saudi Arabia and Lebanon
81. Which 13th-century Mongol warlord controlled probably a larger area than anyone in
history, from the Yellow Sea to the Black Sea?
a. Genghis Khan c. Tarmalane
b. Mao Zedong d. Giaha Khan
82. In which square in Beijing, China did troops massacre more than 1,000 demonstrators in
a. Tiananmen Square c. Chinen Square
b. Lemon square d. Mamitan Square
83. Biag ni Lam-ang is a famous epic of what region in the Philippines?
a. Ilocos c. Maguindanao
b. Bicol d. Cordillera
84. Which became the main object of European colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th
centuries for its spices?
a. Moluccas c. Macao
b. Malacca d. Mexico
85. Which of the following legislations made treasonable the advocacy of independence
during the Filipino-American War?
a. Sedition Law c. Reconcentration Law
b. Brigandage Act d. traitorship act
86. The formal inauguration of the Philippine Assembly was held at the
a. Malacañan Palace c. Grand Opera House
b. session hall of the Philippine Commission d. Cultural center
87. The first Sulu-United States Treaty concluded on August 20,1899 allowing American
presence in Sulu.
a. Murphy Treaty c. Bates Treaty
b. Jones Treaty d. Forbes Treaty
88. He was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He is remembered particularly for
his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens.
a. Lycurgus c. Draco
b. Solon d. Octavius
89. Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of
thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century
BC. The materials were found in ..
a. Nineveh c. Ur
b. Babylon d. Galillee
90. Ides of March of 44 BC was marked in the history of the Romans as.
a. The 15th day of March.
b. A day of sorrow brought by the death of Julius Caesar
c. A tragic event of March

d. Change in the Roman calendar
91. Why is Egypt called the Gift of Nile?
a. Many were fascinated by the ancient civilization of Egypt
b. Egypt’s civilization lasted for thousands of years
c. The monuments of Egypt still stand today
d. Without the Nile, it would not have been possible to establish a civilization
92. While comparing and contrasting events, teacher asked what factor was a major cause
of both World War I and II. It was:
a. The rise of totalitarian fascist states
b. The spread of Marxist ideas into Europe
c. The dropping of atomic bomb
d. Ultranationalism
93. Renaissance is a French word meaning:
a. Birth c. Rebirth
b. Awakening d. Peak
94. Which among the following was not a development during the Scientific Revolution?
a. Laws of planetary motion
b. Heliocentric view of the universe
c. Social contract
d. Microbiology
95. All these are reasons why the United Nations was established, except to:
a. Improve the state of health c. Spread the word of God
b. Promote economic progressd. Prevent wide scale conflict

96. Baclaran, Divisoria and Quiapo thrive as economic landscapes because of their:
a. Location
b. Transportation mode and accessibility
c. Land use
d. All of the above
97. A philosophy that centers its teaching on the five pillars.
a. Islam c. Hinduism
b. Buddhism d. Confucianism
98. Forests constitute one of the rich natural resources of the Philippines. In recent years,
commercial logging has resulted in deforestation, flooding and denudation. Which of the
following will be the best solution to this abuse?
a. bankaingin system c. total log ban on logging
b. reforestation d. selective log ban on logging
99. Which theory states that human society develops gradually from lower to higher forms?
a. Survival of the fittest c. Social Evolution
b. Functionalism d. Biological Evolution
100. Which government office is in-charge of helping the victims of calamities, hazards, etc.?
a. DOH c. DENR
101. Which responsibility goes with my right to speak?
a. not to speak because of fear
b. to tell only what is true
c. to keep quiet when what I say incriminates me

d. not to hurt others
102. A simple circular flow model shows that:
a. Households generate the revenue necessary for firms to produce.
b. Firms generate the income necessary for households to consume
c. Household demand outputs and supply outputs.
d. Firms demand resources and supply outputs.
103. In moral life, responsibility defends on one's knowingly and freely doing an act. In which
of the following situations would you attribute responsibility?
a. a person unknowingly passes counterfeit money
b. an insane person strikes someone's head with a hammer
c. a four year old fires a loaded gun killing his own father.
d. a nurse administers a medicine despite strong doubts about
104. Cultural differences and signals may cause miscommunication. Normally, other families
go for kissing one another. But this is taboo to some families who:
a. Takes as an affront. c. Believed it’s unsanitary
b. Disrespect to elders d. Losing virginity
105. Social inequality is more pronounced in:
a. hunter-gatherer bands c. industrial nations
b. agrarian states d. horticultural societies
106. Which of the following statements is NOT an acceptable inference on culture and
individual personality?
a. Socialization process develops culture
b. Culture develops individual personality
c. Childrearing practices can form distinct personality types.
d. Culture isolates individuals from the group.
107. The comprehensive tax law allows no investigation and audit of assets and income if
a. They pay in two installments
b. They declare only what is earned for the year
c. They file their income tax on time
d. They avail 20% in addition to their declared taxable income
108. This is a form of taxation that is collected based only on income
a. local c. indirect
b. direct d. sacrifice
109. Bipedalism marked the distinction between humans and apes. This condition was
initially found among:
a. Australopithecus c. Neanderthal man
b. Homo habilis d. Homo Sapiens
110. Social inequality is evident in which situation?
a. Decision has been reached by consensus.
b. The ruling class dominates culture.
c. Communication is free flowing
d. Management is participatory
111. Which is NOT true about race and ethnicity?
a. Intermarriage within ethnic groups may produce common physical characteristics.
b. Distinct cultural practices may develop among racial and ethnic group.
c. Race and ethnicity are not determinants of social stratification.

d. Race and ethnicity can become indicators of social mobility.
112. What is the retention limit to be awarded to each child of a landowner according to
a. 10,000 sq.m. c. 4 hectares
b. 3 hectares d. 500,000 sq.m.
113. These are taxes of fixed amount imposed on persons residing within a specified territory.
a. property c. fiscal
b. personal d. general
114. Through a scientific process, scientists can now alter cells to produce new-life forms as
a. ethnic cleansing c. genetic engineering
b. ultraviolet processes d. stem cell therapy
115. A doctrine which prohibits a European nation to become stronger over the other which
exists during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England is called _____.
a. mercantilism c. buffer zone
b. encomienda system d. balance of power
116. When teaching a lesson about climate and weather, it is best to use _______ as a
teaching aid/realia.
a. globe c. atlas
b. map d. almanac
117. Reports of the death sentence were awaited by the parents. But the President decided
the postponement for a month or in legal terms this means:
a. reprieve c. pardon
b. execution d. commutation
118. The Japanese mother communicates with her child physically rather than verbally while
the American stimulates her child into an activity verbally. The Filipino mother nurtures
her child by playing with her and feeding her on demand. What do the child-rearing
practices point to? Cultural
a. Relativity b. Integration c. Valuing process d. Diversity
119. “Your honor, how can the prosecution dare try to send this poor, defenseless child to jail
for the murder of his father and mother? Have a heart! The boy is now an orphan.” Is
this argument valid?
a. No, this is faulty reasoning, appeal to force.
b. yes, nobody can disagree.
c. no, this violates the rules of logic, an appeal to popular belief.
d. No, this is a fallacy, an appeal to pity.
120. With social interaction in mind, which does not belong to the group?
a. Conflict c. Accommodation
b. Competition d. Projection
121. War, torture, genocide, murder and homicide are examples of_______
a. Structural violence c. Ecological violence
b. Physical violence d. Socio-cultural violence
122. The following EXCEPT one are roles of the government in mixed economy.
a. Minimize market inefficiencies
b. Promote exportation and importation
c. Promote low levels of poverty and inflation
d. Provision of public goods
123. What constitutional right is violated when without lawful order of the court or cause
prescribed by law, NBI agents wiretapped, heard and made public your confidential
telephone conversations with your religious adviser?

a. Right of religious beliefs
b. Right to privacy of communication and correspondence
c. Right to information on public matters of public concern
d. Religious freedom
124. Which duty do you fulfill if you give information to the authority on the whereabouts of
the wanted criminals of the country?
a. To uphold the constitution
b. To exercise rights responsibility
c. To cooperate with duly constituted authorities
d. To engage in gainful work.
125. In which instance is the independence of the judiciary shown?
a. The Supreme Court is given authority to appoint
all officials and employees of the judiciary
b. The Supreme Court is beyond criticism
c. The qualification of the justices of the Supreme
Court can be changed by the Congress
d. The salaries of the members of the Supreme
Court and the lower courts can be decreased
during their continuance in office.
126. For which reasons do the cities of the US that have ordinance that prohibits the use of
plastic bags in shopping areas?
a. People must be taught to recycle materials
b. Americans must be taught to patronize their own products
c. Government must work for the convenience of the people they serve
d. Plastic is non- biodegradable and adds to the problem of solid garbage disposal
127. Marriage among the Filipinos in the past was long and complicated. You had to render
services to the prospective bride's family, for example, by chopping wood or fetching
water from a 'balon' for days or months or years! If you were lucky enough to be
accepted, what did you call of the gift you were required to give to the girl's parents?
a. bigay- suhol c. bigay-kaya
b. bigay-ginto d. bigay-pera
128. Which of the ff. shall regularly monitor meterological factors affecting environmental
conditions including the ozone depletion and greenhouse gasses?
129. While Rizal was in exile, he made his love for his countrymen visible. Which one did he
not do?
a. He developed a part of his time farming and taught his pupils better methods of
b. He built a clinic where he attended to his patients.
c. He built a school where he held academic sessions with his pupils.
d. He rendered free medical services to his poor and wealthy patients
130. He designed the Rizal monument.
a. Deodato Arellano c. Mon Alvarado
b. David Nepomuceno d. Richard Kissling
131. The first commercial bank in the Philippines.
a. Banco Islas de Filipinas c. China Bank
b. Allied Bank d. BDO
132. The first metal used by man was

a. Iron c. gold
b. copper d. aluminum
133. He ordered Rizal’s deportation to Dapitan in Mindanao
a. Gov. Gen. Despujol c. Gov. Gen. Polavieja
b. gov. Gen. Blanco d. Gov. Gen Maria dela Torre
134. Who commanded a large Chinese fleet, sent by Emperor Yung Lo of the Ming dynasty in
1402 to trade with the country at the same time establish colonies along the coast towns
of the archipelago?
a. Cheng-ho c. Ho
b. Ching d. Mi Chiang

135. What goods are increasingly demanded when income increases?

a. substitute goods c. normal goods
b. preserve goods d. inferior goods
136. This is done during Holy Friday.
a. senakulo c. ten commandments
b. siete palabras d. crucifixion
137. The chairperson of the 1986 Constitutional Convention.
a. Cecilia Munoz Palma c. Diosdado Macapagal
b. Claro M. Recto d. Carlos Garcia
138. An Act regulating and supervising the practice of teaching in the Philippines and
prescribing Licensure Exam for teachers.
a. RA 7836 c. RA 7798
b. RA 6655 d. RA 7784
139. The source of perfume had been identified by several scientists. One of the most
expensive source is:
a. shark oil b. shark pin
b. shark skin d. ilang-ilang flower
140. Granting free education to the poor but deserving students provided they comply with
the rules of the constitution.
a. pensionados c. scholarships
b. 4 Ps d. ALS

3rd Floor Room 310/310-A Abalos Bldg.
Gen. Aguinaldo St., Iligan City


Set C

101. The Japanese rebuild their communities to show their good character after an
earthquake. One thing that does NOT describe the Japanese people is this kind of
a. fortitude c. unity

b. solidarity d. superiority over nature
102. This replaced the tribute as a form of taxation in the Hispanic Philippine colony in
a. donativo c. diezmos prediales
b. cedulla personal d. santotum
103. It is a kind of mentality that makes Filipinos think that imported products are superior
to Filipino products which does not help the country’s economy at all.
a. luxuirious living c. colonial mentality
b. spendthrift habits d. passivity attitude
104. It is an autonomy granted to Filipinos during the Philippine Commonwealth.
a. American citizenship c. partial independence
b. full independence d. freedom in education
105. When Christopher Columbus arrived in this place in 1492, he thought he had
reached India. He therefore called the people he found there Indians.
a. India c. “New World”
b. The America d. Cape of Good Hope
106. It is a religious monarchy and state observer in the United Nations.
a. Holy Faith c. Holy See
b. Kingdom d. Caliphate
107. It is participation in governance, including the right to vote and seek public office
which is secured within the citizenry.
a. right of suffrage c. political rights
b. right to due process d. socio-economic rights
108. It describes concentration in thinking as constant, unbroken line of thought.
a. diffusion c. vacillation
b. focus d. disturbance
109. It is the fundamental basis for data gathered in the science of Sociology, Biology.
a. Right to due process of law c. belief
b. logic d. observation
110. It is a deliberate deception made by avertisers who say, “Everybody use Gugo skin
whitener and you shloud do the same”
a. Bandwagon c. personal attack
b. Circular thining d. falsehood or the Big Lie
111. Like Biology and Physics, Sociology is scientific because its knowledge is based on
a. logic c. observation
b. belief d. wisdom
112. What characterizes logical reasoning in the thought process?
a. reasonable c. clarity
b. speed d. morality
113. What do we call those people who are for the revival of the classics in social
a. rationalists c. reformists
b. existentialists d. humanists
114. It is a fallacy of direct deception made by a politician who puts an ugly, unfair and
defamatory label on people, e.g. “Activists are all terrorists.”
a. name-calling c. rationalizing
b. loaded words d. distraction

115. What characterizes good thinkers who desire to understand and search for answers
and solutions?
a. crowd followers c. tradionalists
b. innovators d. mythmakers
116. These are the basic needs, and not simply related items or complimentary goods
that compliment man’s basic needs in society.
a. electricity c. bags and shoes
b. clothing d. food and shelter
117. What shows the kind of thinking which likes to identify an idea or dilemma, wherein
thinkers may engage in such mental activities such careful observation, recalling,
imaging, inquiring, interpreting, evaluating, classifying and judging?
a. Reflecting c. doing wihtout knowing
b. Act on impulse d. following orders
118. According to sociologists, conflicts in society need not be violent and could be
resolved through this method.
a. putsch c. coup d’ etat
b. revolution d. negotiation
119. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major aspects of scientific social
a. philosophy c. data collection
b. theory d. data analysis
120. Errors that creep into news reporting and is shown by a newspaper space.
a. news stories c. commentary
b. news photos d. erratum
121. It is the basis of scientific theory that can be empirical and not merely speculative
or opinionated.
a. logical reason c. authority
b. evidence-based d. tradition
122. It characterizes logical reasoning in the thought process
a. skillful c. clarity
b. morality d. reasonablenes
123. What is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase
our understanding of the phenomena under study?
a. experiment c. discover
b. data collection d. research
124. What is the branch of philosophy tht studies the origin, evolution, and structure of
the universe, especially such characteristics as space, time, and freedom?
a. cosmology c. cynicism
b. conceptualism d. consciencism
125. It is the name for the estimated measurement of the ground motion that occurs
during an earthquake.
a. homerian scale c. crichter scale
b. richter scale d. reachter scale
126. He was the Greek scholar and librarian of Alexandria who introduced the word
geography from the Greek word which means “earth” and graphos which means “to
a. Socrates c. Aristotle
b. Eratosthenes d. Plato
127. Maps have several advantages over the globe but this is NOT one of them.

a. They can be folded, carried and stored.
b. They give a true picture of one or two features of the earth.
c. They are round with true scales
d. They can show details of the earth’s surface.
128. A sea is a great body of salty water smaller than an ocean, more or less
landlocked. Which is a large part of the ocean or sea partly enclosed by land?
a. Lake c. canal
b. Gulf d. strait
129. It demonstrates interconnectedness between social and environmental injustices.
a. Desertification of verdant regions
b. Highly industrialized countries’ toxic waste disposed to poorer countries.
c. Temperature warming and rise of sea level
d. Extinction of rare animal species.
130. He wrote seventeen volumes of books with a wealth of information on classical
a. Strabo c. Homer
b. Aristotle d. Ptolemy

131. The most violent yet the smallest storm typically only 30 meters in diameter.
a. cyclone c. typhoon
b. tsunamis d. tornado
132. The term for volcanoes that have not shown anh volcanic action or eruption for
hundreds of years.
a. intermittent c. active
b. dormant d. extinct
133. What kind of energy source has been explored from volcanic resources?
a. natural gas energy c. solar energy
b. crude oil energy d. geothermal energy
134. What naural disaster can bring havoc to the country’s long coastline twice as long
as that of continental United States?
a. flooding c. atmospheric winds
b. tidal waves d. ocean heat
135. The physical phenomenon which raises the temperature of the earth’s surface
through emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, especially from
industrial centers.
a. hurricane c. global warming
b. ocean heat d. atmospheric winds
136. How did the Hispanic conquest affected the physical features of the conquered
native Filipinos, especially in lowland regions?
a. Fil-Am half-breeds c. Light-skinned, high-nosed meztizos
b. Slit-eyed Chinitos d. Indian mestizos
137. The greatest Chinese scholar who used mythical figures in his geographical
treatieses to describe what was known as the earth.
a. Yu the Great c. Lao Tzu
b. Chan the Great d. Confucius
138. Scientists theorize that man evolved from an ancestral hominid which split from the
chimpanzee 8 million years ago. What type of specie gave rise to the more human-
apprearing species, Home Erectus?

a. Homo erectus c. Neanderthal
b. Homo habilis d. Peking Man
139. The world population is growing larger everyday, while the fertile soil of the earth is
getting smaller cause by human practices which do not include ______________.
a. sustainable agriculture c. overuse of soil through planting
b. over grazing d. cutting of trees
140. Ocean waves move up and down, but the only thing that moves forward in a wave
is _______.
a. wind c. air
b. surf d. energy
141. The ancient Greeks divided the world into three continents, namely Europe, Asia
and ____________.
a. Troy c. Athens
b. Sparta d. Africa
142. Which is the major cause of the death of women in childbith which was estimated
at 500,000 each year as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO)?
a. Lack of facilities
b. poor nursing education
c. Poor reproductive health system
d. Lack of good obstetrician
143. This Filipino trait would have been a beautiful one if it hadn’t been denuded of
nobility by joining he bandwagon of corrupt officials and politicians.
a. masinop c. masunurin
b. magalang d. pakikisama
144. What is considered as India’s hindrance to becoming a unified poltiical culture and
preventing the nation’s solid traditions and institutions like those of Greece and Rome?
a. central rule c. hinduism
b. unified political form d. regionalism
145. Of the following, which is NOT among the major good traits of cultural communities
in highland regions?
a. industry c. patience
b. extravagance d. frugality
146. What is the sociological foundation of the Philippines under the 1987 constitution?
a. family c. arts and sciences
b. folklore d. cultural heritage
147. In whose painting/s was slavery in the Philippines during the Spanish period clearly
a. Jose Rizal c. Antonio Luna
b. Juan Luna d. Felix Hidalgo
148. One instance which shows that culture is cumulative (the new addition to the old for
novelties) is the _____________.
a. Folk dancing
b. OPM (Original Pilipino Music)
c. Pinoy jeepney
d. Barong tagalog and saya
149. What kind of prejudice has been overcome in the Philippines in the inclusion of the
Muslim holidays that has gained national respect aside from the Catholic holidays like
Christmas, Lenten Season, etc.?
a. looksism c. heterosexualism

b. sexism d. religious intolerance
150. The most basic right to form a family is ____________.
a. legal right c. human right
b. religious right d. civil right
151. It characterized democracy in Greece.
a. mob rule c. military rule
b. aristocracy d. citizen assemblies’
152. The first Mauryan dynasty ruler who unified India’s sub-continent was __________.
a. Alexander c. Gautama
b. Asoka d. Chandragupta
153. What type of anthropologists examine social patterns and practices across cultures,
with a special interest in how people live in particular places and how they organize,
govern, and create meaning?
a. biological c. linguistic
b. chemical d. socio-cultural
154. Who is well-known Chinese thinker whose socio-political philosophy spread into
parts of East Asia.
a. Confucius c. Marco Polo
b. Genghis Khan d. Lao Tzu
155. What Filipino trait is directly opposite the American openness and transparency?
a. hiya c. crab mentality
b. racial pride d. fraudulence
156. What is manifested by the practice of a group people of different lifestyles, ways of
living together, value system, traditions and beliefs?
a. problems in cultural experience
b. condition of culture shock
c. cultural diversity
d. confusion in mores
157. The world’s oldest cat dies at 15 years in 2014. And made it into the Guinness
World Records in 2012 for the world’s oldest cat. Where was the name Janus derived
a. a Greek God with two faces
b. a Greek God with three faces
c. a Roman God with three faces
d. a Roman God with two faces
158. A power given to the President to pardon any aged, seriously ill inmates as
provided under Article VII, section 19 of the Constitution which pertains to reprieve,
absolute or conditional pardon with or without parole conditions and commutation of
a. emergency powers c. executive clemency
b. executive pardon d. social rights
159. Under the law that expands the government’s science and technology scholarship
to encourage more college students to pursue careers in this field, students are entitled
to an annual award for full-time study equal to the complete financial assistance
package offered under this Republic Act.
a. Republic Act 1237 c. Republic Act 10612
b. Republic Act 7687 d. Republic Act 2019
160. The law that established the National Assembly or lower house of Congress in

a. Commonwealth Law c. Jones Law
b. Cooper Act d. Tydings-Mcduffie Law
161. Who was dubbed as the “Grand Old Man of Philipine Politics,” being a senator of the
country for 24 years – the longest in Philippine History?
a. Lorenzo Tañada c. Benigno Aquino, Jr,
b. Ferdinand Marcos d. Jose P. Laurel
162. The “writ of amparo” grants the fundamental right to _________.
a. to gather information
b. to be defended by a public attorney
c. self-defense
d. right to life, liberty and security
163. After 18 years if the Ozone Disco blaze, 9 persons were sentenced for violating of
his act or the Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Act because they failed to detect structural
deficiencies and electrical as well as fire safety issues that caused the blaze.
a. R.A. 1013 c. R.A. 2015
b. R.A. 3019 d. R.A. 2143
164. The UN recognizes “right to have a family” but a social program modifies this,
departing from the traditional religious belief to “go and multiply”.
a. Law against female circumcision
b. Same gender marriage
c. Gay rights
d. Planned parenthood
165. According to the Department of Foreign Affairs, what is needed by the Philippines
against the reclamation activities of China in the Philippine seas which threaten our
freedom of navigation, cause irreparable damage to te marine environment and infringe
on the rights of other states?
a. Police power c. Emergency power
b. Judicial power d. Military power
166. What makes an autocratic government different from a genuinely benevolent
authoritarian government?
a. It controls media c. It decides automatically
b. It uses technology d. It is a ‘one-man rule’
167. A law that set a full free trade policy abolishing the quota limitations on Philippine
exports to the United States.
a. Payne-Aldrich Act c. Bell Trade Act
b. Hare-Hawes Cutting Act d. Underwood-Simmons Act
168. What civilization took pride in the famous penthouse Hanging Gardens which was
identified as one of he “wonders of the world”?
a. Sumeria c. Assyria
b. Babylonia d. Persia
169. The religgious institution which is the only living remnant of the Philippine Revolution
of 1896 today.
a. United Church of Christ in the Philippines
b. Roman Catholic Church
c. Unitarian Church of the Philippines
d. Philippine Independent Church
170. A law passed by the U.S. Congress in 1946 granting $800M financial aid to Filipinos
for property losses and $620M government rehabilitation after WWII.
a. Bell Rehabilitation Act c. Tydings Rehabilitation Act

b. Cooper Rehabilitation Act d. McArthur Rehabilitation Act
171. Which best descirbes the division of the legislature into the Senate and the House of
a. Co-legislative powers c. Bipartisanship
b. Unicameralism d. Bicameralism
172. The second editor of La Solidaridad with the penname Dolores Manapat.
a. Mariano Ponce c. Graciano Lopez-Jaena
b. Marcelo H, Del Pilar d. Jose Rizal
173. He was appointed Field Marshall of the Philppine Army responsible for the defense
of the country prior to the Japanese invasion.
a. Gen, Carlos P. Romulo c. Gen. Dwight Eisenhower
b. Gen. William H. Taft d. Gen. Douglas McArthur
174. A bill becomes a law even if it is not signed by the President after _______ days.
a. 90 days c. 45 days
b. 60 days d. 30 days

175. The number of ships that arrived in the Philippines from Mexico during the Galleon
a. One c. Three
b. Two d. Five
176. Non-debatable evidence left by Rizal proving his faith in God despite his being
estranged from his religion.
a. El Filibusterismo
b. Mi Ultimo Adios
c. Noli Me Tangere
d. Refraction paper from estrange beliefs
177. The approximate percentage of global electricity output from renewable resources.
a. 1 percent c. 20 percent
b. 8 percent d. 23 percent
178. A natural disaster which cannot be caused by shifts in the tectonic plates.
a. earthquakes c. avalanche
b. hurricane d. volcanic activity
179. It was new about the discovery of the Katipunan that spread to Manila and nearby
suburbs, and Andres Bonifacio immediately called for a general meeting. Various wings
of the Katipunan gathered at th house of Juan Ramos on August 23, 1896. This
signaled the Philippine Rebellion against Spain which was called _________.
a. La Liga Filipina c. Pact of Biak na Bato
b. Battle of San Juan Del Monte d. Cry of Pugadlawin
180. To help global climate change, and live a more eco-friendly life which is the best
practice which uses less water in washing plates?
a. using a dishwater c. recycling water
b. using a pail d. washing by hand
181. Whose assassination provided the excuse for Austria-Hungary to ask Germany’s
support on declaring war against Serbia during World War I?
a. Nicole Lenin c. Gavrilo Princep
b. Francis Ferdinand of Austria d. Leo Tolstoy
182. A ruler who follows the axiom “The will of the king is the law of the land”.
a. despot c. socialist
b. socialist d. reformist

183. They are rich landowners during the Spain era.
a. Encomienderos c. Hacienderos
b. Cabezas de barangay d. Gobernadorcillos
184. Under the American regime, they were the first professional American teachers sent
to the country.
a. the priests c. the La Sollitas
b. the thomasites d. the illustrados
185. The sole legislative body of the country during the American period starting 1916.
a. Philippine Assembly c. Philippine Legislature
b. Philippine Commission d. Congress
186. An economic institution established during the Spanish period where early Filipinos
are forced to work without pay.
a. polo c. encomienda
b. falla d. bandala
187. This event reflected the decision of the Katipunan to stage a revolution against Spain
a. The Cry of Pugad Lawin
b. Bonifacio's leadership in the KKK
c. San Juan Bridege incident
d. Tejeros Convention
188. What place in the Philippines is also known as the "walled city"?
a. Fort Santiago c. Plaza Miranda
b. Intramuros d. Luneta
189. Who first introduced the Islamic religion in the Philippines?
a. Idi Amin c. Makhdum
b. Abu Bakr d. Rajah Baginda
190. Cuneiform writing is for the Sumerians as __________ is for the Egyptians.
a. pictogram c. ziggurat
b. hieroglyphics d. papyrus

191. In which place in the Philippines is the DOLE pineapple plantation found?
a. cotabato c. Cagayan de oro
b. zamboanga d. bukidnon
192. Agno river delta, Cagayan river delta, Pampanga river delta are good sources of;
a. nipa palm products c. virgin coconut oil
b. ornamental flowers d. mahogany lumber
193. The author of “flora de Filipinas” circa 1837, the botanical illustrations of plant
specimen that grew into the Philippines herbarium.
a. Gov. polavieja c. Fr. Manuel blanco
b. Padre Emmanuel Gonzales d. Gov. Narciso Claveria
194. The municipal mayor is for today _________was during the Spanish period.
a. alcalde mayor c. cabeza de barangay
b. gobernadorcillo d. gobernador general
195. After the WWII, which emerged as new powers?
a. People’s Republic of China and United States of America
b. South Korea and Soviet Union
c. Germany and Soviet Union
d. United States of America and Soviet Union
196. This can be identified with public purpose, public interest, and public convenience.

a. property c. eminent domain
b. public use d. just compensation
197. He coined the term “survival of the fittest”
a. august comte c. Herbert spencer
b. karl marx d. Arnold toynbee
198. No country will experience economic progress unless it is part of a world
organization. What international organization this saying is true?
b. WHO d. GATT
199. It refers to rightness or wrongness of our decisions:
a. Morality c. Philosophy
b. theology d. values
200. What is the biggest reason why the Philippines’ political system is so flawed from the
time of the datus to the Spanish encomienda system that has always been a system of
patronage, with political power vested in the hands of the a few families?
a. tribe c. indigenous group
b. sibling rivalry d. dynasty
201. It is one of the causes of poverty in the Philippines which is rooted in the human
a. power politics c. greed
b. corruption d. lack of education
202. The actual democratic transformation of the country commenced within movement
resulted in Ferdinand Marcos exile in 1986 and Corazon Aquino’s assuming the
a. People power c. Prayer Power
b. Military power d. Government’s power
203. It was the transition to the new manufacturing processes in the period from about
1760 to sometime 1820 and 1840.
a. human revolution c. green revolution
b. machineries revolution d. industrial revolution
204. A law that sets the minimum age of candidates for mayors and councilors.
a. Election Code c. Local Government Code
b. Civil Service Law d. Labor Code
205. It is the method of providing buyers with information about specific goods, service
and opportunities with the goal of increasing sales.
a. Journals c. Propaganda
b. Advertising d. Bulletins
206. Among the Greeks state, Athens was the most progressive and famous for its
statesmen of which One was considered the most famous because he drew up a
constitution all citizens a voice in the government.
a. Solon c. Xerxes
b. Cicero d. Zoroaster

207. It was the goal of the Propaganda Movement for the Philippine colony as a province
of Spain.
a. independence c. reformation
b. assimilation d. autonomy
208. Filipinization is a gradual or general replacement of Americans by Filipinos in
government service. It was during his term that this was implemented in the Philippines.

a. Henry Ide c. Leonard Wood
b. Francis Burton Harrison d. Frank Murphy
209. In Western Europe, unemployment is described as a luxury because of these
benefits given to those who are unemployed for six months.
a. paid travel c. bonus
b. unemployment benefits d. holiday pay
210. What program promised more food for every household through planting of
vegetable in home gardens and pots?
a. Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaularan
b. Angat Filipino Movement
c. Go Negosyo
d. Green Revolution
211. By mid 1980’s, crop yields in India fell from 4% - 6% a year to only 2% or less by the
late 1980 (FAO report), what increased its demand?
a. food c. population
b. services d. infrastructure
212. It refers to the ratio of tax collection to gross domestic product (GDP) or the total
value of goods and services produced and paid for within an economy in a given period
measures the government’s ability to shore up tax collection commensurate with the
growth of the economy
a. Tax effort c. Tax measure
b. Tax collection d. Tax remittance
213. How can Filipinos overcome weak points in our culture, e.g. credit card over-
a. Use scientific reasoning
b. Cultivate positive traits
c. Copy economic models of other nations
d. Observe business ethics
214. This is to equip people in low-income provinces with relevant technical skills and
practical know-how on starting small business as the Philippine Amusement and
Gaming Corp. (PAGCOR) and the Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA) launched this project.
a. Distance Learning Program
b. Alternative Learning System
c. Outreach Programs
d. Mobile Training Laboratories
215. What correlates best with the right to human dignity?
a. Celebrity status c. position and prestige
b. Family name d. honor and reputation
216. Flexible and individual support for children with special needs is part of
a. Exhaustive c. Inclusive
b. Exclusive d. Conclusive
217. Knowing the purpose of research topic, the next step in social research is
_______________which clarifies concepts. e.g. reproductive health, contraceptives,
natural birth control, etc.
a. data processing c. operationalization
b. conceptualization d. population sampling
218. This aims for outcomes that require student application and creation

a. reflective method c. project method
b. field study method d. rote memory method
219. They provide the information sources in the internet.
a. MIDI service c. scanner
b. World wide web d. hypermedia
220. Teacher Mil wants to show the difference between a unicameral and a bicameral
system of legislation and merits/demerits in both. What visual way of charting is useful?
a. Pareto chart
b. Comparison and contrast chart
c. Gannt chart
d. Time chart
221. Among forms of authentic assessment, which uses the collection of student’s
reflections on learning?
a. Rubrics c. Essay test
b. Journal d. Portfolio
222. Which is a direct measure of competence?
a. Personality test c. Performance test
b. Paper-pencil test d. Standardized test
223. It lays the strong foundation of any curriculum. A curriculum planner or specialist,
implementer or the teacher, school heads, evaluator anchors his/her decision making
process on this philosophy.
a. Existential philosophy c. Educational philosophy
b. Scientific philosophy d. Essential philosophy
224. Its history and origin began in the early 19th century with the positivist philosophy of
a. Philosophy c. Anthropology
b. Sociology d. Social Science
225. A teacher shows she knows young learners well by avoiding this.
a. complex directions c. step-by-step directions
b. hands-on experience d. active learning
226. Dataless numerical an better adapted for qualitative analysis.
a. divorces c. love feeling
b. single mothers d. annulments
227. Numbers are assigned to quantify variables, assigning degrees or values.
a. index measurement c. scale measure
b. distance measure d. relative intensity measure
228. What type material is used to transfer information from one person to another?
a. Formal c. Informal
b. Instructional d. Constructional
229. It provides educator, teachers and curriculum makers with framework planning,
implementing, and evaluating curriculum in school.
a. Anthropology c. Archeology
b. Philosophy d. History
230. Social studies which answer the questions what, where, when and how are
a. explanation c. correlation
b. description d. exploration

3rd Floor Room 310/310-A Abalos Bldg.
Gen. Aguinaldo St., Iligan City


Set D

1. In connection with government transactions involving public interest, which policy is

adopted in the constitution to assure the public of accountability and transparency?
a. rural development and agrarian reform
b. public enterprise and incentives to needed investments
c. balanced and healthful ecology
d. full public disclosure
2. The important factors which have contributed to the weakness in the internalization
desirable social values are the:
a. lack of models among the very people expected to exemplify these values.
b. use of approaches which are mainly cognitive rather than effective
c. lack of follow up systems from one grade level to another
3. The term that refers to the class of Filipinos who were free and independent:
a. timawa c. aliping namamahay
b. maharlika d. aliping saguiguilid
4. The gallant champion of Filipino rights during the Spanish regime was:
a. Father Diego de Herrera c. Saint Francis Xavier
b. Father Martin de Rada d. Bishop Domingo Salazar
5. Who said that Rizal is the greatest son of the malay race?
a. Antonio Ma. Regidor c. Don Pedro Paterno
b. Ferdinand Blumentritt
6. At the bottom of the judicial system during the Spanish time were the:
a. regional trial court c. justice of the peace court
b. municipal trial court d. barangay court
7. It is an act of forgetfulness putting to oblivion the offense of which one is charged.
a. pardon c. commutation
b. amnesty d. reprieve
8. The earliest people showed their scientific ability when they:
a. discovered the use of iron c. discovered the use of copper
b. began to use bronze d. started using polished stone tools
9. The Persian empire was considered the most efficient government of all times because:
a. the government had a well organized spy system
b. the system of government was well organized
c. all their rulers are strong minded
d. the government had organized its provincial system
10. The social change that led to the development of towns and cities in Europe was;
a. the slaves were able to buy their freedom
b. the traders and business become rich
c. the use of money as payment for service rendered
d. the downfall of the monarchy
11. The worst effect of capitalism due to the Industrial Revolution was:

a. low salaries of the worker
b. the decreases in the employed workers
c. the high priced of commodities
d. the capitalist were getting richer and the workers poorer
12. The fundamental focus of ritual activities in a native culture is the:
a. belief that the human body is ugly and must be healed
b. belief that the place or shrine for ritual gives a special protection for the family
c. belief that it can drive away bad spirits
d. belief that the more tools and charms the family possessed , more family will be
13. The law which has its applications where the military arm does not supersede civil
authority but is called upon to aid in the execution of its vital functions.
a. martial law c. civil law
b. education act d. national defense act
14. The cornerstone of all systems of effective administration of justice:
a. rules of procedure c. tenure of office
b. judicial practice d. executive clemency
15. The occurrence of the phenomenon like volcanic eruption can be studied by using
________ that shows when the eruption happened, and order in which they happened.
a. table c. chart
b. diagram d. timeline
16. An increase in the price of gasoline affects the demand for cars:
a. income elasticity of demand c. cross elasticity of demand
b. price elasticity of demand d. none of the above
17. The first printed book, Christian doctrine had two translations. These are:
a. Nipongo and Filipino c. Chinese and Filipino
b. Sanskrit and Filipino d. Chinese and Sanskrit
18. The university that was known as Escuela Pia during the Spanish regime was the:
a. Dela Salle University c. Ateneo de Manila University
b. University of Sto. Tomas d. San Juan de Letran
19. The treaty that divided the world into two parts running form the north pole to the south
pole a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde islands;
a. treaty of Paris c. Treaty of Versailles
b. Treaty of Demarcation d. Treaty of Tordesillas
20. The place where the first battle of Manila Bay was fought:
a. Pasig b. Tondo c.Bambang d.Bangkusay
21. When Rizal was in Rome, his favorite places were:
a. St. Peter Basilica and the Sistine Madonna Chapel
b. The Appian way and the Arch of Constantine
c. The Amphitheater and the Forum
d. Different temple of Veste
22. The Batangueno priest who baptized Rizal and predicted that he will become a great
man someday is:
a. Father Rufino Collantes c. Father Jose Escudero
b. Father Jose Mateo d. Father Romualdo de Jesus
23. Who was the first woman in Panay to fight in the Philippine Revolution?
a. Agueda Esteban c. Teodora Alonzo
b. TrinidadTecson d. Teresa Magbanua
24. Which was well accepted by the Filipinos under the Spanish rule?

a. representation in the cortes
b. employment of reduccion
c. payment of buwis
d. the practice of polo
25. In Philippine history, who resisted the conversion to the catholic faith?
a. the tribal groups in the highlands
b. the Muslim separatists in the south
c. the indigenous communities in northern Luzon
d. ther tribal groups in the highlands and the Muslim separatists
26. The difference between a monopolistic competition and pure competition is:
a. the number of sellers c. the product homogeneity
b. the number of buyers d. none of the above
27. Greetings behavior in a variety of social contexts could be observed through:
a. the way greeting behavior serves as an indicator of social standing
b. inferring and abstracting a set of cultural traits relating to greeting
c. through the manner of shaking hands, how touching and vigorous the handshake
d. two person merely shaking hands.
28. The choice of the nation’s economic system is important because it determines:
a. the quantities of each good that will be produced
b. the distribution of goods and services
c. the manner in which goods will be produced
d. all of the above
29. The law of supply and demand is important in the Philippine economy because it is:
a. a mix of economies c.a dominant market oriented economy
b. a command economy d. a traditional economy
30. An aspect of Philippine culture that does much to promote interpersonal communication
beyond the community boundary is:
a. fiesta celebration c. election
b. tagalog movies d. zarsuela
31. An ownership in business vested in a separate legal entity:
a. cooperative association c. partnership
b. corporatioin d. sole proprietorship
32. The government tends to borrow foreign loans due to:
a. the necessity to pay the interest of previous foreign debts
b. its deliberate use of the budget to stimulate the economy
c. its reluctance to raise taxes
d. none of the above
33. Filipinos should be wary about the government foreign loans because of the:
a. bigger interest payments that the government has to shoulder.
b. imposition of new and higher taxes in the next fiscal year.
c. burden of the loan payments that will fall on the next generation.
d. all of the above
34. Manufacturing is superior to agriculture in terms of trade because:
a. it could be easily transported for trade to other countries
b. it is not subjected to adverse weather conditions.
c. it brings higher income
d. all of the above

35. Was the forced labor for 40 days of men ranging from 16 to 60 years of age who were
obligated to give personal services to community projectsduring the Spanish period
a. bandala b. polo y servicios c. tribute d. cedula
36. What are the two known written codes during the pre-Spanish era in the Philippines?
a. Maragtas and Kalantiaw Codes
b. Panay and Subanon Codes
c. Sumakwil and Sulayman Codes
d. Hammurabi & Ur Nammu Codes
37. Rajah Lakandula and Rajah Sulayman revolted against Governor Guido de Lavezaris,
because of the abuses by the Spaniards. What is the revolt called?
a. Pampanga Revolt b. Manila Revolt
b. Tamblot Revolt d. Itneg Revolt
38. There were two rival factions inside the group he formed. What was the faction that
Andres Bonifacio supported?
a. Magdiwang c. Magtagumpay
b. Magdalo d. Maglaban
39. The first political party in the Philippines organized on December 23, 1900 by wealthy
Filipino Illustrados?
a. Federal Party c. Nacionalista Party
b. Liberal Pary d. Partido Nacional Progresibo
40. Who was the first president of the Katipunan?
a. Deodato Arellano c. Andrés Bonifacio
b. Ramon Basa d. Teodoro Plata
41. Who founded the guerilla force Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon (Hukbalahap)
a. Jose Abad Santos c. Casto Alejandrino
b. Luis Taruc d. Pedro Abad Santos
42. Who was considered as the “Joan of Arc of the Philippines”?
a. Maria Rosa Luna Henson c. Geronima Pecson
b.Teresa Magbanua d. General Agueda Kahabagan
43. This was the meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of
the Katipunan at Cavite on March 22, 1897.
a. Tejeros Convention c. 1934 Constitutional Convention
b. Malolos Convention d. 1971 Constitutional Convention

44. This law promised Philippine independence after 10 years, but reserved several military
and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on
Philippine exports. It was also the first US law passed for the decolonization of
the Philippines.
a. Tydings- McDuffie Act c. Hare- Hawes- cutting Act
b. Jones Law d. Treaty of Paris
45. What was the alleged root cause of the discovery of the Katipunan?
a. Discovery of Katipunan paraphernalia at the Diario de Manila
b. Discovery of the list of Katipunan members
c. Patino's disclosure of the secrets of the society.
d. A quarrel between Patino and De La Cruz
46. Tourism creates positive and negative impacts on the landscape of a country. One
initiative to ensure sustainability and protection of pristine tourist spots is through:
a. medical tourism c. cultural tourism

b. space tourism d. ecotourism
47. What was a United States federal law which provided for self-government of
the Philippines and for Filipino independence (from the United States) after a period of
ten years?
a. Tydings- McDuffie Act c. Hare- Hawes- cutting Act
b. Jones Law d. Treaty of Paris
48. Who was the first president of the Republic of the Philippines when independence from
America was granted on July 4, 1946?
a. Pres. Corazon Aquino c. Pres. Ferdinand Marcos
b. Pres. Elpidio Quirino d. Pres. Manuel Roxas
49. He had promised sweeping economic changes, and he did progress in the land reform,
opening new settlements outside crowded Luzon island. His death in an airplane crash
in March 1957 was a serious blow to national morale.
a. Pres. Ramon Magsaysay c. Pres. Ferdinand Marcos
b. Pres. Elpidio Quirino d. Pres/ Manuel Roxas
50. The following are state policies EXCEPT
a. Strengthening the family as a basic autonomous social
b. Giving priority to the teaching of the English language
c. Freedom from nuclear weapons in Philippine territory
d. Giving priority to education, science, arts, culture and sports
51. Narco-politics is used when:
a. A politician is drug user
b. Plunderous politician
c .Politicians are funded and elected by use of drug money
d. Corrupt government officials
52. “Maka-Diyos, Maka-Bayan, Maka-Tao, at Maka-Kalikasan” are the four pillars of:
a. Public service as a trust
b. The Principle of Subsidiarity
c. The Politics of Service
d. Moral Recovery Program
53. Environmental law providing for an ecological solid waste management program
creating necessary mechanism, incentives, prohibitions and penalties.
a. Republic Act of 8749 or the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999
b. Republic Act of 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste
management Act of 2000
c. The Biofuels Act of 2006
d. the Anti- Pollution Act of 2005
54. Which of the following is a disadvantage of organizing a business partnership?
a. If one partner dies the remaining partner is responsible for
continuing the business.
b. Taxes are higher than on proprietorships.
c. Each partner is responsible for business actions taken by the
other partner.
d. It is easier to raise investment capital when the business is a
55. Which problem is created when Filipinas are Legally and illegally sent to other countries
as mail order brides and end up in prostitution houses?
a. Piracy b. Terrorism c. human trafficking d. White slavery

56. Which of the following was not a reform sought from the Spanish government by the
a. basic human rights for the Filipinos
b. change of government from absolute to limited monarch
c. equality of the Filipinos and Spaniards before the law
d. restoration of Filipino representation in the Cortes
57. Which of the following is not true of the La Solidaridad?
a. It was a forum for discussion of the issues concerning the Philippines.
b. It was the official organ of the reform movement.
c. It featured articles about the good deeds of the friars.
d. It was a vehicle for the expression of the political views of the
58. All of the following are reasons behind the failure of the reform movement, except one.
Which is the exception?
a. petty quarrels among reformists
b. Spain's preoccupation with her own internal problems
c. lack of finances to support propaganda activities
d. failure of the friars to counter attacks on the clergy
59. The central leadership of the KKK was the _____
a. Sangguniang Hukuman
b. Sangguniang Bayan
c. Sangguniang Barangay
d. Kataastaasang Sanggunian
60. The first real battle fought by the Filipinos against the Spaniards was the Battle of
a. Majayjay c. PugadLawin
b. Montalban d. Pinaglabanan- san juan del monte
61. The president of the Council of War which tried Bonifacio for the charge of sedition was
a. Mariano Noriel c. Emilio Aguinaldo
b. Lazaro Makapagal d. Ambrocio Siares
62. The last Filipino general to surrender to the Americans was
a. Macario Sakay c. Simeon Ola
b. Miguel Malvar d. Arnolfo Macaraeg
63. The capture of Aguinaldo was successfully undertaken by
a. Arthur MacArthur c. Elwell Otis
b. Frederick Funston d. Charles Bates
64. The Bates Treaty _______ Muslim resistance against the Americans during the Filipino-
American War
a. heightened c. neutralized
b. sustained d. killed
65. The first president of the Katipunan.
a. Deodato Arellano c. Teodoro Agoncillo
b. Juan Arellano d. Andres Bonifacio
66. Young Filipinos who were sent to US as scholars of the government to pursue higher
education were called
a. aficionados c. comisionados
b. pensionados d. scholados
67. Jones Law of 1916 became popularly known in the Philippines as

a. Philippine Independence Law
b. Organic Act for the Philippines
c. Philippine Autonomy Act
d. Phil-American Trade Act
68. Bonifacio's Katipunan was revived by
a. Luciano San Miguel c. Faustino Guillermo
b. Julian Montalan d. Juan Nakpil
69. The Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriation Act became the basis for the
establishment of
a. autonomous government
b. civil government in the Philippines
c. military rule
d. dictatorial government
70. Which of the following government agencies exercises original and exclusive
jurisdictionover all contests relating to the election returns and the qualifications of the
President and theVice President
a. Supreme Court
b. Senate Electoral Tribunal
c. Judicial Bar Council
d. Commission on Elections
71. Who among the following is responsible for determining the existence of probable cause
for the issuance of a warrant of arrest or search warrant?
a. Lawyer c. Police Investigator
b. Prosecutor. d. Judge
72. Which of the following statements BEST describes the relationship between global
warming and ozone depletion?
a. Global warming contributes to ozone depletion.
b. Global warming and ozone depletion have nothing to do with each other
c. Excessive build-up of carbon dioxide causes both global warming and ozone depletion
d. Ozone depletion contributes to global warming
73. THE Department of Budget and Management have phased out SAROs and agency
budget matrices (ABMs) in authorizing fund releases to government departments and
agencies. What does the word SARO mean?
a. Special Agency release orders
b. Special Annual refund orders
c. Special allotment release orders
d. Services annual release orders
74. The Supreme Court of the Philippines abolished the PDAF otherwise known as the 'pork
barrel'. What does PDAF mean?
a. Program Development Allotment Fund
b. Program Development Annual Fund
c. Priority Distance Allotment Fund
d. Priority Development Assistance Fund
75. An official document, a service standard, or a pledge, that communicates, in simple
terms, information on the services provided by the government to its citizens. It
describes the step-by-step procedure for availing a particular service, and the
guaranteed performance level that they may expect for that service.
a. Government Manual c. Citizen’s charter
b. Agency code d. Office charter

76. Refers to the delegation of specific non-core operations of an agency to an external
entity that specializes in that operations.
a. Subcontracting c. Delegation
b. Outsourcing d. Multi – tasking
77. A broader regional free trade zone being established composed of ASEAN engaging
Japan, China, and South Korea in expanding economic relations.
a. ASEAN Free Trade Zone c. “ASEAN Plus Three”
b. APEC Group d. ASEAN Partners
78. South Korea’s former Foreign Minister who is now the Secretary – General of the United
Nations replacing Kofi Annan.
a. Roh Moo-hyun b. Wen Jiabao c. Ban Ki-moon d.Shinzo Abe
79. Republic Act # 7077 amended the National Defense Act of 1991, thus,
a. Allowing the cadets to do civic welfare, etc as an alternative to military training
b. Allowing ROTC to continue as military training for the youth
c. Abolishing the ROTC
d. Allowing the shift of ROTC to EDP Education
80. What law is proposed in the Congress implementing the right of the people to
information on matters of public concern guaranteed under section seven, article three
of the 1987 constitution and the state policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions
involving public interest under section twenty-eight, article two of the 1987 constitution.
a. Freedom of Disclosure of Information Act
b. Freedom on Matters of Public Concern Act
c. Freedom of Information Act
d. Freedom of News Broadcasting Act
81. The Statement of Assets, Liabilities and Networth or SALN must be filed in any of the ff.
periods EXCEPT:
a. within thirty (30) days after assumption of office
b. on or before April 30, of every year thereafter
c. within thirty (30) days after separation from the service
d. on or before June 30, of every year thereafter

82. President Benigno Aquino III has appointed Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno as the next
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Chief Justice Sereno was among the list of
appointees chosen by JBC. The JBC’s primary task is to recommend appointees to the
Judiciary and the Office of the Ombudsman for the President’s perusal. The body aims
to enhance the quality of the search, screening, and selection process, as well as
insulate the process from undue influence of any kind. What does JBC stands for?
a. Justice Bar Committee
b. Justice Business Coordinator
c. Judicial Bar Committee
d. Judicial and Bar Council
83. It is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Transportation and
Communications responsible for implementing policies on civil aviation to assure safe,
economic and efficient air travel.
a. Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
b. Air Traffic Office of the Philippines

c. Air Transportation Office
d. Civil Aeronautics Administration
84. An official known as Tanodbayan who shall act promptly on complaints filed in any form
or manner against public officials or employees of the Government.
a. justices c. ombudsman
b. secretary of justice d. prosecutor
85. An Act Defining and Penalizing the Crime of Plunder
a. R.A. 7080 c. R.A. 5705
b. R.A. 7986 d. R.A. 4785
86. The present anti-graft court of the country is___.
a. regional trial court c. supreme court
b. court of tax appeals d. sandiganbayan
87. If the ARMM is the created autonomous region in Mindanao, what is the autonomous
region created in Luzon.?
b. Ifugao Autonomous Region
c. Autonomous Region for Indigenous Luzon
d. Cordillera Administrative Region
88. Filipino students are taught to emulate the young Jose Rizal who was everything listed
below, EXCEPT:
a. Reflective c. Motivated
b. Very observant d. Loner
89. Rizal’s greatest resentment during his student days that motivated him to work harder
was ________.
a. Prevailing discrimination
b. Passivity of Filipino students
c. Use of Spanish as a medium of instruction
d. Unequal treatment of students by the Jesuits
90. Which work of Rizal was said to be angry man’s personal debate on whether or not a
violent revolution would solve the Philippine crisis during the Spanish times?
a. El Felibusterismo c. Junto Al Pasig
b. Noli Me Tangere d. A La Juventud Filipina
91. He is the father of History
a. Herodotus c. Sophocles
b. Hippocrates d. Julius Caesar
92. He was the greatest poet of the middle ages and known for his masterpiece, “Divine
Comedy” which is an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory and paradise.
a. Dante Alighieri c. Homer
b. Virgil d. Plato
93. It is the oldest literary work in the vernacular language which was first written in Anglo-
a. Beowulf c. Aeneid
b. Iliad d. Nibelungenlied
94. The Portuguese discoverer of the Cape of Good Hope which was used as a route by
succeeding explorers to reach India and the rest of Asia.
a. Vasco da Gama c. Bartholomeu Dias
b. Prince Henry d. Christopher Columbus
95. This event took place on April 10, 1942 when the Filipino and American prisoners of war
were made to march form Maraviles, Bataan to Capaz, Tarlac.

a. Fall of Bataan c. Death March
b. Fall of Corregidor d. Prisoners’ March
96. It is the book for dictatorship which maintains that “the end justifies the means” and
written by?
a. Machiavelli c. Marx
b. Montes de Queue d. Lenin
97. King Tupaz’s brother offered himself as a captive of the King of Spain in place of his
daughter who was made captive. What does this show of Cebuano pre-hispanic
a. cebuano’s piety and religiosity
b. cebuano’s longing for independence
c. strong personal and family ties
d. cebuano’s friendliness
98. With which are the words “cha cha” and “con ass” associated?
a. imposition of martial laws
b. return to dictatorial form of govt.
c. amendment of the present Constitution
d. division between Senate and House of Representatives
99. The Law of Karma, what you sow you reap, are words often said when Filipinos attempt
to explain a misfortune perceived to be rightly deserved by someone. This originated
from the
a) Hebrews c) Greeks
b) Hindus d) Chinese
100. Where was Dr. Jose Rizal buried after his execution at Bagumbayan?
a) libingan ng mga bayani c) paco cemetery
b) south cemetery d) north cemetery
101. In which order did the previous Phil. Republics come?
I) the Phil. Republic under the Malolos Constitution
II) the Phil. Republic under Japanese-sponsored Constitution
III) the Phil. Republic under 1935 Constitution
a) I, II, III c) I, III, II
b) II, III, I d) III, II, I
102. The way Arabian dignitaries greet a friend
a) hand grip c) palm to palm
b) embrace d) hand shake
103. “I die just when the dawn breaks t herald the day” is a quotation from Jose Rizal. He
predicted the time of his death which was
a) sometime at sunset c) sometime in mid-night
b) sometime at dawn d) sometime at noon
104. During their discussion of the Noli Me Tangere, the students debated on the identify
of the Filipino. During much of the Spanish occupation, how were the natives of the
Philippines called?
a. Peninsulares c. Principalia
b. Insulares d. Indios
105. Which province in the western coast of Luzon is virtually surrounded by sea waters
and has become the center for big businesses and development processing zones?
a. Pampanga c. Mindoro
b. Zambales d. Bataan

106. Which region is said to offer limited economic opportunities because I is a narrow
strip of land surrounded by mountain ranges and sea?
a. National Capital Region c. Ilocos Region
b. Cagayan Valley d. Bicol Region
107. While comparing and contrasting the upper and lower house, the student that the
a. Is a unicameral
b. Make laws but does not alter or repeal them
c. Has powers which are non-legislative in character.
d. Can enact any law even those contrary to the constitution
108. With sector involves all types of livelihood not registered with the government?
a. International sector c. Private sector
b. Community sector d. Informal sector
109. Which could not possibly be an important concept in the knowledge domain of Peace
a. Peace and non-violence c. Globalization
b. Responsible leadership d. Conflict and war
110. How can a teacher make her homeroom more gender sensitive?
a. Plan the seating arrangement in a girl-boy-girl pattern.
b. Make all students, whether boys and girls, participate in all activities.
c. Structure the room that would cater to the specific needs of boys and girls
d. All of the above.
111. What could not be an example of derogatory and discriminatory portrayal of women
in media?
a. Female characters are given stereotypical roles like the “dumb blonde”.
b. Female characters are given the lead roles with male characters.
c. Female characters are physically and verbally abused.
d. Female characters are portrayed as sex object.
112. For world peace, the UN approved a non-proliferation treaty. What was the
immediate purpose of this treaty?
a. To reject the membership of China as a member of the UN.
b. To stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
c. To limit the use and sale of guns.
d. To stop the manufacture of guns
113. Which statement regarding the nature of the Filipino is correct? The Filipino is:
a. The blending of East and West c. Basically Spaniards
b. Totally westernized d. A pure Filipino
114. Teacher-Coach Abul credits his basketball team’s success to their “never say die”
attitude. He is showing the Filipinos indomitable spirit in their:
a. Ability to survive c. Friendliness
b. Utang na loob d. Self-reliance
115. Why every government employee required submitting an annual statement if assets
and liabilities?
a. To be objective in performance evaluation
b. To determine who deserves the promotion
c. To determine who is fit for the job
d. To safeguard the people against corruption

116. Sir Kho formed an organization that will serve as watchdog in the affairs of the city
hall where they have heard of a lot of corrupt hiring practices. Which is an indicator of
the patronage system in the Philippine society that contributes to poverty?
a. The pilosopo type of worker does not get promoted to his job.
b. Parents have many kumpares in the baptism of their child.
c. Most people patronize imported goods
d. A less deserving applicant gets appointed because he has a padrino.
117. Following a sociological insight, if a person is surrounded by lazy and dishonest
people, will he also be like them?
a. It depends on his personality type.
b. No, he can choose to be different since man has free will.
c. Yes, because environment influence the development of man.
d. That depends on the strength of the influence of the group of lazy and dishonest
around him
118. It can be defined as the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to
promote civic competence called:
a. Social Science c. Civics
b. Political Science d. Political Science
119. In class, we often conduct competitions. What is considered a good reason for
engaging in competitions?
a. Achievement is stimulated c. Stress is heightened
b. Inequalities are high lightened d. Cooperation is reduced
120. What do you call this feature which involves the combining and synthesizing of the
disciplines in the social sciences so that they are better suited to solve problems?
a. Interdisciplinary c. Multiculturalism
b. Multidisciplinary d. Interculturalism
121. When a school’s mission says that it offers a holistic approach to education, which
goal in peace education are they helping to achieve?
a. Respect for human rights
b. Promotion of understanding and tolerance
c. Full development of human personality
d. Friendship among different cultural groups

122. As teachers, we need to correct the attitude of some arrogant student who keep
seeing their own way of doing things as the right way and everybody else’s as wrong.
What do you call the kind of attitude?
a. Cultural pluralism c. Cultural Relativism
b. Multiculturalism d. Ethnocentrism

123. Which started in England, was marked with the growth of factories and mass
a. Reformation c. Reformation
b. Industrial revolution d. English revolution
124. If they were to come back to life, who among the following would be the most vocal
to speak against the country’s foreign policy of close association with the United States?
a. Jose P. Laurel and Elpidio Quirino
b. Claro M. Recto and Jose P. Laurel

c. Claro M. Recto and Leon Ma. Guerrero III
d. Leon Ma. Guerrero and Jose P. Laurel
125. Which of the following is NOT a qualification of a natural born Filipino citizen?
a. One whose father is a foreigner who is married to a Filipina.
b. One whose mother us a foreigner who is married to a Filipino.
c. Having resided in the Philippines throughout his life.
d. Being born in the Philippines of Filipino parents.
126. Lopez island is one island within the San Juan Island chain. The islands get less rain
than much of the Puget Sound area because of the rain shadow effect of the Olympic
Mountains. Which theme is described?
a. Region c. Human/Environment Interaction
b. Location d. Place
127. People who live in the Puget Sound area, including Shoreline, get used to wet and
cold winters. Many wear raincoats for much of the year and do outside activities even
when it rains. Which theme is described?
a. Movement c. Region
b. Human/Environment Interaction d. Place
128. The latitude and longitude for state capital of Washington, Olympia, is 46.97 N,
122.90 W. Which theme is described?
a. Region c. Human/Environment Interaction
b. Location d. Place
129. The students who attend Einstein Middle School are in the 7th and 8th grades. The
school has a several open spaces with plants growing in them. Which theme is
a. Human/Environment Interaction c. Movement
b. Location d. Place
130. Lewis and Clark journeyed across the United States from Missouri to outlet of the
Columbia River by boat, horse, and some times on foot. Which theme is described?
a. Movement c. Region
b. Human/Environment Interaction d. Place
131. Puget Sound is located to the west of Shoreline. Which theme is descried?
a. Region c. Human/Environment Interaction
b. Location d. Place
132. Einstein Middle School can be found at the cross streets of NW 195th and 3rd Ave.
NW in Shoreline, Washington. The address for Einstein MS is 19343 3rd Ave. N.W.
Shoreline, WA 98177. Which theme is described?
a. Region c. Movement
b. Location d. Place
133. Much of eastern Washington is relatively hot in the summer, cold in the winter time,
and gets little rain.
a. Human/Environment Interaction c. Region
b. Location d. Place
134. Sometimes people have to go to a new place in order to get a better job. Which
theme does this situation represent?
a. Region c. Movement
b. Human-Environment Interaction d. Place
135. Absolute Location is described using
a. latitude and longitude c. nearby landmarks
b. prime meridian d. aerial view

136. Long ago, there were very few roads and people traveled by horse and buggy. Now
we have interstate roads and almost everyone has a car. Which theme does this
situation describe?
a . Place c. Human-Environment Interaction
b. Region d. movement
137. When we describe a place by saying "it has a beautiful lake and mountains in the
background," we are describing it by its _____________________.
a. cultural characteristics c. social characteristics
b. physical characteristics d. aesthetic characteristics
138. In the midwest, there are very large fields and very large farms. The people who
live there could say they live in a farming ______________.
a. place c. location
b. region d. movement
139. When we tell about a place by describing the kinds of food people eat and the way
they celebrate holidays and family traditions, we are describing
a. cultural c. physical
b. social characteristics d. spiritual characteristics
140. We use trains, planes, and trucks to bring clothes, furniture, cars, and groceries to
the stores we shop in. Which theme does this represent?
a. human-environment interaction c. movement
b. location d. place

Anthropology for Teachers

Concept of Anthropology

A. Definition of Anthropology

Comes from the Greek words; anthropos (man) and logos (study).
Concerns explicitly and directly with all varieties of people throughout the world and it
traces human evolution and cultural development from millions of years ago to present
(Ember, 1993).
It looks into the attributes of a particular human population.

B. Two Major Disciplines of Anthropology

B.1 Physical Anthropology "concerns with human evolution and human

variation (Paleontology or paleoanthropology)

B.2 Cultural Anthropology - deals with the study of culture consists’ of three
areas as follows:
1. Linguistics- focuses on historical and descriptive or structural linguistics.
It looks into the emergence of language and variations of language over time.
2. Archaeology-deals with cultural history
3. Ethnology (cultural anthropology)-studies cultural variation

A. Schools of Thought in Cultural Antropology

- Early Evolutionism (Edward B. Taylor and Lewis Henry Morgan) - states

that most societies were believed to pass through the same series of stages, to arrive
ultimately at a common end
- Historical Particularism - Franz Boas. the proponent, believed that it was
premature to formulate universal law since there is a need to study the context of society
in which they appeared.
- Diffusionism (British, German and Austrian Anthropologists) spread the
idea that most aspects of civilization had emerged in culture centers and later diffused
- Functionalism (Bronislaw Malinowski). It holds that all culture traits serve
the needs of individuals in a society; the function of culture traits is the ability to satisfy
some basic or derived need.
- Structural-functionalist approach (Arthur Reginald Radcliffe-Brown)
assumes that the various aspects of social behavior maintain a society's social
structure- its total network of social relationships - rather than satisfying individual needs.
It works in the following assumption: stability, harmony, equilibrium and evolution.
- Psychological Approaches (Edward Sapir, Ruth Benedict and Margaret
Mead) seek to understand how psychological factors and processes may help us explain
cultural practices.
- Later Evolutionism (Leslie White) states that culture evolves as the
amount of energy harnessed per capita per year is increased or as the efficiency of the
instrumental means of putting the energy to work increased.
- Structuralism- Claude Levi-Strauss sees culture as it is expressed in art,
ritual, and the patterns of daily life, as a surface representation of the underlying patterns
of the human mind.
- Ethno science (ethnography) explains culture from the way people used
to describe their activities.
- Cultural Ecology seeks to understand the relationship between culture
and social environments

- Political economy centers on the impact of external political and
economic processes, particularly as connected to colonialism and imperialism, on local
events and cultures in the underdeveloped countries.
- Sociobiology involves the application of biological evolutionary principles
to the social behavior of animals, including humans.
- Interpretive approaches consider cultures as texts to be analyzed for their
- Feminist Anthropology includes women's issues in the study of culture
and society.
- Conflict Theory-advocates of this theory ask this question: "Who controls
the scarce resources of a given society"? It assumes that society can be explained
based on the following assumptions: economic determinism, dialectism and social

B. Types of Research in Cultural Anthropology

1. Ethnography
2. Non-historical Research
3. Historical Research
4. Cross-Cultural Research

II. Human Evolution

A. Beliefs about human beings
Divine theory
Systema Naturae by Cart Linneaus
Jean Baptiste Lamarck- species could evolve
Erasmus Darwin - inheritance of acquired characteristics Charles Lyeli-Principles of

B. Theory of Natural Selection proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred

- The theory of natural selection proposes that those organisms best
adapted to a particular environment produce the most offspring overtime.

C. Gregor Mendel's experiments

- Mendel's research in genetics and DNA and RNA led us to understand
the mechanisms by which traits may be passed from one generation to the next.

D. Sources of Biological Variation

1. Genetic recombination- random assortment, segregation and crossing-
2. Mutation - change in DNA sequence

E. Factors in Human Variation

1. Genetic Drift
2. Gene Flow
3. Influence of Physical Environment
4. Influence of social and cultural environment

F. Humans are a product of the interaction of biological and cultural

G. Physical Variation among Humans genetic variation body build facial

construction skin color height
lactase deficiency
H. Problems about Human Variation
1. Racism
2. Gender Discrimination

I. Diagram on Human Evolution: Biological and Cultural

5500 (3500
Bronze Age
Cities and States;
Social Inequality; Full- time Craft specialist

Mesolithic Domestication of plants and animals; permanent villages

Broad spectrum food collecting; increasing sedimentary communities; many kinds of

(12,000 B.C.) Pleistocene
Earliest humans in New World


Cave paintings; female figurines; many kinds of blades tools

Modem humans
Homo sapiens
Neanderthal Homo sapiens
Earliest Homo sapiens (?)


Religious beliefs(?) burials; Moustenan tools


Homo Erectus



Earliest hominids

Homo Habilis

Hunting/scavenging; seasonal campsites;

Oldowan tools

Diversification of Apes

Earliest stone tools

5,000,000 Miocene Earliest apes (?) Propliopithe-cus

e.g. Aegyptopithe-cus
22,500,000 Earliest anthropoids
Parapithecids e.g. Apldium
32,000.000 Oligocene Ampipithecus tetonius

Earliest Primates
38,000,000 Eocene
50,000,000 Paleocene
53,500,000 Late
Ember: 1996

- Homo erectus begun to evolve into Homo sapiens after about 500,000
years ago.
- Pro-modem Homo sapiens have been found in Africa, Asia and Europe.

- The oldest fossil remains of a modem looking human have been found in
South Africa.
- Two theories about the origins of modem humans:
1. Single-origin theory- modem humans emerged in just one part of the Old
World (the near east and recently South Africa.
2. Continuous Evolution Theory-modem humans emerged gradually in
various parts of the Old World

J. Broad spectrum collection (Mesolithic Period) was associated with the

development of sedentary life

K. Domestication of Plants and Animals (Neolithic Revolution)

L. Population generally Increased after plant and animal domestication.

M. Growth of Cities and States

- The key criterion for state is the presence of hierarchical and centralized
decision-making affecting a substantial population.
- Most states have duties with public buildings, full time craft and religious
specialists, an official art style and a hierarchical social structure. - Earliest states:
Southern Iraq (Sumer) in the Near East, in Mesopotamia, the valley of
- Oaxaca and later in Teotehuaca

III. The Study of Culture

A. Definition
Culture is personality writ large (Ruth Benedict). It is a sort of group personality that
forms an overall cultural orientation within which there is a considerable variation.
Anything shared by human beings.
Cultural configurations- the Idea that cultures possess internal coherence and
consistency. Culture is not just the sum of individuals who adhere to them, because it
also includes developed and elaborated traits with greater intensity and richness. This is
our cultural heritage.
Cultural Relativism is the attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be
described objectively and understood in the context of that society's problems and
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to regard ones culture as superior

B. The Ability of Human Beings to Produce and Acquire Culture Can be

attributed to the
Following Biological Characteristics:
Large brain
Opposable thumb
Well developed vocal chords
Long period of dependency
Reproduction is not seasonal; human beings can reproduce during fertile period

C. Theories About the Development of Personality

1. Theory of Sigmund Freud- Origin of Society Hypothesis- Oedipal Complex (incest and
exogamy) 2. Malinowski – Matrilineal Family
3. Benedict and Mead emphasized the ways culture develops individual
4. Kardiner - illustrated the presence of various personality types in a
culture. Personalities differ because of the variations in cultural institutions.
5. M. Whiting and L. Child suggest that childrearing practices develop
certain personality types.

D. National character - modal characteristics of a people.

E. Objections to National Character Studies

1. Abnormal personality

F. Two ways by which culture can be internalized:

1. Habituation-human beings learn certain techniques
2. Education - skills are taught; directed Seaming process

G. Language and Culture

1. Communication is a function of language
2. Forms of communication
3. Structural linguistics try to discover the rules of
phonology (the patterning of sounds);
morphology (the patterning of sound sequences and words), and
syntax (the patterning of phrases and sentences) that predicts how most
speakers of language talk.
4. Historical linguists study the origin of languages.
5. Sociolinguistics concerns about the ethnography of speaking- that is, with
cultural and sub cultural patterns of speaking in different social contexts social status
and speech
sex differences in speech

H. Sex and Culture

Sex and Gender Differences
Gender Roles in productive and domestic activities; political leadership and warfare
Status of Men and Women

IV. Economic Systems

A. Subsistence Economy
Food Collection - hunting, fishing and gathering
Agricultural economy
B. Patterns of Subsistence in the Philippines
C. The use of technology
D. Access to natural resources
E. Organization of labor
F. Market or commercial exchange economy

V. Social Stratification
A. Definition
Social Stratification pertains to division in society due to access or right to certain
advantages. The advantages may be in the form of economic resources, power and

B. Type of Societies
1. Egalitarian societies are societies in which many positions of prestige in
any given age-sex grade could be filled by those who are capable.
2. Rank societies are characterized by social groups having unequal access
to prestige or status but not significantly unequal access to economic resources or
3. Class societies are characterized by having unequal access to economic
resources and power. Class society ranges from open class system to close class

VI. Marriage and Family A. Definition of Marriage

Marriage means a socially approved sexual and economic union between a woman and
a man. B. Types of Marriages
By Number Monogamy
Polygamy- polyandry and polygyny and group marriage Whom should one marry?
Endogenous marriage and exogenous marriage
Cousin marriages
Levirate and Sororate
C. Types of Family
By composition; Nuclear, Extended
By Residence: Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Bilocal Neolocal, Avunculocal
By Orientation: Patrilineal, Matrilineal, Bilateral
Unilineal Descent patrilineages, matrilineages, patricians, matridans
Kinship Terminology: consanguineal kin, affinal kin By power: Patriarchal,

D. Economic Consideration in Marriage

Bride price

E. Incest Taboo - is the prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage

between mother and son, father and daughter, and brother and sister, Incest taboo is
universal, however, the Incan and Hawaiian royal families allow incest.

F. Theories on the universality of incest taboo

1. Childhood-Familiarity Theory-Children raised together are not sexually
attracted to each other when they grow up.
2. Freud's Psychoanalytic theory-suggest that the son may be attracted to
the mother but the father might retaliate against the son. Hence such feelings must be
renounce or repressed,

3. Family disruption theory (Malinowski) sexual competition among family
members may create so much tension and rivalry thus may result to disruption of the
functions of the family.
4. Cooperation Theory- incest taboo promotes cooperation among family
5. Inbreeding theory-emphasizes tie damaging consequences of inbreeding

VII. Social Organization

A. Types of Social Organization
1. Simple social organization is one characterized by relatively few and
homogenous social units and less elaborate cultural forms. The family or the household
serves as the basic social unit around which all activities revolved.
2. Complex Social Organization is one characterized by greater internal
heterogeneity of social units and more elaborate cultural forms. Differentiation in the
structure of social relations is clear-cut and it revolves around specialized institutions.

B. Some Examples of Associations

Membership Criteria Recruitment
Voluntary Non-voluntary
Universally Ascribed Age-Sets
Most unisex associations
Variably Ascribed Ethnic Associations Regional Associations Conscripted
Achieved Occupational Associations Political Parties. Special Interest Groups

C. Political Organizations: band, tribe, chiefdom and state

D. Resolution of conflict: community action, informal adjudication without

power, ritual reconciliation -apology, oaths and ordeals, codified laws and courts,
feuding, raiding, large - scale confrontation
E. Filipino Indigenous ethnic communities may be grouped into five general
types (Jocano, 1998):
1. Pisan (campsite) - Agta term for small exogamous local groups
consisting mostly of kinsmen
2. Puro (settlement) - Sulod term for semi-sedentary, amorphous aggregate
of persons who live in a particular and named settlement (Swidden or Kaingin)
3. Ili (village) - Bontoc in origin which corresponds to village type
4. Magani (district) - Agusan Manobo, Sodat organization of dry crop
farmers whose social organization corresponds rank organization
5. Banwa (domain) - Manuvu term for self-contained villages

VIII. Religion and Magic

A. Definition of Religion
Religion is any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power

B. Religion is universal for the following .reasons:

Need for intellectual understanding

Decrease guilt, anxiety or uncertainty
Need for community
C. Variations in religious beliefs

1. Existence of impersonal supernatural forces (e.g. mana and taboo)

2. Supernatural beings of nonhuman origins (gods and spirits)
3. Supernatural beings of human origin (ghosts and ancestor spirits)

D. Ways of Communicating with the supernatural include prayer, doing

things to the body and the mind, simulation, feast and sacrifices

E. Magic is the belief that actions can compel the supernatural to act in a
particular and intended way. Sorcery and witchcraft are attempts to make the spirits
work harm against people.

F. Religious/Magical practitioners include shamans, sorcerers or witches,

mediums and priests G. Religion and Political Movements

IX. The Arts * ,

A. Body Decoration and Adornment: paint or objects such as feathers,
jewelry, skins and clothing. Body decorations may be used to delineate social position,
rank, sex, occupation, local and ethnic identity

B. Visual Art
Artistic Differences in Egalitarian and Stratified Societies
Egalitarian Society Stratified Society
Repetition of simple elements Much empty or "irrelevant" space Symmetrical design
Unenclosed figures Integration of unlike elements Little empty space Asymmetrical
design Enclosed figures

C. Music
D. Folklore
X. Culture Changes
A. Discovery and Invention
B. Diffusion
C. Acculturation
D. Revolution
E. Types of Culture Change
Religious Change
Economic Change

Social Philosophy


- From two Greek words: Philein which means "to love", and Sophia which
means "wisdom". According to Manuel Velasquez, philosophy is "the pursuit of wisdom

about what it means to be a human being, what the fundamental nature of God and
reality is. what the sources and limits of our knowledge are, and what is good and right
In our lives and in our societies,
- Traditionally defined as the sciences of all things studied from the
viewpoint of their ultimate causes under the light of human reason alone. (According to
Bertram/ Russel, philosophy is the no man's land between theology and science.)

Three Traditional Divisions:

1. Epistemology - literally means "the study of knowledge". It deals with

questions of knowledge (including the structure, reliability, extent, and kinds of
knowledge); truth, validity, and logic; and a variety of linguistic concerns, (e.g. the
question of whether truth is relative)
2. Metaphysics ~ addresses questions of reality (including the meaning and
nature of being); the nature of mind, self, and human freedom; and some topics that
overlap with religion, such as the existence of God, the destiny of the universe, and the
immortality of the soul. (E.g. question of whether human behavior is free or determined)
3. Ethics - study of values and moral principles and how they relate to
human conduct to our social and political institutions, (e.g. question of whether human
beings have the moral obligation to love and serve others, or obligation only to

* social philosophy falls under this division,

Social Philosophy – is the study of society and its processes and activities with particular
emphasis on the basic principles underlying social structures and functions. It is the
study of the rightness or wrongness of societal orders, institutions, structures, systems,
functions, and processes.
(Thomas Hobbes first used the term "social philosophy". He is also widely considered as
the father of social philosophy.)

Prerequisite to an understanding of social philosophy are the following six basic factors
or concerns:
First: An understanding of nature of associative life (the person existing in correlation
with society).
Second: Associative life requiring a set of values towards which all social processes and
activities are directed. Third: The means to the set of values essential in the
associative life Fourth: The law.
Fifth: The obligation of the individuals to the state and the state to the individuals.
Sixth: The ideal of social and individual justice.

To sum up, the study of social philosophy revolves around these six lectors:
associations, values, power, rights, obligations and justice.


A. Classical Realism
Realism is the philosophy that regards the universe as composed of beings existing
independently but related and forming a hierarchical structure called cosmos or totality.

Classical Realism distinguishes a person from other living substances as endowed with
two natures: animal and rational. Animal nature with its various appetites and sensual
desires is perfected by the practice of the habits of the "golden mean" between the two
extremes of excess and deficiency. These habits enable a person to develop the moral
virtues of temperance and courage. These moral virtues, in turn, enable a person to
perfect the rational nature by achieving the intellectual virtues of wisdom, prudence, and
However, full human nature is not only achieved by the development of virtues atone.
Full human nature enables a person to achieve the ultimate goal of happiness by
transcending self-realization with the acceptance that one is not self-sufficient when
isolated from others. Aristotle emphasized that a person is a part in relation to the whole
which is society, and that anyone who is not able to live in society or who does not need
it is either a beast or a god, but not a human being. Society, therefore, is the external
support of a person's self-realization. It follows, therefore, that the state, which is a form
of organized society, has the moral purpose of maintaining proper order and exercising
justice for the good of the whole or the common good.

B. Positivism
Positivism as a philosophy is based primarily on science and scientific discoveries.
Auguste Comte came up with the term when he developed his philosophical idea
regarding the laws of societal growth. He maintains that there are three ascending levels
of explanation of natural phenomena: Theological level - explains natural phenomena by
involving spiritual or anthromorphic beings. Metaphysical level- depersonalizes these
beings into forces and essences Positive level - relies mainly on sciences and scientific
Comte contends that as the new society develops in the positive level (or positivist
society); performing one's duties to society and of serving the interests of humanity will
prevail over the concept of society as existing to serve the interests of individuals. In
other words, he maintains that the development of industrial society based on sciences
and industry, when properly organized, will be accompanied by a moral regeneration
involving the substitution of concern with the welfare of humanity for concern with the
individual's private interests.
Intellectual Phase Material Phase Type of Social Unit Type of Order
Prevailing Sentiment
Theological Military Family Domestic Attachment
Metaphysical Legalistic State Collective Veneration (Awe or respect)
Positive Industrial Race (Humanity) Universal Benevolence
* Comte framed the term sociology.

C. Pragmatism
Pragmatism is the acknowledged contribution of America to philosophy. Three American
thinkers figured prominently in the development of pragmatism: - Charles Sanders
Peirce (pronounced as "purse")
- William James
- John Dewey

Dewey defined pragmatism as the "theory that the processes and the materials of
knowledge are determined by practical or purposive consideration". According to Peirce

the pragmatists' view is supported by the practices of experimental sciences specifically
the laboratory method in which the hypotheses are ideas or proposed solutions to felt
problems. These are tested and either rejected or confirmed. Truth, therefore, is that
which works and is successful in solving problems.

The pragmatists' focus on consequences and how they are controlled through
intelligence is the foundation of their concepts of person and society. A person is a
social animal because association rather than isolation is the Law that governs
everything that exists.

Almost every other kind of achievable value is acquired because of social process in
which each value individual valuer is when he is normally fitted to his sphere. In
essence, for pragmatism society is not just a conglomeration of individuals but an
organic process upon which individuals depend and by which they live. As the soil is to
plants and trees, so society is to the individual which nurtures human life in its individual
forms and makes possible of all the flowerings of personality.

The pragmatists also claim that human society is much more commonly the context in
which concepts are formed.

The ends of associative life such as survival, habits of action and thought, and, choice of
consequences are served by numerous social groups To the pragmatists, society is
pluralistic, not an entity in itself, but a collection of interacting primary groups. These
smaller groups however produce consequences on persons other than those who
directly participate in these primary groups.

Pragmatism views a person as a problem solver In an environment of pluralism of

groups, interests, and consequences.

D. Naturalism
Naturalism is a philosophy that denies anything as having supernaturality. It contends,
especially its earlier versions, that the common context in which concepts are formed is
the physical universe (unlike pragmatism which maintains that the human society is the
common context where ideas are formed). A human being is a transitory product of
physical processes. Thus, human beings and society are dependent on the natural
order. Society therefore is received as less organic. It is an aspect or portion of nature,
not so much an organism that has rhythms and patterns. The individual is therefore
considered as nature's offspring, not a child of society or a segment whose very being
depends upon the social organism. Although dependent upon nature, he stands on his
own feet, more or less, as far as his relations to society are concerned. There are what
might be called certain necessities which make it expedient for him to relate himself
somewhat effectively socially; but these are not necessities arising from the operation of
society as an organism, so much as they are accidents or exigencies to be avoided by
working out some kind of social organization to correct them.

Thomas Hobbes viewed the individual and his native state as at war with himself. He is
competitive, he grasps for honor and dignity, he is troublesome, and he is hungry for
power. Human beings left to them selves without some kind of control will kill themselves
in the chaos and anarchy of selfish struggle. The only way that man can be saved from

himself sociologically is for individual man to surrender his freedom to some superior
social power or organization to which he must give absolute obedience as to a moral

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's naturalism rooted man in nature rather than in society. He

contends that the individual is a child of nature so much so that he proposed in his
"Emile" to keep Emile away from society until adolescence. Through his Social Contract,
he reveals how the problem of social organization is complicated by the importance of
maintaining the human being's freedom. The individual, he maintains, is not a human
being unless he is free, if he is in bondage, then he is a human being. However,
unrestricted freedom is neither in harmony with his welfare nor with the welfare of the
society. Apparently some social organization is required, one that preserves the freedom
of the individual.

It seems that for naturalism social values are synthetic values, which result from
agreements in which human beings bind themselves together. Such are inferior goods,
not so much preferred as individual goods, which result indirectly as a consequence of
the desire to avoid the greater evils which accompany anarchy. They are not organic
values which are determined in part by the very nature of society and which would never
be possessed by humans separately, even if they did not need to be saved from conflict
and chaos by some kind of social groupings.

E. Liberalism
Liberalism is a philosophy or movement that has as its aim the development of individual
freedom and adheres to the idea that the society is one in which individuals are left free
to pursue their own interests and fulfillment as each chooses. As Mill argued, the only
restraints to which adult individuals should be subjected are those necessary to keep an
individual from harming others. However, because the concepts of liberty or freedom
change in different historical periods its specific programs also change. The final aim of
liberalism, though, remains fixed, as does its characteristic belief not only in essential
human goodness but also in human rationality. Liberalism assumes that people, having
a rational intellect, have the ability to recognize problems and solve them and thus can
achieve systematic improvement in the human condition. Often opposed to liberalism is
the doctrine of conservatism, which simply states, supports the maintenance of the
status quo. Liberalism, which seeks what it considers to be improvement or progress,
necessarily desires to change the existing order.

It is in the works of John Locke that the soul of philosophical liberalism is found. Locke
claims that freedom and equality of all human beings are governed by a (aw of nature
that necessitates everyone to respect the freedom of self-determination in others and to
treat others as equals. Reason defines the rights and duties that constitute and sustain
everyone's freedom.

However, people find it necessary to give up their natural freedom in order to form a
society. They enter into a societal contract where they give up their power of self
preservation in exchange for the collective and stronger action of society and
government. Through this social compact people agree to live in the bonds of civil
society. The contract creates one body that acts by the consent of the majority, and by
agreeing to the contract, individuals place themselves under the obligation to submit to

the determinations of the majority. Thus, the existence of society and the authority of
government arise out of people's freely given consent as emphasized by Locke, and not
out of people's needs as asserted by Hobbes.

Contemporary Liberalism has retained the fundamental commitment to individual liberty

but has added to it an awareness of the extent to which economic relations can indirectly
limit an individual's liberty. The choice of a poor person is very much restricted
compared to a rich man. Contemporary liberalism has tended to incorporate the view
that individuals can be constrained to provide economic support for the poor through
welfare programs. It has also tended to incorporate the view that individuals should be
given some protection against the economic power of the wealthy through laws that
protect the worker.

One of the representatives of contemporary liberalism is John Rawls. Rawls also

acknowledges that social relationships have a deep and profound effect on the
individual's sense of fulfillment. A society's institutions are what primarily determine what
we can do and what our lives as individuals will be like,

Rawls claims that the most important question about society is whether it is just or not.
According to Rawls, the laws and institutions of a society must embody justice and be
based on these two principles of justice: first, that everyone in society must have political
rights and duties, and second, that the only justifiable economic inequalities are those
required to make everyone better off by serving as incentives. If this will not be the case,
then it must be reformed.

F. Idealism
Idealism grew out as a reaction to naturalism. According to naturalism, truth or reality
exists in Ideas or in the spirit or in the mind. Material objects are merely representations
of the idea. While idealism emphasizes that the will governs one's conduct, naturalism
says that impulse, instincts, and experience govern one's conduct. While idealism
judges behavior in terms of motives, naturalism judges behavior on the basis of results.
Naturalism would say that the end justifies the means. Idealism would say that the
knowledge is obtained by speculation and reasoning, naturalism regards scientific
observation. Naturalism regards scientific knowledge as final.

The idealist notion of society is not an aggregation or collection of individuals; it is an

organism in which individuals participate. Individual selfhood is not something which can
grow in isolation; it is given birth through the social process and comes into actual self-
realization only in relation with society as its medium of nature and development. This is
not to say that the individual is subordinate to society. With the society providing the
matrix for the development of the individual, the individual progresses and slowly
proceed in the process of self-realization and at the same time, society develops in a
process of realizing the ultimately good society.

G. Communism
Karl Marx believed that the human being, apart from some obvious biological factors,
has no essential human nature — that is, something that it is true of every human being
at all times everywhere. However, he believes that human beings are social beings, that
to speak of human nature is really to speak about the totality of social relations.

Accordingly, whatever any of us does is a social act. which presupposes the existence
of other people standing in certain relations to us. In short, everything is socially (earned.
He further claims that it is not the consciousness of individuals that defines their beings,
but it is their social being that determines their consciousness.

Marx also claimed that the history of the world should be viewed as a history of class
struggles. He believed that the universal laws operating in history are economic in
nature. Moreover, he saw a causal connection between the economic structure and
everything in society such that the mode of production of material life determines the
general character of the social, political and spiritual processes of life.

Marx claims that eventually, capitalism will become increasing unstable economically.
The class struggle between the bourgeoisie (ownership class) and proletariat (working
class) will increase. The poor will be poorer, and increasing in number. The upshot will
be a social revolution. The workers will initiate the new communist phase of history.

H. Communitariansm
Communitarianism is the view that the actual community in which we live should be at
the center of our analysis of society and government. Communitarians emphasize the
social nature of human beings. They argue that our very identity - who we are ~
depends on our relationships to others in our communities. We are embedded in our
community and its cultural practices. Thus, we cannot understand our selves apart from
our community and its cultural practices.

According to communitarians, the state is natural. It is, like the family and the tribe, the
natural outgrowth of the human beings' natural tendency to live together. They also
believe that the human being can only fully develop within the state. Thus, it is obvious
that communitarians do not claim that the state is an artificial construct. They also do not
claim that the individual is prior to the development of the state. But they do claim that
the state and its cultural practices are the source of the identity of all human beings.
That is, it is in the state that human beings acquire the cultures and traditions that they
use to define themselves.

I. Fascism
The term fascism was first used by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini in 1919. The term
comes from the Italian word fascio, which means "union".

Fascism is a totalitarian philosophy of government that seeks to regenerate the social,

economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a heightened sense of national
belonging or ethnic identity, It rejects liberal ideas such as freedom and individual rights,
and often presses for the destruction of elections, legislatures, and other elements of

Fascism is characterized by the following:

Emphasis on the glorification of the state and the total subordination for the individual to
it. The state is defined as an organic into whom individuals must be absorbed for them
and the state's benefit. The 'total state" is absolute in its methods and unlimited by (aw
in its control and direction of its citizens.

Social Darwinism - The doctrine of survival of the fittest and the necessity of the struggle
for life is applied by fascists to the life of a nation-state. Peaceful, complacent nations
are seen as doomed to fail before more dynamic ones, making struggle and aggressive
militarism a leading, characteristic of the fascist state. Imperialism is the logical outcome
of this dogma.
Elitism - salvation from rule by the mob and the destruction of the existing social order
can be affected only by an authoritarian leader who embodies the highest ideals of the
nation. This concept of leader as hero or superman is closely linked with fascism's
rejection of reason and intelligence and its emphasis on vision, creativeness, and the will

J. Stoicism
Stoicism is a philosophy that flourished in Greek and Roman antiquity. The goal of all
inquiry is to provide man with a mode of conduct characterized by tranquility of mind and
certainty of moral growth. They also believed that some matters were within a person's
power to control and others were not. Within a person's power to control is the will to act
or not to act, to do or to avoid. Not within a person's power is the nature of things and
the laws that govern them. People should therefore obey the rules of nature and respect
the natural order of things. Stoicism also preached the equality of all people since all of
them are rational beings.

The stoics developed the idea of cosmopolitanism, the idea that all persons are citizens
of the same human community. Human relations for them have the greatest
significance, for human beings shared a common element. That is, since Logos (God) is
in everything, then the Logos (reason). Is also the same saying the reason is common to
both God and person

K. Existentialism
Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine that focuses on the existing individual person.
It is concerned with the authentic concerns of concrete existing individuals as they face
choices and decisions in daily life. It emphasizes the freedom of all persons to make
choices in a universe where there are no absolute values outside man himself. Soren
Kierkegaard, who argued that human existence was marked off from all other kinds ofn
man's power to choose, founded it. The decision that man makes will make him the kind
of person that he will and will make him distinct totally from every other person. Thus,
every value is always dependent upon the free choices of every man.

I. Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism - theory of what is good and a theory of what is right
1. Theory of what is right
Utilitarianism's theory of what is right is known as consequentalism. It claims that what is
a morally right option on any circumstance is that option, which brings about the most
good, or the best consequences,
2. Theory of what is good
Utilitarian agree that what is good is utility - human well-being or welfare. However, they
disagree as to how well-being or welfare is defined.



Buddhism originates from the experience of the misery of life. Life, for the Buddhist, is
caught in a labyrinth of changes so much so that there is no peace to be found in this
world. There is an endless cycle of change, of birth and death and therefore, the only
way for man to attain peace is the state of "nirvana," or the fading out of suffering. Thus
Buddhism has a morality that is characterized as egocentric and Individualistic and gives
very little positive value to society. Buddhism teaches the Eightfold Way (The right view,
the right aspiration, the right speech, the right action, the right livelihood/the right effort,
the right concentration, the right contemplation) and also the Four Noble Truths. The
four noble truths are the following: The universal fact of pain
The origin of suffering
The cessation of suffering
The path, which leads to the cessation of suffering

B. Confucianism

Confucianism aims for the restoration of political order and social harmony and such will
be possible if only people would observe the following formula:

- Chun-chun, chen-chen; fu-fu, izu'izu - Ruler ruler, minister

minister; - Father father, son son.

This advocates how:

A ruler should behave as a ruler should behave
A minister should behave as a minister should behave
A father should behave as a father should
A son should behave as a son should

Also, according to this philosophy the way to attain virtues is through natural means: (a)
being true to one's nature, and (2) applying those principles in relationship. The
objective is central harmony. Confucianism is founded on the experience of the all-
embracing harmony between man and nature and is highly conservative. Confucius
teaches that man is the ruler since ft constitutes a social morality. Confucianism
outlawed speculation and emphasized practical ethics. Man's obligation is to preserve
right human relationships.

Founded by Kung Fu Tzu, which means the Grand Master, also called "Ch'iu" (hill),
Confucianism strongly emphasizes the individual's place in society. It is interested in
reforming social life to rid government of its repressive tendencies.

Confucius propagated the idea of democracy. According to him, rulers must serve the
people's interests. He contends that the rulers and officials should make the people
affluent and then educate them. He also provides primarily moral reasons for caring for
the masses. The majority of the masses is simple and thus will be loyal as long as they
are treated with authoritative humanity and live in material prosperity. That is, as long as
the government works to promote their interests, the masses will be peaceful and do
their work.

C. Taoism

Taoism is a philosophical system strongly emphasizing man's place in nature. In
contrast to Confucianism, it is not concerned with society, except as something to move
away from.

Lao Tzu taught that the Tao is most fully revealed in tranquility neither through action nor
religious living. Virtue is attained by quiet submission to the power of the Tao. The Tao
cannot be defined.
Taoism stresses man's passive role in nature. Founded on the experience of the
dynamic force immanent in the universe, which gives order and life and meaning to the
totality of reality it adhered to the vision of the human being's harmony with nature.
However, it viewed man as essentially passive called upon to harmonize himself with the
natural rhythms of things.

According to Chuang Tzu, humankind is composed of two types: one is the ordinary
mass of people; and the other, the Perfect Man. The masses are the concrete
manifestation of humanity. The Perfect Man is its ideal form.

The social man is a microcosm, a miniaturized version of the universe that contains all
the elements necessary to make up Heaven and Earth. The body is made up of all the
physical elements. The mind is composed of human nature, the spirit, and virtue. Its
environment and the classes of people around itself limit the human. Man's anguish is
caused by unfulfilled desires. Therefore, desire causes man's sinfulness. Each person
thinks, acts, and behaves as if his own mind were the standard. THE reality of human
and social existence is characterized by limitations given by the environment,
dependency on external objects and events and anguish. There are four limits of human
Man's insignificant size

D. Islam

The word Islam means submission or surrender — to the will of God, and the word
Muslim means "given to God." Islam is a community, a way of life, a culture and a
civilization. Central to its teaching is the belief that there is only one all-powerful, all-
knowing God (Allah), and this God created the universe. Islam also emphasizes that all
Muslims are equal before God thus providing a basis for a collective sense of loyalty to
God that transcends class, race, nationality, and even differences in religious practice.
Also, unlike most Christian sects, Islam clings to the idea of faith plus good works.

Islam is centered on the Five Pillars of Truth: profession of faith (shahada), prayer
(salat), alms giving (zakat), fasting (sawm), and pilgrimage (hajj).

Islam gives importance to social life. It considers it a duty to attend to social problems
and to struggle for the benefit for all human beings. Being indifferent to such problem is
considered in Islam to be a grave sin

Islam believes that no society can survive without rules and social regulations. It also
believes that the goal of law Is not only to bring about social order and discipline, but to
maintain social justice because without justice the order would not be durable and the
masses of the people would not tolerate injustice and oppression for ever, and in a
society not governed by justice most people would not have the opportunity for desired
growth and development and hence, the goal of man's creation and social life would not
be realized.

Also, from the Islamic viewpoint, social laws should be such as to prepare the ground
and context for the spiritual growth and eternal felicity of the people. At the very least
they should not be inconsistent with spiritual development, for, in the view of Islam, the
life of this world is but a passing phase of the entire human life, which despite its short
duration, has a fundamental role in human destiny.

E. Hinduism
The word Hindu was derived from the Sanskrit word sindhu ("river"), the Persians called
the Hindus by that name, identifying them as the people of the land of the
Indus. The Hindus define their community as "those who believe in the Vedas" or "those
who follow the way (dharma) of the four classes (varnas) and stages of life (ashramas)”.

The fundamental principles of Hinduism:

A. text: Vedas
B. philosophy:
Time is degenerative- going from the golden age through two intermediate periods of
decreasing goodness, to the present age>~ and then another cycle again
Human life is cyclic: after death, the soul leaves the body and is reborn in the body of
another person, animal, vegetable, or mineral
Three classes of society {ashramas): Brahman (priest), Kshatriya (warrior), Vaisya
(general populace). Later, a fourth class was added, the Shudras after the IndoAryans
settled into the Punjab and began to move to down into the Ganges Valley.
Three stages of life (ashramas): brahmachari (chaste student), grthastha (the
householder), vanaprastha (forest-dweller). Later, a fourth ashrama was added -* the
saanyasi (renouncer)
Three debts: study of the Veads, a son. and a sacrifice
Three goals of the human beings (purusharthas): artha (material success). dharma
(righteous social behavior), kama (sensual pleasures). Later, when a fourth ashrama
was added, a counterpart goal was also added – moksha (released from the entire
process of samsara)



Nature of Philosophy

Nominal meaning: love of wisdom. (It was derived from the Greek terms Philo, which
means love, and Sophia, which means wisdom.)

Real meaning: The science and art of all things naturally knowable to man's unaided
powers in so far as these things are studied in their deepest causes and reasons The
human being's attempt to think speculatively, reflectively, and systematically about the
universe and the human relationship to the universe. It is the human being's search for
the ultimate explanations of the realities of life.

Major branches of Philosophy

Metaphysics - deals with the nature of being and reality

Fundamental concepts: Substance, Essence, Truth, Space, Time, Causation, Nature of
God, Origin & purpose of the universe, Nature and purpose of Man's existence, Body-
Mind relation and the Problem of Freedom.

Epistemology- Episteme (knowledge) Logos (science) -deals with human knowledge

and the Criteria for truth.
Fundamental concepts: What is Knowledge? Where does it come from?
How do we Acquire knowledge of right and wrong?, What is truth? Can man's
knowledge be true?

Axiology- the area of Philosophy that specifically deals with the problem of human
Fundamental concepts: What are Values? What are the important values to be desired
in living? Are these values rooted in reality? How can these values be realized in our
daily experience?

Logic-systematic treatment of relationship of ideas

Fundamental concepts: Terms. Propositions, Syllogisms, Fallacies, Validity of
Arguments, Soundness of arguments and correct thinking, Inductive and deductive

Other branches of Philosophy

Cosmology- theories of the nature and origin of the universe
Fundamental concepts; Evolutionism, Creationism, Space, time, motion and causality

Philosophy of Man/Philosophy of human person- deals with the nature and purpose of
Fundamental concepts: Body-Soul relation, Freedom and Determinism, intellect and will

Social and Political Philosophy - deals with the nature of society and socialization
Fundamental Concepts: Society, State, Governance, Laws and Culture, Social Justice

Theodicy- the study of the nature, essence and existence of God using human reason
Fundamental concepts: Deism, Agnosticism, Theism, Attributes of God

Aesthetics- the study of the nature and appreciation of beauty

Fundamental concept: Order, Truth, Designs, Functionality, Proportion

Ethics the study of the morality of Human Acts
Fundamental concepts: Voluntariness. Good life, Freedom of the will, Concupiscence,
Moral responsibility, Ethical standards


Criteria of truth
1. Native realism (James Me Cosh, Thomas Reid) - believes that reality is
precisely what as it appear to be. Adheres to the belief that "seeing is believing"
2. Feelings - the belief that what one feels is the truth, that the best criterion
of truth is a hunch.
3, Custom and tradition - this is used by many as a criterion of truth in matters pertaining
to morals, politics, dress etc.
4. Time - is regarded as an excellent test if not the final test of truth.
5. Intuition - "truth that comes from one knows not where". It is not a test of
truth but a source of truth
6. Revelation – “Truth which comes from God". A source of truth and not a
test of it
7. Instinct - What is instinctive must by virtue of that fact be true since
nature deem it so. But most knowledge is beyond the bounds of instinct. It is not
therefore a test of truth
8. Majority, Plurality, Consensus Gentium - The number of people who
believes in the truth determines its truthfulness, but truth is not necessarily dependent on
how many believes it to be true
9. Authority - certain individuals who have mastered a field of study may be
a criterion of truth but authority gives only opinions which could be true or which could
be false
10. Correspondence - a belief that when an idea agrees with its object, it is
proof of its truth. However, it is a definition of truth not a criterion 11. Pragmatism - If an
idea works then it is true, but not all truths works. It cannot be the ultimate criterion of
truth 12. Consistency - means the absence of contradiction
13. Coherence- a systematic consistent explanation of all the facts of experience. Its
technical name is reason, this is believe to be the ultimate criterion of truth

Philosophies, Theories and Movement in the Social Sciences Education

• The present Philosophy of social sciences education is an admixture of

idealist and realist Philosophy. It has elements of essentialism, perennialism, social
traditionalism, social experimentalism, progressivism, logical positivism and
• It focuses on the social function of education, on individual's development
and his relationship to the social structure.
• It is concerned fundamentally with social change, the progressive
structuring of the social order, with insight into the traditions, arousing interest in and
sympathy toward social service, and developing efficiency in adapting the individual to

1. Idealism

1.1 Nature
- Idealism is a philosophy that proclaims the spiritual nature of men and
the universe, its basic viewpoint stresses the human spirit, soul, or mind as the most
important element in life.

- It holds that the good, true and beautiful are permanently part of the
structure of the related coherent, orderly, and unchanging universe.

- All of reality is reducible to one fundamental substance - Spirit. Matter is

not real, only the mind is real

1.2 Aim of Idealist Education

- The aim of idealistic education is to contribute to the development of
mind and self. The school should emphasize intellectual abilities, moral judgments,
aesthetics, self-realization, individual freedom, individual responsibility and self-control.

1.3 Curriculum
- The curriculum of Idealism is a body of intellectual subject-matter, which
is ideational and conceptual on subjects, which are essential for the realization of mental
and moral development

- Subject matter should be made constant for all. Mathematics, History and
Literature rank high in relevance since they are not only cognitive but value-laden

1.4 Methodology
- Idealists encourage accumulation of knowledge and thinking and must
apply criteria for moral evaluation- Suggested methods are questioning and discussion,
lecture and the project, whether done singly or in group. Although learning is a product
of the learner's own activity, the teaming process is made more efficient by the
stimulation, which comes from the teacher and school environment. The learner is
immature and is seeking the perspective into his own personality.

1.5 Role of Teacher

- The idealist teacher should be conversant with a variety of methods and
should use the particular method that is most effective in securing the desired results.
Teachers are revered persons central to the educational process. They must be
excellent mentally and morally in personal conduct and convictions. They must exercise
creative skills in providing opportunities for pupils - mind to analyze, discover, synthesize
and create. They should see his role in assisting the learner to realize the fullness of his
own personality.

1.6 Implication to Social Sciences Education

- Idealism is often considered a conservative philosophy of education
because much of its thrust is to preserve cultural traditions.

- This is because of the concern for perennial and ultimate truths and the
notion that education is largely a matter of passing on to the young the nation's cultural

- There is great concern for morality and character development

- Idealistic education emphasizes the cognitive side, intellectualism or

elitist, to the detriment of the physical and affective side of development.

- Character development in idealistic philosophy was pictured as: o The

first rule to be learned by all students is order. o Students must conform to rules
and regulations and repress everything that interferes with the function of the school.

Pupils must have their lessons ready on time, rise and sit at a given signal, learn habits
of silence and cleanliness.


2.1 Nature
- Realism may be defined as any philosophical position that asserts the
objective existence of the world and beings in it and relations between these beings
independent of human knowledge and desires. The knowability of these objects as they
are in themselves and the need for conformity to the objective reality in man's conduct.
- Realism holds that reality, knowledge and value exist independent of the
human mind. For the realist, matter is real.
- The most important part of realism is the thesis of independence. Sticks,
stones, trees exist whether or not there is a human mind to perceive them.
- Realists refer to those universal elements of man that are unchanging
regardless of time, place and circumstance.
- Realists generally maintain a materialistic concept of human nature
biased toward social control and social order.
- They tend to see the universe in terms of an independent reality with its
internal and systematic order; therefore, human beings must adopt and adjust to this
reality, and dreams and desires have to be subsumed under its demand.

2.2 Aim
- The aim of a realist education is to provide the students with the essential
knowledge that he will need to survive in the natural world.

2.3 Curriculum
- The curriculum is called the subject-matter approach, which is composed
of two basic components, the body of knowledge, and the appropriate pedagogy to fit
the readiness of the learner. The liberal arts curriculum and the math science disciplines
consist of a number of related concepts that constitute the structure of the discipline.

2.4 Methodology
- The teacher is expected to be skilled in both the subject matter that he
teaches and the method of teaching it to students. - Formal schooling means,
transmission of knowledge from experts to the young and immature.
- The school's task is primarily an intellectual one

- The administrator's role is to see to it that the teachers are not distracted
by recreational and social functions from performing their intellectual task of cultivating
and stimulating the teaming of students.
- In the elementary level, emphasis is on the development of skills for
reading, writing, arithmetic, and study habits.
- In the secondary and collegiate level, the body of knowledge regarded as
containing the wisdom of the human race with have to be transmitted in an authoritarian
- Students will be required to recall, explain, compare, interpret, and make
inferences. Evaluation is essential, making use of objective measures. - Motivation will
be in the form of rewards to reinforce what has been learned.

2.5 Role of Teachers

- The teacher is a person who possesses a body of knowledge and who is

capable of transmitting it to students.
- Teaching should not be indoctrinating. Learning should be interactive.
- The teacher utilizes pupil interest by relating subject matter to student
experiences. - The teacher maintains discipline by reward and controls the pupil by

2.6 Implication to Social Sciences Education

- The universal elements in man make up the elements in the education of

man. Education implies teaching, teaching implies knowledge, knowledge is truth, and
truth is the same everywhere. Thus education should be the same everywhere
- Realists are concerned with the necessity of student measuring up to the
standard curriculum or external criteria of excellence.
- They believe that the" superior" students should be given the arts and
sciences while the "slower" students should be given a narrow technical- vocational
- Realism favors a fact-based approach to knowledge. This had led to the
tradition and problem of "testing" including the IQ as passport to a college education.
The Teachers' board as a minimum requirement for entry into the profession.
The realist believed that hard work and discipline are considered "good" and the
student’s heads should be filled with "factual truth" so that they do not come to a "bad

3. Essentialism

3.1 Nature
- Essentialism, a conservative educational theory rooted in idealism and
realism, arose in response to progressive education. The essentialists were concerned
with a revival of efforts in the direction of teaching the fundamental tools of learning as
the most indispensable type of education.

3.2 Aims

- The essentialist have as their ultimate aim " to fit the man to perform
justly, skillfully and magnanimously all the offices, both private and public, of peace and
- The indispensable cultural objectives of humanity, the essentials, are
goals that must be achieve -sometimes incidentally- but more often by direct instruction.
Informal learning helps, but this should only be supplementary and secondary.
- The essentialist believed that the essential skills, knowledge and attitude
needed by the individual in making has adjustment to the realities of life should be
systematically planned so that these recognized essentials will be recognized.
- The essentialists emphasize the need for a curriculum that transmits
significant race experiences and the need to present this racial experience through
organized subject matter courses.
- Thus, reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, history, geography, hygiene,
elementary science, drawing, language, art .manual training, and domestic arts - all
traditional subjects of the elementary school- are given a new justification and emphasis
as basic essential in the training of children.
- Among the common themes found in the essentialist point of view are:
1. The elementary school curriculum should aim to cultivate basic tool skills
that contribute to literacy and mastery of arithmetical computation.
2. The secondary curriculum should cultivate competencies in History,
Mathematics, Science, English, and foreign languages. Mastering all these subjects and
skills prepare the student to function as a member of a civilized society
3. Schooling requires discipline and a respect for legitimate authority; and
4. Learning requires hard work and disciplined attention

3.4 Methodology

- The essentialist method emphasizes habituation more than experience,

guidance more than incidentalism, discipline more than freedom, effort more than
interest, and self-examination more than expression.
- Essentialists do not believe In building up generalization by the slow
method of induction, but rather in properly guiding pupils in a few hours or days in the
acquisition of general laws and principles then using them in the solution of immediate
and pressing problems.
- The essentialists are concerned with the most effective method of
forming habits and developing skills; thus, drill has a definite place in the classroom.
- The essentialists emphasize the necessity of teaching pupils how to think
systematically and effectively.
- They believe that effective thinking cannot take place by looking at the
world en masse, or by picking up knowledge piecemeal.
- Methods of systematic analysis and systematic synthesis must be used;
the essential elements of knowledge must be separated from the worthless chaff, and
these essentials must be organized into meaningful wholes, with close attention to the
interrelationships of each of these entities.
The essentialists recognize that interest is a strong motivating force of learning. Learning
however, that is not immediately appealing and interesting to the child should not be
totally eliminated from the child's education.
- The more valuable and more permanent interests may grow out of efforts
that are at first disagreeable and monotonous.

3.5 Role of Teachers
- It is the duty of the teacher to help the learner grow into these higher
interests rather than limit all school activities to those ephemeral things that appeal only
to natural and childish interest. During the immature years of childhood and youth there
is a need for competent, sympathetic and firm teachers to help them see the truth and to
help them adjust themselves to inexorable facts.
- In this view, teachers should be restored to instructional authority.
- They must be well prepared and held accountable for the children's
failure to learn. Instruction should be geared to organized learning. - The method
of instruction should center on regular assignments, homework, recitation, and frequent
testing and evaluation.

3.6 Implication to Social Sciences Education

- Essentialists are particularly concerned with the fundamentals of
education, the skill and knowledge without which person cannot be either individually or
socially efficient.
- They emphasize the authority of the teacher and the value of a subject
curriculum . - The essentialist prescribed the following rubrics for their
educational program:
1. A fixed curriculum;
2. Certain minimum "essentials" literature, mathematics, history, etc;
3. Preconceived educational values ;
4. Education as Individual adoption to an absolute knowledge which exist
independently of individual.
- The essentialists believe that the intellectual disciplines are the
necessary foundation of modem life
- The school has the responsibility to Channel the accumulated
experiences of humankind into organized coherent and differentiated disciplines. -
Mastering these basic disciplines will enable the students to use them in
solving personal, social and civic problems Perennialism

4.1 Nature
- Perennialism is an educational theory that Is greatly influenced by the
principles of realism. It has a conservative/ traditional view of human nature and
- Perenniaiists contend that truth is universal and unchanging, and.
therefore, a good education is also universal and constant.
4.2 Aim
- The perennialists have for their aim the education of the rational person.
The central aim of education should be to develop the power of thought.
- They view the universal aim of education as the search for and
dissemination of truth. They look up to the school as an institution designed to develop
human intelligence.
4.3 Curriculum
- The perennialist view education as a recurring process based on eternal
truths; thus, the school's curriculum should emphasize the recurrent themes of human

- It should contain cognitive subjects that cultivate rationality and the study
of moral, aesthetics, and religious principles to develop the attitudinal dimension. - The
perrenialist prefers a subject matter curriculum, which includes history, language,
mathematics, logic, literature, the humanities, and science.

4.4 Methodology
- As for the methods of teaching, the curriculum of a perenniallst education
would be subject-centered, drawing heavily upon the disciplines of literature,
mathematics, language, history, and the humanities.
- The perenniaiists suggest that the best means to attaining this enduring
knowledge is through the study of great books of Western Civilization - The method
of study would be the reading and discussion of these great works which, in turn,
discipline the mind.

4.5 Role of Teachers

- The teacher, accordingly, must be one who has mastered discipline, who
is a master teacher in terms of guiding truth, and whose character is beyond reproach.
- The teacher is to be viewed as authority and his expertise not to be
- The role of the school becomes one of training intellectual elite who will
one day take charge of passing this on to a new generation of learners.

4.6 Implication to Social Sciences Education

- Perennialism represents a conservative theoretical view centered in the
authority of tradition and the classics. Among its major educational principles are:
1. Truth is universal and does not depend on the Circumstances of place,
time or person;
2. A good education involves a search for and an understanding of the truth;
3. Truth can be found in the great work of civilization; and
4. Education is the liberal exercise that develops the intellect.

5. Sociological Movement
Sociological movement focused on the contribution of education to the preservation and
progress of society; this is called the social function of education. Social educationists
were concerned with the individual's development and his relationship to the social

5.1 Social traditionalism.

- This aimed at giving all pupils an insight into their traditions, arousing
interest in and sympathy toward social service, and developing efficiency in adapting the
individual to society.
- Tradition is a record of man's accomplishment and the accumulation of
human experience. Each generation acquires and transmits traditions to preserve its
- The school is seen as the agency that prepares an individual for all
phases of social life.
- One of the purposes of education is the formation of common

- Habits of social life and the education of the child away from crime,
drugs, unemployment, diseases and other social ills.

- Social education, in its broadest sense, covered all types of education
that would prepare the individual for adjustment to society.
- In its narrowest sense, social education referred to the development of
social communication skills, etiquette, and harmonious human relationships.
- The latter included training in the physical, vocational, civic, domestic,
vocational, moral, and religious, all essential in the development of social efficiency.

- The school curriculum was supposed to teach for real social living.
- School activities were drawn from varied activities in life.
- The lower school level was expected to teach the essentials of social
living and the rudiments of etiquette.
- Drills in arithmetic calculation, oral and written language, hygiene, good
manners, and art appreciation were important.
- The high schools had to give experience in science and math, language
and history but emphasis should be on health, moral conduct, home and leisure and the
- In college, work travel and study replaced the traditional academic
- The results of social education brought about extra-curricular activities in
the school program. Extra-curricular activities, when properly controlled and directed,
were of value in providing experience in various phases in life.
- Athletics, dramatics, public speaking activities, musical activities, and
assemblies were all sources of training for the various aspects of social life.

Social communication, social cooperation, and social science were the methods used in
teaching the child to adjust to life.
- The teacher worked with the social interests of the child in mind to
develop social consciousness.
- Student's participations in school activities and school government were
effective methods of teaching leadership and responsibility.
- Students were taught cooperation rather than competition; to face the
class rather than the teacher, and to deal with small groups for cooperative effort.

5.2 Social Experimentalism

- The social experimentalists believe that the school prepares for a
progressive structuring of the social order since social tradition was not concerned with
social change.
- The school should direct the pupil in learning to meet the needs of a
changing society, not only for immediate needs, but also for future needs under
changing social conditions
- The experimentalists emphasized the training for intelligence in all
phases of human activity. Students should learn sources of facts and realities of social

conditions and problems and learn to verify, weigh alternatives, and take sides on
controversial issues. Students' emotions had to be trained to intelligence for beneficial
social results.

- The social sciences came to the foreground among the experimentalists
because of the emphasis put on the teaching of controversial issues; the social,
economic and political activities of the local community were used as materials for
- Extra -curricular activities and field trips were dominant strategies of
teaching since they were pupil-planned, pupil dominated and centered. Their purpose
was to prepare students for social planning.

6. Progressivism.
- The educational theory of progressivism is in contrast to the traditional
views of essentialism and perennialism.
- This movement is based largely in the philosophy of pragmatism or as
Dewey puts it instrumentalism.
- It stressed the view that all learning should center on the child's interests
and needs.
- Progressive education is based on a philosophy based on experience,
the interaction of the person with his environment.
- The end product of education was growth- an on-going experience which
led to the direction and control of subsequent experience. - Progressive education must
use the past experiences to direct future experiences.

- The aim of progressive education is to meet the need of a growing child.
- The school should be a pleasant place for learning.
- It objects to extreme reliance on bookish methods of instruction,
memorization of factual data, the use of fear as a form of discipline and the four -walled
philosophy of education that isolated the school from the realities of life .

- Progressive education was not interested in a prepared, prescribed
curriculum to transmit knowledge to students - Curriculum must come from the
child so that learning would be active, exciting, and varied.
- The contents of the subject are done by the teacher and the students as
a group project or a cooperative effort. The teacher served as facilitator. - Progressive
education is characterized by the following contributions to education:
1. Emphasis on the child as the learner, rather than the subject matter
2. Stress on activities and experiences, rather than on textbook reliance and
3. Cooperative learning, rather than competitive lesson learning
4. Absence of fear and punishment for disciplinary purposes

7. Reconstructionism.

- Reconstructionism is more concerned with social change rather than the
individuality of the child.
- It believes that schools should originate policies and progress, which
would bring about reform of the social order. Teachers should use their power to lead
the young in the program of social reform.
- Educational philosophies must be culturally based and man can re-shape
his culture so that it promotes optimum possibilities for development.
- Society has to reconstruct its values, and education has a major role to
play in bridging the gap between the values of culture and technology.
- It is the task of the school to encourage the critical examination of the
cultural heritage and find the elements that are to be discarded and those that have to
be modified.

- The aim of Reconstructionism is to awaken the student's consciousness
about social problems and to actively engage them in problem solving.
- Teachers and schools should initiate a critical examination of their own
culture and should identify controversies and inconsistencies and try to solve real life
- The Curriculum should include learning to live in a global milieu.
- Reconstructionism proposes educational policies related to national and
international problems as a means of reducing world conflict. - The school becomes
the center of discussions of controversies

- The methodology employed is problem oriented.
- Students and teachers participate in discussion of issues and in a definite
program of social, educational, political, and economic change as a means to total
cultural renewal so that they will learn to live in a global village.

1. Philosophical Analysis.
- Philosophical analysis is a method of examining the language used in
making statements about knowledge, education and schooling and of seeking to classify
it by establishing its meaning with the formulation of educational goals and policies.
- The aim is to reduce statements about education to empirical terms. The
function of philosophy is to formulate the rules that are the bases of language. For
education should be attuned to the logical complexities of language.
- The analysts prefer to look at what we mean by education in the first
place and what advantages may accrue from the clarified concepts of education.

2. Existentialism

- Existentialism is a way of viewing and thinking about life in the world so

that priority is given to individualism and subjectivity.
- The existentialists believe that the human being is the creator of his own
essence; he creates his own values through freedom of choice or individual preference.
- The most important kind of knowledge is about the realities of human life
and the choices that each person has to make.

- Education is the process of developing awareness about the freedom of
choice and the meaning and responsibility for one's choice.

Emerging Themes of Contemporary Educational Philosophy

Contemporary philosophical themes have direct bearing not only to the social sciences
education but to education as a whole. These are the following:
1. Man as embodied spirit - This concept rejects the definition of man as a
rational animal or a composite of body and soul. The problem with this definition is that it
is dualistic and separates the single reality that is man into two realities; matter and
spirit. Rationality is emphasized to the detriment of animality. Yet it is animality that
defines man.
Phenomenologist sees man as an embodied subjectivity - unique core or center, source,
depth, wellspring of initiative and meaning. It involves the rational, the affective, and the
emotional - The total man.

Since education is the process of developing man-the embodied subjectivity,

Development must be seen now as the total development of man. Education is
not anymore seen as a conglomeration of disciplines with their own individual tasks of
cultivating a specific part of man. Education should not look down upon material
development as merely a steppingstone to rational or spiritual development but an
essential part of it.

2. Man as a being in the world. Each embodied spirit is in his own world,
which form a network of meanings, in and on and around which man organizes his life it
is different from environment for this is only proper to animals. When we speak of man
we speak of his world not environment for it is only man that gives meaning to an
environment through intentionality of consciousness.
Social Sciences Education likes to dwell on cumulative justice or injustice yet
contemporary man is more aware of a complex world of social justice or
injustice and of unjust structures. We should therefore address in the social sciences an
awareness of unjust structures, of internal change that need to be situated, of the need
to humanize the world we live in by our work.

3. Man as Being - with: the interhuman and the socius. The worid of man is
not just a world of things but also the worid of fellowmen. True education if it is to be
different from propaganda is such an unfolding to bring out in the other, the student, a
certain disposition of him to see for himself the true, the good and the beautiful. Society
is not something that one enters into by contract to achieve some common end, as
Rousseau and other social contract theorists put it The social is within each man: man
does not live in society, society lives in man. It is borne out of the historicity of man. Man
carves a meaning from his past in view of some project in the future thus man is a
cultural being. Thus social consciousness must have a bearing in the philosophy of
education for education cannot just be based simply on ultimate ends, on absolute,
eternal truths as the perreniatists put it. Neither can we be simply content with a general
formulation of educational objective as preparing the student to become good citizen in a
democracy, since the universal truth exists in the particular. Thus any Philosophy of
education must be predicated on a clearly formulated conception of a way of life in a
definite society as Isaac Berkson says.

4. Man as a person and his crowning activity is love, which presupposes
justice. The final aim of education, formal or informal is becoming a person. The
individuality of man is one that he has become freely and consciously in time, in the
worid. This task consists in integration, in becoming whole and in the fundamental option
to love. Thus we can no longer conceive of educational objectives in terms of personal
development or self-realization with no end beyond itself. Education must include social
aims for self-realization is no longer possible apart from socialization. Our educational
policies must aim at specific personal and social values: of justice, love, and honesty.
Total development is not just the education of the mind but also the heart and we can
educate the heart only by being exemplars of what we teach. The bearer of moral values
is the person himself.

Other themes of Contemporary Philosophy

The task of man is man himself. All other tasks, responsibilities and obligations are
simply to support man become the person he has the potential to
become. Man is an embodied spirit and thus he is obligated to develop the total man.
His having a body makes him an individual with material needs and desires. He is a self
who relates with other selves in order to satisfy these material needs, in the quest for
things that will satisfy his needs, he develops social relationships for he lives through-
the-other and he is not only a self but a self –in community—a person who transcends
materiality. Thus he develops interhuman relationships, the I-thou or the relationship of a
neighbor. This relationship is not limited to the sharing of material things but the sharing
of persons In a genuine dialogue.

Being as opposed to seeming. True interhuman relationship must transcend

seemingness. It must go beyond the mask that we create to make us acceptable
to others. We must be true to our being by relating to others with outmost sincerity and
genuine presentation of who really we are. Our relationship must be characterized by
openness and genuine acceptance of our nature and must be devoid of pretensions. It is
only when we are true to each other that we are able to accept each other in an
interhuman realm.

Person making, present. A man must be open and willing to freely give himself in an
interhuman relation. He must b© "there" to the other. The "thereness"
may not be physical. It may be empathy or sympathy with the other, or simply the
willingness to be one with the other - a commitment of unity and mutual support.

Unfolding as opposed to imposition. Our relationship with our fellowmen must be

characterized by mutual unfolding of oneself. A free personal relation of
one's true being. A mutual actualization of one's true potentials. The interhuman
relations should never and cannot be imposed because imposition is a mark of
Individuality and selfishness. We should not force the other to reveal himself to us or to
become what we want them to become for they are the end in themselves and not the
means. They are persons not things. The decision to reveal oneself must come from the
person and not be imposed by others for interhuman relations are free interactions
between and among persons who voluntarily choose to be with the other. What we could
do is to provide the necessary climate for his unfolding.

Genuine Dialogue. This is the turning to the partner that takes place in all truth that is
turning of being. Genuine dialogue is the mutual sharing between
persons. This happens when one person beyond the world of seeming centers into
communication with the other being.

Summary of Specific Points of the Different Themes Presented

1 A human being is a social being and an inter-human being. He cannot live by himself
for he depends on others for the things he needs in order to survive. He is not self
sufficient thus he relates with the material world and with his fellowmen in his pursuit of
the material things that will satisfy the needs of his body.
2. But a human being is not only a body. He Is an embodied spirit and
therefore his relationship is not limited only to the physical, bodily or social realm but
also to the realm of the inter-human.

3. For a human being is primarily a person who becomes actuated through

relations. Togetherness is a value that involves the existence .of a human being not just
a being-through-others but more so as a being-for-others.

4. A human being exists through the other by using the products that are
fruit of the labors of others. However, he also works for others as manifested in the
service oriented work like the teaching profession.

5. Thus, human beings relate to each one not only for material things but for
the sharing of persons that ultimately actualizes his potentials. The interhuman
relationship is achieved by transcending seemingness and entering into a genuine
dialogue with the other through an I-thou relationship. This relationship is founded on the
true nature of person, the willingness to make himself present and the unfolding of the
true self in the mutual sharing of persons. It is through this relationship that he fulfills his
nature and helps others fulfill theirs in a community of persons journeying towards their

6. Togetherness as a focal point of values: human existence has a historical

character, we need others to enter into the human world of meaning and to make it our
own, being together is a fundamental value which gives authentic fulfillment in our life.

7. Our existence is an existence for one another. We exist for others, we

strive to be significant to others, and our existence is meaningful only If others accept it
as meaningful,
8. The family system is the locus of interaction between the individual and
the society. If development is to be a human development st must foster the integration
of the family. Participative decision making process and a feedback mechanism is
imperative. 9. According to Habermas, economic development cannot be divorced from
moral development
10. Social formation or transformation cannot be brought about by class conflicts but by
bi-dimensional leaning process. Economic liberation is only a step to total liberation
11. Peace and order situation is built on freedom not on constraint; it is built
on human values which, is essential to moral quests and to politics. Truth, love, freedom
and its practice.

12. Thus, there is a need for equal and equitable distribution of wealth-Social
13 Social Justice was traditionally equated with legal justice- but what is legal may not
necessarily be just, then justice was equated with the reasonable and understood now in
the context of passion.
14 Social Justice as a virtue means the habit whereby a man renders to each one his
due by a constant and perpetual will
15 As a value, Social Justice is properly the object of man's intentional; feeling and is
linked intimately with other values of truth, love and the dignity of person.
16. Social Justice is legal justice guided by the spirit of love and the search
for truth and should be side by side with the value of a person.
17. Social Justice must become more important than commutative justice

Emerging Social Values Relevant to Education

1. Personalization- The primacy of the human person. Man is a person and
his crowning activity is love, which presupposes justice. The stress is towards the
personalistic character of education.
2. Socialization - Man exists through the other and for others. The task of
man is man himself and he becomes actuated through the others. Personalization and
socialization are but two sides of a single process in education, and in life.
3. Existential Dialogue – presupposes an encounter, an invitation to
authentic being existential presence, and existential union to create a community of

4. Authentic Being- Being as opposed to seeming, ah unfolding as opposed

to imposition. Education must bring about the true being of an individual person.
5. The Human World- The world of man is a world of meaning. Man is a
being in the world. Education must help man gives meaning to his world and the world of
others, ft must be in context of the students' world
6. Convergence of worlds and synergy-man is a subjectivity incarnating
itself in a converging world that defines his essence. The phenomenology of the we-
experience Is a reality that education must stress.
7. Community- as a union of persons living an authentic existence with love,
truth and justice. Schools must become communities where total human development is
8. Vigilance-critical, moral, political vigilance

Implications to Education of the Themes Presented

1. Education must be based on the supremacy of the human person, thus
its aims must be the total development of man in the context of his world.
2. Education must be a "we experience" where existential dialogues of
authentic being, convergence of worlds and synergy are possible.
3. Education should not only be viewed as an investment of human capital
or consumption but a meaningful becoming borne out of reasonable and responsible
exercise of freedom.
4. Education is for personalization and socialization not only for life but for a
meaningful life.

5. The teaching profession must really be promoted in the context of the
embodied spirit. The flight of teachers in terms of economic, political, social and
academic aspects must be addressed. Make teachers motivated motivators. ;
6. The affective and the emotional aspects must be developed together with
the rational aspect of man. The student must be viewed as a totality and subject fields
are simply part of this totality.

World History


A. History is the story of man through the ages, his failures as well as his achievements
B. Nature of History
A. It attempts to assess, interpret and give recognition to the achievements
of people
B. It is constant controversy because historians view events from different
C. Historical interpretations vary because events are considered in terms of
its occurrence in time and place. C. Characteristics of History as a Discipline
Process oriented
Value oriented
D. Value of History
Best expressed in this saying "Knowing the past makes it easier to understand the
present and less difficult to visualize the future".
E. Elements of History
Place (Geography) - location, topography, etc. affect economic development, scientific
advancement, political and social systems are belief system evolved by
Time - people's achievement and failures are judged in the context of the period in which
they live in.
Man - the dynamic factor in History. The chief cause of the human actions is due to the
nature of human being itself.


A. Paleolithic Age
B. Neolithic Age
C. Metal Age


Traces the development of civilization.

Ancient Period

ASIA and AFRICA = cradles of civilization

1. Early civilizations developed in the river valleys

A. Mesopotamian civilization (or Fertile Crescent) - along the banks of the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers
B. Egyptian civilization - along the banks of the Nile River in Africa
C. Indian civilization - in the valleys along the Indus River
D. Chinese civilization - along the yellow river (or Huang Ho River)

2 Early religions originated in Asia

A. Hinduism-India -
B. Zoroastrianism - Iran (formerly Persia)
C. Judaism - Israel (formerly Palestine)
D. Christianity - Israel (formerly Palestine)
E. Islamism - Saudi Arabia
F. Buddhism - India

3. Important achievements or contributions of Ancient world to civilization

a. Oriental/Eastern world
1) Mesopotamia or Fertile Crescent -- comprised of different groups
Sumerians - invention of wheels; irrigation system; cuneiform writing
Babylonians - unification of city states in the Fertile Crescent under Hammurabi and
formulation of the Code of Hammurabi Assyrians - organized or highly centralized
Chaldeans - under Nebuchadnezzar, rebuilt the City of Babylon; built the Hanging
Gardens; made Hebrew captive in what was known as the Babylonian Captivity
Hebrews - settlers in Palestine (presently Israel) from the tribe of Abraham who spread
the monotheistic idea (worship of one God Yahweh); Moses, a descendant of Abraham
was given the Mosaic Law (Ten Commandments) by God
Phoenicians - settlers of Phoenicia (presently Lebanon) who were known as ancient
world's great maritime traders who gave us the alphabet of 22 letters (known as
Phonetic alphabet)
Persians - established the first world empire whose territory is presently known as Iran;
adopted the teaching of Zoroaster
2) Egypt
Built the great pyramids; invented a form of writing known as hieroglyphics; known for
mummification; devised a calendar of 365 days

3) India
Earliest inhabitants were Dravidians who had an organized system of settlements in
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Aryan invasion and their
settlement along the Indus River valley later gave them identity as Hindus.

Hinduism evolved from the merging of Dravidian and Aryan manner of worship, main
features of which are reincarnation and a rigid social class
known as Caste System.

4) China
Name derived from Chin dynasty founded by Shih Huang Ti who was also responsible
for the construction of the Great Walls. China is also

credited for the invention of printing press; for requiring civil service exams for
government officials; invented gun powder; produced silk and was known for its great
philosophers, Confucius (golden rule); Lao Tzu (Taoism) and Mencius.

b. Western World
1) Greece
A. Hellas - early name and its civilization was termed Hellenic
B. Athens and Sparta - famous city states (polis)
C. Homer - famous author of (Iliad and Odyssey)
D. Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles - famous Athenian reformers who laid
the foundation of a democratic system of government
E. Famous / Significant events:
- Persian war - Athens led the Greeks in repulsing Persia
- Petoponnesian War" was fought between rival Greek states Athens and
Sparta. Sparta prevailed
- Macedonian invasion - invasion of "barbaric" Macedonians led by Philip II
who eventually became Master of Greece. His son Alexander the Great succeeded him.
F. Golden Age of Greece - 5th to 4th Century BC) - attained by Athens after
the Persian War. Famous personalities: Pericles, statesman, Demosthenes, orator,
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, philosophers; Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes
(dramatists); Herodotus (Father of History), Thycydides and
Xenophon - historians; Colonium, architect of the famous Parthenon
G. Alexander the Great - Successor of Philip of Macedonia, tutored by
Aristotle and extended Greek empire to the East. He was responsible in blending
Hellenic culture with the East and such combination was referred to as Hellenistic
culture. After his death, the empire broke up into Egypt, Syria and Macedonia and by
150 BC the Romans conquered Greece.

2) Rome
A. Romulus - legendary founder of Rome in 753 BC
B. Etruscans - established a strong monarchy in the 6th century but their
autocratic rule led to their downfall when the Romans overthrew them C. Romany
established a Republic
D. Two classes of people: Patricians and Plebeians
E. Senate - the ruling body in the Republic but dominated by Patricians
(upper class)
F. Twelve Tables -a legislation which gave Plebeians (lower class) equal
participation in government
G. Punic Wars-fought by Rome against Carthage and resulted in Rome's
acquisition of Spain a group of continued the
H. First Triumvirate (Julius Caesar, Pompey, Cassius) military leaders
responsible for the expansion of Rome
I. Second Triumvirate (Anthony, Lepidus, Octavius) work started by the
First Triumvirate
J. Octavius (later known as Augustus Caesar) - was responsible for further
expansion of Rome; bestowed the title "Prince?" (First citizen); crowned the first
emperor of the Roman Empire under whose reign. PAX ROMANA prevailed
K. Weak successors later split the empire into two: Western Roman Empire
and Eastern Roman Empire (later known as Byzantine Empire.

L. Fall of Rome (476 A.D.) was due to the attack of Teutonic Germanic
tribes. Only the Western Empire fell. Eastern Roman Empire gained strength and later
on flourished as the Byzantine Empire.

Medieval Period
1. Dark Ages - ushered in the Middle Ages. Barbarians from Germany
dominated the Western Roman Empire after Its fall thus the grandeur of Rome was lost.

2. Franks - barbaric tribe that settled in Gaul (presently France). Their

conversion to Christianity inspired them to restore Europe into a civilized world again.
Charles Martel defended Europe from being dominated by the Moslems, Under
Charlemagne; France expanded its territory at the same time spreading the Christian
faith. In recognition of his work for the Church, he was crowned by the Pope and was
given the title Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

3. Supremacy of the Christian Church

a. Pope, the head of the Church was looked up to by rulers of kingdoms

b. Church was responsible in reviving education because monasteries had

kept literary works and works of arts
c. The Church through its officials received material favors from monarchs
and noblemen such that the Church became wealthy.

4. Feudalism social, economic and political system

characterized by strong lord and vassal relationship where the lord gave protection to
the vassal and the vassal rendered services to the lord (act of fealty) Chivalry - in
reference to the trait expected of a Knight where he had to manifest refinement in
manners and courage and commitment in the defense of his lord. Manorial system -
where economic activities revolve around agriculture to generate income for the lord.
5 Crusades
A series of military expeditions by the Christians of Western Europe during the 11th and
13th century to take back the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims.

6. Guild System

Modem Period
1. Renaissance - this movement to revive the study of Graeco-Roman
classics ushered in the modern times. Humanism of the Greeks and Romans was
revived such that liberalism characterized this period.
2. Age of Revolutions
a. Intellectual Revolution
• started with the age of enlightenment or age of reason
b. Scientific Revolution
• where discovery and inventions took place This ushered in the Age of
Discovery and exploration of territories. c. Industrial Revolution
• marked by change in economic life. Hard labor was replaced by
machineries. Industrial Revolution started in England and it is still in progress today.
Commercial Revolution was an offshoot of Industrial Revolution. d. Political Revolution

• This revolution is aimed at changing government. This was an offshoot of
the spread of liberal ideas. Two Famous revolutions; French Revolution (1789-1799);
American Revolution (1775-1783). e. Religious Revolution
• Reformation - a move started by Wycliffe and Hus and pursued by Martin
Luther aimed at reforming some practices of the Christian Church.
• Counter-reformation - a movement undertaken by the Catholic Church to
reform its own ranks.

World War I - immediate cause was the assassination of Archduke Frances Ferdinand of
Austria on June 28, 1914. Warring groups: Triple Entete (Allied Powers) composed of
England, France and Russia; Triple Alliance (Central Powers) composed of Germany,
Austria and Turkey. United States declared neutrality but joined the Allied Powers when
Germany torpedoed the British ship "Lusitanian" where several Americans were on

World War II (1939-1945) - war of ideology (Democracy vs. Totalitarianism). Immediate

cause was invasion of Poland by Hitler on September 1, 1939. Warring groups were:
Allied Powers (England, France and Russia) and Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and
Japan). Axis powers advocated Totalitarianism (Hitler's Nazism; Mussolini's Fascism
and Hirohito's Totalitarianism). United States entered the war in 1941 when Japan
bombed its biggest military base in the Pacific on December 8, 1941. US entry turned
the tide of the war in favor of the Allied Powers to where US sided. Germany and Italy
readily surrendered in early 1945- War finally ended after US decided to drop atomic
bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 when Japan refused to peacefully

Postwar Period - characterized by cold war between US (democracy) and USSR

(communism). Cold War is a state of diplomatic tension or war of nerves without
resulting to actual fighting. Struggles for supremacy between US and USSR were
manifested in Korean War (North and South Korea). Benin Crisis (East and West
Germany); Vietnam War (North and South Vietnam); Space race; Arms Race.

In 1949 Mainland China came under communist rule when Mao TseTung successfully
entrenched himself in power, President Chang Kai-Shek was forced to go in exile in
Taiwan (Formosa) and continued to administer the nationalist government there. This
conflict between Mainland China and Taiwan raised the issue of "One China or Two
China policy".

League of Nation was replaced by United Nations in October 24, 1945.

1991 saw the disintegration of USSR when Mikhail Gorbachev advocated the "glasnost
and "perestroika". East and West Germany also united.

As the world moved towards the 21st century, globalization was pursued. The five areas
emphasized are:
1. Globalization of markets
2. Globalization of communication
3. Globalization of culture

4. Globalization of ideology
5. Political globalization

September 11, 2001 - the world was shaken when the World Trade Center in New York
City US was destroyed where thousand of people died. Suspected brain of such terrorist
attack was Osama Bin Laden who to this day is still being hunted.

Asian Studies


I. Asia: Geographical features and its development

Geographical Features
World's largest continent (17,139,000 sq. miles – nearly1/3 or the earth’s land).
Geographically it is compact and unified
Boundaries: Ural mountains from Europe; Red Sea and Suez Canal from Africa
It is a continent of physical contrast Mt. Everest, world's highest mountain (29,028 ft);
Dead Sea (1,292 ft. below sea level) as the lowest Term Asia was derived from an early
Aegean term ASER which meant "sunrise". ASIA was first used by Pindar, a Greek poet.

Regional Divisions of Asia

South Asia - centered on the Indian subcontinent. It includes India, Pakistan. Ceylon,
Afghanistan, Himalayan kingdoms of Nepal, Bhutan and Indian protectorate, Sikkim
Southeast Asia -- a relatively recent term that came into usage during World War II. It
covers Burma (Myanmar), Thailand. Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore,
Indonesia, Brunei and Philippines
East Asia - China and Taiwan (Formosa), Korea, Japan. This region is more often
referred to as Far East by the Westerners because it is the part of Asia
Southwest Asia - known to Westerners as the Near East for these are countries nearest
to Europe. More recently, Westerners refer to this region as Middle East for it is midway
between Western Europe and East Asia. These include Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria,
Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. People's Republic of South Yemen,
Kuwait and the Tracial States.

B. Asia in World History

Asia is the biggest continent
It has very important economic potentials (varied resources)
It also has demographic potentials - more than half of the world's population is in Asia
where there is low death rate. high birth rate and longer life expectancy
Asia was the seat of the world's civilization
Asia's nationalism is a powerful force which is shaping the future of Asia and the world
Asia is the home of religions

C. Pre-historic Asia
1. Earliest man
- Asia is said to be the place which has yielded the greatest number of
fossils of simian species. Ramapithecus fossils were discovered in Pakistan and in the
Yunnan Province in China. Ramapithecus fossils is said to be the closest to man.

- Earliest man's capacity for production was Shown through the
development of tools. Technology divides the evolutionary period of culture into:
• Stone Age
• Bronze Age
• Iron Age
- Activities engaged in during Stone Age: food gathering, hunting. Mastery
of fire was a great step in man's emancipation from the environment
2. Peopling of the Pacific was the greatest feat of colonization. Migration
took place in Southeast Asia, Australia and its island neighbors in the great Oceans
(Melanesia, Polynesia, Micronesia)

D. Birth of Civilization
Bronze Age (3,000 BC - 1800 BC) saw the birth of civilization
Early civilization started in the river valleys
Tigris-Euphrates - Mesopotamia
Nile - Egypt
Indus - India
Yellow River - China
Characteristics / Indicators of Civilization existence of political system division of labor /
occupation became specialized system of writing organized trade existence of class
structure monumental architecture
representational art
Development of religions
a. Hinduism - India
b. Buddhism - India
c. Christianity - Israel
d. Islamism - Saudi Arabia
e. Judaism - Israel
f. Zoroastrianism - Persia (presently Iran)
g. Shintoism - Japan

E. Warrior Groups Responsible for the Unification of the Peoples of Asia

1. HUNS (from Neolithic Period to about 1200 A.D.) also known as Hsiung
Nus -

Horse riding people, semi-nomadic who attempted to move towards the fertile lands of
China. They were based in Mongolia then extended to Manchuria, Central Asia and
even reached as far as the Slavic territories to Germany and Spain in the 5th century.

Greatest leader was Attila who upon reaching Rome was persuaded by Pope Leo the
Great to give up his plans to take Rome.

Based in Central Asia (near Lake Baal), they lived in small groups of few families. Basic
social and political units were patriarchal dans: spiritual life was
focused on loyalty to cian. Polygamy necessitated the acquisition of wives outside of the
clan and in most cases, wives were obtained through seizure.

Genghis Khan (or Chinggis Khan) was formerly known as Temujen. He acquired the
name Genghis or Chinggis (meaning "universal ruler") after successful
conquest were made by him. His empire extended as far as Middle East and Europe.
They were noted for espionage and psychological warfare

3. OTTOMAN TURKS – 11TH Century

Original home near Gobi dessert, Siberia and Turkestan. "Ottoman" was derived from
the third caliph Osman. They moved westward into Europe. Great
leader was Sulaiman.
Contribution of the Warrior Groups:
1. Advanced the knowledge of metallurgy
2. Evolved different political systems
3. Fostered international trading

F. Development of Empires
1. Persian Empire (West Asia)
Recognized as the first biggest empire, especially during the time of Cyrus, Captivity of
Babylon, the capital of the Chaldean empire in 539 BC signified the
ascendancy of this Aryan race over the older cultures. The empire included the Iranian
Plateau, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia, Sogdania, Egypt (conquered by Cambyses).
Darius moved westward through the Balkans only to be repulsed by the Greeks in the
famous Battle of Marathon. Eastward, Persian reached as far as Punjab in India.
- Persian empire was known for its organized political system where the
empire was divided into political units known as satrapes ruled by satraps. This satrapes
could be the equivalent of present day provinces.
- Zoroastrianism was advocated most especially during the time of Darius,
when he declared that sovereignty was granted to him by Ahura Mazda because he
advocated this god's teaching which was to act righteously and justly to all men.
- Lengua franca was Aramaic, serving as language of official
- Persia developed a system of communication by providing road network
where messengers of the Great King rode back and forth from satrapes

2. Indian Empire (South Asia)

- Indus valley civilization (Harappa and Mojendro Daro) was disintegrating
in 1500 BC when Aryans entered north-west of India. Aryans or Indo- Aryans were
descendants of Indo-Europeans (from North Iranian plateau)
- Empire building was credited to the Mauryan Dynasty (321-183 B.C.),
although to some historians, the Nanda dynasty laid the foundation of empire building
but this was cut short by Chandragupta Maurya who usurped the throne and in him the
imperial idea materialized.
- Political system was similar to that of Persia where the empire was
divided into provinces for administrative purposes.
- Hinduism evolved - which was a religion that blended the aborigines
(Dravidians) manner of worship and the Aryans religious beliefs and practices.
- Brahmannical theories influenced the characterization of Kingship
- Caste system was institutionalized where Indian society was divided into
Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra.

- In 6th century BC, opposition to the rigidity of the Caste system led to the
development of Buddhism and Jainism. Buddhist propagated a new concept of Dharma
which emphasized tolerance and non-violence.
- During the reign of Asoka (3rd century BC) Buddhism was accepted
because he himself had become a zealous follower. He used the Buddhist religious
principles for secular purposes such that his reforms were focused on humanity in
internal administration and the abandonment of aggressive war. He termed his territorial
expansion as conquest of Righteousness.

G. Development of Trade
- Commerce between Europe and Asia began as early as the first century
A.D. - Trade / Commerce was conducted through land routes and sea routes -
Trade centers between 200 AD to 1500 AD were:
1. Mediterranean - West Asian Trade Complex
2. Central Asia Trade Complex
3. Strait of Malacca - Indo China Trade Complex
4. Indian Ocean Trade Complex
- Effects of the expansion of Trade
1. Spread of sericulture or silk culture (The Chinese were called "Seres" or
"Serices" by the Romans. These two terms may have originated from the Chinese word
for silk)

By the 3rd century A.D. Korea and Japan acquired the knowledge of sericulture and by
the 6th century Byzantium teamed the secret of sericulture
2. Buddhism spread to China and to the rest of Southeast Asia and Far
East 3. Christianity and Islamism found their way to China and other parts of
4. By 7th century centers of power were:
Tang Dynasty - China
Islam - West Asia
Byzantine (Turkey) - West Asia

5. Trade played an important role in defining Asia and Asian civilization to

the Western word:
Earliest reference to Asia was made by Herodotus who wrote about the "nomad
synethians who dwelt in Asia"
Western world perceived Asia as the source of silk, spices and various exotic products
Asia and Europe were linked. Goods were exchanged and migration of people took
place Asian religions were spread to different parts of the world Culture was
II. Asia's Transition
A. Age of Exploration and Discovery in Europe
1. European countries set out to explore lands for economic and military
2. Territories greatly affected were the Americas, Africa and Asia. B.
Imperialism in Asia
Most countries in Asia came under colonial rule particularly those in Southeast Asia,
except Thailand
China was under "sphere of influence."

Korea (hermit Kingdom) and Japan went out into isolation to avoid the influences of
western countries but eventually were opened to allow Western countries to trade with
C. Asia's involvement with the West dragged her into 2 global wars. In
World War II Japan actively led the war in the Pacific on the side of the Axis Powers.
Japan occupied most of the territories in Southeast Asia.
D. After World War ft, colonies occupied by Japan came again under
Western rule but were eventually given independence. Korea was divided; so with
Vietnam due to ideology (Democracy advocated by USA and Communism by USSR) E.
Experiences from colonial rule changed the outlook of most people in Asia.

III. Great Contribution of Asia to Civilization A. Architecture and

- Great Walls - China (initial construction by Shin Huang Ti)
- Taj Mahal - India (constructed by Shah Jahan)
- Hanging Garden - Babylon (by Nebuchadnezzar)
- Pyramid - Egypt (in Ancient Times, Egypt was considered part of the
Orient) B. Form of Writing:
- Hieroglyphics-Egypt
- Cuneiform-Mesopotamia
- Sanskrit - India
C. Religions - all major religions and many other minor religions of the world originated
in Asia D. Empire building
E. Great Philosophers: Confucius, Lao Tzu, Mencuis


A. History – study of past events based on evidences; story of man
through the ages.
B. Periodization In History
1. Pre-historic – period when there were no written records of man’s
a. Paleolithic or Old Stone Age
b. Neolithic or New Stone Age
c. Metal Age
2. Historic Period – men’s progress were recorded
a. Ancient
b. Medieval
c. Modern

C. Ancient World

Cradles of Civilization: Asia and Africa

1. First Civilization were in the river alleys
a. Mesopotamia – region between the Tigris and Euphrates River (fertile
crescent region)
b. Egyptian – a long banks of Nile river in Africa
c. India – in the valley of Indus river
d. Chinese – along the Yellow river
2. Early Religions
a. Hinduism – India
b. Zoroasterianism – Persia (Iran)
c. Christianity – Israel (formerly Palestine)
d. Islamism – Saudi Arabia
3. Important Contributions
a. Mesopotamia
1. art of irrigation
2. invention of wheels
3. cuneiform (form of writing)
4. Code of Hammurabi
5. Hanging Garden of Babylon
6. Monotheism (worship of one god) of the Hebrews
7. Mosaic Law (law given by God to Moses)
8. Phonetic Alphabet
b. Egyptian
1. Great Pyramid
2. Hieroglyphics
3. Calendar of 365 days
c. India
1. Dravidians were the first inhabitants; invaded by Aryans
2. Caste System – a rigid social structure
3. religion – Hinduism main feature reincarnation
d. China
1. Invented gun powder
2. printing press

3. produced textile called silk
4. civil service examination
5. Great Walls of China
6. Great philosophers – Confucius, Lao Tzu and Mencius

Western World
1. Greece
a. Isolated city government (“polis”)
b. Reform started by Solon
c. Cleisthenes and Pericles gave all classes of Athen citizens chance to
participate in government
d. Athens began the democratic system
e. Sparta had the militaristic system
f. Great Philosophers – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
g. Hellenic culture
h. Famous conqueror and statesman of Greece was Alexander the Great of
Macedon, He was responsible for the spread of Hellenistic culture thru his
conquest, after his death the empire broke up into Egypt, Syria, and
Macedonia and during 150 BCE invaded by the Romans
2. Rome
a. Romulus as founder in 753 B.C.
b. Under Etruscans they were ruled by a king

c. Etruscan driven out by Romans and Republic was established
d. Society: patrician (upper class) Plebeians (lower class)
e. War between Roman and Carthagenians (Punic war); Rome acquired
f. The expansion of Rome started during the First Triumvirate (Julius
Caesar, Pompey & Cassius)
g. Julius Ceasar expanded Rome’s territory
h. Julius Ceasar was assassinated by his friends Gaius Cassius Longinus
and Marcus Junius Brutus of March 15 which is called the “Ides of March”
i. Second Triumvirate ( Octavian, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark
j. Pax Romana or the lasting peace during the reign of Augustus Caesar
and succeeding emperors
k. The Roman Empire split into Western and Eastern Roman Empire or the
Byzantine Empire
l. Downfall of the Roman empire was due to the attacks of the Teutonic
Germanic tribes
m. The famous structure during this time were the colosseum,
amphitheater, aqueduct
n. Jurisprudence, Rome’s contribution
o. The Byzantine Empire collapsed when Constantinople was conquered
by the Ottoman Turks in 1453

D. Medieval Period
1. Dark Age – The Roman Empire was overrun by Teutonic Tribes and fell
in 476 A.D. Small tribal Germanic kingdoms were established such as
Franks, Visigoths, Burgundians, Saxons and Vandals
2. Supremacy of Christian Church - education revived through church;
church had great influence on people and government
3. Feudalism – socio political economic system that prevailed in Europe, a
manorial system was established; period of chivalry or knighthood
4. Crusades – series of military expeditions by Christians against Muslims
to take back Holy Land.

The Americas
This was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492
It was named after Amerigo Vespucci who explored the coast of South
It was known as Mesoamerica for it includes Central America and
There were groups of people which settled in this continent first such as

1. Olmecs, they existed about 500 BCE and lay the foundation of the Meso
-American civilization 2. Mayan culture existed until 1000 CE; built great
temples and pyramids; their city states was connected by trade 3. Aztecs
culture known for the great city of Tenochtitlan which was built on 1325;

conquered the Indian Tribes that surrounds them and sacrificed human
beings; education play a vital role in the Aztec society 4. Incas empire was
developed in South America in 1200; their engineers conquer the
mountains; they had a strong political organization Flowering of African
Civilizations 1. Nubians established a kingdom in southern part of the Nile
river or the present day, SUDAN 2. Kingdom of Kush: the Kushites inherits
the power of ancient Egypt and set up a new capital of Meroe 3. Axum
becomes a trading power and known at present as Ethiopia 4. Kingdoms of
West Africa a. GHANA – salt as an important trade item and gold b. MALI –
“where the king resides”; Mansa Musa open trade routes and protect the
trade Caravans; the empire reached its peak during his reign and it
stretched from the Atlantic coast c. SONGHAI – devoted to Islam; Islamic
teachings 5. African Trading Cities and States
Bantu speaking peoples migrate east and south; new food crops such
as banana and “taro” were introduced by the Southeast Asian sailors or
Congo empire grew and prospered wherein people were known for their
skills in pottery making, weaving, iron working, and sculpture
Great Zimbabwe became the religious and political center of the Bantu
kingdom, trade links between Africa and Asia was developed

Australia and Ocenia • The first people that migrated to Australia was
between 70,000 – 50,000 years ago • The GREATER AUSTRALIA that
comprised of Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania were linked by land
bridges • Oceania was comprised of the following areas that were settled
by people from Indonesia from the following approximate dates as:
Micronesia – 1800 BCE Polynesia – 300 A.D. Melanesia – 1300 BCE •
New Zealand was settled in 800 A.D.
E. ModernPeriod

Renaissance period – revival of Greek classics. Man’s confidence in

himself was revived. Humanism was revived Age of Exploration Explorers
seek new routes to Asia Europeans conquer and colonize the Americas
Trade and commerce change 3

Age of Revolution
1. Intellectual Revolution – Ideas of Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes,
Voltaire and Montesquiu and Rousseau influenced thinking.
2. Scientific revolution – changes in scientific views and age of inventions
3. Industrial Revolution

The name given by Arnold Toynbee to describe the changes in economic

life of England caused by remarkable series of inventions during the period
of 1777 – 1815. Main feature of this period is the replacement of hand labor
with machine labor. Machines were first powered by water then by coal and
electricity. Industrialization spread to other countries in the late 19th century
especially in Germany and United States. The growth of an industrialized
society brought with it many social problem such as employment of child
labor in factories and the growth of new towns without regards for health
and proper planning. 4. Commercial Revolution – brought about by
colonial expansions Imperialism - rule of powerful countries over weaker
5. Reformation – period of change in Western Christendom. Reform

certain beliefs in the Roman Catholic. The Catholic church reacted to the
Protestant movement by asserting itself and pushing back the tide of
Protestianism. The Council of Trent instituted many reforms dealing with
conduct of church officials but did not accept Protestant changes Ignatius
de Loyola, founded the society of Jesus and won back territories which
were dominated by Protestants. Through then Catholicism was spread
America and Asia. 6. Political Revolution The spread of liberal ideas led
to revolution aimed at changing Government American Revolution –
(1775 – 1783) – was a struggle for independence from British rule by the
thirteen colonies. It actually started over the issue of taxation (no taxation
without representation) and ended up as a war independence. The war was
fought for eight years, although by July 4, 1776, the Second Continental
Congress of the 13th colonies drew up the famous Declaration
Independence. At the treaty of Paris in 1783, the independence of the
colonies was recognized and a republican government was formed George
Washington elected as the first president. French Revolution – (1789 –
1799) was inspired by the success of American Revolution. Breakdown in
government precipitated the revolution. It started with the Storming of the
Bastille (royal fortress). A new constitution was drawn up by the National
Assembly limiting the power of Louis XVI. By 1872 the French Republic
was declared. The king was deposed and beheaded. An orgy of bloodshed
followed which was called Reign of Terror (1793 – 1794) where Queen
Marie Antoinette was guillotined. Fresh from military campaigns Napoleon
Bonaparte returned to France to eventually rule as dictator for he was
made Consul for life by popular vote. Later the French Legislature made
him Emperor and through brilliant military campaigns became Master of
B. Global Wars

1. World War I (1914-1918) Caused by the assassination of the archduke
Ferdinand of Austria on June 28, 1914 at Seravejo by a Serbian nationalist.
Due to alliance formed among European powers (Triple Intente: England,
France and Russia and Triple Alliance; Germany, Austria and Turkey) the
war in Balkans spread to other parts of Europe and their respective
colonies. USA entered the war in 1917 on the side of the Alied power after
the British commercial ship Lusitanica was sunk by German Torpedos were
several American lives were lost. By 1918 Germany sued for peace and
settlement followed (Treaty of Versailles). About 11 million died and the
horror of the war was clear to many. 2. World War II (1935-1945) This was
a war of ideology; between totalitarism (Hitler’s Nazism; Mussolini’s
Facism; and Japan’s totalitarism) and democracy. European war began
in Sept. 1, 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland. The war in the Pacific started
with the bombing of the Pearl harbor on December 8, 1941 by Japan,
which drew USA into war on the side of the Allied Powers, prisoners of war
in the Pacific were ill-treated while those in Europe millions of Jewish and
civilians died in concentration camps such as in Auschwitz. US entry into
the war in Europe turned the tide of the war in favor of the Allied Powers.
Germany and Italy surrendered in 1945. Meanwhile in the Pacific, Japan
surrendered only after the atomic bombs were dropped in Hiroshima and
C. Post War Period

Characterized by the struggle for supremacy between communism (USSR)

and democracy (USA). USSR showed intentions of imposing communistic
rule in areas freed from Axis control, such as in Germany and Korea. This
resulted in the so-called cold war, a 4

state of a diplomatic tension or a war of nerves without resort to an actual
fighting. There occurs a constant maneuvering between the two powers for
economic advantage and for the friendship of other countries. To avert or to
prevent one state from becoming powerful to endanger others, a balance
has to be maintained.
1. Cold War is the state of diplomatic tension between two superpowers:
2. United Nations was formed in October 24, 1945 to replace the League of
3. In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev of USSR introduced a new economic,
political and socio-cultural change known as Glasnost (openness) and
Perestroika (economic reform) in Soviet Union. It resulted in the
disintegration of USSR while USA remained as the sole superpower.

Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) Review Focus: Philosophy
and Logic = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
= = = = = = = = = Content Update I. Philosophy
Etymologically, philosophy comes from two Greek words, philia which
means “to love” and sophia which means “wisdom”.
Traditionally defined as the science of all things studied from the
viewpoint of their ultimate causes under the light of human reason alone.
The study of the truths or principles underlying all knowledge, being and
reality, including values, meanings, and purposes of human life.

Division of Philosophy
1. Epistemology - literally means “the study and nature of knowledge”. It
deal with questions of knowledge (including the structure, reliability, extent
and kinds of knowledge); truth, validity, and logic; and a variety of linguistic
concerns (e.g. the question of whether truth is relative).
2. Metaphysics - addresses questions of reality (including the meaning
and nature of being); the nature of mind, self, and human freedom; and
some topics that overlap with religion, such as the existence of God, the
destiny of the universe and the immortality of the soul (e.g. question of
whether human behavior is free or determined).
3. Axiology- the area of Philosophy that specifically deals with the problem
of human values
4. Ethics - study of values and moral principles and how they relate to
human conduct to our social and political institutions (e.g. question of
whether human beings have the moral obligation to love and serve others,
or only obligation to themselves). A standard for calling a human act right
or wrong; good or evil. The practical and philosophical science of morality,
of human acts, or human conduct. Came from the word ethics which
means the doctrine of morality
5. Logic-the systematic treatment of relationship of ideas
6. Cosmology- theories of the nature and origin of the universe
7. Philosophy of Man/ Philosophy of human person-deals with the
nature and purpose of man
8. Social and Political Philosophy- deals with the nature of society and
socialization process.

9. Theodicy- the study of the nature, essence and existence of God using
human reason
10. Aesthetics- the study of the nature and appreciation of beauty

Classical Philosophy A. What is Idealism?

Meaning is in the ideals of life itself
• Reality is made up of absolute truths
• Educationally, this means the use of inductive reasoning, lecturing
• Plato was an early key proponent of this model
• Truth or reality exists in ideas or in the spirit or mind
• Material objects are mere representations of idea
• Will governs our conduct
• Judges behavior in terms of motives (not in results)
• Knowledge is obtained thru speculation and reasoning
• Society is organism in individuals participate
• Selfhood is attained thru social processes
• With society providing the matrix for the development of the individual, the
individual progresses, then attaining self-realization
• At the same time, society develops in a process of realizing the good

B. What is Naturalism?
• Denies anything as having supernaturality
• Concepts are formed from the physical universe
• Human being is just only transitory product of physical processes
• Thus human and society are dependent upon nature
• Society as aspect/part of nature [not so much of organism]
• Individual is nature’s offspring [not a child of society]
• Though individual is dependent on nature

C. What is Realism?
Universe as composed of beings existing independently but related and
forming a hierarchical structure (cosmos/totality)
Meaning comes through empirically proven facts
Reality is made up of natural laws, facts
However, empirical facts are always subject to change
Educationally this involves scientific reasoning

But human nature is not achieved by virtues alone
Human nature aims to achieve the ultimate goal (happiness) by
transcending self-realization [self is fulfilled with others]
Aristotle asserts that individual is part of the whole
Anyone is who is not part of society is like a beast or a god (not a
Society is the external support to man’s fulfillment
Thus, state as an organized society has a moral purpose of maintaining
order and exercising justice for the common good

D. What is Liberalism?
Aims at the development of individual freedom
• Society is one which individuals are left free to pursue their own interest
and fulfillment
• There is restraint imposed in order to keep individuals from harming
• Liberalism believes that human being having rational intellect, have the
ability to recognize problems and solve them, thus achieving improvement
in society
• Opposite of liberalism is conservatism (supports the maintenance of
status quo)

E. What is Humanism?
• Intellect distinguishes humans from animals
• Humans have potential/innate goodness
• Thus, educationally you facilitate and encourage self-direction
• Some educational needs may be missed?
• Abraham Maslow early proponent

Modern Philosophy A. What is Positivism?

• Based primarily on science, Auguste Comte was the first to use the term
when he developed his philosophical idea of laws of societal growth
• Three ascending stages

- theological stage – explains natural phenomena by involving spiritual

being - metaphysical stage – depersonalizes these beings into forces and
essences - positive stage – relies mainly on sciences
• One’s duties to society and humanity prevails over individual interests
• Development of society is based on sciences, technology, industry
• But it should be accompanied by moral regeneration (welfare of society is
more important that private interests)

B. What is Communism?
• It is not the consciousness of man that determines their beings, but rather
it is their social being that determines their consciousness

• He viewed history as a history of class struggles (between capitalist class
and proletariat)
• There is exploitation, oppression, marginalization and alienation among
the working class because of the capitalist system
• There is a connection between the economic aspect of social life to other
aspects (education, religion, laws, etc)
• Marx claims that capitalism will dig its own graveyard. Capitalism will
continue to develop to the point of extreme exploitation
• The result is social revolution which will be initiated by the working class
• The dominant ideas are the ideas of the ruling class (elite)

C. What is Fascism?
• Adolf Hitler (Nazi Germany); Benito Mussolini (Italian Dictator)
• Totalitarian philosophy of government that heightened national belonging
• It rejects liberal ideas like freedom, liberty
• Presses the destruction of election, legislatures, other democratic
• Glorification of the state. Total subordination of individual to the state. The
state has absolute power
• Survival of the fittest. Complacency is doomed. Aggressive militarism is a
leading character of fascist state (leads to imperialism)
• Elitism – the dictator embodies the ideals of the nation. The leader as

D. What is Existentialism?
Philosophy of subjectivity or selfhood whose fundamental doctrine
proclaims man’s freedom in the accomplishment of his destiny
Human existence was marked off from other kinds of man’s power to
The decision we make will make us the kind of person that is distinct
totally from every other person.
Thus every value is dependent upon the free choice of every man

E. What is Pragmatism?
• Contribution of American philosophy (John Dewey, William James,
Charles Peirce)
• Theory that the processes and the materials of knowledge are determined
by practical consideration
• It is supported experimental sciences (laboratory method) – hypotheses
are ideas or proposed solutions to problems
• Truth is which that works, solves the problems
• Pragmatist focus on the consequences and how they are controlled thru
intelligence is the foundation of their concepts of person and society

• Person is a social animal (associational being)
• For pragmatist, a person is a problem solver in a plural environment

Eastern Philosophy A. What is Hinduism? Hinduism - a worldwide

religious tradition rooted in Indian culture and based on teachings of the
Vedas. It is the major religion of India, accounting for 85% of the
population. It has known as "Trimurti" which consists of BRAHMA, the
supreme spirit, VISHNU, the preserver, and SHIVA, the destroyer and
creator. 1. What are social classes of Hindu known as caste system?
o Brahmins/Brahmans - the priests
o Kshatriyas - the nobles and the warriors
o Vaisyas - the traders, cultivators, peasants
o Sudras - the servants (Outside the caste system are the untouchables
or outcasts)

The Hindu's life is governed by the law of "karma" which is a process or

series of birth and rebirth until one attains perfection and finally reaches
"nirvana" - the place or eternal happiness and bliss. Under this belief, the
sum of the person's actions carried from one life to the next results in either
an improved or worsened fate. 2. What are four main collections of
Vedas (sacred text)? -Rig Veda - hymns and praises -Yajur Veda -prayer
and sacrificial formulas -Sama Veda - tunes and chants -Athan/a Veda -
magical formulas B. What is Buddhism? Buddhism - one of the major
religions of the world; founded by Siddharta Gautama, the Buddha, who
lived in Northern India. 1. What are the Two Major Division of
Buddhism? 1. Theravada or "Way of the Elders" (the more conservative
type), popular in Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand 2. Mahayana or "Great
Vehicle" (liberal type), dominant in Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and Tibet 2.
What are the four noble truths advocated by Buddha?
o Life is suffering (duhka);
o The cause of suffering is desire;
o The end of suffering is to stop desire; and
o To stop desire is to follow the Noble Eight-fold Path (to break the chain
of karma and to reach Nirvana)

3. What are the Noble Eight-fold Path?

o Right View
o Right Resolve
o Right Speech
o Right Action
o Right Livelihood
o Right Effort
o Right Concentration
o Right Contemplation

C. What is Confucianism? Confucianism - an East Asian school of
ethical, philosophical, and religious thought originally developed from the
teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius (551 - 479 B.C.E.). 1. What
are the Key Concepts in Confucian thoughts?
• Rites (ritual, sacrifice or social etiquette)
• Humaneness (The Golden Rule)
• The Perfect Gentleman/Exemplary Person ("son of a ruler," "prince," or
"noble," the ideal of a "gentleman")
• Proper governance ("government by virtue")
• Meritocracy
• Filial Piety (respect and obedience that a son should show to his parents)
• Loyalty (moral commitments to one's surrounding social, cultural, and
historical community as a whole)
• Rectification of names

D. What is Shintoism Shintoism - popular during the Imperial regime but

lost its popularity when Japan lost during the Second World War. Shinto
was not a Japanese word. It was derived from the Chinese "shon" (Gods)
and "tao" (the way). The intention was to distinguish this religion from
Buddhism when it first entered Japan. Shintoism - belief in the "kami no
michi" or the "way of the kami". Kami are Japanese deities or goods of
nature like the sun goddess, Kmaterasu, whom the Japanese believed that
the Imperial family came from. During the Imperial reign, Japan is said to
be a theocratic state. II. The Nature and Meaning of Logic
Logic is the science and the art of correct thinking
Logic is the study of inferential thinking and methods and processes to
arrive at principles for distinguishing correct from incorrect arguments.

Logic is the study of relationships of ideas and judgments that results
into a discovery of new ideas and judgments
Logic is the study of the mental operation by which the mind discovers
new truths from the relationships of known truths.
Logic is the study of right reasoning and good thinking. It is an important
tool in critical, strategic and creative thinking.

Correct Reasoning or Inference: End Task in Logic

Reasoning is the thinking process by which a conclusion is inferred from
the relationship or implication of premise/s
Argument is a set of statements related to infer a conclusion. It is the
product of reasoning
Syllogism is the verbal expression of an argument
Validity of Inference refers to the sequence of the thinking process in
such a way that the conclusion was derived from the relationship of the
Formal Validity means that the inference followed the established
structure or form of reasoning
Material Validity refers to the truthfulness of the content or meaning of
the reasoning process
Soundness refers to the reasoning process that is both valid and true
Truth refers to the agreement between reality and what is in the mind

Three Mental Product External

Operations: The Manifestation
key to Correct
Thinking Mental
1. Simple Concepts/Ideas Terms
2. Judgment Mental Statements Propositions
3. Reasoning Arguments Syllogisms



A.Geographical Features
 World’s largest continent (17,139,000 sq. miles – nearly 1/3 of the earth land).
 Geographically it is compact and unified
 Boundaries: Ural mountains from Europe; red Sea and Suez Canal from Africa
 It is a continent of physical contrast: Mt. Everest world’s highest mountain (29,028ft);
Dead Sea (1,292ft. below sea level) as the lowest.
 Term Asia was derived from an early Agean term ASER which meant “sunrise”.
ASIA was first used by Pindar, a Greek poet.

Regional Division of Asia

1. South Asia – centered on the Indian subcontinent. It includes India, Pakistan,
Ceylon, Afghanistan, Himalayan Kingdoms of Nepal, Bhutan and Indian
Protectorates, Sikkim
2. Southeast Asia – a relatively recent term thaht came into usage during World War
III. It covers Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia,
Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and Philippines.
3. East Asia – China and Taiwan (Formosa), Korea, Japan. This region is more often
referred to as Far East by the Westerners because it is part of Asia farthest east of
4. Western Asia – known to Westerners as the Near East for these are countries
nearest to Europe. More recently, Westerners refer to this region as Middle East for
it is midway between Westren Europe and East Asia. These include Iran, Iraq,
Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, People’s Republic of
South Yemen, Kuwait and the Tracial States.

B. ASIA in World History
1. Asia is the biggest continent
o It has very important economic potentials (varied resources)
o It also has demographic potentials – more than half of the world’s
population is in Asia where there is low death rate, high birth rate and
longer life expectancy

2. Asia was the seat of the world’s civilization

3. Asia’s nationalism is a powerful force which is shaping the future of Asia and the
4. Asia is the home of religions

C. Pre-historic Asia
1. Earliest Man
 Asia is said to be the place which has yielded the greatest number of fossils of
simian species. Ramapithecus fossils were discovered in Pakistan and in the
Yunnan Province of China. Ramapithecus fossils is sid to be the closest to man.
 Earliest man’s capacity for production was shown through the development of tools.
Technology divides the evolutionary period of culure into:
a. Stone Age
b. Bronze Age
c. Iron Age
 Activities engaged in during Stone Age: food gathering, hunting. Mastery of fire was
a great step in man’s emancipation from environment.

2. Peopling of the Pacific was the greatest feat of colonization. Migration took
place in Southeast Asia, Australia and its island neighbors in the great Oceans
(Melanesia, Polynesia, Micronesia)

D. Birth of Civilization
1. Bronze Age (3,000 BC – 1800 BC) saw the birth of civilization
2. Early civilization started in the river valleys
Tigris-Euphrates - Mesopotamia
Nile - Egypt
Indus - India
Yellow - China
3. Characteristics/Indicators of Civilization
a. existence of political system
b. division of labor/occupation became specialized
c. system of writing
d. organized trade
e. existence of class structure

f. monumental architecture
g. representational art
4. Development of Religions
a. Hinduism - India
b. Buddhism - India
c. Christianity - Israel
d. Islamism - Saudi Arabia
e. Judaism - Israel
f. Zoroasterianism - Persia (Iran)
g. Shintoism - Japan

E. Warrior Groups Responsible for the Unification of the Peoples of Asia

1. HUNS (from Neolothic Period to about 12000 AD) also known as Hsiung Nus
o Horseriding people, semi-nomadic who attempted to move toward the fertile
land of China. They were based in Mongolia thn extended to Manchuria,
Central Asia and even reached as far as the Slavic territories to Germany and
Spain in the 5th century.
o Greatest leader was Attila who upon reaching Rome was persuaded by Pope
Leo the Great to give up his plans to take Rome.

o Based in Central Asia (near Lake Baal), they lived in small groups of few
families. Basic social and political units were patriarchal clans; spiritual life
was focused on loyalty to clan. Polygamy necessitated the acquisition of
wives outside of the clan and in most cases, wives were obtained through
o Genghis Khan (or Chinggis Khan) was formerly known as as Temujen. He
acquired the name Genghis or Chinggis (meaning “universal ruler”) after
successful conquest were made by him. His empire extended as far as
Middle East and Europe. They were noted for espionage and psychological

3. OTTOMAN TURKS – (11th Century)

o Original home near Gobi dessert, Siberia and Turkestan. “Ottoman” was
derived from the third caliph Osman. They moved westward into Europe.
Great leader was Sulaiman.

Contribution of the Warrior Groups:

1. Advanced the knowledgde of metallurgy
2. Evolved different political systems
3. Fostered international trading

F. Development of Empire
1. Persian Empire (West Asia)
o Recognized as the first biggest empire especially during the time of Cyrus.
Captivity of Babylon, the capital of the Chaldean empire in 539 BC signified
the ascendancy of this Aryan race over the older cultures. The empire
included the Iranian Plateau, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia, Sogdania, Egypt
(conquered by Cambyses). Darius moved westward through the Balkans
only to be repulsed bb the Greeks in the “famous Battle of Marathon”.
Eastward, Persian reached as far as Punjab in India.
o Persian empire was known for its organized political system where the empire
was divided into political units known as satrapes ruled by satraps. This
satrapes could be the equivalent of present day provinces.
o Zoroastrianism was advocated most especially during the time of Darius,
when he declared that sovereignty was granted to him by Ahura Mazda
because he advocated this god’s teaching which was to act righteously and
justly to all men.
o Lengua franca was Aramaic, serving as language of official communication
o Persia developed a system of communication by providing road network
where messengers of the Great King rode back and forth from satrapes.

2. Indian Empire (South Asia)

o Indus valley civilization (Harappa and Mojendro Daro) was disintegrating in
1500 BC when Aryans entered north-west of India. Aryans or Indo-Aryans
were descendants of Indo-Europeans (from North Iranian plateau).
o Empire building was credited to the Mauryan Dynasty (321-183 BC), although
to some historians, the Nada Dynasty laid the foundation of empire building
but this was cut short by Chandragupta Maurya who usurped the throne and
in him the imperial idea materialized.
o Political system was similar to that of Persia where the empire was divided
into province for administrative purposes.
o Hinduism evolved – which was a religion that blended the aborigines
(Dravidians) manner of worship and the Aryans religious beliefs and
o Brahmannical theories influenced the characterization of Kingship
o Caste system was institutionalized where Indian society was divided into
Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra.
o In 6th century BC, opposition to the rigidity of the Caste system led to the
development of Buddhism and Jainism. Buddhist propagated a new concept
of Dharma which emphasized tolerance and non-violence.
o During the reign of Asoka (3th century BC) Buddhism aws accepted because
he himself had become a zealous follower. He used the Buddhist religious
principles fo secular purposes such that his reforms was focused on humanity
in internal administration and the abandonment of aggressive war. He termed
his territorial expansion as conquest of Righteousness.

G. Development of Trade
o Commerce between Europe and Asia began as early as the first century A.D.
o Trade/Commerce was conducted through land routes and sea routes

o Trade centers between 200AD to 1500 AD were:
1. Mediterranean – West Asian Trade Complex
2. Central Asia Trade Complex
3. Strait of Malacca – Indo China Trade Complex
4. Indian Ocean Trade Complex

o Effects of the Expansion of Trade

1. Spread of sericulture or silk culture (The Chinese were called “Seres” or

“Serices” by the Romans. These two terms may have originated from
the Chinese word for silk.
By the 3th century AD Korea and Japan acquired the knowlegde of
sericulture and by the 6th century Byzantium learned the secret of
2. Buddhism spread to China and to the rest of Southeast Asia and Far
3. Christianity and Islamism found their way to China and other parts of
4. By 7th century centers of power were:
Tang Dynasty - China
Islam - West Asia
Byzantine - West Asia
5. Trade played an important role in defining Asia and Asian civilization to
the Western world:
a. Earliest reference to Asia was made by Herodotus who wrote about the
“nomad synethians who dwelt in Asia”.
b. Western world perceived Asia as the source of silk, spices and various exotic
c. Asia and Europe were linked. Goods were exchanged and migration of
people took place
d. Asian religions were spread to different parts of the world
e. Culture was enriched


A. Age of Exploration and Discovery in Europe

B. Imperialism in Asia
1. Most countries in Asia came under colonial rule particulary those in Southeast
Asia, except Thailand
2. China was under the “sphere of influence”

3. Korea (hermit Kingdom) and Japan went out into isolation to avoid the
influences of western countries but eventually were opened to allow Western
countries to trade with tehm

C. Asia’s involvement with the West dragged her into 2 global wars. In World War
II Japan actively led the war in the Pacific on the side of the Axis Powers.
Japan occupied most of the territories in Southeast Asia.

D. After the World War II, colonies occupied by Japan came again under Western
rule but were eventually given independence. Korea was divided; so with
Vietnam due to ideology (Democracy advocated by USA and Communism by

E. Experience from colonial rule changed the outlook of most people in Asia.


A. Architecture and Engineering
o Great Walls – China (initial construction by Shing Huang Ti)
o Taj Mahal – India (contructed by Shah Jahan)
o Hanging Garden – Babylon (By Nebuchadnezzar)
o Pyramid – Egypt (in ancient time, Egypt was considered part of the Orient)

B. Form of Writing
o Hieroglphics – Egypt
o Cuneiform – Mesopotamia
o Sanskrit – India

C. Religions
D. Empire Building
E. Great Philosophers: Confucius, Lao Tzu, Mencius

Specialization and Content Area: Social Studies 1

Social Science Majorship Micro-Macroeconomics I. ECONOMICS
Oikonomia: Greek word meaning “management of the household”
Is a Social Science concerned with how individuals and society choose
to use its scarce resources to achieve maximum satisfaction of human
material wants.

Economics is the social science that studies the production,
distribution, and consumption of goods and services

Why study economics?

1. To learn a new way of thinking : Cost and benefit thinking
1. Scarcity: is the natural limitation of resources that nature and previous
generations have provided.
2. Opportunity cost: the cost or value of the next best alternative or choice
That which we forgo or give up, when we make a choice or a decision.
―No such thing as free lunch‖
3. marginalism: in weighting the cost and benefit of a decision, it is
important to weigh only the cost and benefit that arises from the decision.
2. To understand society
3. To understand global affairs
4. To become an informed voters

Tools in Economics: Theories and Models Assumption: principle that

economists use to simplify reality and make the world easier to understand.
One important assumption used in economics is “ceteris paribus” or “all
other things being equal or constant” it helps us simplify reality in order to
focus on the relationship that we are interested in. Variable: a measure
that can change from time to time and from observation to observation. e.g.
price, income, inflation, GDP, GNP Theory: a statement or set of related
statements about cause and effect, action and reaction. Model: a formal
statement of a theory. Usually a mathematical statement of a presumed
relationship between two or more variables DIVISION OF ECONOMICS
Microeconomics - The branch of economics that examines the
functioning of individual industries and the behavior of individual decision-
making units, that is, business forms and households.
Macroeconomics - The branch of economics that examines the
economic behavior of aggregates – income, employment, output, and so on
– in a national scale.


1) What to produce – The economic system must decide what goods and
services to produce with its land labor and capital
2) How to produce - The economic system must decide how to produce
each good or service – determining what mix of land, labor, and capital to
use in production methods to employ
3) For whom to produce – The economic system must decide which
members of society will receive how much of the goods and services
produced – the process of allocating income.

Economic Systems
1. Market Economy : This is also known as laissez-faire economy or free
market economy. In this type of economy individuals and firms pursue their
own self-interest without any central direction or regulation.

2. Command Economy : The basic economic questions are answered by
a central government or planning agency. Through a combination of
government ownership of enterprises and central planning the government
dictates the directions of the economy.
3. Mixed Economy : A regulated market economy. The government plays
a vital role in the economy while allowing the market mechanism to the
govern economy.

Production: the process of making goods and services to satisfy human

material wants and maximize profits. Factors of Production
1. Land: includes all resources found on land, and on the sea.
2. Labor: it can be define as any kind of work, either mental or manual in
nature, which has the sole purpose of receiving rewards. According to
Alfred Marshall, labor can be define as any exertion that the mind or body
undergone, either partly or totally, with the view of earning some other good
other than the pleasure derived from work itself.
3. Capital: refers to the stock of goods made by the people to help them in
the production of goods and services.
4. Entrepreneurship: coordinates all the factors of production to produce
goods and services.

How the Market Works Market: Is a mechanism by which the buyers and
sellers interact to determine both price and quantity of goods and services
Demand and Supply and Price Determination Demand: it is a market
expression of the cumulative willingness and ability of household to buy
different amount of product at different prices over a given period of time.
Demand schedule: a table showing the different amount of a product
that households will buy at all possible prices.
Specialization Quantities of
and Content Choc-nut
Area: Social Demanded
Studies 2
Price of Choc-
0 12
0.20 10
0.40 8
0.60 6
0.80 4
1.00 2


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