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FTDG-600-01-41672

FLASHWAVE 4270 RELEASE 4.1


TECHNICAL MANUAL

ISSUE 1, AUGUST 2007

FUJITSU LIMITED
Proprietary Rights Notice

All product or service names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective companies.

This document and its contents are provided by FUJITSU Limited (FUJITSU) for guidance purposes only. This document is
provided “as is” with no warranties or representations whatsoever, either express or implied, including without limitation the
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for purpose. FUJITSU does not warrant or represent that the contents of
this document are error free. Furthermore, the contents of this document are subject to update and change at any time
without notice by FUJITSU, since FUJITSU reserves the right, without notice, to make changes in equipment design or
components as progress in engineering methods may warrant. No part of the contents of this document may be copied,
modified, or otherwise reproduced without the express written consent of FUJITSU.

Unpublished work and only distributed under restriction.


Copyright © FUJITSU LIMITED. All Rights Reserved.

FLASHWAVE 4270 Release 4.1 FTDG-600-01-41672


FUJITSU and FUJITSU Customer Use Only
Technical Manual Issue 1, August 2007
Before You Begin

BEFORE YOU BEGIN


Read through this manual set carefully and familiarize yourself with the FLASHWAVE
4270 equipment before configuring, installing, turning up, performing operation and
maintenance of, and troubleshooting the equipment.

Keep the manual set at hand so that you can refer to it at any time.

Observe the notices and instructions provided in this manual set for your proper and
safety installation, use and maintenance of the equipment.

FTDG-600-01-41672 FLASHWAVE 4270 Release 4.1


FUJITSU and FUJITSU Customer Use Only i
Issue 1, August 2007 Technical Manual
Before You Begin

! Important Notice on Product Safety


Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment. Some of
the parts may also have elevated operating temperatures. Systems with forced ventilation have
rotating items.
Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal injury or in
property damage.
The system complies with the standard EN 60950-1 / IEC 60950-1. All equipment connected
has to comply with the applicable safety standards.
Mount the systems in areas with restricted access only. Only trained and qualified personnel
may install, operate, and maintain the systems.

Trademarks:
All designations used in this document can be trademarks, the use of which by third parties for
their own purposes could violate the rights of their owners.

FLASHWAVE 4270 Release 4.1 FTDG-600-01-41672


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Technical Manual Issue 1, August 2007
Contents

Contents

CHAPTER 1 Notes on this Documentation...............................................................................1-1


1.1 Customer Documentation ................................................................................................1-2
1.2 Symbols Used in the Customer Documentation..............................................................1-2
1.2.1 Symbol for Warnings .......................................................................................................1-2
1.2.2 Symbols for Notes ...........................................................................................................1-3
1.2.3 Symbols for Menu Displays and Text Inputs ...................................................................1-3
1.3 Notes on Licensed Software............................................................................................1-3
1.4 Standard Compliance ......................................................................................................1-3

CHAPTER 2 Introduction ..........................................................................................................2-1


2.1 Application Types ............................................................................................................2-2
2.1.1 Terminal Multiplexer Type ...............................................................................................2-2
2.1.2 Add/Drop Multiplexer Type ..............................................................................................2-3
2.1.3 Local Cross-connect Type ...............................................................................................2-4

CHAPTER 3 Overview of the Main Features............................................................................3-1

CHAPTER 4 Network Applications ...........................................................................................4-1

4.1 Terminal-to-Terminal Topologies.....................................................................................4-2


4.2 Linear Topologies with Add/Drop Function......................................................................4-2

4.3 Ring Network Functionality ..............................................................................................4-3


4.3.1 Single Ring.......................................................................................................................4-3
4.3.2 Multiple Ring Closure.......................................................................................................4-4
4.3.3 Dual Ring Interworking ....................................................................................................4-5

4.4 Data Service Applications................................................................................................4-5


4.4.1 Ethernet Private Line (EPL) .............................................................................................4-5
4.4.2 Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL) ...............................................................................4-6
4.4.3 Ethernet Private LAN (EPLan).........................................................................................4-7
4.4.4 Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLan) ...........................................................................4-8

CHAPTER 5 System Description ..............................................................................................5-1


5.1 Subrack............................................................................................................................5-2
5.2 Basic Functions ...............................................................................................................5-3
5.2.1 User Data Interfaces........................................................................................................5-3
5.2.2 Switch Fabric Functions...................................................................................................5-4
5.2.3 Multiplex and Mapping Functions ....................................................................................5-5
5.2.4 SDH Overhead Processing Function...............................................................................5-7
5.3 Ethernet Transparent or Layer 2 Functions.....................................................................5-8
5.4 Clock Pulse Supply, Synchronization ..............................................................................5-8
5.4.1 Available Timing Sources ................................................................................................5-9
5.4.2 T0 System Clock............................................................................................................5-10
5.4.3 Timing Output Interface .................................................................................................5-10
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5.4.4 Real Time Clock.............................................................................................................5-10


5.5 Retiming.........................................................................................................................5-10
5.6 Laser Safety Shutdown..................................................................................................5-11
5.7 External Alarm Interfaces ..............................................................................................5-11
5.8 Engineering Order Wire .................................................................................................5-11
5.9 Software/Firmware.........................................................................................................5-12
5.10 Protection Architecture ..................................................................................................5-12
5.10.1 Protection Switching ......................................................................................................5-12
5.10.2 Hardware Protection ......................................................................................................5-17
5.11 Operating Terminal FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L ........................................................5-18
5.12 Connection to Network Management Systems .............................................................5-18

CHAPTER 6 Components of the FLASHWAVE 4270 ..............................................................6-1


6.1 Subrack and Slot Arrangement........................................................................................6-2
6.2 List of Cards Supported ...................................................................................................6-7
6.3 Power Supply Card: PWR ...............................................................................................6-7
6.4 Fan Tray...........................................................................................................................6-8
6.5 Air Filter............................................................................................................................6-8
6.6 System Controller Card: SC ............................................................................................6-9
6.7 System Management Interface Panel............................................................................6-10
6.8 Cross-connect and Timing Card with one STM-16/4 optical interface: CCS16
(CC+1xSTM-16/4)..........................................................................................................6-12
6.8.1 Cross-connect Architecture and Capacity .....................................................................6-12
6.8.2 Timing Function .............................................................................................................6-13
6.8.3 1× STM-16/STM-4 Optical Interface ..............................................................................6-14
6.8.4 Faceplate and LEDs ......................................................................................................6-15
6.9 Optical STM-16 Interface Card: 1× STM-16 ..................................................................6-16
6.10 Optical / Electrical STM-4/1 Interface Card: 4 × STM-4 / STM-1 ..................................6-17
6.12 Electrical 155 Mbps Interface Card: 4× STM-1EW (W/P), 4× STM-1E EC ...................6-20
6.13 Electrical 34/45 Mbps Interface Card: 3× E3/DS3 (W/P), 3× E3/DS3 EC .....................6-23
6.14 Electrical 2 Mbps Card: 63× E1/RT (W/P), 63 × E1/ R HMEC (75 Ω/120 Ω) ................6-26
6.15 Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 2× GE+ 8× FE/AE ........................6-29
6.16 Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 2× GE+8× FE RPRE ....................6-32
6.17 Gigabit Ethernet Interface Card: 2× GE /T ....................................................................6-35
6.18 Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 8× FE/T...........................................................................6-37
6.19 Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 6× FE/L2.........................................................................6-39
6.20 Optical Amplifier Card: OA.............................................................................................6-42

CHAPTER 7 System Control and Monitoring............................................................................7-1


7.1 Indicating and Operating Elements of the Network Element ...........................................7-3
7.1.1 Operating Devices of the FLASHWAVE 4270.................................................................7-3
7.1.2 Operating and Display Elements of the Cards ................................................................7-3
7.2 Control and Monitoring by FLEXR C Network Management System .............................7-4
7.2.1 FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L ..........................................................................................7-4
7.2.2 FLEXR C..........................................................................................................................7-5
7.3 Management System Protection......................................................................................7-6

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Contents

7.4 NE Software.....................................................................................................................7-6
7.4.1 Application Management Module ....................................................................................7-7
7.4.2 Hardware Driver Modules ................................................................................................7-8
7.4.3 Real-Time Multi-Task Operation System.........................................................................7-8
7.4.4 SNMP Agent ....................................................................................................................7-8
7.4.5 MIB Management Module................................................................................................7-9
7.5 Management Protocols and DCC ....................................................................................7-9

CHAPTER 8 Commissioning and Maintenance........................................................................8-1


8.1 Commissioning ................................................................................................................8-2
8.2 Maintenance ....................................................................................................................8-2

CHAPTER 9 Technical Data .....................................................................................................9-1


9.1 Traffic Interfaces ..............................................................................................................9-2
9.1.1 Optical STM-16 Interfaces ...............................................................................................9-2
9.1.2 Optical STM-4 Interfaces .................................................................................................9-7
9.1.3 Optical STM-1 Interfaces .................................................................................................9-8
9.1.4 Electrical 155 Mbps Interface ..........................................................................................9-9
9.1.5 Electrical 45 Mbps Interface ............................................................................................9-9
9.1.6 Electrical 34 Mbps Interface ..........................................................................................9-10
9.1.7 Electrical 2 Mbps Interface ............................................................................................9-10
9.1.8 Gigabit Ethernet Interface, Optical ................................................................................9-11
9.1.9 Fast Ethernet Interface 100 Base-T, Electrical..............................................................9-12
9.1.10 Electrical Ethernet Interfaces 10 Base-T .......................................................................9-13
9.1.11 OA Interface...................................................................................................................9-13
9.2 Control Interface ............................................................................................................9-16
9.2.1 SNMP/TCP/IP/Ethernet for Network Management System. .........................................9-16
9.3 Signaling Interfaces .......................................................................................................9-16
9.3.1 Fault Indication and Services Status LEDs ...................................................................9-16
9.3.2 Alarm Contacts ..............................................................................................................9-17
9.3.3 MDI/MDO Interfaces for Customer-specific Channels ..................................................9-17
9.4 Interfaces for Network Clock Synchronization...............................................................9-17
9.4.1 2048 Kbps Interface.......................................................................................................9-18
9.4.2 2048 KHz Interface ........................................................................................................9-18
9.5 Switching and Delay Times ...........................................................................................9-19
9.5.1 MS-SPRing Protection Switching ..................................................................................9-19
9.5.2 MSP Line Protection Switching .....................................................................................9-19
9.5.3 SNC/I and SNC/N Path Protection Switching................................................................9-19

9.6 Power Supply.................................................................................................................9-20


9.7 Environmental Conditions..............................................................................................9-21
9.7.1 Climatic Conditions ........................................................................................................9-21
9.7.2 Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC ..............................................................................9-21

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9.8 Dimensions in mm .........................................................................................................9-22


9.9 Weights in kg .................................................................................................................9-23

CHAPTER 10 Abbreviations .....................................................................................................10-1

CHAPTER 11 Index ..................................................................................................................11-1

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Illustrations

Illustrations
Fig. 2.1 Terminal Multiplexer (TMX) ...................................................................... 2-3
Fig. 2.2 Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)..................................................................... 2-4
Fig. 2.3 Local Cross Connection (LXC) ................................................................. 2-4
Fig. 4.1 Terminal-to-Terminal Link......................................................................... 4-2
Fig. 4.2 Add/Drop Function within a Linear Chain................................................. 4-3
Fig. 4.3 Single Ring ............................................................................................... 4-4
Fig. 4.4 Multiple Ring Closure ............................................................................... 4-4
Fig. 4.5 Dual Ring Interworking ............................................................................. 4-5
Fig. 4.6 Ethernet Private Line (EPL)...................................................................... 4-6
Fig. 4.7 Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL) ........................................................ 4-7
Fig. 4.8 Ethernet Private LAN (EPLan) ................................................................. 4-8
Fig. 4.9 Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLan).................................................... 4-9
Fig. 5.1 FLASHWAVE 4270 Subrack .................................................................... 5-2
Fig. 5.2 Functional Block Diagram ........................................................................ 5-3
Fig. 5.3 SDH/PDH Multiplex Structures................................................................. 5-5
Fig. 5.4 Timing Source Selection........................................................................... 5-9
Fig. 5.5 Example of MS-SPRING for an STM-1 Line .......................................... 5-13
Fig. 5.6 Linear 1+1 MSP, Fault-free Case........................................................... 5-14
Fig. 5.7 Linear 1+1 MSP, Switch to Protection Line............................................ 5-14
Fig. 5.8 Example of Path Protection Switching for an STM-1 Line ..................... 5-16
Fig. 5.9 Embedding of FLASHWAVE 4270 NEs in a TMN ................................. 5-18
Fig. 6.1 Overview of the System Components ...................................................... 6-2
Fig. 6.2 FLASHWAVE 4270 Shelf Layout ............................................................. 6-3
Fig. 6.3 FLASHWAVE 4270 Shelf Layout ............................................................. 6-4
Fig. 6.4 Subrack filled with all Short Cards............................................................ 6-6
Fig. 6.5 Subrack filled with both Long and Short Cards ........................................ 6-6
Fig. 6.6 Power Card Faceplate.............................................................................. 6-8
Fig. 6.7 Fan Tray Faceplate .................................................................................. 6-8
Fig. 6.8 Air Filter Faceplate ................................................................................... 6-9
Fig. 6.9 System Controller (SC) Card Faceplate................................................... 6-9
Fig. 6.10 System Management Interface Panel .................................................... 6-10
Fig. 6.11 CCS16 Card Cross-connect Architecture............................................... 6-13
Fig. 6.12 CCS16 (CC+1xSTM-16/4) Card Faceplate ............................................ 6-15
Fig. 6.13 1×
× STM-16 Card Faceplate .................................................................... 6-16
Fig. 6.14 4×
× STM-4/STM-1 Card Faceplate .......................................................... 6-18
Fig. 6.15 2×
× STM-1 Card Faceplate ...................................................................... 6-19
Fig. 6.16 Functional Block Diagram of 4× × STM-1EW (W/P) ................................. 6-21
Fig. 6.18 4×
× STM-1 EW (W/P) Faceplate .............................................................. 6-22
Fig. 6.19 4×
× STM-1E EC Faceplate..................................................................... 6-22
Fig. 6.20 Functional Block Diagram of 3× × E3/DS3 (W/P) Protection Module ....... 6-23
Fig. 6.21 3×
× E3/DS3 (W/P) Module Faceplate ...................................................... 6-25
Fig. 6.22 3×
× E3/DS3 EC Module Faceplate ........................................................ 6-25
Fig. 6.23 63×× E1/RT Card (No Protection) ............................................................ 6-27
Fig. 6.24 63×× E1/RT Card (1:2 Protection) ............................................................ 6-27
Fig. 6.25 63×× E1/RT Card Retiming Function Block.............................................. 6-28
Fig. 6.26 63×× E1/RT (W/P) Card Faceplate .......................................................... 6-28
Fig. 6.27 63×× E1/R HMEC (75 Ohm) Card Faceplate ........................................... 6-28

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Illustrations

Fig. 6.28 63×


× E1/R HMEC (120 Ohm) Card Faceplate ......................................... 6-28
Fig. 6.29 2×
× GE+8×× FE/AE Module Functional Block Diagram............................. 6-30
Fig. 6.30 2×
× GE+8×× FE/AE Module Faceplate ...................................................... 6-31
Fig. 6.31 2×
× GE + 8×
× FE RPRE Module Functional Block Diagram...................... 6-33
Fig. 6.32 2×
× GE+8×× FE RPRE Module Faceplate ................................................. 6-34
Fig. 6.33 2×
× GE/T Service Interface Module Functional Block Diagram ............... 6-36
Fig. 6.34 2×
× GE/T Module Faceplate..................................................................... 6-36
Fig. 6.35 8×
× FE/T Module Functional Block Diagram ............................................ 6-38
Fig. 6.36 8×
× FE/T Module Faceplat ....................................................................... 6-38
Fig. 6.37 6×
× FE/L2 Card Functional Block Diagram .............................................. 6-40
Fig. 6.38 6×
× FE/L2 Card Faceplate ....................................................................... 6-41
Fig. 6.39 OA Module Functional Building Block Diagram...................................... 6-42
Fig. 6.39 OA Card Faceplate (13 dBm) ................................................................. 6-43
Fig. 6.40 OA Card Faceplate (15 dBm) ................................................................. 6-44
Fig. 6.41 OA Card Faceplate (18 dBm) ................................................................. 6-44
Fig. 6.42 OA Card Faceplate (20 dB) .................................................................... 6-44
Fig. 7.1 Embedding of FLASHWAVE 4270 NEs in a TMN System ...................... 7-4
Fig. 7.2 FLASHWAVE 4270 Software Architecture............................................... 7-7

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Tables

Tables
Tab. 5.1 User Interfaces ........................................................................................ 5-4
Tab. 5.2 SDH Overhead Process Function ........................................................... 5-8
Tab. 6.1 Subrack Allowable Cards ........................................................................ 6-5
Tab. 6.2 Overview of FLASHWAVE 4270 Cards .................................................. 6-7
Tab. 6.3 Power Card LEDs.................................................................................... 6-8
Tab. 6.4 SC Card LEDs......................................................................................... 6-9
Tab. 6.5 System Management Interface Panel Interfaces .................................. 6-11
Tab. 6.6 System Management Interface Panel LEDs ......................................... 6-12
Tab. 6.7 1×
× STM-16/STM-4 optical Interface ...................................................... 6-15
Tab. 6.8 CCS16 (CC+1xSTM-16/4) Card LEDs.................................................. 6-16
Tab. 6.9 1×
× STM-16 Card External Interfaces..................................................... 6-17
Tab. 6.10 1×
× STM-16 Card LEDs .......................................................................... 6-17
Tab. 6.11 4×
× STM-4/STM-1 Card External Interfaces........................................... 6-18
Tab. 6.12 4×
× STM-4/STM-1 Card LEDs ................................................................ 6-19
Tab. 6.13 2×
× STM-1 Card External Interfaces....................................................... 6-20
Tab. 6.14 2×
× STM-1 Card LEDs ............................................................................ 6-20
Tab. 6.15 4×
× STM-1EW (W/P) Allowable Slots ..................................................... 6-21
Tab. 6.16 External Interfaces of 4× × STM-1EW Line Interface Module.................. 6-22
Tab. 6.17 4×
× STM-1E Interface Module LEDs ...................................................... 6-23
Tab. 6.18 3×
× E3/DS3 (W/P) Allowable Slots ......................................................... 6-24
Tab. 6.19 3×
× E3/DS3 Module External Module ..................................................... 6-25
Tab. 6.20 3×
× E3/DS3 Module LEDs ...................................................................... 6-26
Tab. 6.21 63×
× E1/R EC Card Interfaces................................................................ 6-28
Tab. 6.22 63×
× E1/R (W/P) Card LEDs................................................................... 6-29
Tab. 6.23 2×
× GE+8× × FE/AE Module External Interfaces....................................... 6-31
Tab. 6.24 2× GE+8× FE/AE Module External Interfaces....................................... 6-32
Tab. 6.25 2×
× GE+8× × FE/AE Module LEDs ............................................................ 6-32
Tab. 6.26 2×
× GE+8× × FE RPRE Module External Interfaces ................................. 6-34
Tab. 6.27 RJ 45 Ethernet Interface Pin Assignment ............................................. 6-35
Tab. 6.28 2×
× GE+8× × FE RPRE Module LEDs....................................................... 6-35
Tab. 6.29 2×
× GE/T Service Interface Module External Interfaces......................... 6-37
Tab. 6.30 2×
× GE/T Service Interface Module LEDs .............................................. 6-37
Tab. 6.31 8×
× FE/T Interface Module External Interfaces....................................... 6-39
Tab. 6.32 8×
× FE/T Module LEDs ........................................................................... 6-39
Tab. 6.33 6×
× FE/L2 Card External Interfaces........................................................ 6-41
Tab. 6.34 6×
× FE/L2 Card LEDs ............................................................................. 6-41
Tab. 6.35 OA Card Safety Procedures.................................................................. 6-43
Tab. 6.36 OA Card External Interface ................................................................... 6-44
Tab. 6.37 OA Card LEDs....................................................................................... 6-44
Tab. 9.1 Optical Performance of Optical Transceiver SFP at Rate of 2.5 Gbps... 9-2
Tab. 9.2 Optical Performance of Ultra Long Haul SFP at Rate of 2.5 Gbps ......... 9-3
Tab. 9.3 Optical Performance of Multi-rate CWDM SFP....................................... 9-4
Tab. 9.4 Optical Performance of Multi-rate DWDM SFP....................................... 9-5
Tab. 9.5 Multi-rate CWDM SFP Wavelength Table............................................... 9-6
Tab. 9.6 Multi-rate DWDM SFP Wavelength Table............................................... 9-6
Tab. 9.7 STM-4 Optical Interface (STM-4 SFP) .................................................... 9-7
Tab. 9.8 STM-1 Optical Interface (STM-1 SFP) .................................................... 9-8

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Tables

Tab. 9.9 155 Mbps Electrical Interface .................................................................. 9-9


Tab. 9.10 45 Mbps Electrical Interface .................................................................... 9-9
Tab. 9.11 34 Mbps Electrical Interface .................................................................. 9-10
Tab. 9.12 2 Mbps Electrical Interface .................................................................... 9-10
Tab. 9.13 Gigabit Ethernet Interface (Optical)....................................................... 9-11
Tab. 9.14 Fast Ethernet Traffic Interface (100 Base-T)......................................... 9-12
Tab. 9.15 Ethernet Traffic Interface (10 Base-T)................................................... 9-13
Tab. 9.16 OA Card EDFA Module Absolute Ratings EDFA Absolute Ratings...... 9-13
Tab. 9.17 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier General Specifications.......................... 9-13
Tab. 9.18 Post-amplifier Specifications ................................................................. 9-14
Tab. 9.19 Pre-amplifier Specifications................................................................... 9-15

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CHAPTER 1
Notes on this Documentation

CHAPTER 1

Notes on this Documentation

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CHAPTER 1
Notes on this Documentation

1.1 Customer Documentation

The Customer Documentation of the FLASHWAVE 4270 comprises the following


descriptions and manuals:

• Technical Manual
The Technical Manual gives an overview of the application, performance features,
interfaces and functions of the FLASHWAVE 4270. It also contains the most important
technical data.

i The Technical Manual does not contain any instructions to be carried out.

• Installation and Test Manual


The Installation and Test Manual contains instructions on mounting, connecting, and
commissioning the FLASHWAVE 4270, and connecting and commissioning the FLEXR
L operating terminals.

• Maintenance and Troubleshooting Manual


The Maintenance and Troubleshooting Manual provides information about the alarm list
FLASHWAVE 4270 supports and troubleshooting procedures.

• FLEXR L User Manual


The FLEXR L User Manual provides information about the FLEXR L (features,
configuration, installation, etc.) and how to operate, monitor and maintain the
FLASHWAVE 4270 using the Element Manager software (Application Software) running
on the FLEXR L.

Besides the FLEXR L User Manual, the Online Help of the FLASHWAVE 4270 software is of
i high importance for the operator.

1.2 Symbols Used in the Customer Documentation

1.2.1 Symbol for Warnings

Danger
This symbol identifies notes which, if ignored, can result in bodily harm.
!

Warning
This symbol identifies notes which, if ignored, can result in damage to the equipment.
!

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CHAPTER 1
Notes on this Documentation

Caution
This symbol identifies notes which, if ignored, can result in service interruption.
!

1.2.2 Symbols for Notes

i Information which extends beyond the immediate context.

Cross reference to other chapters in this manual or reference to other manuals.

Help Refer to the online help system of the Element Manager software.

1.2.3 Symbols for Menu Displays and Text Inputs

Menu options from pop-up menus or inputs to be made by the user (texts, commands) are
displayed consecutively in their hierarchical sequence in pointed brackets:

<Menu> <Menu item> <Command text> <Parameter> etc.

1.3 Notes on Licensed Software

This documentation refers to software products which were taken over from other companies
as licenses.

Should problems arise, you should contact FUJITSU as the licensee and not the relevant
licenser.

1.4 Standard Compliance

The FLASHWAVE 4270 is in compliance with the following standards (as applicable):
Electronic Industry Association (EIA)
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
– IEEE 802.1Q Virtual LANs
– IEEE 802.1p Traffic Class Expediting and Dynamic Multicast Filtering
– IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Access Method

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Notes on this Documentation

International Telecommunication Union–Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)


Recommendations
– G.703 Physical/Electrical Characteristics of Hierarchical Digital Interfaces
– G.7041/Y1303 Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
– G.7042/Y1305 Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) for Virtual Concatenated
Signals
– G.707/Y1322 Network Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
– G.774 SDH Management Information Model for Network Element View
– G.781 Synchronization Layer Functions
– G.783 Characteristics of Synchronization Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Equipment
Functional Blocks
– G.784 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Management
– G.803 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Transport Network Architecture
– G.813 Timing Characteristics of SDH Equipment Slave Clocks (SEC)
– G.823 Control Of Jitter and Wander within Digital Networks which are Based
On The 2048 Kbps Hierarchy
– G.825 The Control of Jitter and Wander Within Digital Networks which are
based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
– G.826 Error Performance Parameters and Objectives For International,
Constant Bit-Rate Digital Paths At Or Above The Primary Rate
– G.828 Error Performance Parameters and Objectives For International,
Constant Bit Rate Synchronous Digital Paths
– G.829 Error Performance Events for SDH Multiplex and Regenerator Sections
– G.831 Management Capabilities Of Transport Networks Based on the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
– G.841 Types and Characteristics of SDH Network Protection Architectures
– G.842 Interworking of SDH Network Protection Architecture
– G.957 Optical Interfaces for Equipment and System Relating to the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
– G.958 Digital Line Systems Based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy for
Use on Optical Fibre Cables
– G.691 Optical Interfaces for Single-Channel STM-64, STM-256, and Other
SDH Systems with Optical Amplifiers
– G.664 Optical Safety Procedures and Requirements for Optical Transport
System
– M.3010 Principles for a Telecommunications Management Network.
– M.3300 TMN F Interface Requirements

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CHAPTER 2

Introduction

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FLASHWAVE 4270 is a multi-service provisioning platform with add/drop, terminal and


cross-connect functionality for universal installation at all network levels.

FLASHWAVE 4270 transports data signals and standard voice based traffic over one single
platform. For transporting data in the most economic way, the FLASHWAVE 4X70 Series
product line combines technologies such as Generic Framing Procedure (GFP), Link
Capacity Assignment Scheme (LCAS), and Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) with the reliability
and robustness of SDH networks and a quality of service.

FLASHWAVE 4270 network elements provide full cross-connectivity between all interfaces.
The capacity of the switching network is up to 160 × 160 STM-1 equivalents. This applies to
the VC-4 layer and to all cross-connection types (unidirectional, bidirectional and broadcast).

FLASHWAVE 4270 can be used as TMX (terminal multiplexer), ADM (add/drop multiplexer)
or LXC (local cross connection) in multi-service transport and aggregation/switching network
applications.

State-of-the-art protection switching mechanisms are supported to enable an optimum


network with very highest reliability possible – depending on the relevant network topology
and the requirements of the network operator, see Chapter 5.10.

For detailed information about FLASHWAVE 4270 features see CHAPTER 3.

2.1 Application Types

In Chapters 2.1.1 to 2.1.3, an overview on usage of the FLASHWAVE 4270 is provided.

2.1.1 Terminal Multiplexer Type

The FLASHWAVE 4270 terminal multiplexer (TMX type) can be used in such configurations
as point-to-point connections or as feeder terminal for traffic aggregation to core networks.

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155 Mbit/s (STM-1)/


622 Mbit/s (STM-4)/
2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16)

NE

155 Mbit/s (STM-1)/


622 Mbit/s (STM-4)/
2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16)

2 Mbit/s (PDH)
34/45 Mbit/s (PDH)
155 Mbit/s (Electric)
155 Mbit/s (STM-1, opt.)
622 Mbit/s (STM-4, opt.)
2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16, opt.)
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet

Fig. 2.1 Terminal Multiplexer (TMX)

The terminal multiplexer (Fig. 2.1) is equipped with a switching network thus provides cross-
connectivity between all available line and tributary interfaces on VC-4, VC-3 and VC-12
levels, as well as Ethernet interfaces.

The capacity of the HO switching network is 160 × 160 VC-4s (STM-1s) and the capacity of
the LO switching network is 4032 × 4032 VC-12s.

The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports multiple line interfaces for star topology. For examples:
– Simultaneous support 4 × STM-16 and 24 × STM-1 line interfaces, or
– Simultaneous support 2 × STM-16 and 8 × STM-4 line interfaces as well as 24 × STM-1
line interfaces, or
– Simultaneous support 2 × STM-16 and 32 × STM-1 line interfaces, or
– Simultaneous support 10 × STM-4 line interfaces as well as 24 × STM-1 line interfaces
– Simultaneous support 189 × 2 Mbps interfaces

In addition to the TMX functionality, tributary to tributary connectivity is also possible.

2.1.2 Add/Drop Multiplexer Type

The FLASHWAVE 4270 add/drop multiplexer (ADM type) provides add and drop
functionality for the tributary traffic to aggregate to 155 Mbps, 622 Mbps or 2.5 Gbps line
side.

The capacity of the HO switching network is 160 × 160 VC-4s (STM-1s) and the capacity of
the LO switching network is 4032 × 4032 VC-12s.

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West East

NE

155 Mbit/s (STM-1)/ 155 Mbit/s (STM-1)/


622 Mbit/s (STM-4)/ 622 Mbit/s (STM-4)/
2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16) 2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16)

2 Mbit/s (PDH)
34/45 Mbit/s (PDH)
155 Mbit/s (Electric)
155 Mbit/s (STM-1, opt.)
622 Mbit/s (STM-4, opt.)
2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16, opt.)
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet

Fig. 2.2 Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)

The add/drop multiplexer type is equipped with a switching network and provides cross-
connectivity between all line and tributary interfaces on VC-4, VC-3 and VC-12 level.
The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports multiple ring terminations on a signal NE.
In addition to the ADM functionality, tributary-to-tributary connectivity is also possible.

2.1.3 Local Cross-connect Type

The FLASHWAVE 4270 can be used as a local cross connection (LXC) (Fig. 2.3).

155 Mbit/s (STM-1)/ 155 Mbit/s (STM-1)/


622 Mbit/s (STM-4)/ 622 Mbit/s (STM-4)/
2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16) 2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16)

2 Mbit/s (PDH)
34/45 Mbit/s (PDH)
155 Mbit/s (Electric)
155 Mbit/s (STM-1, opt.)
622 Mbit/s (STM-4, opt.)
2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16, opt.)
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet

Fig. 2.3 Local Cross Connection (LXC)

The local cross connection type provides full cross-connectivity for line-to-line, line-to-
tributary and tributary-to-tributary connections.
The capacity of the HO switching network is 160 × 160 VC-4s (STM-1s) and the capacity of
the LO switching network is 4032 × 4032 VC-12s.
This is valid for the VC-4, VC-3 and VC-12 layers and cross connection types (unidirectional,
bi-directional and broadcast).

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Overview of the Main Features

CHAPTER 3

Overview of the Main Features

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Sub-rack Type
– Double-row sub-rack with 17 interface slots

Switch Matrix
– Fully non-blocking switching matrix 25 Gbps switching capacity with VC-4 granularity and
10 Gbps switching capacity with VC-12 granularity

Interface Types
– STM-16 Colored optical interface (1 per card)
– STM-16 optical interface (1 per card)
– STM-4 optical interface (4 per card)
– STM-1 optical interfaces (4 or 2 per card)
– STM-1 electrical interface (4 per card)
– E3/DS3 electrical interface (3 per card)
– 2 Mbps electrical interface with retiming function (63 per card)
– 1000 Base-T optical interface (2 per card)
– 1000 Base-T electrical interface (2 per card)
– 10/100 Base-T electrical interface (6 or 8 per card)

Hardware Protection
– Switch Fabric and Clock Unit Protection
– 1+1 Hardware Protection for STM-1 E and E3/DS3 electrical interfaces
– 1: N Hardware Protection for E1 electrical interfaces

Traffic Protection
– MSP (1+1) for STM-1/4/16
– 1+1 protection of switching matrices
– SNCP/N and SNCP/I for VC-12/VC-3/VC-4
– 2-fiber and multiple 2-fiber shared ring protection for STM-4/16 (MS-SPRing)
– Dual Node Ring Inter-working Protection (DNI) between two MS-SPRing

Ethernet Functionality
– Generic Framing Procedure GFP-F (ITU-T G.7041)
– MAC Self Learning
– MAC address aging time configurable
– IEEE 802.1Q or double-tag VLAN tag/de-tagging, filtering and forwarding
– Rate limiting function per port or per VLAN/port
– IEEE 802.1p QoS/CoS based on Ethernet port and/or VLAN
– Broadcast suppress
– Multicast configuration - Static
– Multicast IGMP snooping
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NE Management Embedding
– Element management by FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L
– Service/Network/Element management by FLEXR C

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Network Applications

CHAPTER 4

Network Applications

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The network elements can be used in a straightforward way of creating point-to-point


connections, linear chain configurations and ring configurations.

According to requirements, equipping for the following application scenarios is possible:


Terminal-to-terminal topologies (Chapter 4.1)
Linear topologies with add/drop function (chains) (Chapter 4.2)
Ring network functionality (Chapter 4.3)
Data Service Applications (Chapter 4.4)

4.1 Terminal-to-Terminal Topologies

Terminal-to-terminal links are supported by FLASHWAVE 4270 network elements in TMX


application, with the option of 1+1 MSP for STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 interfaces.
Fig. 4.1 shows a straightforward point to point network with one TMX at the transmitting end
and another at the receiving end. It is using the MSP protection switching.

STM-1/
STM-4/
STM-16 W orking

NE Line NE

STM-1/ Protection
STM-4/
STM-16

Tributary Tributary
interfaces interfaces

Fig. 4.1 Terminal-to-Terminal Link

At the TMX, the client equipment is connected to the TMX through the tributary interfaces
(TDM or data traffic).

The use of MSP between the NEs is preferred for redundancy reasons but not mandatory.

4.2 Linear Topologies with Add/Drop Function

Linear chains are supported by FLASHWAVE 4270 network elements in ADM application,
with the option of 1+1 MSP for STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 interfaces.

Fig. 4.2 shows an example for an application with MSP protection switching.

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STM-1/ STM-1/
STM-4/ STM-4/
STM-16 STM-16
Working Working

NE Line NE Line NE
Protection STM-1/ Protection
STM-1/
STM-4/ STM-4/
STM-16 STM-16

Tributary Tributary Tributary


interfaces interfaces interfaces

Fig. 4.2 Add/Drop Function within a Linear Chain

An ADM is normally used at an intermediate site to add/drop client traffic. In Fig. 4.2, an
ADM is located between two TMXs. At the ADM, selected traffic is added/dropped at various
VC-n levels; through connected traffic transparently passed through.
The use of MSP between the NEs is preferred for redundancy reasons but not mandatory.

4.3 Ring Network Functionality

FLASHWAVE 4270 supports various ring topologies including single ring, multiple ring
closure and dual ring interworking.

4.3.1 Single Ring

The FLASHWAVE 4270 line speed for a single ring can be STM-16 STM-4 or STM-1.
Normally, the maximum number of nodes in a single ring is 16. This depends on the
protection scheme and the fiber distance being used for a specific ring.

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NE

NE 2 fiber ring NE
STM-16/4/1

Tributary
interfaces
NE

Fig. 4.3 Single Ring

4.3.2 Multiple Ring Closure

A single FLASHWAVE 4270 network element (NE) can interconnect two or more
FLASHWAVE 4270 rings working at different or the same line speeds. Fig. 4.4 shows 2 rings
closed on a single FLASHWAVE 4270 NE.

NE NE

2 fiber ring 2 fiber ring


NE STM-16/4/1 NE STM-16/4/1 NE

Tributary
interfaces
NE NE

Fig. 4.4 Multiple Ring Closure

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4.3.3 Dual Ring Interworking

Two FLASHWAVE 4270 rings working at different or the same line speeds can be
interconnected and protected by the Dual Node Ring Interworking (DNI) protection
mechanism as depicted in Fig. 4.5.
A FLASHWAVE 4270 ring can also be dual interconnected with other FLASHWAVE rings
such as FLASHWAVE 4470 or FLASHWAVE 4070 rings to provide increased network
reliability for inter-ring traffic.
The system supports the DNI scheme between two MS-SPRings according to ITU-T G.842.

NE NE

NE NE

NE 2 fiber ring 2 fiber ring NE


STM-16/4 STM-16/4

NE NE
Tributary
interfaces
NE NE

Fig. 4.5 Dual Ring Interworking

4.4 Data Service Applications

FLASHWAVE 4270 provides data transport over SDH, and offers various data applications
in addition to traditional TDM applications.

The FLASHWAVE 4270 system supports the following FE data transmission services:
– Ethernet Private Line (EPL)
– Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL)
– Ethernet Private LAN (EPLan)
– Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLan)

4.4.1 Ethernet Private Line (EPL)

FLASHWAVE 4270 Ethernet Private Line Service offers dedicated, point-to-point Ethernet
connectivity at Fast Ethernet rates (10 Mbps or 100 Mbps) and Gigabit Ethernet rates (1000
Mbps).
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The EPL can be used to support applications such as LAN-to-LAN connectivity, storage area
networking, and Internet access or disaster recovery solutions.
FE
8× WAN Ports

NE 8× FE/T
VC-12-xV
or
VC-3-xV 8×LAN Ports (FE)

FE

NE NE GE

2× WAN Ports

NE VC-4-xV
or 2× GE/T
VC-3-xV

GE 2×LAN Ports (GE)

Fig. 4.6 Ethernet Private Line (EPL)

4.4.2 Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL)

For the Ethernet Virtual Private Line, the customer still gets point-to-point connectivity, but
over shared instead of dedicated bandwidth. Each node has the layer 2 switching
capabilities to provide statistics multiplexing, per VLAN control and STP function, and
Ethernet based rate limiting per VLAN or port.

The EVPL is useful when creating hub-and-spoke architectures in which multiple remote
offices all require access to a headquarters or multiple customers all require access to an
ISP’s POP (point of presence).

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32× WAN ports


GE FE VC-4-Xv
or
VC-12-Xv

2GE+8× FE/AE

NE
VC-4-Xv 2×GE+8×FE (Client)

Headquarter

VC-12-Xv

FE
Remote Remote
NE Office 1 Office 2 NE

2× WAN ports

VC-12-Xv

6× FE/L2

NE
6×FE (Client)

Fig. 4.7 Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL)

4.4.3 Ethernet Private LAN (EPLan)

The Ethernet Private LAN (EPLan) service provides multipoint connectivity over dedicated
bandwidth, i.e., it may connect two or more subscribers (customer). Subscriber data sent
from one customer can be received at one or more of the other customers. Each site
(customer) is connected to a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC and uses dedicated resources so
different customers’ Ethernet frames are not multiplexed together. As new sites (customers)
are added, they are connected to the same multipoint EVC thus simplifying provisioning and
service activation. From a subscriber standpoint, an EPLan makes the MSTP network look
like a LAN.

EPlan (Ethernet Private LAN) architecture differs from EPL in that rather than use a
predefined mapping between VLAN tags and link connections, the operator’s network
equipment, uses Ethernet switching (i.e. Bridge learning) to pass Ethernet frames to the
appropriate link. However this makes it difficult to guarantee performance as network
Ethernet switching introduces additional latency and probability of increased packet loss.

FLASHWAVE 4270 brings multiple WAN interfaces into layer 2 switching. Customer service
can be delivered through dedicated VCGs with little latency and little packet loss. The WAN
interface can be provisioned individually on the FLEXR C.

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FE FE GE

32× WAN ports

NE 2GE+8× FE/AE

2×GE+8×FE (Client)

FE FE

NE NE
Multipoint to Multipoint
FE FE
EVC

2× WAN ports

NE 6× FE/L2

6×FE (Client)

GEFE FE

Fig. 4.8 Ethernet Private LAN (EPLan)

4.4.4 Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLan)

The Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLan) has gone by many names over the past two
years, from Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) to Transparent LAN Service (TLS), to Virtual
Private Switched Network (VPSN). Regardless of how it is termed, the EVPLan is a network
service providing Layer 2 multipoint connectivity between Ethernet edge devices. Customer
separation is accomplished via encapsulation or Ethernet virtual connections.

The EVPLan is designed as the most cost-effective service for the carrier, as it can leverage
shared transmission bandwidth in the network. Because it is a multipoint service, it can be
complex to administer. Customer service separation by Provider VLAN tags is not likely to be
sufficient because of the limited address space of Provider VLANs IDs (only 4096) and
hence other service delivery technologies providing customer frame encapsulation must be
used such as MPLS, MAC-in-MAC and RPR.

By merging resilient packet ring (RPR) technology with VC, the generic framing procedure
(GFP), and Multi-Service Transport Platform (MSTP), FLASHWAVE 4270 can add statistical
multiplexing and traffic engineering to the VC-enabled MSTP equipment. The 2× GE+ 8× FE
RPRE cards will encapsulate the RPR frames to the GFP frames ; the GFP frames then are
mapped into a virtual concatenation group VC-4-Xv (X= 1 to 8) ; connect the consecutive
WANs of these VC-4-Xvs in the MSSPRing ; The RPR would be provisioning over SDH.

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In RPR, three classes of services (high, medium, low) defined by IEEE 802.17 are
transmitted over the ring architecture.

RPR has the following features: auto-negotiation, flow control, rate limiting, spatial reuse,
source weighted fairness and protection.

FE FE GE

32 × WAN ports

NE 2 × GE + 8 × FE/AE

2 × GE + 8 × FE (Client)

FE FE
NE NE
Multipoint to Multipoint
FE FE
EVC

2 × WAN ports

NE
6 × FE/L2

6 × FE (Client)

GEFE FE

Fig. 4.9 Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLan)

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System Description

CHAPTER 5

System Description

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System Description

The following sub-chapters give a functional and technical overview of the main features of
FLASHWAVE 4270 separated from the physically interfaces. For information about hardware
relevant features please refer to CHAPTER 6.

5.1 Subrack

A picture of FLASHWAVE 4270 subrack is shown below.


The physical dimensions of the FLASHWAVE 4270 are 447 mm (wide) × 566.3 mm (high) ×
331.8 mm (deep). The racks used comply with the dimensions recommended by ETSI
(European Telecommunications Standards Institute): W = 600 mm, H = 2200 mm and D =
300 mm (ETSI 300 119). All external interfaces are front access. It is designed for easy
maintenance and installation, and supports 600 mm rack-mount installations.

Up to two FLASHWAVE 4270 subracks can be installed into a 2200 mm or 2600 mm high
ETSI rack. The space between the two adjacent subracks should be at least 5-rack-units
apart.

.
Fig. 5.1 FLASHWAVE 4270 Subrack

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5.2 Basic Functions

Fig. 5.2 shows the basic functional structure of the FLASHWAVE 4270.

FLEXR C / External Timing


FLEXR L Output Input

System Controller Timing controller Maintenance Panel

Tributary
interfaces

Line interfaces
East
PDH
Interface
STM-16/4/1
Interface

VC Mapping

RS Overhead Process
MS Overhead Process
RPR

HOCC/LOCC
Ethernet
GFP
Interface

L2
Line interfaces
Switching
West

STM-16/4/1
STM-1/4/16 RS OH MS OH Interface
Interface Process Process

Fig. 5.2 Functional Block Diagram

On the line side, the send/receive modules (SDH) carry out the conversion to
optical/electrical signals. The SDH cards can be equipped with various transceiver modules
(SFP modules) in several distance variants up to 2.5 Gbps.

On the tributary side, the FLASHWAVE 4270 supports various PDH, Ethernet, and STM-N
interfaces.

The central element of FLASHWAVE 4270 includes system controller, cross-connect matrix,
timing controller, and maintenance panel.

5.2.1 User Data Interfaces

FLASHWAVE 4270 can be equipped with the following interfaces (line and tributary signals):

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Interface Type Bit Rate Connection Ports per Card


SDH 2.5 Gbps (STM-16) optical 1 (bidirectional)
SDH 622 Mbps (STM-4) optical 4 (bidirectional)
SDH 155 Mbps (STM-1) optical 4 or 2 (bidirectional)
SDH 155 Mbps (STM-1) electrical 4 (bidirectional)
PDH 45 Mbps electrical 3 (bidirectional)
PDH 34 Mbps electrical 3 (bidirectional)
PDH 2 Mbps electrical 63 (bidirectional)
Ethernet 1000 BaseT optical 2 (full duplex)
Ethernet 1000 BaseT electrical 2 (full duplex)
Ethernet 10/100 BaseTx electrical 6 or 8 (full duplex)

Tab. 5.1 User Interfaces

5.2.2 Switch Fabric Functions

The switching device provides high order (HO) and low order (LO) switching at the same
time.
In the switch matrix, an SNCP is implemented for each VC-4/VC3/VC12 switching hierarchy
and input signal. The configuration of the switch matrix and of the SNCP is done by software
support.

Capacity of the Cross-connect Matrix


The FLASHWAVE 4270 NE provides with following cross-connect function:
HOCC: 25 G (160 × 160 VC-4s)
LOCC: 10 G (4032 × 4032 VC-12, or 64 × 64 VC-4 equivalents)

Cross-connection
All types of cross connections can be possible. The switch matrix is a non-blocking square
structured matrix for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections.

Granularity
The configurable and simultaneously usable switching hierarchies of the matrix are VC-4,
VC-3 and VC-12.

HO and LO VC-n Connectivity


The switching matrix allows the following connections:
Unidirectional connections
Unidirectional point-to-multipoint (including 1+1 SNC head end)
Bi-directional connections
Broadcasting (HOCC 1:4, LOCC 1:63)
Drop and continue (broadcast 1  2 + SNCP tail end)
Selector 2  1 (protected tail end for 1+1 SNCP)

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Concatenation
Virtual concatenated VC-12, VC-3 and VC-4 signals are supported. Protection switching for
virtual concatenated signals VC-4, VC-3 and VC-12 is also supported. The group of
constituent paths that belong to a concatenated signal is determined by the
Telecommunication Network Management and written to an internal configuration table.
Using this information, the FLASHWAVE 4270 software is able to set signal fail or signal
degrade alarms for all paths of a concatenated signal channel. In order to keep the
(differential) delay of the signals low, all constituent paths of a concatenated signal must be
on the same optical trail; it results in a bundling rule for the Telecommunication Network
Management.

5.2.3 Multiplex and Mapping Functions

The FLASHWAVE 4270 transmits SDH and PDH signals. Fig. 5.3 shows the organization
and relationship of SDH and PDH multiplex structures.

Chapter 9.1 summarizes the possible user data interfaces for FLASHWAVE 4270 NEs.

SDH PDH

Nx
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4

N = 1, 4 or 16 3x
D34 34 Mbps

1x
TUG-3 TU-3 VC-3 C-3

D45 45 Mbps
7x

TUG-2

3x
TU-12 VC-12 C-12 D2 2 Mbps

Fig. 5.3 SDH/PDH Multiplex Structures

5.2.3.1 SDH HO/LO Multiplexer and Mapping Functions

The FLASHWAVE 4270 implements the following HO/LO multiplexing and mapping
methods:
– VC-4 containers are aligned (with frame offset information) with an AU-4, according to
ITU-T G.707. The AU-4 may further be mapped via AUG-1 into STM-1, or further via
AUG-4 into STM-4, STM-16 follows the same pattern.

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– VC-3 containers are aligned (with frame offset information) with a TU-3, according to
ITU-T G.707. The TU-3 is further mapped via TUG-3 into VC-4.
– VC-12 containers are aligned (with frame offset information) with a TU-12, according to
ITU-T G.707. The TU-12 is further mapped via TUG-2 and TUG-3 into VC-4.

5.2.3.2 PDH Mapping into SDH Containers

The FLASHWAVE 4270 implements the following mapping of PDH signals on SDH
containers:
– 2 Mbps signals are mapped into a VC-12 asynchronously, according to ITU-T G.707.
The VC-12 is further mapped on a VC-4, via TU-12, TUG-2 and TUG-3.
– 34 Mbps and 45 Mbps signals are mapped into a VC-3 asynchronously, according to
ITU-T G.707. The VC-3 is further mapped on a VC-4, via TU-3 and TUG-3.

5.2.3.3 Ethernet Packet Multiplexer and Mapping Functions

The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports Ethernet frame mapping into SDH containers. So LAN
traffic can be transported over different SDH payload sizes (requires encapsulation by using
an appropriate protocol and mapping of the resulting frame into a SDH container).
For encapsulation, the Generic Framing Procedure (GFP-F according to ITU-T G.7041)
protocol is used. The encapsulated protocol frames can be mapped into different SDH
containers using the virtual concatenation technique.

Ethernet Mapping into SDH Containers


FLASHWAVE 4270 supports a flexible mapping scheme.

Ethernet Mapping into HO virtually concatenated Containers


Encapsulated GFP-F frames can be mapped into different High Order container sizes
providing a scalable solution that can cover network applications with very different transport
capacity requirements.
Mapping into VC-4, VC-4-Xv (x = 1 to 7), Virtual concatenation for VC-4.
The Gigabit Ethernet (GE) interface cards support this mapping function.

Ethernet Mapping into LO virtually concatenated Containers


Encapsulated GFP-F frames can be mapped into different Low Order container sizes
providing a scalable solution that can cover network applications with very different transport
capacity requirements.

Mapping into:
– VC3, VC-3-Xv (x=1 to 3 for FE or x=1 to 21 for GE);
– VC12, VC-12-Xv (x = 1 to 46).
The Virtual concatenation for VC-3 supports both Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet.

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While the VC-3-Xv is used for 8FE/T and 6FE/L2 cards the x should be 1 to 2, as well as it is
i 1 to 21 used for GE/T cards.

GFP-F Mapping
The Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) is supported by the Fast Ethernet interfaces.

GFP provides a generic mechanism to adapt traffic from higher-layer client signals over an
octet synchronous transport network. This is a simple and robust encapsulation method for
packet traffic. All of the relevant MAC layer information, from destination address through
Frame Check Sequence (FCS) inclusive, is preserved intact by the mapping.
The FLASHWAVE 4270 uses a PDU-oriented, frame-mapped adaptation mode (GFP-F) for
client signal adaptation.

GFP-F does not rely on flag characters, and associated control escape octet, for frame
delineation purposes as HDLC does. Instead, GFP-F uses a variation of the HEC-based
(Header Error Control) frame delineation mechanism defined for Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM). This avoids non-deterministic expansion of the client signal due to insertion of
control escape characters.

5.2.4 SDH Overhead Processing Function

The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports the following SDH overhead process:

FLASHWAVE 4270
SDH Overhead Name Description
Supported
A1, A2 Framing Bytes 
J0 Regenerator Section Trace 
B1 Regenerator Section BIP-8 
RS-OH E1 Regenerator Section Order wire 
Regenerator Section User
F1 
Channel
D1~D3 Section DCC 
B2 BIP-N×24 
K1, K2 (b1~b5) APS 
K2 (b6~b8) MS-RDI 
MS-OH D4~D12 Multiplex Section DCC 
S1 Synchronous Status 
M0, M1 MS-REI 
E2 Line Orderwire 
VC-4-Xc/VC- J1 Path Trace 
4/VC-3 POH B3 Path BIP-8 
C2 Path Signal Label 
G1 Path Status 
F2 Path User Channel
H4 Position and Sequence Indicator 
F3 Path User Channel
K3 (b1~b4) APS
K3 (b5~b6) Spare
K3 (b7~b8) Data link

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FLASHWAVE 4270
SDH Overhead Name Description
Supported
N1 Network Operator Byte
V5 (b1~b2) BIP-2 
V5 (b3) LP-REI 
V5 (b4) LP-RFI 
V5 (b5~b7) Signal Label 
VC-2/VC-1 V5 (b8) LP-RDI 
POH J2 Path Trace 
N2 Network Operator Byte
K4 (b1) Extension Signal Label 
K4 (b2) Virtual Concatenation ID 
K4 (b3~b8) Reserved 

Tab. 5.2 SDH Overhead Process Function

5.3 Ethernet Transparent or Layer 2 Functions

The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports Ethernet data transparent transmission and Layer 2
functions as follows:
– FE port auto negotiation, flow control, IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II frame structure
– Ethernet performance monitoring and alarms
– VLAN and double VLAN tagging
– Access Control List (ACL) based on MAC addresses
– Rapid Spanning Tree (802.1w)
– Layer 2 multicast functions (including static provisioned multicast and IGMP Snooping
multicasting functions)
– Rate limiting function at per port and per VLAN.
– 802.1p QoS/CoS based on Ethernet port and/or VLAN

5.4 Clock Pulse Supply, Synchronization

Every network element (NE) clock may be synchronized by a very accurate timing source,
normally by a primary reference source (PRC) according to the master-slave principle. The
SETS is responsible for generation of system and output clock signals.
According to the ETSI recommendation, T3 and T1 are the synchronization timing sources,
T0 is the internal NE system clock and T4 is the timing output interface.

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T3 T4
T2
Selection SETS
T1
T0

Fig. 5.4 Timing Source Selection

5.4.1 Available Timing Sources

The SETS synchronization for the FLASHWAVE 4270 is derivable from any of the following
external ports:
– From any STM-1/4/16 ports (T1)
– From any one of 2 Mbps interfaces in E1 card (T2)
– From any external station clock input ports (T3)
– From the internal Stratum 3 clock (ITU-T G.813 Option 1)

A FLASHWAVE 4270 NE can run in free running, holdover, or locked mode. The normal
synchronous mode is locked mode. If all of the reference sources fail, the system switches
to holdover mode.
A Synchronization Status Message (SSM) signal can be used to transfer the signal quality
level throughout a network. This will guarantee that all network elements will always be
synchronized to the highest quality clock available.

The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports SDH SSM algorithm on all STM-N interfaces:
– SSM function support can be user provisioned as “enabled or disabled”. When the SSM
function is disabled in the NE, all STM-N interfaces will send out a DNU (do not use for
sync) signal.
– There are 4 possible quality levels specified in the SSM for timing reference sources:
PRC, SSU-A, SSU-B, and SEC. In addition, DNU is specified in SSM. The quality of
each timing reference source can either be retrieved from the incoming the SSM or
provisioned from the network management system.
– The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports the synchronization source switching algorithm based
on SSM defined in ITU-T G.781. The timing switching time by SSM change will be less
than 15.6 s.
– The wait-to-restore (WTR) time for the timing reference source is between 0-12 minutes
and can be set from the network management system in minute increments. The default
value is 5 minutes.

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5.4.2 T0 System Clock

The T0 system clocks are used in the NE for traffic processing, OH/DCC busses, internal
system communication between the system controller and each card, and for the distribution
of the absolute time.
T0 clocks to each LC and MC slot include the following three signals:
– Clock signal 77 MHz; point to point distribution.
– Frame clock signal 2 kHz; point to point distribution.
– Absolute time signal 1 Hz; point to point distribution.
T0 clocks to each TC slot include the following three signals:
– Clock signal 19 MHz; point to point distribution.
– Frame clock signal 2 kHz; point to point distribution.
– Absolute time signal 1 Hz; point to point distribution.
All cards receive the T0 clocks.

5.4.3 Timing Output Interface

The System Management Interface Panel provides 2-MHz external output interfaces to offer
synchronization to external devices.

5.4.4 Real Time Clock

For time stamps (time and date) in FLASHWAVE 4270 error and operational messages, a
real time clock is available (within the SETS).
The date and time for the real-time clock within the NE can be set and requested from
FLEXR L/FLEXR C.

5.5 Retiming

In the retiming mode, the transmitter eliminates wander and jitter in the incoming clock.
While the rate of the outgoing 2 Mbps signal is normally equal to the rate of the 2 Mbps
signal going into the SDH network, occasionally this relationship disappears. A retiming
function is necessary for suppression of jitter and wander which the 2 Mbps signal suffers
during transmission in SDH and which makes the signal useless for carrying the
synchronous frequency to the PDH domain.
To retime an outgoing 2 Mbps signal, means simply to retime this signal with the internal
clock of the multiplexer equipment in which the desynchronization takes place. This can be
done by reading the recovered 2 Mbps signal into an elastic store and timing the output of
the elastic store with the system clock.
When the device is set in the retiming mode all jitter and wander due to the multiplexing or
demultiplexing process in the transmission are eliminated.

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5.6 Laser Safety Shutdown

To prevent possible personal injury from emerging laser light in the case of line interruption
(e.g. fiber break), a laser safety shutdown function (ALS Automatic Laser Shutdown) has
been specified in ITU-T G.958 and ITU-T G.664. In the event of signal failure at the optical
receiver of FLASHWAVE 4270 equipment, the laser transmitter is switched OFF in this
equipment for the opposite direction, removing the disturbed field from operation. The laser
transmitter is then switched ON cyclically every 100 seconds for approximately 2 seconds of
testing. If the receiver on the concerned device receives a valid signal again, the laser
transmitter for the opposite direction is immediately put into continuous operation again.
When switching ON internal power supplies or after a laser switch-off caused by total failure
of the power supply in the telecommunications center, the laser transmitter(s) must be force
switched ON for approximately 2 seconds after the permissible operating conditions have
been reached. The line is automatically put back into operation in this method.
In the case of line interruption or for maintenance work, the laser transmitter must be
switched on manually for approximately 2 seconds or approximately 90 seconds (for test
purposes). The transmitter is switched back ON via the operating terminal.

i Note: ALS for GE ports in 2×GE/T card is not supported.

5.7 External Alarm Interfaces

Failures signaled by any cards are processed by the main controller of the device, which
forwards the detected alarm information to the alarm interfaces. The alarm interfaces are
accessible via an alarm connector.
The FLASHWAVE 4270 alarm interfaces provide two outputs:
– Major urgent alarm (triggered by any Critical or Major alarms)
– Minor non-urgent alarm (triggered by any Minor alarms)

5.8 Engineering Order Wire

The FLASHWAVE 4270 system provides two RJ 45 connectors for four output channels of
E1, E2 Engineering Order Wire (EOW) channel and/or F1 user channel. The two EOW
interfaces (ITU-T Recommendation G.703 compliant) are located on the system controller
module front panel.
Users may select up to two channels from the system (each providing a 64 Kbps channel
through the E1 or user selectable E2 or through the F1 byte of for user data applications
between regenerators or between a regenerator and a terminal (i.e. on regenerator
sections). When E1, E2, and F1 are not used, an all ones pattern will be transmitted in the
E1, E2, or F1 bytes and the received E1, E2, or F1 bytes will be ignored.
Usage is in conformance with ITU-T Recommendation G.707 and ETSI ETS 300417
standards. Byte-slips are allowed.
FLASHWAVE XOW is an external box which connects the FLASHWAVE 4270 EOW
interfaces via RJ 45 cable. It provides telephone links to connect one or more network
elements by using the RSOH byte E1 and/or the MSOH byte E2 for EOW communication.

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5.9 Software/Firmware

The System Controller (SC) board is equipped with micro controllers for monitoring,
controlling, and maintaining status information. They are programmed with embedded
firmware held in Flash-EPROMs.
A software download facility is available. The download is provided via element manager or
FLEXR L, for both remotely or locally.
The internal configuration database of the system can be uploaded and downloaded. It is
stored redundantly and robust to any card failure.
Beside the configuration database there are two embedded software images in System
Controller, one is used by the active software and the other is for software backup. During
the system upgrade, new software would be downloaded and stored into the backup image
memory bank, and then would be activated, meanwhile the active image would be set as
backup. Two software image designs could efficiently protect the system from system crack
caused by wrong operation.

5.10 Protection Architecture

The FLASHWAVE 4270 features extensive protection mechanisms according to a number of


ITU-T standards.
The following sections assume working knowledge of standard SDH protection schemes. For
an introduction to protection schemes and their implementation, please refer to
FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L User Manual.

5.10.1 Protection Switching

FLASHWAVE 4270 supports the following SDH traffic protection functions:


– 2-Fiber Shared Ring Protection Switching (MS-SPRing) on STM-N (N=4 or 16) interface.
– Traffic protection functions on the STM-N multiplex section layer (Linear MSP).
– Subnetwork connection protection (SNCP) functions on the VC-4, VC-3, and VC-12 path
layers.

Traffic protection functions are partly coupled with equipment protection features. This
i generally achieve by including some HW components (e.g. SFP modules) within a protected
signal section.

5.10.1.1 2-Fiber Shared Ring Protection Switching (MS-SPRing)

A 2-fiber MS-SPRing is a bidirectional (duplex transmission) ring where both directions of


traffic transmission use the same set of nodes under normal conditions. When there is a
failure on the working path, the traffic will be switched to protection bandwidth.
The changeover criteria are specified individually when configuring the network element. An
Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Protocol is required.

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The switchover to the protection bandwidth occurs in “revertive” mode, i.e. if there was a
switchover to the protection bandwidth as a result of a working bandwidth fault, there is
automatic switchback to the original path once the fault is rectified.

NE NE

NE NE NE NE

Working Traffic Protection Traffic

NE NE

Fig. 5.5 Example of MS-SPRING for an STM-1 Line

5.10.1.1.1 MS-SPRING Protection Characteristics


– Architecture: 2 fiber shared protection
– Switching type: bidirectional
– Operation type: revertive
The wait-to-restore (WTR) time for MS-SPRing is between 1-12 minutes and can be set from
the network management system in second increments. The default value is 5 minutes.

5.10.1.1.2 Criteria for Initiating the Protection Switching Process


Internal switch requests:
– Signal failure SF (from LOS, RS-LOF, RS-TIM, MS-AIS, MS-EXC)
– Signal degrade SD(from MS-DEG)
External switch requests:
– Lockout of protection (LP)
– Forced switch to working/protection
– Manual switch to working/protection
– Clear

5.10.1.1.3 Extra Traffic Mechanisms


“Extra traffic mechanisms” means the traffic carried over the protection entity while the
working entity is active. Extra traffic is not protected. When the protection entity is required to
protect the traffic that is being carried over the working entity, the extra traffic is dropped.

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5.10.1.2 1+1 Linear Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)

Protection switching is realized in the equipment according to the relevant ETSI/ITU-T


standards ETS 300417-3-1 and G.841, respectively.

Fig. 5.6 shows the general switching architecture for realizing a linear 1+1 MSP with two line
interfaces:

MSP
Bridge/Selector Working port

Working
Traffic

Protection port

Fig. 5.6 Linear 1+1 MSP, Fault-free Case

In 1+1 Linear MSP, the client traffic is always transmitted over the working and protection
path simultaneously (MSP Bridge).

In case of fiber break (Fig. 5.7), the SDH card detects the fault and the MSP selector
automatically selects the incoming traffic from the protection path.

MSP
Bridge/Selector Working port

Working
Traffic

Protection port

Fig. 5.7 Linear 1+1 MSP, Switch to Protection Line

In the FLASHWAVE 4270, Linear MSP is realized on per port basis. All related interfaces
offer at least two ports and therefore it is not necessary to have a dedicated working and a
dedicated protection card. As all the optical traffic cards offer hot changeable optical plug-in
modules (SFPs) the 1+1 MSP protection always comes with some kind of hardware
protection.
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In FLASHWAVE 4270 MSP operates in single-ended mode (revertive or non-revertive).


All SDH traffic interfaces of FLASHWAVE 4270 support 1+1 MSP protection scheme.

5.10.1.2.1 MSP Protection Characteristics


– Support Interface: STM-1,STM-4,STM-16
– Architecture : 1+1
– Switching type : unidirectional (single ended) or bidirectional (dual-ended)
– Operation type : revertive or non-revertive
The wait-to-restore (WTR) time for MSP is between 1-12 minutes and can be set from the
network management system in second increments. The default value is 5 minutes.

5.10.1.2.2 Criteria for Initiating the Protection Switching Process


Linear MSP can either be initiated automatically or manually using the operating
terminal/OS.
Internal switch requests:
– SF (from LOS, RS-LOF, MS-AIS, RS-TIM, MS-EXC)
– SD (from MS-DEG)
External switch requests (from values below; selected one at a time):
– Lockout of Protection, LP
– Forced Switch, FS_P (working traffic to protection line)
– Forced Switch, FS_W (working traffic to working line)
– Manual Switch, MS_P (working traffic to protection line)
– Manual Switch, MS_W (working traffic to working line)
– Clear

5.10.1.3 1+1 Path Protection Switching (Subnetwork Connection Protection,


SNCP)

FLASHWAVE 4270 supports two types of SNC protection, SNCP/I (Sub Network Connection
protection with Inherent monitoring) and SNCP/N (Sub Network Connection protection with
non-intrusive monitoring).
The data signal is transmitted in a ring structure via two different paths and can be
implemented in line or ring structures (Fig. 5.8).
The switchover between the working and the protection path can be configured as “non-
revertive” or “revertive” mode. In the “non-revertive” mode, if there was a switchover to the
protection path as a result of a transmission fault, there is no automatic switchback to the
original path once the fault is rectified, but only if there is a fault on this new path. In the
“revertive” mode, if there was a switchover to the protection path as a result of the working
path fault, there is an automatic switchback to the original path once the fault on the working
path is rectified.

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AU4/VC-4 AU4/VC-4

Network Element

Network Element

Working Line Protection Line

AU4/VC-4 AU4/VC-4

Fig. 5.8 Example of Path Protection Switching for an STM-1 Line

5.10.1.3.1 SNCP Protection Characteristics


– Architecture: 1+1
– Layers:
VC-12
VC-3
VC-4

– Switching type: unidirectional (single ended)


– Operation type: revertive, non-revertive

The wait-to-restore (WTR) time for SNCP is between 1-12 minutes and can be set from the
network management system in second increments. The default value is 5 minutes

5.10.1.3.2 Criteria for Initiating the Protection Switching Process


SNC/I Internal switch requests:
– Signal failure SF (from SSF)
SNC/N Internal switch requests:
– Signal failure SF (from SSF, UNEQ, TIM, EXC)
– Signal degrade SD (from DEG)
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External switch requests:


– Lockout of protection (LP)
– Forced switch to working/protection
– Manual switch to working/protection
– Clear

5.10.2 Hardware Protection

5.10.2.1 1: N Protection for electrical 2 Mbps interfaces

FLASHWAVE 4270 supports an optional 1: N (N=1 to 2) protection for the 2 Mbps PDH
interface cards.
The automatic protection switching related information coming from 63×E1 working board (or
protection board) is sent to the system controller unit (SC). When an E1 1: N protection
related defect is reported on 63×E1 working board (or protection board) and correlated by
Software as a valid Protection Switch Request (PSR), the SC initiates a switch to the
protection board (or the working board). As a result, the customer traffic will be forwarded
through the protection bus to the protection card. The switch matrix will then select the traffic
from the protection card.

5.10.2.2 1+1 Protection for electrical 34/45 Mbps and STM-1 E interfaces

FLASHWAVE 4270 supports an optional 1+1 protection for the 34/45 Mbps PDH interface
cards and STM-1 electrical interfaces.
The automatic protection switching related information coming from 3×E3/DS3 or 4×STM-1
E working board (or protection board) is sent to the system controller unit (SC). When an
E3/DS3 or a STM-1e 1+1 protection related defect is reported on working board (or
protection board) and correlated by Software as a valid Protection Switch Request (PSR),
the SC initiates a switch to the protection board (or the working board). As a result, the
customer traffic will be forwarded through the protection bus to the protection card. The
switch matrix will then select the traffic from the protection card.

5.10.2.3 Switch Fabric and Clock Unit Protection

In FLASHWAVE 4270 the SETS is integrated as a module inside the switch fabric card.
Every NE can always be equipped with working and protection matrix/clock cards.
All the transmission functions and information within the working switching fabric will be
duplicated and stored within the protection switching fabric, so that in case of failure, the
protection switching fabric will take over the task of the defect switching fabric without any
major delay.
From the SETS point of view, the working card will be configured as a master and
synchronized to a reference source, while the protection card will be operating as a slave
and synchronized to the working card.

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In the event of failure of the working card, the protected card will take over the
synchronization function from the defect card.

5.11 Operating Terminal FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L

Network elements can be operated and monitored via the software FLASHWAVE 4270
FLEXR L software.
The FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L is used primarily for local management and
commissioning of network elements. The FLEXR L is connected via the Management
Interface and allows for access to network element locally or remotely.

For further information about operation, control and monitoring via FLASHWAVE 4270
FLEXR L, see FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L User Manual.

5.12 Connection to Network Management Systems

Fig. 5.9 shows the integration of FLASHWAVE 4270 network elements in the FLEXR
system. Access from the FLEXR to FLASHWAVE 4270 NEs is fulfilled via SNMP over
TCP/IP/PPP or (direct access) and SNMP over TCP/IP/PPP or TCP/IP/HDLC or
TCP/IP/OSILight (via dedicated SOH channels within traffic links – DCCM or DCCR)
interfaces.
OSILight is an IP over CLNS (Connectionless Network Service) Tunnel protocol stack.
OSILight lets IP traffic be transported over Connectionless Network Service; for instance, on
the data communications channel (DCC) of OSI based SDH equipment. OSILight enhances
interactions with the CLNS network, allowing IP packets to be tunneled through the CLNP
(Connectionless Network Protocol) to preserve TCP/IP services. The selection of PPP,
HDLC, or OSILight is user configurable.

TMN

EM
(Element Manager)

SNMP over TCP/IP

IP over PPP IP over IP over


or HDLC OsiLight OSI based OsiLight
NE NE DCC NE

Fig. 5.9 Embedding of FLASHWAVE 4270 NEs in a TMN

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CHAPTER 6

Components of the FLASHWAVE 4270

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This chapter explains FLASHWAVE 4270 main system components.


Fig. 6.1 shows a first overview.

System

Hardware Software Package


FLEXR L

ETS System Rack


FLEXR L
Subrack SW

FLEXR L
SC
HW

PWR

FAN

1)
CCS 16

1)
1× STM-16
1)
4× STM-4/1
1)
2× STM-1

4× STM-1 E (W/P)

4× STM-1 EW (W/P) 1) Can be equipped with various


pluggable optical and/or electrical
transceiver modules (SFP)
3 × E3/DS3 (W/P)

63 × E1/RT (W/P)

1)
2× GE/T

1)
2× GE+8×FE/AE

1)
2× GE+8×FE/RPRE

8× FE/T

6× FE/L2

Fig. 6.1 Overview of the System Components

6.1 Subrack and Slot Arrangement

One FLASHWAVE 4270 platform includes one Main Shelf (subrack) and various pluggable
cards.

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The Main shelf consists of 1 SC slot, 2 power slots, 2 cross-connect slots (long card slots),
and 17 slots which can be flexibly configured for interface cards and extend cards usage.
The subrack layout is shown below (Fig. 6.2).

Fig. 6.2 FLASHWAVE 4270 Shelf Layout

The FLASHWAVE 4270 shelf layout connectivity diagram are shown below Fig. 6.3, and
card availability for each slot is depicted in Tab. 6.1 .

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System Management Interface Panel

P P
E E E L L E E E
W W
C C C C C C C C
R R
1 2 3 1 2 4 5 6
1 2
C C
C C
1 2
L L L L L L L L L
S
C C C C C C C C C
C
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Fan Tray

Air Filter

Fig. 6.3 FLASHWAVE 4270 Shelf Layout

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Slots SC CC LC LC LC LC LC LC LC EC EC EC EC EC EC PWR F
1 1 3 4 5 7 9 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 A
to to to to to to N
2 2 6 8 10 2
Cards
SC √
PWR √
FAN √
CC16 √
1×STM-16 √
1 1
4×STM- 4 √ √ √
4×STM-1 √ √ √
2×STM-1 √ √ √ √ √
4×STM-1E EC √ √
4×STM-1EW √ √
(W/P)
3×E3/DS3 √ √ √ √ √
(W/P)
3×E3/DS3 EC √ √ √ √
63×E1/RT √ √
(W/P)
63×E1/R √ √ √
HMEC
2×GE+8×FE/AE √ √ √
2×GE+8×FE/ √
RPRE
2×GE/T √ √ √
8×FE/T √ √ √ √ √
6×FE/L2 √ √ √ √ √
OA √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Tab. 6.1 Subrack Allowable Cards

Note1: While the 4×STM-4 card is equipped in LC1, LC2, LC5 or LC6 slot, the only
i supported port is the first port; and then this card would be seem as 1×STM-4.

Note2: The following two figures provides the view of (a) FLASHWAVE 4270 with all short
modules (see Fig. 6.4 ), and (b) FLASHWAVE 4270 with long modules (see Fig. 6.5 )
configurations.

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System Management Interface Panel

P P
L L
W W
C C
R R
1 2
1 2
C C
C C
1 2
L L L L L L L L L
S
C C C C C C C C C
C
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Fan Tray

Air Filter

Fig. 6.4 Subrack filled with all Short Cards

System Management Interface Panel

P P
L L
W W
C C
R R
1 2
1 2
L L L C C L L L
C C C C C C C C
4 5 6 1 2 9 10 11
L L L
S
C C C
C
3 7 8

Fan Tray

Air Filter

Fig. 6.5 Subrack filled with both Long and Short Cards

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6.2 List of Cards Supported

FLASHWAVE 4270 Release 4.1 provides following cards:

Card Name Explanation


Power Supply 1× -48 V (range -40 V ~ -72 V) DC power supply
FAN Unit Fan Tray
Air Filter Air Filter
SC System controller
CCS16 (CC + Cross-connect and timing function card with 1× STM-16 or 1× STM-4
1xSTM-16/4) optical interface
1× STM-16 1× STM-16 optical interface card
4× STM-4/1 4× STM-4/1 optical interfaces card, per port configurable
2× STM-1 2× STM-1 optical interface card, per port configurable
4× STM-1 EW 4× STM-1 electrical interfaces processing card with 1+1 protection
(W/P) function, E1/E2 and F1 overhead are also supported in this card
4× STM-1 EC 4× STM-1 electrical interfaces card
3× E3/DS3 (W/P) 3× E3/DS3 electrical interfaces processing card with 2:1 protection
function
3× E3/DS3 EC 3× E3/DS3 electrical interfaces card
63×E1/RT(W/P) 63×E1 electrical interfaces processing card with retiming function
63× E1/HMEC 63× E1 electrical interfaces card with Retiming Function , 120 Ohm
(120:75Ohm) impedance, or 63× E1 electrical interfaces card, 75 Ohm impedance
2× GE/T 2× Gigabit Ethernet optical interfaces card
2×GE+8×FE/AE 2× GE optical interfaces and 8×FE/AE electrical interfaces card with
layer 2 functions
2×GE+8×FE 2× GE optical interfaces and 8×FE electrical interfaces card with RPR
/RPRE functions
6× FE/L2 6× FE/L2 electrical interfaces card with Layer 2 functions
8× FE/T 8× FE electrical interfaces card with transparent transmission

Tab. 6.2 Overview of FLASHWAVE 4270 Cards

For more detailed information about the modules and cards see the following chapters.

6.3 Power Supply Card: PWR

The power supply card supports -48 V (range -40 V ~ -72 V) DC power. It converts the input
supply voltage into regulated operating secondary voltages. The outputs are isolated from
the input. All output circuits have a common reference point, which is connected to the
grounding layers on the backplane.
A switch on the module allows user to turn on and off the power supply. There is one green
color LED labeled PWR on the module. The “on” status of a LED indicates that the
corresponding power supply is on; otherwise the power supply is off.

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The power supply card is a pluggable module and is hot swappable. The FLASHWAVE 4270
supports dual -48 V DC power supply. There are two power supply slots located on the
bottom row slot PWR1 and slot PWR2.

One power supply card can be equipped in any one of the power supply slots to support the
whole system.

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.6 Power Card Faceplate

LEDs:

LED Name Color Status Functional Description


ON Power is on.
Power Green
OFF Power is off.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this card.
Fault Red
OFF This card is in normal condition.

Tab. 6.3 Power Card LEDs

6.4 Fan Tray

FLASHWAVE 4270 has one fan tray to support subrack cooling. The fan tray is equipped
with 8 fans and is located at the bottom of the subrack. The fan tray is replaceable when the
system is in service.

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.7 Fan Tray Faceplate

6.5 Air Filter

The air filter provides air filtering function. The air filter is located at the bottom of the
FLASHWAVE 4270 subrack.

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Faceplate:

Air filter

Fig. 6.8 Air Filter Faceplate

6.6 System Controller Card: SC

Function:
The SC card performs system control function. The FLASHWAVE 4270 system supports a
single system controller. The system controller is equipped in SC slot to manage the whole
system.
A flash memory card is installed in the system control card to support the multi-memory
backup function for this SC unit; this function provides the restoration of the MIB and
software load of the NE from the compact flash (CF) card possible in several worse cases,
such as node failure, unit replacement and power failure.

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.9 System Controller (SC) Card Faceplate

Press the RESET button to cold reboot the SC card

LEDs:

Name Color Status Functional Description


ON This module is in the active mode.
T ACTIVE Green
OFF This module is in the standby mode.
a
ON Power is available to the system.
PWR b Green
. OFF Power is off.
ON There are fault condition on this module.
Fault 6 Yellow
. OFF There is no alarm on this module.
4
Tab. 6.5 SC Card LEDs

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6.7 System Management Interface Panel

The FLASHWAVE 4270 equipment has a system management interface panel behind the
LED panel. This system management interface panel is shown below.

Fig. 6.10 System Management Interface Panel

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Interfaces:
The following table lists the interface and control buttons on this panel:

Interface Functional description


Name
Clock CC4 connector
IN/OUT
MGMT RJ 45 connector
1× 10/100 M Base-T management interface
EOW1/2 RJ 45 connector to provide 2 EOW channels
It is possible to provision Slot, Port, and E1/E2/F1 that the interface will
connect with FLASHWAVE XOW for communicate with the remote station.
Each provides a 64 Kbps channel.
EOW3/4 RJ 45 connector to provide 2 EOW channels.
It is possible to provision Slot, Port, and E1/E2/F1 that the interface will
connect with FLASHWAVE XOW for communicate with the remote station.
Each provides a 64 Kbps channel.
MDI 1× RJ 45 connector to provide 4 MDI ports.
MDIs are used to read the status of external alarm-points. Both the MDI
description and severities are provisional on the management system.
MDO 1× RJ 45 connector to provide 2 MDO ports.
MDOs are used to drive external devices. MDO actions are activated or
deactivated manually by the management system.
ALM 1× RJ 45 connector, providing 2 alarm outputs
LED TEST LED test button
Button
ACO The alarm outputs will be cutoff or connected switched by pushing the button
Button once a time. System indicators (critical/major/minor LEDs) on the NE are not
suppressed; all alarm output to bay-top-alarming-module will be cut off.
Suppress On SI the existing alarms will not be shown on the system and the rack-top
Button alarm panel when the button is pushed a time. The new alarm will still be
output. A one state suppress button to suppress the current alarm output on
the audible and visual indicators.
The alarm indicators (critical/major/minor LEDs) of both NE system and rack-
top alarm panel are also suppressed.

Tab. 6.6 System Management Interface Panel Interfaces

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LEDs:

LED
Color Status Description
Name
On The power supply is on and working in normal condition.
PWR Green
Off There is no power.
On One or more critical alarms are present.
One or more critical communication alarms are present.
Flashing Or any card is mismatch or faulty (Major alarm LED will flash
CR Red
at the same time).
No critical communication alarms are present, and
Off
card/system is in service.
When any optional service card is mismatch or faulty, Major
Flashing
alarm LED and Critical alarm LED will flash at the same time.
MJ Orange
On There are one or more major alarms present.
Off No major alarms.
On There are one or more minor alarms present.
No Minor alarms.
MN Yellow
Off (Note: warning and indeterminate alarms won’t turn the LED
on.)

Tab. 6.7 System Management Interface Panel LEDs

6.8 Cross-connect and Timing Card with one STM-16/4 optical


interface: CCS16 (CC+1xSTM-16/4)

This module integrates cross-connect matrix and one STM-16/4 optical interface. The optical
interface working modes (STM-16 or STM-4) can be configured through FLEXR L. In
addition, the card provides a cross-connect function and timing function. The following sub-
chapters describe its functions.

6.8.1 Cross-connect Architecture and Capacity

The CCS16 module provides 25 G HOCC (160 × 160 VC-4s) and 10 G LOCC (4032 × 4032
VC-12 or 192 × 192 VC-3 equivalent). The switching-matrix provides a non-blocking
switching of all traffic at VC-12, VC-3, VC-4, VC-4-4c, and VC-4-16c levels. In other words,
each VC-12 on any slot can be switched with any other VC-12 on the same module or on
any other slots.

This cross connect module provides one optical interface at 2.5 G or 622 Mb speed which
depends on the different SFP modules equipped.

The CCS16 module cross connect and backplane structure is shown in Fig. 6.11 below.

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Fig. 6.11 CCS16 Card Cross-connect Architecture

The following types of cross connections are possible on both cross-connect units:
– Uni-directional
– Bi-directional
– Loop backs
– Multicast

6.8.2 Timing Function

The Timing function selects a recovered clock from one of the line inputs, a station clock
from the central office (two independent connections are provided), an E1 tributary input, or
an internal Stratum 3 (supports ITU-T G.813 Option 1 Stratum 3) reference (on the cross
connection and timing module) as the system-timing reference. You can provision any of the
clock inputs as a primary or secondary timing source. You can identify up to four timing
references, which can be prioritized to provide protection. A slow-reference tracking loop
allows the Timing function to synchronize to the recovered clock, which provides holdover if
the reference is lost.

The System Timing References are:


– Station External Timing (2 Mbps) input
– STM-N Optical Network Interfaces
– STM-1, E1 client Interfaces

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The FLASHWAVE 4270 can run in free running, holdover, or locked mode. The normal
synchronous mode is locked mode. If all of the reference sources fail, the system switches
to holdover mode.
A Synchronization Status Message (SSM) signal can be used to transfer the signal quality
level throughout a network. This will guarantee that all network elements will always be
synchronized to the highest quality clock available.
The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports SDH SSM algorithm on all STM-N interfaces and on the
framed 2 Mbps synchronization output signal (connected to the station output clock):
– SSM function support can be user provisioned as “enabled or disabled”. When the SSM
function is disabled in the NE, all STM-N interfaces and the framed 2 Mbps
synchronization output signal interface will send out a DNU (do not use for sync) signal.
– There are 4 possible quality levels specified in the SSM for timing reference sources:
PRC, SSU-A, SSU-B, and SEC. In addition, DNU is specified in SSM. The quality of
each timing reference source can either be retrieved from the incoming the SSM or
provisioned from the network management system.
– The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports the synchronization source switching algorithm based
on SSM defined in ITU-T G.781.
– The wait-to-restore (WTR) time for timing reference source is between 0-12 minutes and
can be set from the network management system in minute increments. The default
value is 5 minutes.

6.8.3 1×
× STM-16/STM-4 Optical Interface

This CCS16 card provides 1 optical interface with a signal rate of 2.488 Gbps or 622 Mbps.
The STM-16/4 interface is fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. The STM-
16/4 optical interface on this module can be paired with any STM-16/4 interface on another
module to formulate a 2-fiber STM-16 or STM-4 ring of 16 nodes or less. The STM-16 and
STM-4 rings support MS-SPRing, MSP, and SNCP protection function.
The current optical line interface on this module uses SFP (Small Form-Factor Pluggable)
with multiple SFPs for different transmission distance applications. The optical line interfaces
also support ALS (Automatic Laser Shutdown) function, and support optical performance
monitoring including bias current, input and output optical power.

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External Interfaces:

Interface Description
STM-16 Optical LC connector
Interface STM-16 SFP options:
- STM-16 (DWDM U-16.2, 180 Km)Note 3
Note2
- STM-16 (U-16.2, 160 Km)
Note 1
- STM-16 (V-16.2, 120 Km)
- STM-16 (DWDM L-16.2, 80 Km) Note 4
- STM-16 (CWDM L-16.2, 80 Km) Note 5
- STM-16 (L-16.2, 80 Km)
- STM-16 (L-16.1, 40 Km)
- STM-16 (S-16.1, 15 Km)
STM-4 Optical LC connector
Interface STM-4 SFP options:
- STM-4 (V-4.2 120 Km)
- STM-4 (L-4.2 80 Km)
- STM-4 (L-4.1 40 Km)
- STM-4 (S-4.1 15 Km)
Note 1: V-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion
can be up to 2400 ps/nm; this 120 Km solution need an external 13 dBm booster
amplifier.
Note 2: U-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion
can be up to 3200 ps/nm; this 160 Km solution need an external 18 dBm booster
amplifier.
Note 3: DWDM U-16.2 SFP is one of 44 channels DWDM SFP, the special wavelength is
192.7 THz (1555.75 nm); this 180 Km solution need one 18 dBm booster amplifier
and preamplifier with filter as well as the 680 ps/nm DCM.
Note 4: DWDM L-16.2 SFP supports 44 DWDM channels which are compatible with ITU-T
694.1.
Note 5: CWDM L-16.2 SFP supports 8 CWDM wavelengths which are compatible with
ITU-T 694.2.

Tab. 6.8 1× STM-16/STM-4 optical Interface

6.8.4 Faceplate and LEDs

Fig. 6.12 CCS16 (CC+1xSTM-16/4) Card Faceplate

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LEDs:

LED Name Color Status Description


ON The card is in working state
Active Green
OFF The card in standby state
ON Power is available to the card. It indicates the
presence of the internal power supply after the
Power Green power conversion.
OFF Power is not available due to broken power
converter or external power cable or connector.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this module
Fault Red
OFF This module is in normal condition
ON Optical link is normal
Link Green
OFF Optical link is off

Tab. 6.9 CCS16 (CC+1xSTM-16/4) Card LEDs

6.9 Optical STM-16 Interface Card: 1×


× STM-16

Function:
This card provides 1 optical interface with a signal rate of 2.488 Gbps. The STM-16 interface
is fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. The STM-16 optical interface on
this module can be paired with any STM-16 interface on another module to formulate a 2-
fiber STM-16 ring of 16 nodes or less. The STM-16 ring supports MS-SPRing, MSP, and
SNCP protection function.

The current optical line interface on this module uses SFP (Small Form-Factor Pluggable)
with multiple SFPs for different transmission distance applications. The optical line interfaces
also support ALS (Automatic Laser Shutdown) function, and support optical performance
monitoring including bias current, input and output optical power.

This module can be installed in slots LC7 and LC8.

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.13 1× STM-16 Card Faceplate

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External Interfaces:

Interface Description
STM-16 Optical LC connector
Interface STM-16 SFP options:
- STM-16 (DWDM U-16.2, 180 Km)Note 3
- STM-16 (U-16.2, 160 Km)Note2
Note 1
- STM-16 (V-16.2, 120 Km)
Note 4
- STM-16 (DWDM L-16.2, 80 Km)
- STM-16 (CWDM L-16.2, 80 Km) Note 5
- STM-16 (L-16.2, 80 Km)
- STM-16 (L-16.1, 40 Km)
- STM-16 (S-16.1, 15 Km)
Note 1: V-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion
can be up to 2400 ps/nm; this 120 Km solution need an external 13 dBm booster
amplifier.
Note 2: U-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion
can be up to 3200 ps/nm; this 160 Km solution need an external 18 dBm booster
amplifier.
Note 3: DWDM U-16.2 SFP is one of 44 channels DWDM SFP, the special wavelength is
192.7THz (1555.75 nm); this 180 Km solution need one 18 dBm booster amplifier
and preamplifier with filter as well as the 680 ps/nm DCM.
Note 4: DWDM L-16.2 SFP supports 44 DWDM channels which are compatible with ITU-T
694.1.
Note 5: CWDM L-16.2 SFP supports 8 CWDM wavelengths which are compatible with ITU-
T 694.2.

Tab. 6.10 1× STM-16 Card External Interfaces

LEDs:

LED Name Color Status Functional Description


Power is available to the card. It indicates the
ON presence of the internal power supply after the power
Power Green conversion.
Power is not available due to broken power converter
OFF
or external power cable or connector.
ON Optical link is normal.
Link Green
OFF Optical link is off.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this card.
Fault Red This card is in normal condition.
OFF

Tab. 6.11 1× STM-16 Card LEDs

6.10 Optical / Electrical STM-4/1 Interface Card: 4 × STM-4 / STM-1

Function:
This card provides 4× STM-4 or 4× STM-1 optical and electrical interfaces. This interface
card can be configured as 4×STM-4 or 4×STM-1 mode through FLEXR L. Both of these
STM-4 and STM-1 interfaces are fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. The
client side STM-4/STM-1 interfaces could be equipped with the optical and electrical SFP
modules at 155 Mbps speed or the optical SFP modules at 622 Mbps speed.

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Any of the STM-4/STM-1 interfaces on this module can be paired with any other STM-
4/STM-1 interfaces on the same module or on the different module to support MSP, SNCP,
and MS-SPRing.

While it is set as 4×STM1 mode, this module can be installed in any slots from LC1/2/5/6 and
LC7/8; while it is set as 4×STM4 mode, it could be installed in LC7 and LC8 or in LC1/2/5/6
in which only the first STM-4 port is available and the card is working as 1×STM-4 card.

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.14 4× STM-4/STM-1 Card Faceplate

External Interfaces:

This STM-4/1 interfaces support both optical and electrical SFP modules. In this version,
system only supports electrical SFP modules for STM-1 rates.

Interface Description
STM-4/1 Optical Interface LC connector
STM-4 SFP options:
- STM-4 (V-4.2 120 Km)
- STM-4 (L-4.2 80 Km)
- STM-4 (L-4.1 40 Km)
- STM-4 (S-4.1 15 Km)
STM-1 SFP options:
- STM-1 (V-1.2 120 Km)
- STM-1 (L-1.2 80 Km)
- STM-1 (L-1.1 40 Km)
- STM-1 (S-1.1 15 Km)

STM-1 Electrical Interface DIN 1.0/2.3 75 Ohm, SFP Electrical Interface module:
Typical cable length: 100 meter (attenuation at 78 MHz must
be less than 13.7 dB)

Tab. 6.12 4× STM-4/STM-1 Card External Interfaces

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LEDs:

LED Name Color Status Functional Description


Power is available to the card. It indicates the
ON presence of the internal power supply after the power
Power Green conversion.
Power is not available due to broken power converter
OFF
or external power cable or connector.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this card
Fault Red This card is in normal condition
OFF
ON Optical link is normal
Links 1, 2, 3,
Green
4 OFF Optical link is off

Tab. 6.13 4× STM-4/STM-1 Card LEDs

i Note: It is not possible to mix STM-1 and STM-4 modes at the same time in the same board.

6.11 Optical / Electrical STM-1 Interface Card: 2×


× STM-1

Function:
This card provides 2× STM-1 optical and electrical interfaces. The STM-1 interfaces are fully
compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. The client side STM-1 interfaces could
use optical and electrical SFP modules.

Any of the STM-1 interfaces on this module can be paired with any other STM-1 interface on
the same module or on the different module to support MSP, and SNCP.

This module can be installed in any slots from LC1 to LC10 (except LC7 and LC8).

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.15 2× STM-1 Card Faceplate

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External Interfaces:

This STM-1 interfaces support both optical and electrical SFP modules.

Interface Description
STM-1 Optical Interface LC connector
STM-1 SFP options:
- STM-1 (V-1.2 120 Km)
- STM-1 (L-1.2 80 Km)
- STM-1 (L-1.1 40 Km)
- STM-1 (S-1.1 15 Km)

STM-1 Electrical Interface DIN 1.0/2.3 75 Ohm, SFP Electrical Interface module:
Typical cable length: 100 meter (attenuation at 78 MHz must
be less than 13.7 dB)

Tab. 6.14 2× STM-1 Card External Interfaces

LEDs:

LED Name Color Status Functional Description


ON There are fault conditions presented in this card
Fault Red
OFF This card is in normal condition
ON Optical link is normal
Links 1, 2 Green
OFF Optical link is off

Tab. 6.15 2× STM-1 Card LEDs

6.12 Electrical 155 Mbps Interface Card: 4×


× STM-1EW (W/P), 4×
×
STM-1E EC

Function:
The FLASHWAVE 4270 offers 4× STM-1 electrical interface cards which support redundant
(1+1) 4× STM-1E module protection function.

The 4× STM-1EW (W/P) function boards perform 4× STM-1E signal mapping and framing
function.
The 4× STM-1E EC board provide 4× STM-1E interfaces. This board is connected to both 4×
STM-1E working board and 4× STM-1E protection board simultaneously.

In normal condition, the STM-1E client interfaces are connected to the 4× STM-1EW working
board. While the 4× STM-1EW working board fails, the 4× STM-1E EC board will switch to
the 4× STM-1EW protection board.

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Fig. 6.16 depicts the functional block diagram of 4× STM-1EW (W/P) protection modules.

4× STM-1EW (W)

4x STM-1E transceiver
4× STM-1E EC & Framing function

Selector
Relay
To CC board
via Backplane

4× STM-1EW (P)

4x STM-1E transceiver
& Framing function

SC

Fig. 6.16 Functional Block Diagram of 4× STM-1EW (W/P)

The FLASHWAVE 4270 chassis supports two groups of 4× STM-1E protection module under
CCS16 module configuration.
The allowable slots for the 4× STM-1EW (W/P) interface modules are summarized in
Tab. 6.16.

Protection Pair 1 Protection Pair 2


Board Name (3 slots) (3 slots)
Allowable Slots Allowable Slots
4× STM-1E EC EC2 EC4
4× STM-1EW (W/P) LC5 LC6 LC1 LC2

Tab. 6.16 4× STM-1EW (W/P) Allowable Slots

Any pair of STM-1 electrical ports in same or different 4× STM-1 EW (W/P) cards can be set
to support MSP.

Faceplate:

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Fig. 6.17 4× STM-1 EW (W/P) Faceplate

Fig. 6.18 4× STM-1E EC Faceplate

External Interface:

Interface Description
STM-1E Electrical CC4 connector
Interface Transmission distance: 0 to 53 m (-15 dB receiving sensitivity)

Tab. 6.17 External Interfaces of 4× STM-1EW Line Interface Module

LEDs:
There are total 7 LEDs in the front of the module faceplate, the ACT PWD and FAULT LEDs
located on the most right side of the card are fault alarm indication LEDs for the module, and
the other four LEDs are for the indication of the path status of the STM-1 E. There is one
LED for each STM-1 E interface.

Name Color Status Functional Description


On This card pair is carrying live traffic
ACT Green This card pair is not carrying live traffic (in 1+1 protection
Off mode, either working module or protection module will be
carrying live traffic).
Power is available to the card. It indicates the presence of
ON
the internal power supply after the power conversion.
Power Green
Power is not available due to broken power converter,
OFF
external power cable, or connector.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this module
Fault Red
OFF This module is in normal condition

Links 1, ON Optical link is normal


Green
2, 3, 4 OFF Optical link is off

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Tab. 6.18 4× STM-1E Interface Module LEDs

6.13 Electrical 34/45 Mbps Interface Card: 3×


× E3/DS3 (W/P), 3×
×
E3/DS3 EC

Function:
This module has 3× E3/DS3 software configurable interfaces from which the E3/DS3 signal
is mapped into a Lower Order VC-3 and forwarded to line interface for transmission. The
E3/DS3 interface uses CC4 connector. The maximum distance for service interface is up to
667 meters.

Fig. 6.19 depicts the functional block diagram of 1+1 3× E3/DS3 (W/P) module protection
connections.

3× E3/DS3 (W)

Mapping each E3/DS3


3× E3/DS3 EC To VC-3

Selector
Relay
To CC board
via Backplane

3× E3/DS3 (P)

Mapping each E3/DS3


To VC-3

SC

Fig. 6.19 Functional Block Diagram of 3× E3/DS3 (W/P) Protection Module

The FLASHWAVE 4270 chassis supports four 3× E3/DS3 module protection pairs. The
allowable slots for the 3× E3/DS3 (W/P) interface modules are summarized in below.

Protection Pair Protection Pair Protection Pair Protection Pair


1 2 3 4
Board Name
(3 slots) (3 slots) (3 slots) (3 slots)
Allowable Slots Allowable Slots Allowable Slots Allowable Slots
3× E3/DS3 EC EC5 EC4 EC2 EC1
3× E3/DS3
LC9 LC10 LC1 LC2 LC5 LC6 LC3 LC4
(W/P)

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Tab. 6.19 3× E3/DS3 (W/P) Allowable Slots

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Faceplate:

Fig. 6.20 3× E3/DS3 (W/P) Module Faceplate

Fig. 6.21 3× E3/DS3 EC Module Faceplate

External Interfaces:

Interface Description
CC4 connector
E3/D3 Interface
Transmission distances: 0 to 667 m (-20 dB receiving sensitivity)

Tab. 6.20 3× E3/DS3 Module External Module

LEDs:
There are total 6 LEDs in the front of the module faceplate. The ACT, PWD and FAULT
LEDs are located on the most right side of the card, and the other three LEDs indicate the
E3/DS3 path status. There is one LED for each E3/DS3 interface.

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Name Color Status Functional Description


On This card pair is carrying live traffic
ACT Green This card pair is not carrying live traffic (in 1+1 protection
Off mode, either working module or protection module will be
carrying live traffic).
Power is available to the card. It indicates the presence of
ON
the internal power supply after the power conversion.
Power Green
Power is not available due to broken power converter,
OFF
external power cable, or connector.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this module
Fault Red
OFF This module is in normal condition

Links 1, ON Optical link is normal


Green
2, 3 OFF Optical link is off

Tab. 6.21 3× E3/DS3 Module LEDs

6.14 Electrical 2 Mbps Card: 63×


× E1/RT (W/P), 63 × E1/ R HMEC (75
Ω/120 Ω)

The electrical 2 Mbps cards provide the means to map E1 client signals into VC-12 for
transport.
The FLASHWAVE 4270 provides following E1 cards:
– 63 × E1 /RT (W/P) Function Card (with 1:N Protection and Retiming Functions)
– 63 × E1/ R HMEC (75 Ω) interface Card
– 63 × E1/ R HMEC (120 Ω) interface Card
These 2 Mbps cards are designed as long card which should be installed in up slot and
down slot at the same time. The function card could be installed in any slot from LC4 to LC6
(EC1 to EC3), and the interface card could be installed in any slot from EC4 to EC6 (LC9 to
LC11).

Any of the E1 ports of the 63 × E1 /R card could be used as the timing source.

Function:
The 63× E1/RT interface module contains the following two long cards:
– 63× E1/RT (W/P) Function card. This card provides ITU-T G.707 asynchronies mapping
of E1 signal into a VC-12 container and Retiming Function.
– 63× E1/R HMEC (Electrical Connectors) Interface card. This card is connected with 63×
E1/RT (W/P) card to provide 63 ITU-T G.703 compliant 2.048 Mbps electrical interfaces.
Two different card types for balanced 120 Ohm or unbalanced 75 Ohm signal lines are
available for this module.

The 63× E1/RT (W/P) and 63× E1/R HMEC card could work together to provide 63× E1
interface functions with following configuration options:

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− No protection: Three 63 × E1/RT (W/P) and 63 × E1/R HMEC pairs to support up to 189
E1 ports (see Fig. 6.19)
− 1:N (N=2) protection: Three 63 × E1/RT (W/P) and 63 × E1/R HMEC pairs to support up
to 126 E1 (working) ports and 63 (extra traffic) ports (see Fig. 6.23)

Back Plane

LC4 LC5 LC6 LC9 LC10 LC11


63× E1 63× E1 63× E1 63× E1EC 63× E1EC 63× E1EC

63× E1 63× E1 63× E1


(working) (working) (working)

Fig. 6.22 63× E1/RT Card (No Protection)

1
2
. E1
Re-timing
. E1 To
Connector (To client
Mapper Cross-Connection
. equipment
direction)
.
.
63

Fig. 6.23 63× E1/RT Card (1:2 Protection)

In 1: N protection configuration, FLASHWAVE 4270 supports the extra traffic application.


While the LC4 slot is in protection mode the interface card in the LC9 slot can carry extra
traffic. However if the LC4 slot shifts to working mode, the LC9 slot will discontinue service,
dropping the extra traffic.

The retiming function can be supported on any of all 63 E1 ports. It can be enabled or
disabled (base on port) through the FLEXR L or FLEXR C. The function block is shown in
Fig. 6.24.

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1
2
. E1
. Re-timing
E1 To
Connector (To client
. Mapper Cross-Connection
equipment
. direction)
.
63

Fig. 6.24 63× E1/RT Card Retiming Function Block

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.25 63× E1/RT (W/P) Card Faceplate

Fig. 6.26 63× E1/R HMEC (75 Ohm) Card Faceplate

Fig. 6.27 63× E1/R HMEC (120 Ohm) Card Faceplate

E1 Interfaces:

Interface Description
E1 Interface, Electrical, Using 2 mm Connectors, 1-21, 22-42, 45-63
120 Ohm, balanced Transmission distance: 0 to 730 m (-15 dB receiving sensitivity)
E1 Interface, Electrical, Using 2 mm Connectors, 1-21, 22-42, 45-63
75 Ohm, unbalanced Transmission distance: 0 to 535 m (-15 dB receiving sensitivity)

Tab. 6.22 63× E1/R EC Card Interfaces

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LEDs:

LED
Color Description
name
Links 1 On The link with remote interface is normal
Green
to 63 Off The link with remote interface is down
On This 63× E1 card pair is carrying live traffic
ACT Green This 63× E1 card pair is not carrying live traffic (in 1:2 protection
Off mode, either working module or protection module will be carrying
live traffic).
Power is available to the card. It indicates the presence of the
On
internal power supply after the power conversion.
PWR Green
Power is not available due to broken power converter or external
Off
power cable or connector.
On There are fault conditions presented in this module.
FAULT Red
Off This module is in normal condition

Tab. 6.23 63× E1/R (W/P) Card LEDs

6.15 Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 2× GE+ 8×


FE/AE

Function:
This module provides 8×10/100 M Base-T interfaces (RJ 45) and 2×GE optical/electrical
interfaces on the client side. This module supports L2 switching, GFP, higher order virtual
concatenation, LCAS and WAN ports aggregation. There are 32 WAN ports on the network
side including one Gigabit port and 31 FE ports.

This module can be installed in any slot from LC1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8. When it is equipped in
slot LC 1/2/5/6, the shared network side bandwidth would be 4×VC-4s; when it is equipped in
slot LC 7/8, the bandwidth would be up to 8 × VC-4s.

The bandwidth of the GE WAN port supports VC-4-Xv (X=1…7), and the bandwidth of each
FE WAN port supports VC-12-Xv (X=1…46). The functional block diagram of this module is
depicted in Fig. 6.28.

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Client Network
Interfaces Side

1× GE
GE
2×GE PHY

L2 VC/
GFP 31× FEs
SW LCAS

8×FE FE
PHY

Fig. 6.28 2× GE+8× FE/AE Module Functional Block Diagram

The Layer 2 functions supported by this module are:


WAN ports aggregation, converging Ethernet traffic streams from different SDH network
sides into single port then issue out
multicast IGMP snooping
VLAN and double VLAN tagging, providing increased number of VLANs.
Access Control List (ACL) based on MAC addresses
Providing per port rate limiting function: the rate range of each port is from 64 Kbps~100
Mbps (FE) or 64 Kbps~1 Gbps (GE), and the rate provisioning granularity is 64 Kbps
Providing per VLAN rate limiting function: The rate range of each VLAN is from 64 Kbps~100
Mbps (FE) or 64 Kbps~1 Gbps (GE), and the rate provisioning granularity is 64 Kbps.
Each card has a shareable memory space for both FE and GE interfaces, this memory can
accommodate up to 2048 K bytes, which includes the input buffers and output buffers of
every FE and GE interfaces. Each interface has also 4 output queues, each of which can
accommodate up to 240 K bytes to be sent out. The FE and GE interfaces have different
input buffer size, for FE interface the maximum receive buffer is 256 K bytes, and for GE
interface it is 750 K bytes.
The FE ports support auto negotiation, flow control, IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II frame
structure.
GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
GE WAN port supports VC-4-Xv (X=7 for slots LC7/8, X=4 for Slots LC 1/2/5/6 ) and LCAS
function
FE WAN ports support VC-12-Xv (X=1 …46) and LCAS function
SDH and Ethernet performance monitoring and alarms

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Faceplate:

Fig. 6.29 2× GE+8× FE/AE Module Faceplate

There are 4 RJ 45 interfaces supporting up to 8 FE traffic. Each RJ 45 provides 1 or 2 FE


interfaces via an external splitter.

External Interfaces:

Interface Description
LC Connector
GE SFP Options:
− GE-ZX (80 Km E-SFP)
− GE E (35 Km SFP)
− GE-LX (10 Km E-SFP)
GE − GE-SX (500 m E-SFP)
optical/ RJ 45 Connector, each RJ 45 supports one GE traffic
electrical GE Electrical SFP Option:
Interfaces − 1000 Base-T (100 m Electrical SFP)
Standard compliance:

− 1000BASE-FX IEEE 802.3u )
− 1000BASE-T (IEEE 802.3-2002, IEEE 802.3ab)
Data rate supported:
− 1000 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow control)
RJ 45 connector, each RJ 45 connector supports up to two FE traffic (see
Tab. 6.25 for pin assignment)
Standard compliance:
− 10 BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)
− 100 BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)
Data rate supported:
FE − 10 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow control)
Electrical − 100 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow control)
Interfaces Cables:
− 10BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair cable (STP) and
two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable (Category 6 UTP). The
reaching distance is up to 100 m
− 100BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair cable (STP)
and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable (Category 6 UTP). The
reaching distance is up to 100 m.

Tab. 6.24 2× GE+8× FE/AE Module External Interfaces

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Pin Number Signal Description FE Port


1 TX+ Transmit Data+ A
2 TX- Transmit Data- A
3 RX+ Receive Data+ A
4 TX+ Transmit Data+ B
5 TX- Transmit Data- B
6 RX- Receive Data- A
7 RX+ Receive Data+ B
8 RX- Receive Data- B

Tab. 6.25 2× GE+8× FE/AE Module External Interfaces

LEDs:

Name Color Status Functional Description


Power is available to the card. It indicates the presence
ON
of the internal power supply after the power conversion.
Power Green
Power is not available due to broken power converter
OFF
or external power cable or connector.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this module.
Fault Red
OFF This module is in normal condition.
ON The link is up.
FE Port Green
Flash There are data received or transmitted.
LED Yellow
OFF The link is down.

Tab. 6.26 2× GE+8× FE/AE Module LEDs

Note: Each RJ 45 interface has two LEDS to indicate the data receiving and transmitting
i status for 2 FE interfaces. Take the 1(5) RJ 45 interface as an example, the left LED is used
for FE 1 and the right LED is used for FE 5.

6.16 Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 2×


× GE+8×
×
FE RPRE

Function:
This module provides RPR function on SDH. There are 8 × 10/100 M Base-T interfaces (RJ
45) and 2 × GE optical/electrical interfaces on the client side. This module supports L2
switching, RPR MAC, GFP, and higher order virtual concatenation, and LCAS. There are two
WAN ports on the network side; the bandwidth of each port is VC-4-Xv (X=1…8). The total
available bandwidth on the network side is 16 × VC-4. The functional block diagram of this
module is depicted in Fig. 6.30.

The card can be equipped into any slot of LC7 and LC 8.

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VC-4-Xv
(X=1, …8)

GE
2×GE PHY

L2 RPR VC/
GFP
SW MAC LCAS

8×FE FE
PHY

VC-4-Xv
(X=1, …8)

Fig. 6.30 2× GE + 8× FE RPRE Module Functional Block Diagram

The Layer 2 functions supported by this module are:


– VLAN and double VLAN tagging, providing increased number of VLANs.
– Access Control List (ACL) based on MAC addresses
– Providing per Port rate limiting function: the rate range of each port is from 64 Kbps~100
Mbps (FE) or 64 Kbps~1 Gbps (GE), and the rate provisioning granularity is 64 Kbps.
– Providing per VLAN rate limiting function: The rate range of each VLAN is from 64
Kbps~100 Mbps (FE) or 64 Kbps~1 Gbps (GE), and the rate provisioning granularity is
64 Kbps.

RPR functions:
– Source weighted fairness
– 3 Service of Classes (class A, class B, and class C). Class A traffic can occupy up to
75% of total RPR bandwidth and only the class A traffic supports strict order
transmission.
– RPR layer protection: steering or wrap protection, provisional
– Topology discovery
– The FE ports support auto negotiation, flow control, IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II frame
structure
– GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
– VC-4-Xv (X=1 …8) and LCAS function
– SDH and Ethernet performance monitoring and alarms

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Faceplate:

Fig. 6.31 2× GE+8× FE RPRE Module Faceplate

There are 4 RJ 45 interfaces supporting up to 8 FE traffic. Each RJ 45 provides 1 or 2 FE


interfaces via an external splitter.

External Interfaces:

Interface Description
LC Connector
GE SFP Options:
− GE-ZX (80 Km E-SFP)
− GE E (35 Km SFP)
− GE-LX (10 Km E-SFP)
GE-SX (500 m E-SFP)
GE optical/
RJ 45 Connector, each RJ 45 supports one GE traffic
electrical
GE Electrical SFP Option:
Interfaces
− 1000 Base-T (100 m Electrical SFP)
Standard compliance:

− 1000BASE-FX IEEE 802.3u )
− 1000BASE-T (IEEE 802.3-2002, IEEE 802.3ab)
Data rate supported:
− 1000 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow control)
RJ 45 connector, connector, each RJ 45 connector supports up to two FE
traffic (see for pin assignment)
Standard compliance:
− 10BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)
− 100BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)
Data rate supported:
− 10 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow control)
FE Electrical
Interface − 100 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow control)
Cables:
− 10BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair cable (STP) and
two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable (Category 6 UTP). The
reaching distance is up to 100 m
− 100BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair cable (STP)
and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable (Category 6 UTP). The
reaching distance is up to 100 m.

Tab. 6.27 2× GE+8× FE RPRE Module External Interfaces

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Pin Number Signal Description FE Port


1 TX+ Transmit Data+ A
2 TX- Transmit Data- A
3 RX+ Receive Data+ A
4 TX+ Transmit Data+ B
5 TX- Transmit Data- B
6 RX- Receive Data- A
7 RX+ Receive Data+ B
8 RX- Receive Data- B

Tab. 6.28 RJ 45 Ethernet Interface Pin Assignment

LEDs:

Name Color Status Functional Description


Power is available to the card. It indicates the presence of the
ON
internal power supply after the power conversion.
Power Green
Power is not available due to broken power converter or
OFF
external power cable or connector.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this module.
Fault Red This module is in normal condition.
OFF
ON The link is up.
FE Port Green
Flash There are data received or transmitted.
LED Yellow
OFF The link is down.

Tab. 6.29 2× GE+8× FE RPRE Module LEDs

Note: Each RJ 45 interface has two LEDS to indicate the data receiving and transmitting
i status for 2 FE interfaces. Take the 1(5) RJ 45 interface as an example, the left LED is used
for FE 1 and the right LED is used for FE 5.

6.17 Gigabit Ethernet Interface Card: 2×


× GE /T

Function:
The module provides two 1000 Base-X and 1000 Base-T interfaces (2 SFP cages). Each GE
signal are encapsulated in to GFP packets and would be mapped into VC-4-Xv (X=1 …7) or
VC-3-Xv (X=1 …21) payload for transmission.
This module can be installed in any slots from LC1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8. When it is equipped into
slot LC 1/2/5/6, the shared bandwidth would be 4xVC-4s on its network side; when it is
equipped into slot LC7/8 , the shared bandwidth would be up to 16 x VC-4s.
The functional block diagram of this module is depicted in Fig. 6.32.

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GE SFP 1 Network side:


Total 16xVC4
bandwidth
Dual EOS (GFP, (to CC module through
1000Base-X LAPS, the backplane)
PHY VC-4-Xv)

GE SFP 2

Fig. 6.32 2× GE/T Service Interface Module Functional Block Diagram

Summary of key functions:


– The GE ports support auto negotiation, flow control, IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II frame
structure.
– GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
– VC-4-Xv (X=1 to 7 for slots LC7 and 8, X=1 to 4 for slots LC1/2/5/6 ) mapping
– VC-3-Xv (X= 1 to 21 for slots LC7/8, X=1 to 12 for slots LC1/2/5/6 ) mapping
– SDH and Ethernet performance monitoring and alarms

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.33 2× GE/T Module Faceplate

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External Interfaces:

Interface Description
GE Optical SFP Options:
LC Connector
− GE-ZX (80 Km E-SFP)
− GE E (35 Km SFP)
− GE-LX (10 Km E-SFP)
− GE-SX (500 m E-SFP)
GE Electrical SFP Option :
GE optical/electrical RJ 45 Connector, each RJ 45 supports one GE traffic
− 1000 Base-T (100 m Electrical SFP)

Interfaces
Standard compliance

1000BASE-FX IEEE 802.3u )

Data rate supported
− (
1000 Mbps half-duplex, duplex, flow control )
Cables:
1000BASE-T: supports 1000 Mbps data- rate up to 100 meters
reach over unshielded twisted-pair category-5 cable.

Tab. 6.30 2× GE/T Service Interface Module External Interfaces

LEDs:

Name Color Status Functional Description


Power is available to the card. It indicates the presence of the
ON
internal power supply after the power conversion.
Power Green
Power is not available due to broken power converter, external
OFF
power cable, or connector.
ON There are fault conditions presented in this module.
Fault Red
OFF This module is in normal condition.
ON The link with remote interface is normal.
Link 1 Green
OFF The link with remote interface is down.
ON The link with remote interface is normal.
Link 2 Green
OFF The link with remote interface is down.

Tab. 6.31 2× GE/T Service Interface Module LEDs

6.18 Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 8×


× FE/T

Function:
This module has 8× 10/100 M Base-T IEEE 802.3 compatible Ethernet interface ports, and
can provide transparent transmission for up to 8× 10/100 M connections.
– Supports GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
– Scalable bandwidth through VC-12-Xv (X=1…46), VC-3-Xv(X=1..3) and LCAS

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Minimal equipment investment this Ethernet module still provides very attractive services to
the end customers, like:
– Scalable bandwidth without having to change interfaces
– A transparent LAN service that hides the complexity of the WAN for end users (a WAN
that looks like a LAN)
– High availability LAN service because of end-to-end SDH protection switching.

Network side:
Total 1xVC4
bandwidth
(to the backplane)
Octal EOS (GFP,
Client side: 8x RJ-45
100Base-T LAPS, VC-
Up to 8 FE connectors
PHY 12-Xv)
signals

Fig. 6.34 8× FE/T Module Functional Block Diagram

This module can be installed in any slots from LC1 to LC10 (except LC7 and LC8).

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.35 8× FE/T Module Faceplat

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External Interfaces :

Interface Description
RJ 45 connector
Standard compliance:
− 10 M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)
− 100 M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)
Data rate supported:
− 10 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow-control)
FE Electrical − 100 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, flow-control)
Interface Cables:
− 10 M BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair cable
(STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable (Category
6 UTP). The reaching distance is up to 100 m
− 100 M BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable
(Category 6 UTP). The reaching distance is up to 100 m

Tab. 6.32 8× FE/T Interface Module External Interfaces

LEDs:

Name Color Status Functional Description


On The link is up.
Green
OFF The link is down.
FE Port LED
ON Transmitting or receiving data.
Yellow
OFF No data.

Tab. 6.33 8× FE/T Module LEDs

6.19 Fast Ethernet Interface Card: 6×


× FE/L2

Function:
The Fast Ethernet interface cards provide the means to map Fast Ethernet client signals of
type 10/100 BASE TX into VC-12-Xv for transport. This card has 6×10/100 M Base-T IEEE
802.3 compatible Ethernet interface ports, and can provide traffic aggregation and
transmission for up to 2 uplink connections.
There are two WAN ports on the network side. Up to 6 ×10/100 M traffic can be aggregated
to 1 or 2 WAN ports and forwarded to a SDH line interface for transmission. Given bursty
nature of data traffic, aggregation of multiple port traffic into a single group of virtually
concatenated containers allows a more efficient use of the available bandwidth.
This module supports following features:
– GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
– Low order virtual connection VC-12-Xv (X=1…46); the total available bandwidth on the
network side is 1× VC-4; VC-3-Xv(X=1..3)

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– LCAS function, with this mechanism, the allocated SDH bandwidth for an Ethernet link
can be dynamically reconfigured without disturbing the existing traffic flow.
– FE ports support auto negotiation, flow control, IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II frame
structure
– Ethernet performance monitoring and alarms
– VLAN and double VLAN tagging, providing increased number of VLANs.
– Access Control List (ACL) based on MAC addresses
– Rapid Spanning Tree (802.1w), dramatically reducing restoration time
– Layer 2 multicast functions (including static provisioned multicast and IGMP Snooping
multicasting functions), saving bandwidth on applications such as multi-media video
– Providing per port rate limiting function: the rate range of each port is from 200
Kbps~100 Mbps (FE), and the rate provisioning granularity is 1 Kbps.
– Providing per VLAN rate limiting function if the VLAN is assigned to a dedicated port:
The rate range of each VLAN is from 200 Kbps~100 Mbps (FE), and the rate
provisioning granularity is 1 Kbps.
– Providing 802.1p QoS/CoS based on Ethernet port and/or VLAN
– Each card has a shareable memory space which can accommodate up to 16384 K
bytes, which includes the input buffers and output buffers of every FE interface. The
buffer is packet based, every packet will occupy 1536 bytes buffer, regardless of the
packet size length, e.g. one 64 bytes packet will also occupy 1536 bytes buffer. Each
interface has also 4 output queues, each of which can accommodate up to 96 packets to
be sent out. The maximum receive buffer is 256 packets.

LAN Port WAN Port

1
1
2

3 Octal EOS (GFP, Total 1× VC-4


Layer 2
6× RJ-45 100Base-T LCAS, to CC via
Function
PHY VC-12-Xv) backplane
4

5
2

Fig. 6.36 6× FE/L2 Card Functional Block Diagram

This module can be installed in any slots from LC1 to LC10 (except LC7 and LC8).

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Faceplate:

Fig. 6.37 6× FE/L2 Card Faceplate

External Interfaces:

Interface Description
RJ 45 connector
Standard compliance :
− 10BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)
− 100BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)
Data rate supported:
− 10 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, and flow control)
− 100 Mbps (half-duplex, duplex, and flow control)
FE Interface, Electrical Cables:
− 10BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair
cable (Category 6 UTP). The reaching distance is up
to 100 m
− 100BASE-T: 100 Ohms–two pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair
cable (Category 6 UTP). The reaching distance is up
to 100 m

Tab. 6.34 6× FE/L2 Card External Interfaces

LEDs:

Name Color Status Functional Description


On The link is up.
Green
OFF The link is down.
FE port LED
ON Current transmitting or receiving data.
Yellow
OFF No data.

Tab. 6.35 6× FE/L2 Card LEDs

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6.20 Optical Amplifier Card: OA

Function:
This OA (Optical Amplifier) card provides uni-directional single optical amplifier function with
optical performance monitoring capabilities. This card is designed to compensate losses in
the entire C band as Booster or Pre-amplifier in the Metro networks.

The OA card can be ordered (with different part numbers) to provide the following
applications:
− Post-amplifier, 13 dBm Output Power
− Post-amplifier, 15 dBm Output Power
− Post-amplifier, 18 dBm Output Power
− Pre-amplifier, 20 dB Gain

The building block diagram of this card is depicted below.

OA Card

Optical Optical
Signal IN Signal OUT
EDFA Module
Embedded CPU
RS-232

FPGA

To SC (System Controller)

Fig. 6.38 OA Module Functional Building Block Diagram

The EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) sub-module is the core building block for this
card. It provides optical signal amplification function. With integrated fast digital circuit and
advanced software, the EDFA can be configured to operate at APC, ACC or AGC mode.
− APC (automatic power control) mode: In this mode, the optical output power is
maintained constant by adjusting the laser pump current to compensate minor changes
in OA input power, component aging, and temperature variation. This mode is mainly
used in post-amplifier application.
− AGC (automatic gain control) mode: In this mode, the OA provides constant gain power
by adjusting the pump laser current to compensate minor changes in component aging
and temperature. This mode is mainly used in pre-amplifier application.
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− ACC (automatic current control) mode: In this mode, the pump laser current is
maintained constant.
These modes could be set through software according to customer’s requirements. In
addition, other significant parameters that need to be pre-set are:
− Input optical power low threshold
− Output optical power low threshold
− Low and high temperature threshold for output power shutdown
The OA card provides the following performances monitoring parameters:
− OA Input Power (dBm), precision to 0.01 dBm
− OA Output Power (dBm), precision to 0.01 dBm
− OA Module Gain (dB), precision to 0.01 dB
− OA Pump Power (mW), precision to 0.01 mW
− OA module internal temperature, precision to 0.1 C degree
− OA module pump drive current, precision to 0.1 A
− OA power module power supply voltage, precision to 0.01 V
All EDFA sub-modules above use single-stage or dual-stage un-cooled 980 nm pump lasers.

OA Card Safety Procedures:

The OA card safety procedures are described in Tab. 6.36.


Feature Description
ALS After 500 ms or more of continuous presence of the LOS defect, the
laser will automatically shutdown; the reduction of the optical output
power at OA input port occurs within 800 ms from the moment loss of
optical signal occurs at OA output port.
OA ALS Whenever the OA’s input signal vanishes, the OA’s optical output signal
will be shut down within 100 ms. When the input signal returns, the
output power will be restored within 100 ms.
Automatic Link The maximum optical signal restore delay is 100 s.
restore The activation for Transmitter /Receiver is less than 0.85 s.
The maximum deactivation time of booster and preamplifiers is 100 ms.
The maximum activation time of an booster is 100 ms.
The maximum activation time of preamplifier is 300 ms.
Manual Restore "Manual restart" or "Manual restart for test" can only be activated when
the laser is shut down.
Tab. 6.36 OA Card Safety Procedures

This module can be installed in any slots from LC1 to LC11.

Faceplate:

Fig. 6.39 OA Card Faceplate (13 dBm)

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Fig. 6.40 OA Card Faceplate (15 dBm)

Fig. 6.41 OA Card Faceplate (18 dBm)

Fig. 6.42 OA Card Faceplate (20 dB)

External Interface:

Interface Description
Connector Type LC connector
Optical Interface Pre-amp -35 to -10 dBm
Input power range
Booster amp. -10 to +3 dBm
Tab. 6.37 OA Card External Interface

LEDs:

Name Color Status Functional Description


There are fault conditions presented in this
ON
Fault Red module.
OFF This module is in normal condition.
ON The OA optical link is normal.
Link 1 Green
OFF The optical link is down.

Tab. 6.38 OA Card LEDs

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CHAPTER 7

System Control and Monitoring

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In addition to the payload signals, control, monitoring and customer-specific data signals can
be transferred in the section overhead of the STM signals.
To ensure high operational safety, operation is continuously monitored by a network
management system or by an operating terminal.
Network elements to which no operating terminal has been connected give information about
the operational state (for support in the case of maintenance work) via built-in indication
elements (see Chapter 7.1).
System control and monitoring is performed by the ‘System Controller’ (SC). The MSC
communicates with the traffic cards via different internal interfaces.
The equipment provides SNMP/TCP/IP over Ethernet interface to the FLEXR L. The
equipment also provides a management interface to a FLEXR L.
For feature enhancements or debugging, software download is possible for all units of the
system. During download, the traffic is not affected.

The FLASHWAVE 4270 is integrated in the following management functions in conformity


with the corresponding ITU-T Recommendations and ETS standards:
– Fault Management
– Configuration Management
– Performance Management
– Security Management

The following are of particular importance:


– Alarm processing (e.g. AIS, FTP) for localizing faulty equipment in the transmission
network.
– Fault diagnosis at card level (e.g. localizing a faulty card).
– Specifying and storing configuration data; these can be entered and requested by the
network management system or the FLEXR L.
– Determining the quality parameters according to the ITU-T Recommendation G.826.
– Administration of the access authorization in the FLEXR L for various user classes with
passwords.

General Fault Management Functions


Fault Management is concerned with the detection, localization, isolation, and reporting of
failures of the transmission signals processed by the FLASHWAVE 4270 and of its
equipment. The failures and the failure processing are differentiated in two failure classes:

Transmission Failures and Equipment Failures


In addition to these two failure categories, the FLASHWAVE 4270 supports external alarm
contacts, which can be used for signaling any kind of failure.
Failures are reported via the management interface to the FLEXR L/FLEXR C and may also
lead to alarm indications at the FLEXR L (card indications, NE indications, and transport
functions indications).

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The tasks of the fault management function are listed below:


– Detect anomalies
– Derive defects by eliminating spurious anomalies and to report some of them to the fault
management function
– Trigger automatic maintenance actions (AIS insertion, Laser shutdown,...)
– Perform alarm reduction through correlation of defects
– Perform further alarm reduction through adjustable persistence checks
– Time stamp alarm events using the system real time clock
– Issue spontaneous alarm event notifications to the FLEXR L/FLEXR C
– Prevent the report of unwanted alarm event notifications according to configurable alarm
forwarding
– Report alarms to the local alarm system
– Indicate fault states of replaceable units
– Store alarm events and the alarm states in the current problem list for later retrieval
– Support fault location for diagnosis and guiding of maintenance.

7.1 Indicating and Operating Elements of the Network Element

The indication elements (LEDs) on the cards are a useful aid particularly if neither a FLEXR
L, nor a network management system have been connected to the FLASHWAVE 4270
equipment when an alarm occurs. The LEDs signal alarms at subrack and card level.

7.1.1 Operating Devices of the FLASHWAVE 4270

In the Subrack Front Panel of the FLASHWAVE 4270 there is an acknowledge key ACO for
manual acknowledgment of the alarm messages.

7.1.2 Operating and Display Elements of the Cards

LED Displays of the Cards


To assist in maintenance work, there are two LEDs on the front of each card which are
visible.
A red FAULT LED to indicate card-internal alarms.
A green PWR status LED to indicate card power supply status.
Additionally to the red and the green LEDs which have the same behavior as on other cards
the Ethernet cards contain yellow and green LEDs for each port giving information about
Link Status and Link Activity to the operator and service technicians.

Operating Elements of the Cards


No hardware settings have to be made on the printed circuit boards of the cards. The cards
are configured by software commands from the operating terminal or from a network
management system when commissioning or in the case of later changes.
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Help Configuration of the cards using software is explained in the FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L
Use Manual and in online help.

7.2 Control and Monitoring by FLEXR C Network Management


System

Like all the components of the FLASHWAVE product range, the FLASHWAVE 4270 is
integrated in the concept of a central network management system FLEXR C. The FLEXR C
network management platform consists of the following components:
FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L
FLEXR C (Sub-Network Management System)

FLEXR L /
FLEXR C
FLEXR C

SNMP over SNMP over


TCP/IP TCP/IP

Sub-network
TCP/IP/
PPP/DCC
Single
NE NE NE

Fig. 7.1 Embedding of FLASHWAVE 4270 NEs in a TMN System

7.2.1 FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L

The access to the Network Elements via operating terminals is enabled by FLASHWAVE
4270 FLEXR L Software installed on the Craft Terminal.
FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L is an element management system (EMS) with a graphical
interface. The FLEXR L can manage any single NE via the DCC or DCN. The FLEXR L
supports SNMP and can be connected to FLASHWAVE 4270 network elements via a
network interface (Ethernet) located at the system management interface panel.

The complete FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L software consists of the following components:
Window Server 2003 or Window XP operation system;
FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L software package.

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For details on FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L software components, see the FLASHWAVE
4270 FLEXR L User Manual.

7.2.2 FLEXR C

The FLEXR C provides both element management and sub-network management functions.
It supports ITU-T complied FCAPS function and extended these functions to the sub-network
level. The FLEXR C not only provides SDH layer management functions, but also supports
the management of Ethernet, RPR, and ATM services, as well as other data interfaces The
FLEXR C offers a TMF814 northbound CORBA interface to interact with the FLEXR C-Core.
More detailed information of the FLEXR C is provided below:

FLEXR C Architecture
FLEXR C is based on a distributed client, server and database architecture. The
implementation technology is independent of operating systems, which enhances system
compatibility. The modular software design allows the FLEXR C to provide integrated
management of SDH, ATM, RPR, and Ethernet/IP networks in one platform and enables
scalability for introducing additional new technologies. The FLEXR C allows multiple
FLEXR C clients to manage the same network at the same time. Management at the
Network Management Level by The FLEXR C or other higher-level network management
system can be reached via the TMF814 northbound CORBA interface of the FLEXR C.

Element Management Function


FLEXR C offers an advanced graphical interface to facilitate the configuration of each NE.
Operations on NEs is shown directly on a graphic chassis view. A graphical interface of the
NE shows modules and ports, which directly corresponds to the real ones being managed.
This gives the operator real-time status information, facilitating the management process.
FLEXR C provides standard-based FLEXR capabilities, including
– Fault Management
– Configuration Management
– Performance Management
– Security Management
– System Administration

Network Management Function


FLEXR C provides layered management capabilities. Networks and services of different
technologies (TDM, ATM, RPR, Ethernet, etc.) carried over the same MSTP platform can be
managed and optimized independently through graphical management interfaces, appearing
as if they were independent networks. One network of MSTP equipment will appear to the
user as three different networks: an SDH network, an IP/Ethernet network, and an ATM
network. The FLEXR C offers a total view of the managed MSTP network elements. It
provides many sophisticated network level functions in a user-friendly fashion.

Graphical End-to-End Provisioning and Maintenance


FLEXR C supports multi-service (TDM, ATM, RPR, Ethernet, etc.), graphical, end-to-end,
and fast service provisioning. This makes the creation, maintenance and management of
services significantly simpler for operators
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Utilization statistics of network resources and bandwidth


This helps service providers optimize their networks by discovering potential bottlenecks

Topology Management
FLEXR C provides a variety of network topology information. For instance, the SDH
synchronization topology enables direct view and real-time monitoring of the timing status
and timing relationship between NEs. The FLEXR C shows the topology map with different
icons to indicate different types of NEs and by using different lines to indicate different
bandwidth and various other user-friendly features.

Correlation Analysis among Circuits, PM Data, and Alarms


Provide intelligent alarm correlation analysis to enhance trouble-shooting.

Network Elements Auto-Discovery and Network Auto-Construction

For details on FLEXR C software components, see the FLEXR C User Manual.

7.3 Management System Protection

FLEXR C provides the following mechanisms to ensure system and data security:
(1) Database backup and recovery
The FLEXR C contains a database to keep all network and NE information. The FLEXR C is
designed to allow operators to backup the database and to select the database backup
methods as either a backup per request, or to perform backups periodically (using pre-
defined tasks). All backups are maintained in the backup table. Operators can retrieve any
backup copies as needed.
Database backup tool works independently of the FLEXR C network management system.
This feature ensures that even if the FLEXR C network management system does not run,
the database can still be backed up in time.
(2) MIB backup and recovery
A copy of the MIB in an NE can be transmitted to and saved at the FLEXR C or
FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L. The network element is capable of detecting MIB file integrity,
and will trigger an event to the operator on EMS. When the MIB fails, the backup copy of the
MIB can be downloaded to the NE for use. The FLEXR C or FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L
provides the switch over from the current MIB to the backup MIB. The operator can manually
download the backup MIB file into the NE. The system provides a separate MIB backup tool
(integrated with database backup tool), which can do periodic backup and management.
(3) NE software recovery
The FLEXR C supports remote NE software download, and switch over between NE
software loads.

7.4 NE Software

The FLASHWAVE 4270 NE software architecture is highlighted below.

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FLEXR C/
FLEXR L

SNMP Agent

Application Management Module


MIB

Hardware Drivers

Real-time, Multi-Task Operating System


(VxWorks)

Fig. 7.2 FLASHWAVE 4270 Software Architecture

7.4.1 Application Management Module

The application management module is the application layer software in the embedded
software system; its main function is to fulfill configuration management and monitoring for
the NE. Via standard SNMP protocol, the application management module can inter-
communicate with the network management system, fulfill cross-connect management,
service protection configuration, performance monitoring, and alarm surveillance. The
application management module can be divided into the following sub-management system
functions:
– CC (Cross-connect) module
– FM (Fault management) module
– PM (Performance management) module
– TM (Timing management) module
– IFM (Interface management) module
– Data management module
– MSP, MS-SPRing, and SNCP service protection module

Each software sub-system can be divided into two layers, Manager and Agent. The main
function of Manager is to receive requests from network management system, and then
convert them into operating commands, which will be sent to Agent. The Agent then receives

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operating commands from the Manager, and fulfills the configuration function via the
interface provided by the hardware driven module. In addition, the Agent is in charge of
collecting hardware information (for example, hardware failure and performance statistical
data), and sending them to the Manger. After related processing, the Manager converts this
data into information the network management software can read, and sends it to network
management software.

7.4.2 Hardware Driver Modules

The FLASHWAVE 4270 NE hardware includes many integrated circuit chipsets. Hardware
driven modules control these chipsets. The hardware driven modules provide the access
interface between the hardware and the higher layer software (the application management
module). The main functions of hardware driven modules include:
– Hardware initialization
– System auto testing
– Hardware configuration
– Interruption service
– Hardware information inquiring
– Alarm/Performance monitoring data collection and reporting

7.4.3 Real-Time Multi-Task Operation System

The embedded software in the FLASHWAVE 4270 NE was developed using the high
performance VxWorks real time operating system. VxWorks is a reliable embedded software
platform; it includes a high performance real time kernel, which supports preempting multi-
task scheduling based on priority. It also includes task management, timing management,
storage management, resource management, event management, resource management,
message management, queue management and semaphore management. These basic
functions offer powerful support for rapid, reliable application development.

7.4.4 SNMP Agent

The FLASHWAVE 4270 embedded software includes a standard SNMP agent module. The
SNMP agent is responsible for responding to all EMS/SNM requests including information
requests and action requests. It will also generate autonomous event reports to the
EMS/SNM.

The SNMP communication protocol includes 3 operations: Get, Set, and Trap. Through
these 3 combined operations, the SNMP Agent can fulfill all configuration management and
alarm monitoring function via intercommunicating with the MIB in the NE.

The intercommunication process among the SNMP Agent, the MIB management module,
and the application management module is as following: the SNMP Agent receives requests
from network management software, and then sends these requests to the MIB
management module. When the MIB management module receives requests it will cause

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the application management module to do related operations to achieve system


management functions. At the same time, hardware driven modules and some application
management modules may generate related events and data, which will be needed to report
to network management software. This information will be sent to the network management
software via the application management module invoking interfaces provided by the SNMP
Agent and transmitting them by Trap.

7.4.5 MIB Management Module

The MIB management module is the interface of the management information database in
the embedded software system of the FLASHWAVE 4270 NE. The MIB includes all
configuration information and real time monitoring information in the NE. This information is
managed by the MIB management module uniformly to accomplish information storage,
recovery, retrieval, modification, and notification functions.

7.5 Management Protocols and DCC

The FLEXR C or FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L uses SNMPv2 protocols to communicate with
FLASHWAVE 4270 NEs.

The FLASHWAVE 4270 system uses TCP/IP over the SDH data communication channels
(DCC) or Ethernet LAN (RJ 45 connector) to provide a local or remote craft interface for
management and monitoring. The FLASHWAVE 4270 supports the following two DCC
channels:
– Regeneration Section DCC (D1-D3 bytes)
– Multiplex Section DCC (D4-D12 bytes)

In the FLASHWAVE 4270, DCC is supported on all STM-N interfaces. FLEXR C or


FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L enables you to select which DCC is used on each STM-N
interface.

FLEXR C supports TMF 814 CORBA northbound interface.

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Commissioning and Maintenance

CHAPTER 8

Commissioning and Maintenance

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8.1 Commissioning

If the FLASHWAVE 4270 has to be configured on initial commissioning, a FLEXR L has to


be connected to the Ethernet interface of the FLASHWAVE 4270. The hardware and
software requirements at the craft terminal are described in Installation and Test Manual.
The craft terminal offers a graphical, menu-driven user interface.

Detailed information for commissioning the FLASHWAVE 4270 equipment and the operating
terminals is given in the FLASHWAVE 4270 Installation and Test Manual.

8.2 Maintenance

The alarm and maintenance concept of the system provides sufficient alarm information to
localize and clear the fault at card level. No maintenance at regular intervals is required.
Maintenance measures (e.g. fault localizing) can be carried out locally via the local
management interface (FLEXR L) or under remote control via the TCP/IP over DCC (FLEXR
L or a network management system).

Maintenance of the FLASHWAVE 4270 equipment is described in the FLASHWAVE 4270


Maintenance and Troubleshooting Manual and in the online help system.

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CHAPTER 9

Technical Data

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9.1 Traffic Interfaces

9.1.1 Optical STM-16 Interfaces

Parameters Classification of STM-16/2.5 Gbps

Application Code S-16.1 L-16.1 L-16.2

Supported Distance[km] ~15 ~40 ~80

Laser Types SLM SLM SLM

Central Wavelength [nm] 1261~1360 1280~1335 1480 ~ 1580

Max. Spectral Width [nm] σ-20dB=1 σ-20dB=1 σ-20dB<1

Min. SMSR [dB] 30 30 30

Average Launch Power [dBm] -5 ~ 0 -2 ~ 3 -2 ~ 3

Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2 8.2 8.2

G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin 15% 15% 15%

Receiver Types PIN APD APD

Mini. Overload [dBm] 0 -9 -9

Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm] -21 -30 -30

Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm] -19 -28 -29

Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm] -18 -27 -28

Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1 1 2

Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] N/A -27 -27

Digital Diagnostics Function Yes Yes Yes


Note:
The impact factors for path penalty value include the dispersion, non-linear and other
effects. But dispersion is the main effect we should consider. Generally, we use G.652 fiber
to test the path penalty of the SFP transceivers in all cases.

Tab. 9.1 Optical Performance of Optical Transceiver SFP at Rate of 2.5 Gbps

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Parameters Classification of STM-16/2.5 Gbps


DWDM U-
Application Code V-16.2 U-16.2
16.2
Supported Distance[km] ~120 ~160 ~180
Un-cooled Un-cooled Cooled
Laser Types
SLM SLM SLM
Central Wavelength [nm] 1530 ~ 1560 1530 ~ 1560 1555.75
Max. Spectral Width [nm] σ-20dB=1 σ-20dB=1 σ-20dB=1
Min. SMSR [dB] 30 30 30
Average Launch Power [dBm] -2 ~ 3 -2 ~ 3 -2 ~ 3
Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2 8.2 8.2
G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin 15% 15% 15%
Receiver Types APD APD APD
Mini. Overload [dBm] -9 -9 -9
Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm] -30 -30 -30
Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm] -29 -29 -29
Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm] -28 -28 -28
Optical Path Penalty [dB] 3 3 3
Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] -27 -27 -27
Dispersion [ps/nm] 2400 3200 2400
Digital Diagnostics Function Yes Yes Yes
Note:
– V-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion can
be up to 2400 ps/nm.
– U-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion can
be up to 3200 ps/nm.
– DWDM U-16.2 SFP is one of 44 channels DWDM SFP. Its wavelength is a special one
(1555.75 nm).
– The wavelength stability of DWDM U-16.2 SFP is 100 pm.
– 120 Km transmission solution needs V-16.2 SFP plus 13 dBm booster amplifier.
– 160 Km transmission solution needs U-16.2 SFP plus 18 dBm booster amplifier.
– 180 Km transmission solution needs DWDM U-16.2 SFP plus 18 dBm booster
amplifier and preamp with filter and 680 ps/nm DCM (suppose the fiber dispersion
@1555.75 nm is 17 ps/nm).
– DWDM SFP should be compatible with DWDM SFP MSA.
– The wavelength of V-16.2 and U-16.2 SFP should be within the range of 1535 nm ~
1554 nm over life and temperature.

Tab. 9.2 Optical Performance of Ultra Long Haul SFP at Rate of 2.5 Gbps

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Parameters Classification

Application Code C8L1-1D2/ C8L1-0D2

Data Bit Rate 622 Mbps ~ 2.67 Gbps

Laser Types SLM

Central Wavelength [nm] 1471 + 20 × m (m = 0 to 7)

Channel Spacing [nm] 20

Maximum central wavelength deviation [nm] ±6.5

Max. Spectral Width [nm] σ-20dB=1

Min. SMSR [dB] 30

Average Launch Power [dBm] 0~5

Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2

ITU-T G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin 15%

Receiver Types APD

Mini. Overload [dBm] -9

Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm] -30

Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm] -29

Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm] -28

Optical Path Penalty [dB] 2

Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] -27

Dispersion [ps/nm] 1600

Digital Diagnostics Function Yes


Note:
– 8 channels CWDM SFP are supported. Its optical performance is compliant with
G.695. C8L1-1D2 is for STM-16 application and C8L1-0D2 is for GE application. It
can support multi-rate application: STM-4/16, STM-16 FEC and GE. Their
wavelengths are 1471 nm, 1491 nm, 1511 nm, 1531 nm, 1551 nm, 1571 nm, 1591
nm, 1611 nm.
– Other items are the same as the above. The RX sensitivity is based on 2.48832 bps
bit rate.

Tab. 9.3 Optical Performance of Multi-rate CWDM SFP

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Parameters Classification

Application Code

Data bit rate 2.48832 to 2.666057 Gbps

Laser Type Cooled SLM


100 GHz channel grid in the C-band:
Wavelength range
191.70 -196.0 THz, wavelength selected
Wavelength stability (over life and
± 12.5 GHz (± 100 pm)
temperature)
Spectral width (-20 dB) modulated 0.5 nm

Side mode suppression ratio > 30 dB

Average launch power 0 dBm to + 4 dBm

Extinction ratio > 9 dB (BOL), 8.2 dB (EOL)

ITU-T G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin 15%

Receiver Types APD

Minimum overload -9 dBm

Rx sensitivity @BOL -30 dBm

Rx sensitivity @HT -29 dBm

Rx sensitivity @EOL -28 dBm

Path Penalty 3 dB

Receiver reflectance < -27 dB

Dispersion tolerance -2400 ps/nm … + 2400 ps/nm

Digital diagnostic function Yes


Note:
– 44 channels DWDM SFP are supported. It can support STM-16 and STM-16 FEC
application. Its channel spacing is 100 GHz. Its wavelength table is as follows.
DWDM SFP should be compatible with DWDM SFP MSA.
– Please notice that 192.7 THz (1555.75 nm) DWDM SFP will be used for 180 Km
ultra-long haul transmission application.
– Considering thermal characteristics of DWDM SFP, the DWDM SFP label should be
at the bottom of SFP, instead of at the top of SFP.

Tab. 9.4 Optical Performance of Multi-rate DWDM SFP

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ITU Channel Number Wavelength (nm)


9 1471
10 1491
11 1511
12 1531
13 1551
14 1571
15 1591
16 1611

Tab. 9.5 Multi-rate CWDM SFP Wavelength Table

ITU ITU
Frequency Wavelength Frequency Wavelength
Channel Channel
(THz) (nm) (THz) (nm)
Number Number
60 196.00 1529.55 38 193.8 1546.92
59 195.9 1530.33 37 193.7 1547.72
58 195.8 1531.12 36 193.6 1548.51
57 195.7 1531.90 35 193.5 1549.32
56 195.6 1532.68 34 193.4 1550.12
55 195.5 1533.47 33 193.3 1550.92
54 195.4 1534.25 32 193.2 1551.72
53 195.3 1535.04 31 193.1 1552.52
52 195.2 1535.82 30 193.0 1553.33
51 195.1 1536.61 29 192.9 1554.13
50 195.0 1537.40 28 192.8 1554.94
49 194.9 1538.19 27 192.7 1555.75
48 194.8 1538.98 26 192.6 1556.55
47 194.7 1539.77 25 192.5 1557.36
46 194.6 1540.56 24 192.4 1558.17
45 194.5 1541.35 23 192.3 1558.98
44 194.4 1542.14 22 192.2 1559.79
43 194.3 1542.94 21 192.1 1560.61
42 194.2 1543.73 20 192.0 1561.42
41 194.1 1544.53 19 191.9 1562.23
40 194.0 1545.32 18 191.8 1563.05
39 193.9 1546.12 17 191.7 1563.86

Tab. 9.6 Multi-rate DWDM SFP Wavelength Table

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9.1.2 Optical STM-4 Interfaces

Parameters Classification of STM-4/622 Mbps

Application Code S-4.1 L-4.1 L-4.2

Supported Distance[km] ~15 ~40 ~80

Laser Types MLM MLM/SLM SLM

Central Wavelength [nm] 1261~1360 1261~1360 1480 ~ 1580


σRMS=1.7/
Max. Spectral Width [nm] σRMS=2.5 σ-20dB=1
σ-20dB=1
Min. SMSR [dB] NA NA/30 30

Average Launch Power [dBm] -15 ~ -8 -3 ~ 2 -3 ~ 2

Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2 10 10

G.957 STM-4 Mask Margin 15% 15% 15%

Receiver Types PIN PIN PIN

Mini. Overload [dBm] -8 -8 -8

Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm] -31 -31 -31

Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm] -29 -29 -29

Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm] -28 -28 -28

Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1 1 1

Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] NA -14 -27

Digital Diagnostics Function Yes Yes Yes

Tab. 9.7 STM-4 Optical Interface (STM-4 SFP)

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9.1.3 Optical STM-1 Interfaces

Parameters Classification of STM-1/155 Mbps

Application Code S-1.1 L-1.1 L-1.2

Supported Distance Range [km] ~15 ~40 ~80

Laser Types MLM MLM/SLM SLM

Central Wavelength [nm] 1261~1360 1261~1360 1480 ~ 1580


σRMS=3/
Max. Spectral Width [nm] σRMS=7.7 σ-20dB=1
σ-20dB=1
Min. SMSR [dB] NA NA/30 30

Average Launch Power [dBm] -15 ~ -8 -5 ~ 0 -5 ~ 0

Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2 10 10

G.957 STM-1 Mask Margin 15% 15% 15%

Receiver Types PIN PIN PIN

Mini. Overload [dBm] -8 -10 -10

Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm] -31 -37 -37

Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm] -29 -35 -35

Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm] -28 -34 -34

Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1 1 1

Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] NA NA -25

Digital Diagnostics Function Yes Yes Yes

Tab. 9.8 STM-1 Optical Interface (STM-1 SFP)

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9.1.4 Electrical 155 Mbps Interface

All marks of a valid signal must conform to the mask


Pulse Shape
irrespective of the sign. The value V corresponds to the
(Nominally Rectangular)
nominal peak value.
Pair(s) in each direction One coaxial pair
Test load impedance 75 Ohms resistive
Peak voltage of a space (no
1±0.1 V
pulse)
Rise time between 10% and 2 ns
90% amplitudes of the
measured steady state
amplitude
Transition timing tolerance
referred to the mean value of Negative transitions: ±0.1 ns
the 50% amplitude points of Positive transitions at unit interval boundaries: ±0.5 ns
negative transitions Negative Positive transitions at mid-unit intervals: ± 0.35 ns
transitions:
Return loss ≥ 15 dB over frequency range 8 MHz to 240 MHz

Rate ft (kHz) f0 (kHz) A1 (UIp-p) A2 (UIp-p)


Maximum peak-to-peak
jitter at an output port
155 520
65 6.5 0.15 1.5
Kbps

Tab. 9.9 155 Mbps Electrical Interface

9.1.5 Electrical 45 Mbps Interface

Bit rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 44 736 Kbps


.
Bit rate accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ± 20 ppm (input)
..
Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . B3ZS
..
Pulse shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . according to ITU-T G.703
..
Pulse amplitude (isolated pulse). . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0.36 V to 0.85 V
.
Jitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . according to ITU-T G.824
..
Pairs in each direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . One coaxial pair
.
Test load impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Ohm resistive
.

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Tab. 9.10 45 Mbps Electrical Interface

9.1.6 Electrical 34 Mbps Interface

Parameter Specification
Nominal line rate 34 368 Kbps
Pair(s) in each direction One coaxial pair
Test load impedance 75 ohms resistive
Nominal peak voltage of a mark (pulse) 1.0 V
Peak voltage of a space (no pulse) 0 V ± 0.1 V
Nominal pulse width 14.55 ns
Ratio of the amplitudes of positive and negative
0.95 to 1.05
pulses at the center of a pulse interval
Ratio of the widths of positive and negative pulses at
0.95 to 1.05
the nominal half amplitude
Maximum peak-to-peak jitter at an output port Refer to clause 2/G.823

Tab. 9.11 34 Mbps Electrical Interface

9.1.7 Electrical 2 Mbps Interface

Bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 048 Kbps


Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HDB3
Frequency tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ± 50 ppm (input)
Permissible cable attenuation at 1024 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 dB to 6 dB
Nominal impedance (input and output)
according to ITU-T G.703. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Ohm (unbalanced) or 120
Ohm (balanced), Depending
on hardware type)
Return loss
51 kHz to 102 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > 12 dB (in), > 6 dB (out)
102 kHz to 2 048 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > 18 dB (in), > 8 dB (out)
2048 kHz to 3 072 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > 14 dB (in), > 8 dB (out)

Tab. 9.12 2 Mbps Electrical Interface

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9.1.8 Gigabit Ethernet Interface, Optical

Parameters Classification of GbE/1.25 Gbps


Application Code 1000Base- 1000Base- 1000Base 1000Base-ZX
SX LX
Supported Distance[km] ~0.5 ~10 ~35 ~80
Laser Types MLM MLM MLM/SLM SLM
Central Wavelength [nm] 770 ~ 860 1270~1355 1270~1355 1480 ~ 1580
Max. Spectral Width [nm] σRMS=0.85 σRMS=4 σRMS=2/ σ-20dB=1
σ-20dB=1
Min. SMSR [dB] N/A N/A 30 30
Average Launch Power -9.5 ~ -3 -9.5 ~ -3 -4 ~ 0 0~4
[dBm]
Extinction Ratio [dB] 9 9 9 9
IEEE802.3 Mask Margin 10% 15% 15% 15%
Receiver Types PIN PIN PIN PIN
Mini. Overload [dBm] 0 -3 -3 -3
Receiver Sensitivity @BOL -20 -22 -24 -24
Receiver Sensitivity @ HT -19 -21 -23 -23
Receiver Sensitivity @EOL -17 -19 -22 -22
Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1 1 1 2
Max. Reflect of receiver [dB] -12 -12 -12 -25
Digital Diagnostics Function Yes Yes Yes Yes
Note
– The1000 Base with extension distance about 35 Km and 80 Km is a customized
product that we will provide to our customs. But according to IEEE802.3, only two
standard types (1000 Base-SX and 1000 Base-LX) are defined clearly.
-12 7
– Measured at bit error rate (BER) of 10e , using 2 -1 PRBS test data pattern.
– To consider of aging factor, we define the receiver sensitivity at the beginning of life
(BOL) should be 2~3 dB better than the standard values listed in the ITU-T G.957,
according to the application code.

Tab. 9.13 Gigabit Ethernet Interface (Optical)

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9.1.9 Fast Ethernet Interface 100 Base-T, Electrical

100 Base-T Fast Ethernet poet acc. to IEEE 803.3u


100Base-T
Distance variants
User class as per IEEE 802.3u
Nominal bitrate 125.000 kBaud
Frequency tolerance ± 100ppm
Code 4 B/5 B. scrambled, MLT3
Connector receptacle Shielded RJ 45
Transmitter behavior
Output impedance 100 Ω differential
2 MHz ≤ f ≤ 30 MHz: > 16 dB
Return loss 30 MHz ≤ f ≤ 60 MHz: [16 – 20 * log(f /30 MHz)] dB
60 MHz ≤ f ≤ 80 MHz: > 10 dB
Level (950…1050)mV
Single amplitude symmetry 0.98 to 1.02
Rise/fall time 3 ns c t r,f ≤ 5 ns, (10 to 90%)
Duty cycle DCD < 0.5 ns (referred to 50 % of Vout)
Output jitter < 1.4 ns peak-peak
Overshoot ≤ 0.05 * Vout
Receiver behavior
Output impedance 100Ω differential

2 MHz ≤ f ≤ 30 MHz: > 16 dB


Return loss 30 MHz ≤ f ≤ 60 MHz: [16 – 20 * log(f /30 MHz)] dB
60 MHz ≤ f ≤ 80 MHz: > 10 dB

Assert-Time < 1000 ms


Signal detect De-assert-Time < 350 ms
BER < 1E-2
Cable behavior
Connector plug Shielded RJ 45
S/UTP
Cable type
Category 5
Operating distance < 100 m
Insertion loss ≤ 19 dB (12.5 MHz, 100 m)

Tab. 9.14 Fast Ethernet Traffic Interface (100 Base-T)

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9.1.10 Electrical Ethernet Interfaces 10 Base-T

Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IEEE 802.3


Bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Mbps
Frequency tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 MHz
PMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NRZI serial
Connector type at subrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RJ 45

Tab. 9.15 Ethernet Traffic Interface (10 Base-T)

All details regarding the 10 Base-T physical layer can be found in clauses 7 and 14 of IEEE
802.3.

9.1.11 OA Interface

Parameters Min. Max. Units


Operating Temperature 0 65 °C
Storage temperature -40 85 °C
Environment (ESD/EMC) 700/85% V/-

Tab. 9.16 OA Card EDFA Module Absolute Ratings EDFA Absolute Ratings

Parameters Description Note


Wavelength Range 1528 nm~1562 nm 1
Pump Laser Uncooled pump
Configuration Single or Dual pump, single stage 2
Gain Flattening without GFF 3
Control Modes APC, AGC, and ACC
Transient Suppress Control Transient Suppress Circuit
Application Types Booster or Preamplifier
Notes:
– This wavelength range is specified as the max. wavelength range for the erbium-
doped fiber amplifier using in single channel SDH application;
– This configuration is designed for single channel SDH system up to now; dual pump
or dual stages may be required for obtaining high gain or large output power;
– For single channel SDH application, the GFF (gain flatten filter) is not required for
obtaining the fine gain flatness.

Tab. 9.17 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier General Specifications

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BOA Interface
Parameters Min. Type Max. Unit Notes
General Specifications (for all types Booster)
Wavelength Range 1528 1562 nm
Noise Figure 5.0 5.5 dB 3
Optical Power Detection Accuracy ±0.5 dB
Polarization Mode dispersion 0.3 0.5 ps
Polarization Dependent Gain ±0.2 0.5 dB
Return loss 45 dB
Transient Overshoot (5 dB 0.5 1.0 dB
Add/Drop)
Transient Suppress Speed (5 dB 0.5 ms
Add/Drop)
Post-amp: 13 dBm output power
Input Power Range -10 3 dBm
Small Signal Gain @Pin=-10 dBm 18 dB 1
Saturation Power @ Pin>-5 dBm 13 dBm 2
Post-amp: 15 dBm output power
Input Power Range -10 3 dBm
Small Signal Gain @Pin=-10 dBm 20 dB 1
Saturation Power @ Pin>-5 dBm 15 dBm 2
Post-amp: 18 dBm output power
Input Power Range -10 3 dBm
Small Signal Gain @Pin=-10 dBm 23 dB 1
Saturation Power @ Pin>-5 dBm 18 dBm 2
Notes:
1. The Maximum small signal gain
13 dBm Booster: when input power<= -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be
up to 18 dB.
15 dBm Booster: when input power<= -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be
up to 20 dB.
18 dBm Booster: when input power<= -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be
up to 23 dB.
2. The Saturation Power is specified at the Maximum Gain Value when the Input
Power is larger than -5 dBm;
3. The typical value of Noise Figure is specified at the Maximum Gain and input power
of 0 dBm.

Tab. 9.18 Post-amplifier Specifications

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POA Interface

Parameters Min. Typ Max. Unit Notes


Center Wavelength 1555.75 nm
Wavelength range -0.25 +0.25 nm 3
(Filter Pass-band window @3 dB)
Input Power Range -35 -15 dBm 4
Small Signal Gain (include filter attenuation ) 20 dB
Output Power Range @ PIN= -15 dBm -15 -10 dBm
Gain flatness N/A dB 1
Noise Figure 5.0 6.0 dB
Optical Power Detection Accuracy
Input Power: -35 to -20 dBm ±0.5 dB
Output Power: -20 to 0 dBm ±0.5 dB
Polarization Mode dispersion 0.3 0.5 ps
Polarization Dependent Gain ±0.2 ±0.5 dB
Return loss 40 dB
Transient Overshoot 0.5 1.0 dB
(5 dB input variance @Constant Power)
Transient Suppress Speed 0.5 ms
(5 dB input variance @Constant Power)
Auto-shutdown Hysteresis 0.5 2 dB 2
Notes:
1. For single channel SDH application, gain flatness is not required.
2. The same as Booster amplifier.
3. A fixed filter (1555.75 nm ± 0.25 nm @3 dB) which is put after the output of OA to
improve OSNR and sensitivity of PA is integrated in PA. DWDM SFP with fixed
wavelength 1555.75 nm (both 100 G and 200 GHz grid) will be used when PA is
added before optical receiver.
4. Error-free long term transmission should be guaranteed under worst case when input
power of PA is -35 dBm ~ -20 dBm and bit rate is 2.5 Gbps.

Tab. 9.19 Pre-amplifier Specifications

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9.2 Control Interface

Control interfaces include two network management interfaces for SNM and FLEXR L
connections on SI and one system debug interface for Command Line Interface (CLI)
connection on SC.

9.2.1 SNMP/TCP/IP/Ethernet for Network Management System.

Bit rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10/100 Mbps


Plug connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RJ 45

9.3 Signaling Interfaces

Signalling interfaces include one external alarm interface for station alarm output, four
Miscellaneous Discrete Input (MDI) and two Miscellaneous Discrete Output (MDO) interfaces
on the system management interface panel.

9.3.1 Fault Indication and Services Status LEDs

System Management Interface Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LED (green) PWR


1 LED (red) Critical
1 LED (red) Major
1 LED (red) Minor
SC Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LED (green) PWR
1 LED (red) FAULT
1 LED (green) ACT
Optical Card and GE Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LED (green) PWR
1 LED (red) FAULT
1 LED (green) LINK
CC Card and Electrical Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LED (green) PWR
1 LED (red) FAULT
1 LED (green) LINK
1 LED (green) ACT
FE Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LED (green) LINK
EC Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LED (green) PWR

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9.3.2 Alarm Contacts

Alarm outputs
Critical/Major . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . urgent alarm
.....
Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . non-urgent alarm
.....
Electrical characteristics
Switch Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . max. 30 VDC/30 VAC
....
Load Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . max. 500 mA
....
Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . short cut
....
Inactive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . open
....

9.3.3 MDI/MDO Interfaces for Customer-specific Channels

MDI Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RJ 45 for 4 MDI inputs


MDO Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RJ 45 for 2 MDO outputs
Activation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The MDI input and MDO output
ports are transparently controlled
via the management interfaces of
FLASHWAVE 4270
MDI Output Interface electrical characteristics
Voltage Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1.5 V < (MDI+) − (MDI−) < +5.5 V
Active. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3 V < (MDI+) − (MDI−) < +5.5 V
Inactive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1.5 V < (MDI+) − (MDI−) < +1 V
MDO Output Interface electrical characteristics
Switch Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . max. 30 V DC/30 V AC
Load Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . max. 500 mA
Active. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . short cut
Inactive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . open

9.4 Interfaces for Network Clock Synchronization

FLASHWAVE 4270 FLEXR L provides two input connection points for synchronization
purposes, as framed or unframed 2 Mbps, or 2 MHz. The system provides two 2-MHz
external synchronization outputs for synchronization purposes. The source of the external

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outputs is only timing reference or system clock and independent of the system clock
reference selection.

9.4.1 2048 Kbps Interface

Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ITU-T G.703 (frequency range


limited to ± 12 ppm)
Input Interface T3
Input frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2048 Kbps
Balanced mode
Input impedance. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Ω
Input voltage U0P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 V to 1.9 V
Unbalanced mode
Input impedance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Ω
Input voltage U0P . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.375 V to 1.5 V

9.4.2 2048 KHz Interface

Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ITU-T G.703 (frequency range


limited to ± 4.6 ppm)
Input Interface T3
Input frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2048 KHz
Balanced mode
Input impedance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Ω
Input voltage U0P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 V to 1.9 V
Unbalanced mode
Input impedance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Ω
Input voltage U0P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.375 V to 1.5 V
Output Interface T4
Output frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2048 Kbps
Output voltage U0P
With balanced load (120 Ω in parallel with 60 pF) . 1.0 V to 1.9 V
With unbalanced load (75 Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75 V to 1.5 V

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9.5 Switching and Delay Times

9.5.1 MS-SPRing Protection Switching

Switching time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . according to ITU-T G.841


External switch requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . manual switch, lockout, forced, clear
Internal switch requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SF (from LOS, RS-LOF, RS-TIM,
MS-AIS, MS-EXC)
SD (from MS-DEG)
Switching type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A
Wait-to-restore time (for revertive operation). . . . . 1 min to 12 min (1 second steps)
Operation type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . revertive

9.5.2 MSP Line Protection Switching

Switching time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . according to ITU-T G.841


External switch requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . manual switch, lockout, forced, clear
Internal switch requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SF (from LOS, RS-LOF, RS-TIM,
MS-AIS, MS-EXC)
SD (from MS-DEG)
Switching type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unidirectional (single-ended) or
bidirectional (dual-ended)
Wait-to-restore time (for revertive operation). . . . . 1 min to 12 min (1 second steps)
Operation type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . revertive, non-revertive

9.5.3 SNC/I and SNC/N Path Protection Switching

External switch requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . manual switch, lockout, forced, clear


Internal switch requests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SF, SD (only for SNC/N )
Switching type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unidirectional or Bidirectional
Configurable persistency (hold-off time) . . . . . . . . 1 min to 12 min (1 second steps)
Operation type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . revertive or non-revertive

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9.6 Power Supply

Input DC voltage (according to ETS 300 132-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . -48 V / -60 V


. .
(Range -40 V ~ -72 V)
Input DC current (according to ETS 300 132-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A / 8 A
..
Power consumption (worst case equipped) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 450 W
Maximum power consumption of cards:
PWR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 W
FAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 W
SC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 W
System Management Interface Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1W
CC + 1 × STM-16/4 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 W
...
1 × STM-16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 W
4 × STM-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 W
4 × STM-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 W
2 × STM-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5W
4 × STM-1EW (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 13 W
4 × STM-1E/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6W
3 × E3/DS3 (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7W
3 × E3/DS3 EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1W
63 × E1/R (W/P). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 W
63 × E1/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1W
2 × GE + 8 × FE/AE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 W
2 × GE + 8 × FE RPRE . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 W
2 × GE/T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.6 W
8 × FE/T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7W
6 × FE/L2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 W
13 dBm OA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6W
15 dBm OA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8W
18 dBm OA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 W
20 dB OA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6W

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9.7 Environmental Conditions

9.7.1 Climatic Conditions

Long term Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -5 oC ~ 45 oC


....
o
Long term Relative Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% ~ 90% (40 C )
....
Short term Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -10 oC ~ 50 oC
....
o
Short term Relative Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% ~ 95% (40 C )
....
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ETS 300 019 Class 1.2
....
o o
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -20 C ~ 60 C
....
Relative Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% ~ 98%
.....
Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ETS 300 019 Class 2.3
....
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -20 oC ~ 60 oC
....
Relative Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% ~ 98%
.. . . .

9.7.2 Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC

Electromagnetic compatibility in compliance with. . . . . . . ETSI EN 300 386 (2005/04)


V1.3.3, Class A
Emission
Radiation Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN 55022 (1998)
Conducted Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN 55022 (1998)
Immunity
Electrostatic Discharge Immunity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN 61000-4-2
Radiated Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN 61000-4-3
Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity. . . . . . . . . EN 61000-4-4
Surges Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN 61000-4-5
Conducted Disturbances Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EN 61000-4-6

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9.8 Dimensions in mm

Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 × 2200 × 600


(W × H × D)
Subrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 × 566.3 × 331.8
(W × H × D)
Cards (W × H): . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
PWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 × 41.5
SC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
CC + 1 × STM-16/4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 × 35.5
1 × STM-16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
4 × STM-4/STM-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
2 × STM-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
4 × STM-1EW (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
4 × STM-1E/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
3 × E3/DS3 (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
3 × E3/DS3 EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
63 × E1/R (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 × 35.5
63 × E1/EC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 × 35.5
2 × GE/T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
2 × GE + 8 × FE/AE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
2 × GE + 8 × FE RPRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
8 × FE/T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
6 × FE/L2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5
OA (all types) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 × 35.5

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9.9 Weights in kg

Subrack (unequipped): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Cards:
PWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.593
Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2
SC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.365
CCS16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.707
1 × STM-16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.336
4 × STM-4/1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.351
2 × STM-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.241
4 × STM-1EW (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.315
4 × STM-1E EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 0.263
3 × E3/DS3 (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.252
3 × E3/DS3 EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.267
63 × E1/R (W/P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.680
63 × E1/R EC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.805
2 × GE/T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.353
2 × GE + 8 × FE/AE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.386
2 × GE + 8 × FE RPRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.386
8 × FE/T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.270
6 × FE/L2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.270
OA (all types).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.500

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Abbreviations

CHAPTER 10

Abbreviations

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Abbreviations

ADM Add/Drop Multiplexer


ACL Access Control List
ALS Automatic Laser Shutdown
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BOA Booster Optical Amplifier
CC Cross-Connection
CF Compact Flash
CLI Command Line Interface
CLNP ConnectionLess Network Protocol
CLNS ConnectionLess Network Service
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
DC Direct Current
DCC Data Communications Channel
DCCM DCC Multiplex Section (bytes D4 to D12)
DCCR DCC Regenerator Section (bytes D1 to D3)
DCN Data Communications Networks
DNI Dual Node Interworking
ECC Embedded Control Channel
EIA Electronic Industry Association
EMC ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMS Element Management System
EOW Engineering Order Wire
EPL Ethernet Private Line
EPLan Ethernet Private LAN
ES-IS End System to Intermediate System Routing Exchange protocol
ETS European Telecommunications Standard
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EVC Ethernet Virtual Concatenation
EVPL Ethernet Virtual Private Line
EVPLan Ethernet Virtual Private LAN
F Standardized Interface for the Connection to a FLEXR L
FCAPS Fault Configuration Accounting Performance Security
FE Fast Ethernet
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GE Gigabit Ethernet

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Abbreviations

GFP Generic Framing Procedure


GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation
GVRP Generic VLAN Registration Protocol
HDLC High-Level Data Link Control
HO High Order (SDH Traffic)
HOCC High Order Cross-Connection
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol
IP Internet Protocol (G.784)
ISP Internet Service Provider
ITMN Installation and Test Manual
ITU-T International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication
L2 Layer 2
LAN Local Area Networks
LAPD Link Access Protocol on D Channel
LC Line Card
LCAS Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
LED Light Emitting Diode
LO Low Order (SDH Traffic)
LOCC Low Order Cross-Connection
MAC Media Access Control (ISO/IEC)
MIB Management Information Base
MDI Miscellaneous Discrete Input
MDO Miscellaneous Discrete Output
MSOH Multiplex Section OverHead
MSP Multiplex Section Protection
MS-SPRing Multiplex Section-Shared Protection Ring
MSTP Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
NE Network Element
NEBS Network Equipment Building System
NNI Network Node Interface
OA Optical Amplifier
OH Overhead
OS Operating System
OSI Open System Interconnection

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Abbreviations

PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy


PDU Protocol Data Unit
POA Pre-Optical Amplifier
POP Point Of Presence
PPP Point to Point Protoco
PRC Primary Reference Clock
PSR Protection Switch Request
QoS Quality of Service
RPR Resilient Packet Ring
RSOH Regenerator Section OverHead
SC System Controller
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SETS Synchronous Equipment Timing Source SF Signal Fail (G.783)
SFP Small Form-factor Pluggable (Optical Modules)
SNCP Sub-Network Connection Protection
SNM Synchronization Network Manager
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SOH Section Over Head (G.782)
SSM Synchronization Status Message
STM Synchronous Transport Module (G.782/G.783/G.784)
STM-N Synchronous Transport Module, Level N
STP Spanning Tree Protocol
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TDM Time Division Multiplex
TED Technical Manual
TMX Terminal Multiplexer
TSMN Troubleshooting Maunal
VC Virtual Container
VCAT Virtual Concatenation
VCG Virtual Concatenation Group
VLAN Virtual Local Area Networks
VOIP Voice Over Internet Protocol
WAN Wide Area Networks
WTR Wait-To-Restore

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Index

CHAPTER 11

Index

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Index


A NE Software, 7-6
Air Filter, 6-8
Application Management Module, 7-7

B Optical Amplifier Card OA, 6-40
Optical STM-1 Interface Card 2× STM-1, 6-19
BOA Interface, 9-14 Optical STM-16 Interface Card 1x STM-16, 6-16
Optical STM-4 Interface Card 4× STM-4, 6-17



Climatic Conditions, 9-21
Cross-connect, 6-12 Path Protection Switching, 5-12, 5-13, 5-16
PDH Mapping into SDH Containers, 5-6
PhotonicVision™ SNM, 7-5
D POA Interface, 9-15
Power Supply Card PWR, 6-7
DCC, 7-9
Dimensions, 9-22

E Ring Applications, 4-5
Ring Network Functionality, 4-3
Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC, 9-21
Engineering Order Wire, 5-11
Environmental Conditions, 9-21 S
Ethernet Packet Multiplexer and Mapping Functions, 5-6
External Alarm Interfaces, 5-11 SDH, 5-3, 5-5
SNC/I, 5-16
SNMP Agent, 7-8
F SNMPv2, 7-9
Synchronization, 5-8
Fan Assembly, 6-8
System Controller Card SC, 6-9
Fast Ethernet Interface Card 6× FE/L2, 6-38
FW 4270 LCT, 7-4

H Terminal Multiplexer, 2-2
Timing Output Interface, 5-10
Hardware Driver Modules, 7-8

M V
VxWorks, 7-8
Management System Protection, 7-6
MIB Management Module, 7-9
MSP Protection, 5-15 W
MS-SPRing, 5-13
Weights, 9-23

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