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Indian Highways published on 22 January, 2018
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Indian Highways
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Edited and Published by Shri S.K. Nirmal, Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress, IRC HQ, Sector-6, R.K. Puram,
Kama Koti Marg, New Delhi - 110 022. Printed by Shri S.K. Nirmal on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress
at M/s. India Offset Press, New Delhi-110 064 https://www.irc.nic.in
Indian Highways
Volume : 46 Number : 2 ● February, 2018 ● ISSN 0376-2756
Indian Roads Congress
Founded : On 10th December, 1934

Contents
 From the Editor's Desk 4-5
 Advertisements 2, 6-9, 18, 67 & 68
 Membership Notice 10
 Advertisements Tariff and Empanelment of Referees 38
Technical Papers
 Evaluating the Use of High Strength Concrete Pavement Quality Course Made with  11-18
Steel Fiber and Silica Fume
By S.S. Kadam & Dr. V.V. Karjinni
 Equivalent Slope Method for Construction of Master Curve 19-28
By Dr Nikhil Saboo & Dr Praven Kumar
 Exploring the Feasibility for Introducing Electric Buses in Delhi 29-37
By Pintu Saini & Dr. P. K. Sarkar
 Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil with Sand and Non Woven Coir 39-44
By Dr. Vandana Tare, Diwakar Singh & Dr. Kundan Meshram
 MoRTH Circular 45-48
 Tender Notices 49-61
 Announcement 61
 Book Review/New/Revised IRC Publications 62-66

Publisher & Editor: S.K. Nirmal, Secretary General, IRC


E-mail: secygen.irc@gov.in
Headquarter: IRC Bhawan, Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110 022.
Phone No.: +91-11-26171548 (Admn.), 23387140 & 23384543 (Membership), 23387759 (Sale),
26185273 (Tech. Papers, Indian Highways and Tech. Committees)

No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the Secretary General, IRC.
The responsibility of the contents and the opinions expressed in Indian Highways is exclusively of the author(s) concerned. IRC and the
Editor disclaim responsibility and liability for any statements or opinion, originality of contents and of any copyright violations by the
authors. The opinion expressed in the papers and contents published in the Indian Highways do not necessarily represent the views of the
Editor or IRC.

Printed at: M/s India Offset Press, New Delhi-110 064 `20
From the Editor's Desk

ROAD SAFETY AUDIT


Road Safety Audit is a formal procedure for assessing accident potential and likely safety
performance of design of new and existing road/bridge scheme. RSA should form an integral
part of highway planning, design, construction and maintenance, and it requires an objective
approach to the assessment of accident risk. The principal method of ensuring this objectivity
is through an independent assessment of schemes by persons who are independent of the
design team. The main aim is to ensure that all new highway schemes and existing roads
operate as safely as possible.
For existing roads, identification of deficiencies after site visit by road safety expert and
recommendations to remove the same is in the scope of Road Safety Audit (RSA). The audits
are to be carried out objectively and the recommendations made with sufficient reasoning
based on relevant data/information. Copy of Detailed Project Report (DPR) , drawings
of project and design data used in design of road and bridge etc. are very useful in audit
study. For existing roads site visit during day and night and wet/dry season which affect
the movement of traffic is required. Some road junctions are very safe during day time but
become traffic hazard at night. The concept of drive, ride & walk is vital for identifying the
deficiencies in existing road/bridge in relation to movement all road users.
The existing roads with known accident problems should be addressed first as this is where
the actual accidents are occurring that warrants action. The Road Safety specialist along
with local engineers should conduct road safety audit to identify the locations which require
improvement. Road safety audit of accident prone locations will identify the deficiencies
which are contributing towards occurrence of road accidents. The objective of safety audit is
to ensure that the existing road/bridge caters for the movement requirements of all vehicles
moving on the road. During site visit and discussions with locals, it is possible to know the
vehicles plying on a stretch of road in different seasons. The outcome of a road safety audit
is the identification of deficiencies which are likely to contribute towards road accidents and
recommendations to remove the same. The suggested improvements are to be implemented
by the road authority after considering all aspects. After implementation of the road safety
improvement work there is a need to check whether the safety measures were effective or
not. If not, then some other road safety improvement works need to be implemented to
make the roads accident free. The cost of audit and implementation of safety measures will
be offset by saving due to reduction in number of accidents. The recommendations of such
audits be translated into Guidelines for similar type of projects.
Road Safety Audit is an important aspect of Quality Assurance which is applied to the
implementation of a road project. Quality assurance is ensured by the implementation
organization by adhering to set of designed procedures and construction standards. Getting
it right the first time is the underlying theme of quality assurance. Road Safety Audit seeks
to ensure the road operates with a level of protection from unsafe design and construction.
Manual on Road Safety Audit IRC:SP:88-2010.
Salient features and principles for safe road design are covered in this Manual. In this Manual
various aspects of road safety audit such as quality assurance, what is done and what is not

4 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


From the Editor's Desk

done, organizations involved, role of designer, client and an auditor, what type of projects
should be audited; size of RSA team, training of auditors required and training contents,
various stages of safety audit are covered in detail. This document also covers road safety
process such as selecting road safety audit team, inspection of site, size of safety audit team,
holding of safety audit commencement meeting and holding of completion meetings with the
clients etc. Detailed procedure for conducting audit of existing road sections are given with
illustrations. Check list for different stages of projects such as planning, choice of alignment,
cross-section, intersection and interchanges, road signs and markings, lighting, road side
hazards, road side facilities, vulnerable road users, development proposal, maintenance work
are given for the benefit of auditors. The manual is very useful in conduct of Road Safety
Audit. IRC is also considering updation of Manual by incorporating the best international
practices and experience gained in conduct of Road Safety Audit of ongoing projects.
In a writ petition (civil) no. 295 of 2012 filed in Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, the
court passed an order on 22nd April, 2014 constituting a committee on road safety under
the Chairmanship of Justice K.S. Radhakrishan, a former judge of Supreme Court.
In the judgement delivered on 30th November, 2017, the court has issued directions on 25
issues which have direct bearing on road safety. The court directions are on setting up of
road safety council and permanent road safety cell in each state and district road safety
committee in each district by 31st January, 2018; to undertake traffic calming measures at
accident prone locations, to conduct road safety audit to reduce possibility of road accidents
through corrective measures, design stage audit of new road project of length 5 km or more,
Implementation of Ministry’s notification dated 23rd June, 2017 on lane driving, publicity of
universal accident helpline number 108 etc. The judgement can be downloaded from website
of Hon’ble Supreme Court of India.
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways vide Circular dated 14th January, 2016 has issued
guidelines for conducting Road Safety Audit on National Highways. This Circular was
printed in Indian Highways, February, 2016 issue. Recently Ministry has decided to impart
training to 1500 officers in Road Safety Audit and invited nominations from user agencies.
We must realize that road safety audit require dedicated and trained highway engineers to
recommend safer measures for our highways so that Indian Highways become user friendly
and safer to use.


(Sanjay Kumar Nirmal)
Secretary General

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 5


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INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 7


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INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 9


NOTICE

It has come to notice of IRC that a number of Members are not getting copy of IRC publications.
IRC is mailing 12,000 copies of Indian Highways every month even than some members are not
able to get copy of Indian Highways’. We are very much concerned about non receipt of Indian
Highways by the esteemed Members.

In order to short out problem please fill in the proforma and send the same to IRC on
email: ircmembership1962@gmail.com

------------------------------

Proforma for Continuation of supply of IRC Publications:


(To be submitted by 31st March 2018)

1. Name of the Member:..............................................................................................................


2. IRC Roll No. of IRC................................................................................................................
3. Date of Birth:...........................................................................................................................
4. Mobile No./Phone No..............................................................................................................
5. Email :.....................................................................................................................................
6. Present Correspondence address.............................................................................................


7. Interested in receipt of following publication
i. Indian Highways
ii. IRC Journal
iii. Highway Research Journal

Note : In case the proforma is not received, the mailing of IRC publication shall be withheld till
receipt of filled up performa.

Signature of member

10 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

EVALUATING THE USE OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE PAVEMENT


QUALITY COURSE MADE WITH STEEL FIBER AND SILICA FUME

S.S. Kadam1 Dr. V.V. Karjinni2

ABSTRACT
Steel fiber and silica fume was incorporated in high strength concrete pavement quality course to enhance
properties of the structures. It was experiential that compressive strength, flexural strength of concrete was
increased due to partially replacement of cement by silica fume. 5%, 10% and 15% of silica fume was used
as a replacement for cement with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% percentage of steel fiber. Optimum percentage of
steel fiber was found to be 1.5% by volume of the specimen beyond which balling effect, segregation of
the ingredients was observed and concrete is no longer workable. The properties of concrete in fresh and
hardened states were investigated. Slump cone test was conducted on fresh state of concrete and compressive
strength test, flexural strength test was conducted on hardened concrete at randomly and one third position
of steel fiber from top of the pavement surface. For 1.5% steel fiber and 15% silica fume in high strength
concrete best possible results were obtained in both the position of steel fiber. Steel fiber in concrete increases
the flexural strength and ductility. At one third depth from top of the pavement surface it was observed
that beam undergo maximum displacement and increase in ductility was observed. The thickness of rigid
pavement was found by guidelines given in IRC:58-2015. With steel fiber and silica fume used in concrete
pavement the thickness of pavement was considerably reduced.

1 INTRODUCTION product of the reduction of high purity quartz with


Roads are incredibly important from coal in electric furnace in the production of silicon
communication point of view. Though initial cost and ferrosilicon alloys. Many researchers have
of concrete road is high it is beneficial for long restricted use of silica fume up to 15% by weight
term concern. Maintenance cost of concrete road of cement in concrete. For greater percentage of
is almost negligible. The major problem with silica fume it was observed that flexural strength,
concrete road is that due to fatigue action of wheel compressive strength of concrete decreases. Due to
loads cracks are occurred which leads to depreciate the use of steel fiber thickness of concrete pavement
is considerably reduced which helps in reduction of
the concrete road. The steel fiber in concrete acts
required material for pavement construction. Silica
as crack arrester and helps to minimize the crack
fume in concrete is used to increase the strength
and enhance the quality of concrete roads. Steel
of concrete in early days. Roads can be used for
fiber with aspect ratio 80 was used for the present
traffic earlier which helps to reduce inconvenience
study.
to the people. High strength concrete was
Steel fiber was hooked end and circular in cross prepared whose compressive strength greater than
section. Increase in flexural strength was observed 60 N/mm2. Researchers found that performance
at 1.5% steel fiber and 15% silica fume used in of CRCP with steel reinforcement at one third
concrete. For more percentage of steel fiber balling depth of slab from top of pavement surface gave
effect, segregation of ingredients was observed and best result. At this depth reinforcement was found
concrete is difficult to handle. Silica fume is a by to be mainly effective in holding the cracks firmly
1
Research Scholar, Shivaji University, Kolhapur and Asst. Prof., Sinhgad College of Engg, Pandharpur • E-mail: shriganeshkadam@gmail.com
2
Principal, KIT’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur E-mail: karjinni@yahoo.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 11


Technical Paper

together. The objective of the study is to evaluate Table 2 Properties of Fine Aggregate
mechanical properties of pavement containing
S. No. Test conducted Test value
randomly reinforced steel fibers and also reinforced
1 Specific gravity 2.76
at one third depth from top of the pavement with
silica fume. Another objective is to design pavement 2 Bulk density 1660 Kg/m3
thickness for various percentages of steel fiber 3 Fineness modulus 2.83
and silica fume according to guidelines given by
Table 3 Properties of Cement
IRC:58-2015 and suggest proper percentage of
steel fiber and silica fume for construction of S. No. Test conducted Test value
concrete pavement. 1 Specific gravity 3.15
2 MATERIALS 2 Soundness 3 mm
2.1 Coarse Aggregates 3 Initial setting time 58 min.
4 Final setting time 160 min.
The size of aggregate greater than 4.75 mm is
considered as coarse aggregate. There are different Table 4 Properties of Steel Fiber
types of shape of coarse aggregates like rounded
aggregate, flaky aggregate, angular or crushed S. No. Property value
aggregate. In this experimental programme 1 Length 60 mm
crushed aggregates were used. For this study coarse 2 Diameter 0.75 mm
aggregates passing through 16.5 mm and retained 3 Aspect ratio 80
on 10mm were used. The physical properties of 4 Young’s modulus 210 GPa
coarse aggregate like specific gravity, bulk density, 5 Tensile strength 1000 Mpa
impact value, crushing value were tested in
accordance with IS: 2386. The physical properties 2.4 Steel Fiber
of coarse aggregates were tabulated in Table1. Steel fibre used for steel fibre reinforced concrete
2.2 Fine Aggregate having aspect ratio 80. A comparison was made
between 60 and 80 aspect ratio of steel fiber and
Locally available river sand which is free from
it was observed that steel fiber with aspect ratio 80
organic impurities was used for present work. Sand
gives superior result. It is circular in cross section
passing through IS sieve 4.75 mm and retaining on
hooked end type and different properties of steel
IS sieve 150 micron was used in the investigation.
fiber as shown in Table 4.
Care shall be taken to ensure that the sieve is clean
before use. Tests were conducted on fine aggregate 2.5 Preparation of Mix
as per IS:2386. For the present investigation total 10 concrete
2.3 Cement mixes were prepared by varying percentage of
steel fiber and silica fume. Controlled Concrete
Ordinary Portland Cement 53 grade conforming
mix was prepared without steel fiber and silica
IS:269 were used in the study. Physical properties
fume for comparison. For the 9 concrete mixes
of cement were tabulated in Table 3 as below:
other than controlled concrete steel fibers were
Table 1 Properties of Coarse Aggregate reinforced randomly and at one third position
S. No. Test conducted Test value from top of the pavement surface. ACI method
1 Specific gravity 2.8 was used for mix design to prepare concrete
having cube compressive strength greater than
2 Impact value 15.20%
60 N/mm2. Ingredients of concrete were selected
3 Crushing value 17.60%
as per IS specifications. The proportion of different
4 Bulk density 1657Kg/m3 ingredients were shown as below in Table 5.

12 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

Table 5 Mix Proportion and Designation


CC:Controlled Concrete, SF:Silica Fume, ST:Steel Fiber

Ingredients CC 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF
0.5ST 0.5ST 0.5ST 1.0ST 1.0ST 1.0ST 1.5ST 1.5ST 1.5ST
Cement (kg/m3) 588 559 529 500 559 529 500 559 529 500
Fly ash (kg/m3) 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65
Silica fume (kg/m3) -- 29 59 88 29 59 88 29 59 88
Fine aggregate 527 527 527 527 527 527 527 527 527 527
(kg/m3)
Coarse aggregate 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159
(kg/m3)
Steel fiber (kg/m3) -- 39 39 39 78 78 78 118 118 118
Water (Lits/m3) 183 183 183 183 183 183 183 183 183 183
Super plasticizer 5.23 5.23 5.23 5.23 5.23 5.23 5.23 5.23 5.23 5.23
(Lits/m3)
W/C ratio 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

3 LABORATORY TESTS and compacting. The slump values of different


3.1 Slump Cone Test mixtures are shown in Table 6.
Workability of concrete in fresh state was 3.2 Compressive Strength Test
measured with slump cone test. As the percentage Cube specimens of size 150 mm X 150 mm X 150
of fiber increases in fiber reinforced concrete it mm were casted and compressive strength test
was observed that slump value decreases. The was taken on compressive testing machine. The
surface area of fiber increases therefore more water compressive testing machine had capacity of 3000
required to lubricate the fibers. As the percentage KN. The results of compressive strength test were
of fiber increases less space is available for summarized in Table 7 as mean value of three
aggregate particles to shift during mixing, placing tests.
Table 6 Slump Cone Test

Mixture ID CC 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF
0.5ST 0.5ST 0.5ST 1.0ST 1.0ST 1.0ST 1.5ST 1.5ST 1.5ST
Slump in mm 55 33 35 37 30 33 34 28 30 32
Table 7: Compressive Strength Test

Percentage Compressive strength Percentage Mixture ID Compressive strength Position


of fiber Without silica fume of silica with silica fume of fiber
(N/mm2) fume (N/mm2)
0% 64.89 - CC -
5 5SF0.5ST 72.52
0.5% 71.92 10 10SF0.5ST 73.12
Random
15 15SF0.5ST 73.67
5 5SF1.0ST 74.43
1.0% 74.29
10 10SF1.0ST 75.55

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 13


Technical Paper

Percentage Compressive strength Percentage Mixture ID Compressive strength Position


of fiber Without silica fume of silica with silica fume of fiber
(N/mm2) fume (N/mm2)
15 15SF1.0ST 76.10
5 5SF1.5ST 74.18
1.5% 73.53 10 10SF1.5ST 75.33
15 15SF1.5ST 76.46
5 5SF0.5ST 69.77
0.5% 67.11 10 10SF0.5ST 62.22
15 15SF0.5ST 73.33
5 5SF1.0ST 72.22
One
1.0% 71.29 10 10SF1.0ST 73.11
third
15 15SF1.0ST 73.70
5 5SF1.5ST 72.88
1.5% 71.33 10 10SF1.5ST 74.20
15 15SF1.5ST 74.66

Fig.1 Compressive Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (Random Position)

Fig.2 Compressive Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (One Third Position)

14 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

3.3 Flexural Strength Test: found to be increasing as the percentage of fiber


The specimens of size 150mmX150mmX700mm increases in both the position of steel fiber. The
were tested on universal testing machine of capacity steel fibres placed at one third position as shown
1000KN. The deflection of beam at centre of span in diagram 1. The results of flexural strength
was directly measured by using digitized UTM of test, displacement at peak load and maximum
speed at no load is 0 to 150 mm per minute. The displacement at ultimate failure were tabulated in
flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete was table 8 as mean value of three sets.

Diagram1: One Third Position of Steel Fibre in Beam X Section.


Table 8 Flexural Strength Test

% of Flexural Disp. Max. Mixture Percentage Flexural Disp. Max. Position


fiber strength at displacement ID of silica strength at displacement
without peak at ultimate fume with peak at ultimate
silica load failure in mm silica load failure in
fume in in mm fume in in mm
N/mm2 N/mm2 mm
0% 6.47 1.18 1.32 CC -- -- -- -- --
5SF0.5ST 5 6.93 1.1 2.7
0.5% 5.25 1.2 21.25 10SF0.5ST 10 6.07 1.2 3.8
15SF0.5ST 15 6.72 1.0 7.5
5SF1.0ST 5 6.13 1.5 9.3
1.0% 6.08 2.2 16.60 10SF1.0ST 10 6.15 0.7 7.3 Random
15SF1.0ST 15 7.28 1.3 7.9
5SF1.5ST 5 8.53 1.5 14.0
1.5% 8.43 2.45 16.30 10SF1.5ST 10 8.62 1.4 12.3
15SF1.5ST 15 8.92 0.9 15.4
5SF0.5ST 5 5.87 0.4 34.8
0.5% 5.43 1.2 25.35 10SF0.5ST 10 5.48 0.2 25.8
15SF0.5ST 15 6.06 1.1 16.3
5SF1.0ST 5 6.15 0.6 31.3
One
1.0% 6.18 2.9 25.25 10SF1.0ST 10 6.63 0.7 20.3
third
15SF1.0ST 15 7.03 1.2 18.4
5SF1.5ST 5 7.66 1.1 28.3
1.5% 7.57 5.6 25.40 10SF1.5ST 10 7.57 0.9 30.4
15SF1.5ST 15 8.75 1.4 35.6

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 15


Technical Paper

Fig.3 Flexural Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (Random Position)

Fig.4 Flexural Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (One Third Position)

4 PAVEMENT ANALYSIS 5 RESULT:


For the design of rigid pavement optimum value For the concrete in fresh state it was observed that
of flexural strength from each of above group were as percentage of steel fibre increases slump value
selected and design of 4 lane with 2 lane in each decreases. Minimum value of slump was noticed
direction was carried out according to IRC:58-2015. with 1.5% of steel fiber whereas greatest slump
For 1.5% steel fiber and 15 % silica fume maximum value with 0.5% of steel fiber. Compressive
flexural strength achieved. The design parameters strength of concrete increases as percentage of
such as effective modulus of subgrade reaction silica fume increases with fiber placed at random
of the DLC subgrade, poissons ratio temperature position and at a depth one third from top of the
differential for bottom up cracking and top down surface. Maximum compressive strength was
cracking, tyre pressure, rate of traffic increase, axle observed at 1.5% steel fiber and 15 % silica fume
load spectrum value were taken from IRC: 58-2015. at random position. As percentage of steel fiber
At high percentage of fibre volume fraction like increases flexural strength of concrete increases
1.5% strain hardening (increase in strength after a in both the position of steel fiber.Concrete get
dip in strength at first crack occurs ) so instead of confined in compression zone due to steel fiber in
peak flexure strength first crack flexure strength also compressive zone. Also steel fiber in compressive
need to be considered while deciding road thickness zone arrest the micro cracks that occurs in
and this need further research. As per IRC guidelines concrete. Steel fibre arrest the micro crack and
the design flexural strength considered for deciding protract the micro crack under the action of
thickness of road. flexuralload. Load bearing capacity of concrete

16 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

in compression zone increases which results Silica fume for steel fibres randomly reinforced
increase in flexural strength.Maximum flexural position. Pavement thickness analysis carried out
strength was observed at 1.5% steel fiber and 15% as shown in Table 9.
Table 9: Pavement thickness analysis

Flexural Pavement Total CFD Total Sum of


Mixture ID strength thickness Position For BUC CFD For BUC and Remark
(N/mm2) (mm) Case TDC Case TDC CFD
CC 6.47 250 --- 0.197 0.200 0.397 Safe
05SF0.5ST 6.93 230 Random 0.454 0.028 0.480 Safe
15SF1.0ST 7.28 220 Random 0.877 0.024 0.854 Safe
15SF1.5ST 8.92 200 Random 0.062 0.017 0.079 Safe
15SF0.5ST 6.06 260 One third 0.093 0.023 0.116 Safe
15SF1.0ST 7.03 230 One third 0.263 0.021 0.284 Safe
15SF1.5ST 8.75 200 One third 0.156 0.014 0.170 Safe
CFD: Cumulative fatigue damage, BUC: Bottom up cracking, TDC: Top down cracking
Maximum displacement of concrete at failure was i] As percentage of steel fiber increase the
35.6 mm at one third position of steel fiber from top flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete
of the surface for 1.5% steel fiber and 15% silica increases in both the position of steel fiber.
fume. Pavement thickness analysis was carried ii] For one third position of steel fiber from top
out for different values of flexural strength. As the
of the surface increase in maximum displacement
percentage of steel fiber increases the pavement
at ultimate failure was observed whereas at
thickness decreases. Minimum CFD value 0.079
randomly reinforced position lesser displacement
was observed for 15% silica fume and 1.5% steel
was observed. It indicates that when steel fiber
fiber at randomly reinforced position. The pavement
placed at one third position from top of the surface
thickness reduced by 20% for 15% silica fume and
concrete has greater capacity to absorb energy and
1.5% steel fiber at both the position of steel fiber
as compared with pavement thickness without silica to endure deformation which enhances ductility of
fume and steel fibre. the structure.
iii] Maximum flexural strength was achieved at
6 CONCLUSIONS:
15% silica fume and 1.5% steel fiber at randomly
High strength steel fibre reinforced concrete reinforce position. Therefore for the construction of
was prepared for pavement quality concrete by pavement quality concrete15% silica fume and 1.5%
incorporation of steel fiber. The results show that steel fibre at randomly reinforced position would be
maximum compressive strength was observed at effectively used.
1.5% steel fiber and 15% silica fume at random
iv] Finally it is accomplished that though flexural
position. Analysis for thickness of pavement was
strength of concrete at one third position of steel fiber
carried out by guidelines provided in IRC:58-
is slightly less than randomly reinforced position
2015. With the help of guidelines provided in
of steel fiber for 15% silica fume and 1.5% steel
IRC:58-2015 it was observed that as percentage
fiber, it gives considerable enhancement in ductility.
of fiber increases the concrete pavement thickness
Therefore steel fiber reinforced concrete with 15%
decreases. It was concluded that combined effect
silica fume and 1.5% steel fiber at one third position
of silica fume 15% and steel fiber 1.5% effectively
from top of the surface would be effectively used
used for concrete pavement which reduces pavement
for pavement quality concrete.
thickness considerably with a smaller value 0.079 of
CFD. Fibers at one third position helps to increase REFERENCES
ductility of pavement as it undergo greater maximum 1. Mr. Kolase Pramod K, Dr. Atul Desai, Mr.
displacement at ultimatefailure. Following are some Shivamanth, Mr. Randhavaneshrikant B “Steel
of the conclusions. Fiber Reinforced Concrete Pavement A Review

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 17


Technical Paper

IJIRST ”- International Journal for Innovative 6. N. K. Amudhavalli1, Jeena Mathew “Effect of


Research Science and Technology, Volume 1, Silica Fume on Strength and Durability Parameters
Issue 10, March 2015. of Concrete” International Journal of Engineering
2. Abdul Ahad, Zishan Raza Khan, Shumank Deep Sciences & Emerging Technologies, August 2012.
Srivastava “Application of Steel Fiber Increasing Volume 3, Issue 1, pp: 28-35.
the Strength, Life-Period and Reducing Overall 7. S.S. Momin, P.L. Bongirwar, V.R. Kulkarni,
Cost of Road Construction (by Minimizing “Rigid Pavement Construction Technology
the Thickness of Pavement)”. World Journal of for Mumbai Pune Expressway”, Indian Road
Engineering and Technology, 2015, Volume 3, Congress, Volume 66-2, September 2005.
240-250. 8. S. S. Kadam and V.V. Karjinni “Effect of Different
3. Roger M. Larson, P. E., and Kurt D. Smith, Aspect Ratio of Steel Fiber on Mechanical
P.E., “Evaluating the Use of Fiber Reinforce Properties of High Strength Concrete” The Indian
Polymer bars in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Journal, May 2017, volume 91, Number
Concrete Pavement”, 2009, Federal Highway 5, pp: 60-68.
Administration. 9. IRC 58-2015 Guidelines for the Design of Plain
4. Dr. Deepa Sinha, Prof. C. B. Mishra, Ravindra Jointed Rigid Pavement for Highways.
V. Solanki, “Comparision of Normal Concrete 10. Indian Standard Code on Methods of Tests for
Pavement with Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Strength of Concrete IS:516-1959. Bureau of
Pavement”, Indian Journal of Applied Research, Indian Standards, New Delhi
Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014, pp 233-235.
11. ACI 211.4R:1993 Method for Mix Design of High
5 Sanjay Kumar Athya, Ragini Mishra “Effect Strength Concrete.
of Silica Fume on Different Strength Parameter
12. Indian Standard Code on Methods of Test for
of Steel Slag Concrete”, International Journal
Aggregates for Concrete IS:2368 part I-1963.
of Innovation in Engineering Research &
Bureau of Indian Standards, NewDelhi.
Management Volume: 02 Issue: 05, October 2015.

18 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

EQUIVALENT SLOPE METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTION


OF MASTER CURVE

Dr Nikhil Saboo1 Dr Praven Kumar2

ABSTRACT
Time Temperature Superposition (TTSP) has been used since a long time for construction of master curves
for polymers which are thermorheologically simple. A new method has been developed through MATLAB
program which can automatically create master curve at any reference temperature provided the material
obeys thermorheological simplicity. The new method has been compared with other existing shift factor laws
using graphical interpretations. It was found that this method can be successfully employed for master curve
construction at any reference temperature chosen. Relationship between shift factor and temperature was
established using mathematical equations.

1 INTRODUCTION temperatures for a measurable range of frequency,


Engineering behavior of any material can be judged a master curve could be plotted at a single reference
by its stress and strain analysis. Dynamic Shear temperature that could cover many decades of
Rheometer (DSR) has been used since a long time frequency/time. A material to which this technique is
for judging and describing the rheological properties applicable is said to be thermorheologically simple
of polymers like bitumen. A single rheometer can be (Maxwell., Airey).
operated to give values only over a range of three Temperature dependent shift factors are used for
to four decades at a particular temperature (Dealy the magnitude of stresses (vertical shift) and time/
and Plazek). For bitumen and modified binders frequency (horizontal shift) on log-log plots of
comprising polymers, this data is insufficient to material functions, like complex modulus, phase
describe the complete rheological and viscoelastic angle and creep compliance. The temperature
response from the high frequency end of the plateau dependent, vertical shift factor multiplies a stress,
zone to the low-frequency terminal zone. Time determined at temperature T to yield a “reduced
Temperature Superposition (TTSP) is a competent stress”, that is the value at the reference temperature
tool for describing the viscoelastic behavior of linear chosen. Similarly, the horizontal shift factor divides
polymers over a broad range of time and frequency, a time or multiplies a frequency to yield a reduced
by shifting data obtained at several temperatures to frequency/time scale of ω aT or t / aT . This principle
a common reference temperature (Benedetto et al., can be mathematically written as
Airey G.D). In linear polymers viscoelasticity arises bT E (aT , T )  E (, T0 )
from a molecular rearrangement process, which  (1.1)
occurs from a stress or from a diffusion process 1.1 Shift Factors
under stress. The speed of these processes depends
1.1.1 Vertical shift factor
on the speed of molecular motion, where temperature
is a measure. In such materials, all the processes Research (Doi and Edwards) has shown that
contributing to the viscoelasticity of a material stress functions of linear viscoelastic materials
are accelerated to the same extent by temperature are proportional to the product of density and
rise (Lakes). Thus, by obtaining data at several temperature. The vertical shift factor represents
1
Ph.D. Scholar, Transportation Engg Group, Civil Engg Deptt. IIT Roorkee
2
Professor and Coordinator, Transportation Engineering Group, Civil Engg Deptt., IIT Roorkee, email:pkaerfce@iitr.ac.in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 19


Technical Paper

temperature induced density changes and involves 1.1.2.2 Arrhenius equation


shift along the modulus or stress function axis. This Observation of the dependence of viscosity of
implies that the vertical shift factor can be written liquids on temperature led to the empirical Arrhenius
as relationship that can be expressed as
bT  (T0 0 ) / (T  ) Ea
 (1.2) aT (T ) = exp[ (1/ T − 1/ TR )]
2.303R (1.5)
Where, T0 is the reference T temperature, is the
Where Ea is called the activation energy, typically
temperature at which shift factor has to be applied,
ρ0 and ρ are the corresponding densities. 250 kJ/mol for bituminous binders (Airey). It is the
minimum energy required for any intermolecular
The vertical shift factor is also sometimes determined movement. R is the universal gas constant 8.314
directly from the variation with temperature of J/0K-mol. Arrhenius equation has been found to
a distinctive value of a modulus or compliance, fit data at the terminal and plateau zones for linear
such as a maximum or minimum in loss modulus. polymers as long as the temperature is well above
Plateau of the material functions can also be used. the glass transition temperature Tg. Also meaningful
Determining horizontal shift of loss angle, in loss activation energy has not been defined so far.
angle versus log |G*| plot (Van Gurp-Palmen plot) Variation in Ea with frequency and modulus has also
is another way of determining vertical shift factor been reported. So a logical value must be chosen
that is independent of time or frequency shift. which could have some significance regarding the
However, most of the research to date on binders physical and/or chemical nature of bitumen.
and bituminous materials, mastercurve construction
1.1.2.3 William-Landel-Ferry equation
does not normally consider vertical shift and it is
assumed to be unity (Airey). This equation is based on the free volume concept
of Doolittle. It has been widely used to describe
1.1.2 Horizontal shift factor
relation between aT and temperature dependency of
Horizontal shift factor aT is a number which is bitumens.
required to be multiplied to the time/ frequency −C1 (T − Tref )
to shift data at a particular temperature T to the log aT =
C2 + (T − Tref )
 (1.6)
reference temperature T0. Different researches had
been conducted in finding a suitable value of aT for Where, C1 and C2 are empirical constants. The
bituminous materials which could be employed implication of this model lies in the determination
based on its thermal behavior. These studies focuses of these constants. Moreover, this equation has been
from the physical molecular aspect of the binder to mainly found suitable when reference temperature
its chemical behavior. is close to Tg. Many universal constants have been
proposed based on the reference temperature. The
1.1.2.1 Shift based on viscosity most famous and frequently used values are 8.86 and
Viscosity is a parameter which comprises of stress 101.6 for C1 and C2 as proposed by Williams et al.
and time. It requires the application of both the These values have shown good fit when T-Tr>-20oC.
shift factors. If complex viscosity η is used as the Another values proposed by Anderson were 19 and
*

rheological parameter then the master curve for 92 which were based on some defining temperature
bT
complex viscosity is plotted between aT η (T ) and
*
Td. This defining temperature is not very clear and is
ω aT . This implies that if zero shear viscosity is taken bitumen specific.
into consideration one can write, Williams et al. proposed that the reference
bT (T ) temperature is related to glass transition temperature
η0 (T ) = η0 (T0 ) as
aT (T )  (1.3)
Considering the vertical shift factor as unity, vertical Tr − Tg = 500 C  (1.7)
shift factor can be written as, But master curve should be such that, one must
η (T ) be able to view the rheological behavior at any
aT (T ) = 0
η0 (T0 )  (1.4) reference temperature desired. This limits the use of

20 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


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WLF equation which has strong dependence on the reference temperature, it would be more convenient
selection of reference temperature. to introduce a process which will provide shift till a
1.1.2.4 Manual shift procedure best fit is obtained, and will return the shift factors
once the shifting process is accomplished. Finally,
This is a simple procedure in which the data are the graph so obtained can be analyzed visually to see
shifted manually in MS EXCEL or similar workbook if the material obeys time temperature superposition
till a best and smooth fit is obtained. The smoothness principle.
of the curved is judged visually. If smooth curve
cannot be obtained, it implies that the binder is not A new procedure was hence introduced and was
thermorheologically simple. programmed using MATLAB. The method is named
as ‘Equivalent Slope Method’ (ESM) and could
1.2 Equivalent Slope Method (ESM) be used to plot master curve for any rheological
The shift factor laws, as given by Arrhenius and parameter requiring horizontal shift at any reference
WLF equations give satisfactory results provided the temperature. The base behind the development of
reference temperature is chosen properly. Mostly the this procedure is that, the stress function for two
laws are valid near the glass transition temperature different temperatures merges to a single or nearly
of the polymer, which is very low for bitumen as well similar value, but at different frequency. So, shifting
as polymer modified binder. Bitumen as a binder is the curve till the slope at few desired points become
exposed to service temperatures ranging from about similar would yield a smooth master curve, provided
-50C to 600C. So, it is more appropriate to construct thermorheological simplicity prevails.
the master curve at a reference temperature which The algorithm adopted for preparing the program for
is under service conditions. Given the rheological obtaining shift factor is presented below. Few terms
data, a user should be able to construct master curve are defined formerly to understand the procedure.
at any reference temperature under interest. i → Frequency , i ∈ [1, k ]
Appreciating the fact that thermorheological j → Temperature, j ∈ [10, 70]
simplicity can be validated if a smooth curve TR → Reference Temperatrure
, R⊂ j
is obtained after shifting the data at a particular Yi , j → Value of Y variable at Frequency i and Temperature j

Input Frequency sweep data from excel sheet and p lot Parameter Y versus Frequency i

Select the reference temperature, TR

For curve R and R +1, calculate [Yi , R − Yi −( k +1−i ), R +1 ]

Find the value of i for which the above is minimum. let it be x th p oint, x ∈ [1,k]

th th
Take (x +1) and (x - 1) p oint and assuming a straight line find 25 points between them
Let it be called cm th p oint, c ∈ [x +1,x - 1],m ∈ [1,25]

Find [Yc , R − Yx −( k +1− x ), R +1 ]

Find the value of m for which the above is minimum. Let it be called p th point, p ∈ c

Frequency p , R
Shift factor f or temperature TR +1 = [ ]
Frequencyx −( k +1− x ), R +1

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 21


Technical Paper

The above concept is extended similarly for other 3.1 Validation of Shift Factors
temperatures, below and above the reference Manual shift was employed first at each reference
temperature. This method can be used to construct temperature to obtain a smooth complex modulus
master curve for stress functions in which horizontal master curve. Next, different shift factors as
shift is required. mentioned above were used to make a comparison
2 MATERIALS and their validation in obtaining master curves at
Three binders were used in the study for validation any reference temperature chosen. Variation of shift
of different shift factor laws in construction of factor was found by plotting the manual shift factors
master curves, at any chosen reference temperature. as the abscissa and the shift factors of various other
A VG-10 viscosity graded binder was used models as ordinate. Deviation from the equality line
and was modified with an elastomer SBS and a would mean poor correlation.
plastomer EVA. The concentration of polymers William-Landel-Ferry (WLF) shift factors were
were optimized in an earlier study with respect to obtained using the universal constants given by
proper homogeneity to be obtained. The respective Williams et al. (8.86 and 101.6). These values were
percentages for SBS and EVA were 3% and 5%. used to see its application at different reference
The conventional properties of these binders are temperatures considered in the study. The value of
presented in Table 1. Ea in Arrhenius equation was found by optimizing
Table 1. Conventional Properties of Binders the sum of least squares with respect to manual shift
using SOLVER function in MS EXCEL.
Properties Standard VG 10 VG 10+ VG 10+
SBS - EVA - 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
3% 5% From the isothermal plots, it was found that for
Penetration ASTM 82 62 55 modified binders the decrease in stiffness with
D5 increase in temperature is lower as compared to
Softening ASTM 46 55 63 base binder. This indicates that higher shift factor
point D36 has to be employed at each temperature to obtain
Specific ASTM 1.01 0.99 1 master curve. This may be attributed to the fact
Gravity D70 that modification leads to increase in viscoelastic
Penetration - -1.07 0.52 1.86 response of the base binder.
Index Figs. 1, 2 and 3 shows the deviation of different shift
3 EXPERIMENTAL factor laws with respect to the manual shift for VG-
10, SBS PMB and EVA PMB. The graphical plots
Frequency sweep test was done on all the binders are shown for reference temperatures of 10, 30, 50
using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). In the
and 70°C. The plots at other reference temperature,
initial part of the study, linear viscoelastic (LVE)
though plotted, but are not shown for space limits.
strain was measured using strain sweep test at
different frequencies and temperatures for all the WLF equation showed the highest deviation at all
binders. The magnitude of strain in the frequency reference temperatures. As the reference temperature
sweep test was chosen to ensure that the asphalt increased the shift factor obtained by WLF equation
binders remain in the LVE domain. The following were found to be much higher than that required for
test variables were chosen for the study getting a smooth curve. This may be due to the fact,
Frequency: 0.1-100 rad/sec that the Williams constant adopted is only suitable
for temperatures near the glass transition temperature
Test Temperature: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and of the binder. The deviations were found to be least
70 °C.
at 30 and 40 °C. So, these constants cannot be used
Spindle specification: 8mm dia. and 2mm gap at operating temperatures and the constants need to
for 10-30 °C. be found by optimization techniques for different
25mm dia. and 1mm gap for 40-70 °C. reference temperatures.

22 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


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Arrhenius equation gave better results than the poor for construction of master curves at pavement
WLF equation. The optimized value of Ea were working temperatures, though they have been found
found to be higher for modified binders, the highest successful at temperatures near to the glass transition
value being obtained for EVA PMB. This should of the polymer.
be true because modification leads to increase in It can be seen that ESM yielded the best fit
stiffness and crosslinking of polymers, which will at all the reference temperatures. The shift
require higher energy for triggering intermolecular factors almost coincided with the equality line
movements. Though the deviation were not very indicating least deviation from the manual shift
high for Arrhenius plot, still a smooth master curve factors. Fig. 6 shows the master curve plots
was not obtained. obtained from MATLAB program using this
Both WLF and Arrhenius plot were found to be method at three different reference temperatures
sensitive to the reference temperature chosen. As an for VG 10. Very smooth master curves were
example, master curve obtained by using these shift obtained by using the shift factor obtained by
factor laws are presented in Figs. 4 and 5 at three the method. It was found to be successful tool
different reference temperature of 10, 30 and 70 °C for plotting master curve for thermorheological
for VG 10. These shift factor laws were found to be simple binders.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)
Fig. 1 (a-d) Validation of Shift Factor Laws for VG 10

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 23


Technical Paper

(a) (b)

(c) (d)
Fig. 2 (a-d) Validation of Shift Factor Laws for SBS PMB

(a) (b)

24 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

(c) (d)
Fig. 3 (a-d) Validation of Shift Factor Laws for EVA PMB

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 4 (a-c) Master Curves Obtained Using WLF Shift Factor

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 25


Technical Paper

(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 5 (a-c) Master Curves Obtained Using Arrhenius Shift Factor

(a) (b)

Fig. 6 (a & b) Master Curves Obtained Using ESM in MATLAB

26 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

(c)
Fig. 6 (c) Master Curves Obtained Using ESM in MATLAB

4.1 Modelling of Shift Factor


The factors obtained by the equivalent slope
method were used for plotting log-log graph
between aT and Temperature. It was found
that the plot followed a polynomial function
irrespective of the type of binder and reference
temperature. As an example plot for VG 10, SBS
and EVA PMB at all three reference temperatures
are shown in Fig. 7 (a-c). The shift factor can be
written mathematically as
Y = A1 X 2 + A2 X + A3 (b)

Where,

Y = log aT ; X= logT
A1, A2, A3 are the coefficients whose value
depend on the type of binder and the reference
temperature. The constants represent the amount
of shift required for any particular binder at a
specific temperature. So no universal constants
could be assumed for them. It should be found
with curve fitting techniques. (c)
Fig. 7 (a-c) Log aT versus Log T at the three
reference Temperatures Chosen in the Study for all
the Binders.

5 CONCLUSIONS
The study mainly focused on the validation of
various shift factor laws most commonly used
for construction of master curves. The study
also attempted in development of an automated
process for construction of master curve for
polymers resembling thermorheological simplicity
(a) and modelling the same. It has been named as

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 27


Technical Paper

“Equivalent Slope Method”. It was found that WLF specifications, where knowledge regarding the
and Arrhenius laws for obtaining shift factors cannot construction and study of mastercurves will become
be used for plotting master curves at operating important.
temperatures. The laws are very sensitive to the
References
choice reference temperature. Value of Ea obtained
by optimization for Arrhenius equation were higher 1. Airey G.D. (1997). Rheological Characteristic
for polymer modified binders indicating presence of of Polymer Modified and Aged Bitumens. Ph.D
tough polymer network after modification. ESM was Thesis, University of Nottingham.
found to give excellent fit with respect to manual 2. Airey G.D., Rahimzadeh B. and Callop A.C.
shift. The shift factors obtained using ESM can be (2003). Viscoelastic Linearity Limits for
successfully used in construction of master curves Bituminous Materials. Materials and Structures
at any reference temperature.
3. Benedetto H.D., Sauzeat C., Bilodeau K.,
With higher interest in study of rheological Buannic M., Mangiafico S., Nguyen Q.T., Pouget
properties of polymer such as bitumen, S., Tapsoba N., Rompu J.V. (2010). General
construction of master curve is one of the starting Overview of Time-Temperature Superposition
steps in characterizing the enhanced viscoelastic Principle Validity for Materials Containing
response. The method so developed can hence Bituminous Binder. International Journal of Roads
be practically and successfully employed in and Airports.
understanding the complex behavior at ambient 4. Dealy J and Plazek D. (2009). Time-Temperature
working temperatures, at which the most Superposition- A Users Guide. Rheology
common methods fails to give a smooth master Bulletin.
curve. Also, the same can be used in judging
5. Doi M. and Edwards S.F. (1986). The Theory of
whether or not the material under consideration is
Polymer Dynamics. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
thermorheologically simple.
The methodology developed in this study can 6. Ferry J.D. (1980). Viscoelastic Properties of
hence be used to judge the thermorheological Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, 3rd edition.
simplicity of asphalt binders and will aid in smooth 7. Lakes R.S. (2009). Viscoelastic materials.
construction of mastercurves at any desired reference Cambridge University Press.
temperature. In addition, appropriate shift factors
could be arrived at using this methodology. Indian 8. Maxwell J.C. (1886). Linear Viscoelasticity.
Roads Congress currently has limited guidelines 9. Yusoff N.I.M., Jakarni F.M., Nguyen V.H.,
which use the rheology of asphalt binders to assess Hainin M.R., Airey G.D. (2013). Modelling the
the performance of bitumen. However, in the near Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders
future it is expected that studying the rheology of Using Mathematical Equations. Construction and
bitumen will be an inherent part of various upcoming Building Materials, 174-188.

Quotes for Road Safety

"Do not use Cell Phone During Driving"


"Your Destination is reward for Safe Driving"
_________

28 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

Exploring the feasibility for


Introducing Electric Buses in Delhi

Pintu Saini1 Dr. P. K. Sarkar2

ABSTRACT
The Oil dependency in the field of transport is a serious concern which is leading to increasing emissions
and as a result of that, all Indian cities are confronted with the problems of air pollution. In such a case,
advancement in vehicle and fuel technology is very important. One of the ways of achieving this is, by
replacing the conventional i.e. oil, by renewable energy sources. Electric vehicles can be a good option in
this scenario. Electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions which makes them appropriate for the current
situation. Delhi, the pollution capital of India, has around 6000 buses in operation which if replaced with
Electric buses will privide notabble benefits to the society. In this background, this research evalutes the
financial and economical feasibility of electric buses in Delhi. The analysis highlights that high capital cost,
lack of technology and government incentives are the major barriers for easy adoption of e-buses. The paper
also talks about strategies for promoting e-buses like electricity subsidisation, bus cost reduction initiatives,
fare increment, adoption of solar charging. The research end with suggestng the best combinationconcludes
with recommendation of strategies which should be immediately adopted by evaluating and comparing each
combination.

1 INTRODUCTION is an immediate need to tackle the issue of emission


Traditional approaches of Urban and Transport generated by vehicles and to explore the alternative
planning have put the Indian cities in Chaos. fuels in order to reduce the emissions and achieve
Cities are choked with more and more vehicles, the target of zero emmission. In this case, the use
which primarily are meant to provide comfort of renewable energy sources as fuel can bring
convenience but instead, these provide congestion tremendous changes (Robert Earley, Liping Kang,
and unhealthy conditions. As the vehicles Feng An and Lucia Green-Weiskel, 2011; GGGI
ownership and use is increasing day by day, it and CSTEP, 2015; S. R. Adheesh, 2016). In the
has created various issues like congestion, air practices of exploring alternate fuels for vehicles,
pollution, noise pollution, accidents, environmental the recent experiments of developing electric
degradation etc. (Rameshwar Dayal Sharma, 2011; vehicles have gained success due to their zero
Singh, 2012; T.V. Ramachandra and Shwetmala, emissions. As these vehicles work on a chargeable
2009). These ill-effects of these are leading to battery, there is no combustion engine, resulting in
un-sustainability of the transportation system. zero emissions (Aber, 2016; Robert Earley, Liping
Since centuries, vehicles have been plying on Kang, Feng An and Lucia Green-Weiskel, 2011;
gasoline based fuels. This coupled with rapid GGGI and CSTEP, 2015; UN-Habitat, 2013).
increase in number of vehicles is the source is However there will be certain emissions at the
generating tons of pollutants in environment and source of electricity generation but those are only
has become serious threats for cities (CSE, 2015; at one point and are easy to control through various
National Energy Policy, 2001; Kadafa, 2012; T.V. measures. This sets the immediate need of adopting
Ramachandra and Shwetmala, 2009). Hence, there electric vehicles for Indian cities. In this regards,

1
Project Associate, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi. Email: pintusaini43@yahoo.com
2
Professor, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 29


Technical Paper

some experiments have been conducted for electric primarily due to the process of combustion of fuel.
cars, two wheelers and 3 wheelers as well, however Old vehicles and diesel and petrol based vehicles
electric buses have not gained much importance have a higher contribution in emissions. Further
yet, especially indigenously manufactured electric emission analysis based on the vehicle type reveal
buses. However, since buses make a very great that buses and Omni buses contribute higher CO2
contribution in overall emissions; hence electric compared to two wheelers, passenger light motor
buses must also be explored for Indian cities. vehicles, cars and jeeps (CPCB, 2010). Among
In this context, the aim of the present research is buses, diesel buses have significantly higher
to assess the feasibility of adopting electric bus in emissions as compared to CNG buses. However,
case study area. The research provides financial CNG buses also emit certain pollutants like CO,
and economic analysis for adoption of electric bus NOx, and NMHC etc. Hence there is a scope
over convention CNG bus. It also emphasises on of further reducing the emissions to zero. This
barriers in adopting these buses and also provides provides the need for exploring different types of
strategies which need to be adopted for easy and fuels for buses in Delhi. As already established, in
this context adoption of electric buses in Delhi can
successful adoption of e-buses in Indian fleet. There
provide a notable improvement in environment.
have been many similar studies for evaluating
Hence electric buses must be explored for Delhi.
electric buses feasibility outside India, however
very few studies are available for Indian context. Recently, these buses have been experimented
(Aber, 2016; CARB, 2016; Tan, 2011; Marcon, and used for operation in many parts of the world.
2016; Centere for Transportation Research, 1995; In 2015, the worldwide fleet of electric buses
GmbH Rail and bus Consultant, 2016; Xiaokun was estimated to be around 1,73,000. China is
(Cara) Wang, 2013). In light of above the current pioneering in the field of adoption of electric buses
research becomes very important as it which will and has also stepped forward in the cost reduction
provide great contribution for further research, strategies (Robert Earley, Liping Kang, Feng An
and Lucia Green-Weiskel, 2011; IEA, 2016). Some
for practitioners and policy makers for informed
parts of Europe and American cities have also
decision making.
initiated electric buses in order to reduce carbon
2 NEED OF ELECTRIC BUSES IN DELHI emission from the transport sector (CARB, 2016;
In 2015 Delhi, also called the pollution capital of ELECTRICITY- Cooperation for sustainable and
India had the Air Quality Index (AQI) as 246, which attractive public transport, 2016; Aber, 2016).
lies in the poor category (MoEFCC, 2016; CSE, These are already running successfully in China,
2015). In the same year, PM10 levels were almost Los Angeles in USA whereas trials are going on
4 times than the permissible levels of National in cities like New York, Gothenburg, London,
Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ) and around 13 times Schiphol, Barcelona, Madrid etc.
than that of the level of World Health Organisation Some initiatives related to electric bus trial have
(WHO) (Greenpeace, 2017). Such high levels of been adopted in India. In 2014 a trial run was done
pollutants have serious implications on health and in Bangalore for a period of around 3 months. The
environment. Research has evaluated the potential bus was provided by Chinese manufacturer (Build
reasons for degrading air quality and increasing Your Dream) BYD and was made to ply under
pollution levels in Indian cities especially Delhi. Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation
The reason mainly includes dust from construction (BMTC). Analysis of the trials by researcher
activities, industrial stack, emission form transport demonstrated that adoption of e-buses will provide
sector and Industrial sources. Transport sector significant reductions in emission levels by buses.
contribute around 14% of total pollution and it Average income generated by electric bus is higher
ranks at second place for producing PM 2.5 (CSE, than the normal diesel bus and it also offers less
2015; MoEFCC, 2016). This makes it a prominent maintenance cost (S. R. Adheesh, 2016; GGGI
cause for air pollution. Among vehicular pollution, and CSTEP, 2015). Similar trials have also taken
73% is constituted by road traffic which is place in Delhi for around 4 months in 2016 where

30 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

again the bus was provided by BYD (DTC, 2016). stakeholder survey are explained in stakeholder
Other than these, one day trial has been completed survey section of the paper.
on Manali-Rohtang road by BYD and Ashok 3.2. Life Cycle Analysis
Leyland. A successful one day trial of electric bus
has also been carried out by Tata Motors in Shimla. As a case study, the currently plying CNG base
However, at present, there is no electric bus in AC bus manufactured by Ashok Leyland has
commercial operation in any Indian city. been selected. It has a purchase cost of around 70
Lac. For the e-bus, the electric bus, manufactured
Trials have provided ample evidence for successful by Chinese manufacturer BYD has been chosen
operation of electric buses, however, electric because of its successful trials in Indian Cities. It
buses have high capital cost in comparison to offers a cost of around 3 Cr. Life cycle for both
conventional diesel and CNG buses (GGGI and type of the buses has been taken as 12 years (DTC,
CSTEP, 2015; Bjorn Nykvist & Mans Nilsson, 2016). Financial analysis has been carried out by
2015; S. R. Adheesh, 2016). This high capital costs taking into account the capital costs, maintenance
coupled with high operational cost in Delhi may costs, operating costs and total revenue generated.
lead to financial failure of the system. Therefore, Data related to bus cost, operating and maintenance
there is a need for a suitable and rational initiative cost of the bus has been taken from Delhi Transport
towards formulation of relevant policy and strategy Corporation (DTC) whereas data related to BYD
for electric buses. This must be explored by manufactured electric bus has been used from
demonstrating a case of electric bus. The current various secondary sources and interview with
research has explored the financial and economic concerned officials. All the calculations have been
feasibility of electric bus and also the stakeholders’ made for a travel distance of 68,000 km per annum,
opinion on adoption of electric buses for Delhi. By which is the distance being covered by a DTC bus
analysing the operational feasibility of electric in Delhi in a year (taking 340 days of operation
buses, this research provides the strategy and with 200 kms a day (DTC, 2016)).
policy level intervention required to make the
system sustainable. According to the discussion with bus manufacturers
and operators, the battery life of the bus is of 4000
3 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS cycles i.e. it can be put into use for a lifetime of 12
3.1 Data Collection years which is same as the life of bus. Hence, there is
no need to bear extra costs for battery replacement.
The study has been carried out in two phases. The
Due to this reason, battery replacement cost is not
first phase includes the life cycle analysis of electric
considered while considering maintenance cost
buses. Life cycle analysis of electric buses for
of the bus. Along with this, it is assumed that the
Delhi has been carried out in comparison to present
buses will be charged at the existing depots, hence
buses, which are plying on CNG. This mainly
no costs has been added for providing space for the
involves assessing the financial and economic
bus. However, cost of installing the charger in the
benefits of electric buses over the CNG bus. The
existing depots has been included as provided by
financial and economic analysis has been carried
the manufacturers and operators.
out by using the secondary data provided by DTC’s
annual reports 2015-16 and also by extracting Financial analysis between the two shows that
data from various reports related to electric bus total net operating income for 1 electric bus after
operation worldwide. The second phase focuses 12 years of operation is around Rupees - 3.61
on analysis of perceptions of various stakeholders Cr whereas for CNG Bus, it is around Rupees -
like bus manufacturers, operators, and bus users 3.68 Cr. This is negative in both the cases, as the
for adoption of e-buses. The purpose of conducting DTC is currently running into loses as shown in
stakeholder survey was to assess the perception of Table 1. This presents high cost of the electric
various stakeholders in order to identify the barriers bus, however the overall operating income is
that need to be addressed for adoption of electric found out to be less negative due to very less
buses. The data collection and sampling details for maintenance cost.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 31


Technical Paper

Table 1: Comparative Financial Analysis between CNG and Electric Buses.

The maintenance cost for the electric bus is exactly electricity costs in Delhi (Fig.1). Earning per km
around half of the CNG bus whereas operating is also observed to be higher for electric bus than
costs works out to be of a little higher due to high that of CNG.

Fig. 1: Comparative Analysis of Capital Costs, Operating Costs and Maintenance Costs of Cng and Electric Bus.

Other than the financial analysis, the study also there can be a savings of around 52 tons of air
involves conducting the economic analysis for pollutants per year just by replacing one CNG bus
adoption of e-buses. Economic analysis involves with electric bus giving rise to notable benefits to
assessment of benefits that will be accrued by the be accrued if all the buses are being replaced by
adoption of electric buses over CNG buses. This Electric buses.
study analyses health benefits and fuel savings Table 2: Emission Cost Savings Calculation for
associated with adoption of e-buses. In order to Electric Bus Over CNG Bus.
assess savings in health, emission data of electric
buses and corresponding cost of health has been
adopted from various literatures ( T.V. Ramachandra
and Shwetmala, 2009; Ramprasad Sengupta and
Subrata Mandal, 2005; Akshaya Kumar Sen,
Geetam Tiwari and Vrajaindra Upadhyay, 2010).
The analysis show that there will be a savings in
health cost of around Rupees 2.98 lacs in one year
just by replacing one CNG bus by electric bus
Table 2. As DTC’s current plan involves buying Along with this, saving in fuel by adoption of an
around 100 buses, this will facilitate a saving in electric bus has also been worked out by considering
health cost of around Rupees 2.90 Cr per year. the cost of CNG that will be saved by adoption of
The quantification in health benefits shows that electric buses. The analysis shows, there will be a

32 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

savings in fuel cost of around Rs 7.84 lacs per year model, there is a need to assess the perception
just by adoption of one electric bus (Table 3). By of all the stakeholders. Stakeholder survey was
adoption of 100 such buses, it will provide saving conducted for bus users, bus manufactures and
in fuel of around Rs. 7.84 Cr. bus operators. The study involved various electric
Table 3: Fuel Cost Savings for Electric Bus Over bus manufacturers mainly 4- Volvo, Tata, Ashok
CNG Bus. Leyland and BYD and interviews were conducted
with the representatives from major manufacturers
namely BYD, Tata, Ashok Leyland and Volvo.
As part of operator’s survey, representatives
(Rs/kg) from DTC and Cluster service by DIMTS were
interviewed. Bus users were also surveyed in terms
(Rs/km)
of their willingness to use electric buses and to pay
higher. This involved surveying all type of bus
users at 2-3 bus stops (randomly picked) wherein
a total of 120 samples were collected. All these
surveys were conducted in the month of January
and February, 2017. The survey provided an insight
of existing market status of various manufacturers,
Other than these benefits, there can be remarkable barriers to be overcome for adoption of electric
improvements in overall regional and global buses, existing and future plans of operators for
environment however these could not be quantified adopting electric buses, users views on adoption
in the current study due to lack of reference studies of electric buses and willingness to pay higher
on the same topic. Also, electric buses are silent for improved services. The whole process helped
and have very less noise pollution benefiting the formulate three options/scenarios which can be
society. The study of fuel efficiency of both types explored for improving feasibility and reducing
of buses shows that the fuel efficiency is almost overall costs in Delhi as follows:
found to be same for both the buses (i.e.0.8 Km/ • Electricity Subsidisation (50% subsidy/Grant
Rs for CNG and 0.7 Km/Rs for electric). It can as given to DMRC)
be improved for electric buses to up to 1.4 Km/Rs • Bus cost should be reduced up to 50%
if electricity is provided on subsidized rate as it is • Fare increment up to 33% or by 1/3rd
given to Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC). These options when applied to financial and
3.2. Stakeholders Perception Survey Analysis economic analysis provide the conditions of
To develop a commercially viable market feasibility of the system.
Table 4: Effects of Various Scenario on Net Operating Income and Benefits.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 33


Technical Paper

If all the three options are implemented together, exemptions and use of solar panel based charging
it provides the net operating income as positive system are also to be explored. Effects of all these
i.e. it will be financially feasible. However, scenario and combination of these scenarios have
combination of any two scenarios (except scenario been assessed on net operating income and net
1+3) would provide the economic feasibility of the operating income after benefits. The strategies for
system (Table 4). All the conditions of Economic developing a commercially viable market model
evaluation shows that scenario 2+3 and 1+2+3 for electric buses are as following:
provide the economic feasibility of the system • Electricity Subsidisation
with positive NPV, higher Economic Internal Rate • Fare Increment
of Returns (EIRR) and Benefit cost ratio (BCR).
• Reduction in Bus cost through subsidy, tax
As scenario 1+2+3 provides the highest benefit
exemption and battery technology explora-
cost ratio,
tion
4 STRATEGY AND RECOMMENDATIONS • Solar panel based charging system.
The study involves developing strategies which 4.1. Electricity Subsidisation
can be adopted for making operation of electric Electricity subsidization by the government on
buses feasible. Major strategies involve electricity the 50% rates can bring significant changes in the
supply on subsidised rates as in the case of DMRC, operational costs. This strategy has already been
reduction of purchase cost and fare increment as adopted in the case of Delhi Metro. This will
per the reviews of bus users. Other than these three improve the overall fuel efficiency by 100% i.e. it
strategies, improvement in battery technology, tax will be doubled as shown in Fig 2.

Fig. 2: Comparison of Fuel Efficiency (Left) and Result of User's Willingness to Pay Higher (Right).
for electric buses, which varies from 30 lakhs
4.2. Fare Increment to 66 lakhs. Tax exemption must be adopted for
electric vehicles. Globally it has been adopted
As per the responses received from the user by many countries. For example- China provided
surveys, there could be a possibility of fare exemption from acquisition tax and excise tax
increment by 1/3rd of the current price. This will for electric cars, France in 2013 started offering
raise the revenue and hence profits for the system. purchase incentives of 6300 euros for BEVs and
More than 75% of the users are ready to pay up to PHEVs and in Netherlands, Cars emitting zero CO2
1 ` per km which makes it an increment of about at the tailpipe are exempt from paying registration
1/3rd existing rates as shown in Fig 2. In Contrast, tax. Battery technology is being also improved
the existing fare is 0.75 ` per km. day by day. Globally, battery costs have reduced
4.3. Reduction in Bus Cost significantly, from 1000$/KwH in 2009 to 410$/
Bus cost can be reduced by providing subsidy on KwH in 2014 and projections say it can go up to
bus, tax exemption and by exploring and improving 100$/KwH (Bjorn Nykvist & Mans Nilsson, 2015;
the battery technology. Subsidy is already available CARB, 2016) .

34 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

Current initiatives for battery technology savings in emission which were due to production
improvement will also lead to significant costs of electricity at grid. However, for the case of 12
reduction. Current recommendation by transport years, which is the lifetime of an electric bus, use
minister have emphasized on the use of Lithium of electricity is cheaper due to high cost of solar
ion battery for buses. This is currently being but after crossing the threshold of 12 years, the
used for aviation sector. Indian Space Research benefits of solar will be more.
Organization (ISRO) finalized MoU with Bharat 4.5. Evaluation of Scenarios
Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) to help develop
low-cost lithium ion batteries. BHEL will set up a All the five scenarios as discussed above have been
production plant, while ISRO will provide support evaluated in combination with each other. The
for scale-up, joint effort in cost optimization, scenarios are as under:
research and development for alternate chemistry 1. Electricity Subsidisation
and buyback commitment. BHEL will develop 2. Reduction of bus cost to half
the battery for commercial applications. ISRO 3. Fare increment
in collaboration with ministry have developed 4. Bus Cost making equal to normal bus
batteries costing Rs.5 lakh, about less than a 5. Solar panel based charging
tenth of the imported ones which was 55 lakh. IIT
The evaluation was carried out on the basis of Net
Madras, IIT Kharagpur, ISRO and BHEL are in the
Present Value (NPV), Financial Rate of Returns
process of developing Li-ion batteries. All this can
(FIRR), Economic Rate of returns (EIRR) and
bring the cost of electric buses equal to the cost of
Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR). The evaluation shows
normal bus.
that the combination of scenario 1, 2, 3 and 4
4.4. Solar Panel Based Charging when combined as 1+2+3 and 1+3+4 provide the
If solar panels are installed at the depot for charging financial feasibility of the system. However, the
the buses, this can also lead to significant savings combination of any scenarios in most of the cases
in cost in the long term. Taking the life of solar as provide the economic feasibility of the system
25 years and taking a case of 25 buses, there will except 1+2, 2+5, 3+5 and 2+3+5. The combination
total expenditure of around Rs.66.77 Cr. However, of scenario 1, 3 and 4 i.e. adoption of electricity
if these 25 buses are being charged on electricity subsidisation, along with fare increment and bus
for 25 years, the total expenditure will be around cost becoming equal to normal bus will provide the
Rs.102.36 Cr. which is nearly 65% more than that desired case. This case (1+3+4) provides the best
of solar. Hence the solar based system will be very result with highest FIRR, NPV, EIRR and BCR as
beneficial for long term and will lead to notable presented below in table 5.
Table 5: Evaluation of Various Scenarios and their Combinations

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 35


Technical Paper

This case is chosen as the final case and sensitivity viable in all the conditions except the one case,
analysis is carried for the same in order to assess where revenue decreased by 20% and costs
the effect of uncertainties in cost and revenues increased by 20%. However, the case is quite
on feasibility of the system. Sensitivity analysis hypothetical. In opposition to this case, there are
assumes reduction and increment in costs and chances of increment in revenue and reduction in
revenues of the project to a level of up to 20%. cost due to continuous reduction in electric bus/
The results of the sensitivity analysis are presented battery cost. Hence, sensitivity analysis proves the
below in the table 6. This shows that project in feasibility of the project under various conditions.
Table 6: Results of the Sensitivity Analysis Carried Out for the Scenario 1+3+4.

5 CONCLUSIONS scheme. These buses have lower maintenance cost


From the points emerging in the literature review, over the conventional buses due to less number of
it is concluded that electric buses are environment spare parts available. Operating costs for the case
friendly, noise free and energy efficient mode, of Delhi are found to be more than that of CNG
hence must be adopted in current deteriorating buses due to high electricity costs which can be
environmental conditions. Electric buses have reduced by subsidy on electricity as in the case of
higher fuel efficiency over conventional modes Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC).
which make them very important for controlling To make these commercially viable, certain
the environmental degradation occurring in the strategies must be adopted as discussed above.
cities. These have very high manufacturing cost Analysis shows that the combination of any three
as compared to conventional buses due to high scenarios placed together will lead to financial
cost of the battery. Higher capital cost of electric feasibility of the system whereas combination of
buses makes them financial non-feasible as the net any two will provide the economic feasibility of
operating incomes are negative. Higher capital cost electric bus operation. Evaluation of scenarios
can be reduced to significant levels by availing shows that the scenario 3+4+5 i.e. fare increment
the subsidy provided under Faster Adoption and coupled with bus cost equal to normal bus and
Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles (FAME) adoption of solar based system provide the highest

36 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

Benefit Cost Ratio and desired IRR. This is the 17. National Energy Policy. (2001). Reliable,
best case and must be adopted for financial and Affordable, and Environmentally Sound Energy
economic feasibility of electric buses operation for for America’s Future. National Energy Policy
Delhi. Development Group.
18. Rameshwar Dayal Sharma, S. J. (2011). Growth
REFERENCES rate of Motor Vehicles in India -Impact of
1. Aber, J. (2016). Electric Bus Analysis for New Demographic and Economic Development.
York City Transit. Columbia University. Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 1,
2. Akshaya Kumar Sen, Geetam Tiwari and pp. 137-150.
Vrajaindra Upadhyay. (2010). Estimating Margina 19. Ramprasad Sengupta and Subrata Mandal.
Lexterna Lcosts of Transport in Delhi. Transport (2005). Health Damage Cost of Automotive Air
Policy, 17, 27-37. Pollution : Cost Benefit Analysis of Fuel Quality
3. Bjorn Nykvist & Mans Nilsson. (2015). Rapidly Upgradation for Indian Cities.
Falling Costs of Battery Packs for Electric 20. Robert Earley, Liping Kang, Feng An and Lucia
Vehicles. Nature Climate Change, 5, 329-332. Green-Weiskel. (2011). Electric Vehicles in
4. CARB. (2016). Advanced Clean Transit Battery the Context of Sustainable Development in
Cost for Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles. Discussion China. Background Paper CSD19/2011/BP9,
Draft. Commission on Sustainable Development. United
5. Centere for Transportation Research, u. o. (1995). Nations Department of Economic and Social
Electric Bus Opration: A Feasibility Study. Affairs.
6. CPCB. (2010). STATUS OF THE VEHICULAR 21. S. R. Adheesh, M. S. (2016). Air-pollution and
POLLUTION CONTROL PROGRAMME IN Economics: Diesel Bus Versus Electric Bus.
INDIA. Current Science, Vol. 110, pp. 858-862.
7. CSE. (2015). Delhi Clean Air Action Plan. 22. Santosh A Jalihal and T S Reddy. (2006). CNG:
An Alternatie Fuel for Public Transport. Journal
8. DTC. (2016). Annual Report.
of Scientific and Industrial Research, Vol. 65, pp.
9. (2016). ELECTRICITY- Cooperation for 426-431.
Sustainable and Attractive Public Transport.
23. Singh, S. K. (2012). Urban Transport in India:
Status Report.
Issues, Challenges, and the Way Forward.
10. GGGI and CSTEP. (2015). Electric Buses in European Transport \ Trasporti Europei (Issue.
India: Technology, Policy and Benefits. GGGI, 52).
Seoul, Republic of Korea.
24. Tan, T. H. (2011). Feasibility study on Electric
11. Greenpeace. (2017). Airpocalypse: Assessment of Buses in Hong Kong. IEEE Xplore-Digital
Air Pollution in Indian Cities. GPET. Library.
12. GmbH Rail and Bus Consultant. (2016). Feasibility 25. T.V. Ramachandra and Shwetmala. (2009).
Study for an Electric Bus Operation. Emissions from India’s Transport Sector:
13. IEA. (2016). Global EV Outlook . Statewise synthesis. Atmospheric Environment,
14. Kadafa, A. A. (2012). Environmental Impacts 1-8.
of Oil Exploration and Exploitation in the Niger 26. UN-Habitat. (2013). Planning and Design for
Delta of Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Sustainable Urban Mobility. Global Report on
Frontier Research Environment & Earth Sciences, Human Settlements.
Vol. 12(Issue. 3), pp. 18-28. 27. Xiaokun (Cara) Wang, J. A. (2013). Assessing
15. Marcon. (2016). Electric Bus Feasibility Report. Feasibility of Electric Buses in Small and Medium-
16. MoEFCC, G. (2016). Air Pollution in Delhi-An Sized Communities. International Journal of
Analysis. ENVIS Centre CPCB. Sustainable Transportation, 7(6).

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 37


EMPANELMENT OF REFEREES
Call of Expression of Interest from the experienced Road & Bridge Technocrats for
Formulating a Panel of Experts/Referees to Review the Technical Paper, voluntarily:
In order to align with the globally best practices and promote the excellence in road
construction, the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) is in the process of formulating a Panel of
Experts/Referees who can review the Technical Papers received in IRC from Authors. Road
Technocrats who are already members of the IRC and have experience and expertise in the
field of Transport Planning, Traffic Engineering, Flexible & Rigid Pavements, Rural Roads
Development, Mechanization & Instrumentation, Road Maintenance, Safety & Design,
Bridge Design Features, Concrete Structure, Maintenance &Rehabilitation of Bridges etc.
are invited to show their interest for evaluation of Technical Papers.
The interested technocrats are requested to send their brief resume including their experience
in related field with their IRC Membership Number to IRC on E-mail: secygen.irc@gov.in

38 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil with Sand


and Non Woven Coir

Dr. Vandana Tare1 Diwakar Singh2 Dr. Kundan Meshram3

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study to explore the influence of Non Woven Coir (NWC)/coir fibre mixed with black
cotton soil used in sub grade. For this purpose black cotton soil mixed with coir fibre in varying percentage
of 0.15%-0.75%. In other case soil mixed with NWC of 0.15%-0.75% and sand of 3%-15% and properties
of soil evaluated.
The results of the study indicated that NWC can be constructed over soft ground, had got more stability
when confined than other soil fills and show negligible long term settlement and also used as stabilizing
agent. It was observed that CBR of black soil increased approximately linearly with increase when inclusion
of NWC and sand.

1 INTRODUCTION Eme et al. 2016). The available solutions have


Expansive soils are highly problematic because of limited applicability because of mixing problem,
the susceptibility of these soils to undergo large depth to be stabilized and reliable results are not
changes in volume due to variation in the moisture obtained. Therefore, a single versatile solution is
content. Due to its peculiar characteristic of high yet to be developed.
plasticity, excessive swelling, shrinkage and low To alleviate this problem uses of Non Woven Coir
strength when wet, the soil is regarded unsuitable (NWC)/coir fibre, where it will provide the bulk
for construction material (Chen 1988; Dif and of the mass and improve strength to the soil. It is
Bluemel 1991; Zemenu et al. 2009; Terzaghi et al. found to be best alternative for sub grade or sub
2010; Mokhtari and Dehghani 2012; Meshram et base in pavement. Coir fibre is 100% natural,
al. 2013). Heavy financial investments are required biodegradable, faster binding with soil, cheap,
to be made for construction of roads, canals and eco friendly and non- polluting material and it
embankments due to non availability of suitable soil. can virtually replaceable by any of the modern
Black Cotton (BC) soil is also expansive soil. There polymeric substitutes (Meshram et al. 2013).
are many methods/techniques for soil stabilization. The aim of present study is to improve CBR of
They are cohesive non-swelling soil layer (Katti black cotton soil by using NWC and sand.
et al. 1983), sand cushion method (Satyanarayana
1969), chemical stabilization (Estabragh et al. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2014), bio enzymes (Lopez-Lara et al. 1999), deep The natural coir geotextile has two types, namely
soil mixing method (Madhyannapu et al. 2009), (a) Woven Coir, (b) Non Woven Coir (NWC) i.e. coir
mixing of different additives like, lime, cement, fiber. The use of natural geotextiles has not gained
fly ash, stone dust etc. (Cokca 2001; Mishra et al. popularity though India produces large quantities
2008, Mathur et al. 2012; Phanikumar and Sharma of coir fiber and their use for geotechnical and
2004; Sridharan et al. 2006; Agarwal et al. 2016; highway engineering applications is possible. The

1
Prof., Civil Engg. & Applied Mechanics Deptt., S.G.S.I.T.S. Indore
2
Former M.E. Student, Civil Engg. & Applied Mech. Deptt., S.G.S.I.T.S. Indore & presently Asst. Prof., IES IPS Academy Indore
3
Former Research Scholar, Civil Engg. Deptt., Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 39


Technical Paper

utility of coir geotextiles for performing different 4 MATERIAL USED


functions to improves the engineering behavior The materials used in the investigation consist of
of black cotton soil (Meshram et al. 2014). The (a) Black cotton soil, (b) Sand, (c) Non-woven
Inclusion of randomly distributed fibers has been coir.
mixed in soil to increase the shear and tensile
strength of soil (Maher and Ho 1994; Ziegler et (a) Properties of Soil
al. 1998). The physical properties of the clay were determined
Kumar and Devi (2011) conducted on the by conducting following tests on the soil: Atterberg
utilization of the needle punched nonwoven limit test (IS: 2720 (Part 5)-1985), Specific gravity
geotextiles made of coir and jute fibre, the CBR test (IS: 2720 (Part 3)-1980), CBR (IS: 2720 (Part
reinforcement ratio value of the geotextiles sub 16) - 1987), Free swell test (IS: 2720 (PART XL)
grade obtained by conducting CBR test with 1977), and the Standard compaction test (IS: 2720
the geotextiles. The nonwoven geotextiles have (Part 7)-1980). The soil is classified as per (IS:
improved CBR of the soil. 1498-1970) and is identified as CH i.e. clay of high
plasticity and compressibility.
Kumar and Rajkumar (2012) conducted the
performance of woven and nonwoven geotextiles, The results of the tests were analyzed, and a
the reinforcement ratio is obtained based on the summary of the physical properties of the soil is
CBR load- penetration relation of both soft sub given in Table 1.
grade-gravel and soft sub grade-geotextiles- Table 1 Properties of Soil
gravel, separately, for woven and nonwoven
geotextiles. Comparison of reinforcement ratio Properties Test
determined using the CBR strength test show that Results
the performance is improved with the inclusion of Liquid Limit (%) 55
woven and nonwoven geotextiles.
Plastic Limit (%) 37
Shankar and Chandrasekhar (2012) studied
the most commonly used additives, which was Plasticity Index (%) 18
sand, cement, pond ash etc., for stabilization of Specific Gravity 2.72
lithomarge clay using sand and coir. It was found
Optimum Moisture Content (%) 27
that the geotechnical properties improvement in
clay with different percentages of sand and coir Maximum Dry Unit Weight (kN/m3) 1.40
additions. Soaked CBR (%) 1.80
3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME Free Swell Index (%) 33
In present study main focus on improvement in
(b) Properties of sand
CBR of black cotton soil used as subgrade material.
In first stage, Index properties of soil, Compaction The tests conducted on the sand in the laboratory
and CBR values were determined. In second stage, were sieve analysis, specific gravity (IS 2720 - Part
soil is mixed with NWC in different percentage i.e. 3 (Sections 1): 1980), minimum and maximum dry
0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60% and then compaction unit weight test (IS: 2720 (Part 14)-1983).
and CBR values were determined. In third stage, The particle size distribution curve of the sand is
Soil mixed with NWC and sand in which NWC shown in Fig. 1 and other relevant properties are
mixed in different percentage viz. 0.15%, 0.30%, given in Table 2. The sand is identified as SP i.e.
0.45%, 0.60% and 0.75% and sand mixed with poorly graded sand as per (IS: 1498-1970). For
different percentages viz. 3%, 6%, 10%, 12% classifying the soil (IS: 1498-1970), D10, D30,
and 15% and OMC-MDD and CBR values were and D60 values (i.e. particle size corresponding to
evaluated. The NWC was randomly distributed 10, 30 and 60 % finer respectively) were calculated
with BC soil and sand. from Particle Size Distribution Curve.

40 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

test series, NWC randomly mixed with BC soil and


other series, BC soil mixed with NWC and sand.
(a) Tests on BC Soil Mixed with NWC
NWC was mixed in soil in different percentage
viz. 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, and 0.75%. The
samples were tested for OMC, MDD, and CBR
for different percentage of NWC shown in Fig.2
to Fig.4.

Fig. 1 Particle Size Distribution Curve for Sand


Table 2 Properties of Sand

Properties of Sand
Particle size corresponding to 10% 0.19
finer, D10 (mm)
Fig. 2 Variation of OMC with Percentage of NWC
Particle size corresponding to 30% 0.29 (mixed in BC soil)
finer, D30 (mm)
Particle size corresponding to 60% 0.40
finer, D60 (mm)
Coefficient of Uniformity, CU 2.10
Coefficient of Curvature, CC 1.10
Specific Gravity, G 2.67
Maximum Density, γ max (kN/m3) 16.46
Minimum Density, γ min (kN/m3) 14.16
Fig. 3 Variation of MDD with Percentage NWC (mixed
(c) Properties of Non Woven Coir in BC soil)
Physical properties of NWC are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Physical Properties of NWC

PROPERTY VALUE
Length (mm) 15 - 280
Density (g/cc) 1.15 - l.4
Tenacity (g/tex) 10.0
Breaking elongation (%) 30.0
Diameter (mm) 0.1 -1.5 Fig. 4 Variation of CBR with Percentage NWC (mixed
in BC soil)
Rigidity modulus (dynes/cm2) 1.8924
Swelling in water (diameter)-(%) 5.0 (b) Tests on Soil Mixed with NWC and Sand
Moisture at 65% RH (%) 10.5 NWC mixed in BC soil in different percentage viz.
0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, and 0.75%. Sand
Specific gravity 1.15
mixed with BC soil in different percentages viz.
Young’s modulus (GN/m2) 4.5 3%, 6%, 10%, 12%, and 15% shown in Table 4 to
5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 8.
Two series of tests were carried out to accomplish The samples tested for OMC, MDD, and CBR for
the desired study on CBR of black cotton soil. In a different percentage of NWC.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 41


Technical Paper

Table 4 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.15% Table 7 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.60%
NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand

Soil Mixed With OMC MDD Soaked Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked
NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR
cc) (%) cc) (%)
Soil, 0.15% coir and 22.10 1.410 2.23 Soil, 0.60% coir and 23.21 1.540 2.25
3% sand 3% sand
Soil, 0.15% coir and 20.59 1.438 3.12
6% sand Soil, 0.60% coir and 22.41 1.600 3.10
6% sand
Soil, 0.15% coir and 19.77 1.557 4.31
10% sand Soil, 0.60% coir and 20.77 1.670 4.39
Soil, 0.15% coir and 18.54 1.579 4.98 10% sand
12% sand Soil, 0.60% coir and 19.32 1.690 5.02
Soil, 0.15% coir and 16.87 1.610 5.24 12% sand
15% sand Soil, 0.60% coir and 18.53 1.720 6.31
Table 5 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.30% 15% sand
NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand
Table 8 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.75%
Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand
NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR
cc) (%) Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked
NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR
Soil, 0.30% coir and 23.30 1.520 2.35
cc) (%)
3% sand
Soil, 0.30% coir and 22.44 1.535 3.20 Soil, 0.75% coir and 23.27 1.520 2.28
6% sand 3% sand
Soil, 0.30% coir and 20.87 1.555 4.49 Soil, 0.75% coir and 22.40 1.532 2.93
10% sand 6% sand
Soil, 0.30% coir and 19.34 1.580 5.12 Soil, 0.75% coir and 20.83 1.551 4.44
12% sand 10% sand
Soil, 0.30% coir and 17.73 1.610 6.40
Soil, 0.75% coir and 19.37 1.579 5.07
15% sand
12% sand
Table 6 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.45%
NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand Soil, 0.75% coir and 18.60 1.597 6.34
15% sand
Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked
NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR 5.1 On the basis of results, the effect of BC soil
cc) (%) mixed with NWC and sand on OMC, MDD
and CBR is given below:
Soil, 0.45% coir and 24.40 1.620 3.35
3% sand (a) Effect of BC soil mixed with NWC on OMC
Soil, 0.45% coir and 23.22 1.635 4.20 and MDD
6% sand When coir mixed with soil, it was observed that
Soil, 0.45% coir and 21.79 1.664 5.49 OMC firstly decreased and after a limit the OMC
10% sand increased. In case of MDD first increased and after
Soil, 0.45% coir and 20.28 1.680 6.12 certain limit it decreased because coir was soaking
12% sand water. OMC decreased and MDD increased with
Soil, 0.45% coir and 18.30 1.710 7.40 increase of sand percentage because it created
15% sand more voids.

42 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Technical Paper

(b) Effect of BC soil mixed with NWC on CBR 3. Cokca, E. (2001). “Use of Class C fly Ashes for
value the Stabilization of an Expansive Soil.” Journal of
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,
The maximum CBR value was found 2.48%, when
127 (7), 568-573.
BC soil was mixed with 0.45% NWC and after that
4. Dif, A. E., Bluemel, W. F. (1991). “Expansive
the CBR value decreased because after a certain
Soils Under Cyclic Drying and Wetting.” Geotech.
limit the coir will break down and will not take load. Testing Journal, 14 (1), 96-102.
The CBR value increased with increase in sand
5. Eme, D.B., Nwofor, T.C, and Sule, S. (2016).
percentage as sand was took more load then soil. “Correlation Between the California Bearing
5.2 Based on results, the multiple linear Ratio (Cbr) and Unconfined Compressive
regression models were developed for Strength (Ucs) of Stabilized Sand-Cement of the
prediction of CBR: Niger Delta.” SSRG International Journal of Civil
Engineering, 3(3), 7-13.
(a) For NWC mixed with BC soil
6. Estabragh, A. R., Rafatjo, H., and Javadi, A.
CBR= -1.89 - 0.018 OMC +3.16 MDD + 35.97 C A. (2014). “Treatment of an Expansive Soil
 (R2 = 98%) by Mechanical and Chemical Techniques.”
Geosynthetics International, 21 (3), 233-243.
(b) For NWC Mixed with BC soil and sand
7. Indian Standards. (1970). “Classification and
CBR= -12.03 + 0.42 OMC + 2.17 MDD- 0.76 C + Identification of Soils for General Engineering
0.48 S (R2 = 94%) Purposes.” IS 1498, First Revision, Reaffirmed
Where, 2007, New Delhi, India.

CBR = California Bearing Ratio in %, OMC 8. Indian Standards. - 1977 “Indian Standard
Methods of Test for Soils: Determination of Free
= Optimum Moisture Content in %, MDD =
Swell Index of Soils.” IS 2720 (Part XL), New
Maximum Dry Density in gm/cc, C = Non Woven
Delhi, India.
Coir content in %, S = Sand content in %.
9. Indian Standards. (1980). “Indian Standard
6 CONCLUSIONS Code of Practice for Methods of Test for Soils:
1. Addition of non woven coir in BC soil im- Determination of Specific Gravity of Fine Grained
proved the properties of soil. The Optimum Soils.” IS 2720 (Part 3/section 1), New Delhi, India.
content of non woven coir was found to be 10. Indian Standards. (1980). “Indian Standard
0.45%. In this case CBR increases 67.8% as Code of Practice for Methods of Test for Soils:
Determination of Water Content Dry Density
compare to CBR of virgin soil.
Relation Using Light Compaction.” IS 2720 (Part
2. On addition of sand in BC soil and non wo- 7), New Delhi, India.
ven coir mixtures, there is improvement in
11. Indian Standards. (1983). “Indian Standard Code
soil properties. of Practice for Determination of Density Index
3. CBR value gradually increases with increase of Cohesion-Less Soils.” IS 2720 (Part 14), New
in sand and non woven coir for different per- Delhi, India.
centage. 12. Indian Standards. (1985). “Indian Standard
References Code of Practice for Methods of Test for Soils:
Determination of Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit.”
1. Agarwal, A., Muley, P., and Jain, P.K. (2016).
IS 2720 (Part 5), New Delhi, India.
“An Experimental and Analytical Study on
California Bearing Ratio of Lime Stabilized Black 13. Indian Standard (1987). “Methods of Test for Soil
Cotton Soil.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Laboratory Determination of CBR”. IS2720 (Part
Engineering, 21(20), 6583-6599. 16), Second Revision, Reaffirmed 2002, New
Delhi, India.
2. Chen, F. H. (1988). “Foundations on Expansive
Soils.” Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 14. Katti, R. K., Bhangle, E. S. and Moza, K. K.
Amsterdam. (1983). Lateral Pressure of Expansive Soil

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 43


Technical Paper

with and without Cohesive Non-Swelling Soil International Journal of Innovation Engineering
Layer Applications to Earth Pressures of Cross Research, 1(1), 25-29.
Drainage Structures of Canals and Key Walls of 23. Meshram, K., Mittal, S.K., Jain, P.K., and Agarwal,
Dams (Studies of K0 Condition). Central Board of P.K. (2014). “CBR Improvement of Expansive
Irrigation and Power. Technical Report 32, New Black Cotton Soil Using Coir Geotextile”.
Delhi, India. NICMAR-Journal of Construction Management,
15. Kumar, P. S., and Devi, S. P. (2011) “Effect XXIX (III), 45-50.
of Needle Punched Nonwoven Coir and Jute 24. Mishra, A. K., Dhawan, S., and Rao, S. M. (2008).
Geotextiles on Cbr Strength of Soft Sub Grade”. “Analysis of Swelling and Shrinkage Behavior of
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Compacted Clays.” Geotech. Geol. Eng., 26, 289–
Sciences, 6(6), 114-116. 298.
16. Kumar, P. S., and Rajkumar, R. (2012). “Effect of 25. Mokhtari, M., and Dehghani, M. (2012). “Swell-
Geotextiles on Cbr Strength of Unpaved Road Shrink Behavior of Expansive Soils, Damage
with Soft Sub Grade”. Electronic Journal of
and Control.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical
Geotechnical Engg., 17, 1355-1363.
Engineering, 17, 2673-2682.
17. Lopez-Lara, T., Zepeta- Garrido, J. A., and
26. Phanikumar, B.R., and Sharma, R. S. (2004).
Castario, V. M. (1999). “A Comparative Study
“Effect of Flyash on Engineering Properties of
of the Effectiveness of Different Additives on the
Expansive Soil.” J. of Geotechnical and Geo-
Expansion Behavior of Clays.” Electronic Journal
environmental Engineering, 130 (7), 764-767.
of Geotechnical Engineering, 4(5), paper 9904.
27. Ravi Shankar, A.U., and Chandrasekhar, A. (2012).
18. Madhyannapu, R.S., Puppala, A.J., Nazarian, S.,
“Experimental Investigation on Lithomarge Clay
and Yuan, D. (2009). “Quality Assessment and
Stabilized with Sand and Coir.” Indian Highways,
Quality Control of Deep Soil Mixing Construction
40(2), 21-31.
for Stabilizing Expansive Subsoils.” Journal of
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 28. Satyanarayana, B. (1969). “Behaviour of
136 (1), 119-128. Expansive Soil Treated or Cushioned with Sand.”
Proc., 2nd National Conference on Expansive
19. Maher, M. H., and Ho, Y.C. (1994). “Mechanical
Soils, Texas, 308-316.
Properties of Kaolinite/Fiber Soil Composite.”
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,120 (8), 29. Sridharan, A., Soosan, T. G., Jose, B. T., and
1381–1393. Abraham, B.M. (2006). “Shear Strength Studies
20. Mathur, S., Swami, R.K., and Arun, U. (2012), on Soil-Quarry Dust Mixtures.” Geotechnical and
“Lime/Cement Stabilisation for Soil and Granular Geological Engineering, 24, 1163–1179.
Materials.” National Workshop on Non – 30. Terzaghi, K., Peck, R. B., and Mesri, G. (2010).
Conventional Material/ Technologies, NRRDA, “Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice.” John
New Delhi, 56-74. Wiley & Sons, Inc., U.K.
21. Meshram, K., Mittal, S.K., Jain, P.K., and Agarwal, 31. Zemenu, G., Martine, A., and Roger, C. (2009).
P.K. (2013). “Application of Coir Geotextile in “Analysis of the Behaviour of a Natural Expansive
Rural Roads Construction on BC Soil Subgrade”. Soil Under Cyclic Drying and Wetting.” Bull.
International Journal of Engineering and Eng. Geol. Environ., 68 (3), 421-436.
Innovative Technology, 3(4), 264-268. 32. Ziegler, S., Leshchinsky, D., Ling, H. I., and
22. Meshram, K., Mittal, S.K., Jain, P.K., and Agarwal, Perry, E.B. (1998). “Effect of Short Polymeric
P.K. (2013). “Application of Coir Geotextile Fibers on Crack Development in Clays.” Soils and
for Road Construction: Some Issues”. Oriental Foundations, 38 (1), 247–253.

44 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


MoRT&H Circular

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 45


MoRT&H Circular

46 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


MoRT&H Circular

Contd...

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 47


MoRT&H Circular

Contd. from prepage

48 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Tender Notice

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 49


Tender Notice

50 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Tender Notice

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 51


Tender Notice

52 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Tender Notice

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 53


Tender Notice

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Tender Notice

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 55


Tender Notice

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Tender Notice

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 57


Tender Notice

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Tender Notice

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 59


Tender Notice

60 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Tender Notice

PUNJAB ROADS & BRIDGES DEVELOPMENT BOARD (PRBDB)

INVITATION FOR SUBMITTING ON-LINE PROPOSALS


CONSULTING SERVICES FOR CARRYING OUT OF STUDIES TO DEVELOP A “CORRIDORS OF
GROWTH” (COG) VISION FOCUSED ON UPGRADING OF STATE ROADS NETWORK IN PUNJAB
AND TO PREPARE A PRIORITIZED ROAD NETWORK IN THE STATE
RFP NO. PRBDB/1/2018
Government of Punjab intends to avail financial assistance from the external financial agencies for upgrading its State
Road network (SH,MDRs,ODRs). Towards this objective, Govt. of Punjab/Punjab Roads and Bridges Development
Board (PRBDB) plans to engage a Consultancy firm to carry out requisite studies and analyses to prioritize the State
road network. Eligible consulting firms are requested to submit their proposals for the consultancy services on-line
on www.eprocpbpwd.gov.in.
The Detailed Notice and RFP document including forms can also be downloaded from www.eprocpbpwd.gov.in &
http://prbdb.gov.in as per the following schedules:
Availability of RFP document Last date & Time for Date & Time of opening of
From To submission of proposals Technical Proposals
10.01.2018 26.02.2018 27.02.2018 27.02.2018
(0900) hrs IST (1700) hrs IST (1500 hrs IST) (1530 hrs IST)
Sd/-
(Mukesh Kumar Goel)
Joint Secretary , PRBDB
Punjab Roads and Bridges Development Board
SCF. 61-62, Phase 2, Sector 54, Mohali-160 055
Tel.: 91 172 6626620, Fax : 91 172 6626640
Web site : http://prbdb.gov.in, Email : office@prbdb.gov.in

Announcement

The Transport Engineering Section, Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of


Technology, Kharagpur is organizing a “Three Day Workshop on Developments in Pavement
Engineering at IIT Khargapur on 12th to 14th February, 2018.
Relevant topics such as design of flexible and rigid pavements – Current practices and future
directions, White topping pavements, short panel cement concrete pavements and Overlay
design approach using FWD Technique will be covered apart from Laboratory demonstration
(Bituminous mix evaluation, advanced binder testing, FWD etc).
For any clarification please contact:- Dr. M. Amaranatha Reddy, Course Coordinator
— DiPAV, IIT, Kharagpur, West Bengal. Phone: 03222 – 283450 (O), 283451 (R),
Fax:- 03222 – 282254/255303, Email:- manreddy@iitkgp.ac.in

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 61


Book Review of Latest IRC Publication

IRC:15-2017 “Code of Practice for Construction of


Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (Fifth Revision)
The revised code of practice is intended to bring
uniformity in construction of jointed plain concrete
pavements. The document includes preparation of the
subgrade and subbase underneath these pavements. It
also covers with various aspect of construction like
materials for mix design; type of cements, chemical
and mineral admixtures, flyash, ground granulated blast
furnace slag, silica fume, metakaolin, coarse and fine
aggregates, water, reinforcement, dowel bars and tie bars,
temperature reinforcement, materials for joint sealing,
tools, plant and equipment required for construction.
During laying of concrete, weather limitations for
good concrete are covered in detail, precaution to be
taken for concreting in hot/ cold weather and in frost
affected areas. Joints are essential for construction and
for better performance of pavement, types of joints
with illustrations showing placement of dowel bars, tie
bars and joint sealing etc. Anchor beam and terminal
slab adjoining bridge structure storage and handling of
construction material, construction of fully mechanized
and with slip form paver, surface textures were also
covered.

IRC:44-2017 “Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix


Design for Pavements” (Third Revision)
The second revision of this document was published in
2008. In the third revision, mix proportioning, for high
strength concrete (Graded M65 and above) and pervious
concrete with illustrative examples have been introduced.
The following major modifications have been made in
this document.
To fix the target mean strength for mix proportioning
based on flexural/compressive strength, two different
equations are given. The recommendation is to adopt the
higher value given by these equations for design.
Combined aggregate grading for mix of coarse and fine
aggregate has been incorporated in the document.
The requirements for selection of standard deviation, air
content, water-cement ratio, water content and estimation
of quantity of coarse and find aggregate, trial mixes,
illustrative examples for design of mixes have been
reviewed and accordingly modified. The adjustment in
water and aggregate content due to change in the moisture
in stored aggregates has been explained.
Illustrative examples of concrete mix proportioning for
standard grade of concrete based on flexural strength/
compressive strength, high strength concrete and pervious
concrete are given as Annexure.

62 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Book Review of Latest IRC Publication

IRC:SP:93-2017 “GUIDELINES ON
REQUIREMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
CLEARANCES FOR ROAD PROJECTS”
(First Revision)
The existing document has been revised mainly due
to: increased project length requiring environmental
clearance from 30 km to 100 km and increased width
of additional land acquisition from 20 m to 40 m for
widening and 60 m for realignment. Some other
provisions relaxed in the meantime include de-linking
of various clearance processes, parallel processing of
all clearances such as forest clearances de-linked from
wildlife clearance, dispensing with the requirement
of specific TORs for highway widening projects;
delegation of powers of issuing forest clearance for
linear projects to Regional Offices and treating the
First Stage Forest Clearance as working permission
for cutting of trees and commencement of work.
Contents of the document are:
1. Environment and Social Legal Framework
2. Procedure for Obtaining Environment
Clearance
3. Procedure for Obtaining CRZ Clearance
4. Procedure for Obtaining Forest Clearance
5. Procedure for Obtaining Wildlife Clearance
6. Other Relevant Clearances.

IRC:SP:112-2017 “MANUAL FOR QUALITY


CONTROL IN ROAD & BRIDGE WORKS”
Manual for Quality Control in Road and Bridge
Works cover various aspects of quality control. It
is hoped that Manual will ensure equal attention to
delivery of project.
Contents of the document are:
1. General Approach-Total Quality Management
2. Personnel
3. Quality Assurance Plan
4. Quality Requirements for Factory Manufactured
Materials, Products and Specialized items
5. Field Laboratory Set Up
6. Calibration of Inspection, Measuring and
Testing
7. Inspection and Testing
8. Documentation and Communication
9. Statistical Analysis
10. Acceptance/ Non Conformance/Rectification
11. Third Party Quality Audit
12. Safety, Health and Environment

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 63


Book Review of Latest IRC Publication

IRC:125-2017 “GUIDELINES ON DOZERS


FOR HIGHWAY WORKS”
This document is intended for use by the highway
engineers, field personnel with road construction
agencies and contractors entrusted with the task of
road construction and maintenance.
This document covers dozer selection, dozer
components and type of blades, blade operation
and performance, dozer attachments, dozer
productivity, maintenance schedules as well as tips
for safe operation of dozers.
The Contents of the document mainly include
Dozer’s Classification, components, blades,
performance productivity, maintenance and its
safety.

IRC:126-2017 “Guidelines
on Wet Mix Plant”
This document “Guidelines on Wet Mix Plant”
caters to the mechanization aspect of preparation
of Wet Mix Macadam in a central mixing plant
so that the laid down requirements of end result
specifications in respect of sizes and grading of
aggregates, optimum moisture content, proper
mixing etc. are achieved.
This document covers advantages and major
assemblies of a Wet Mix Plant, typical average
power requirement of various parts of the plant, pug
mill performance, plant maintenance and safety.
This document is intended for use by highway
engineers, field personnel within road construction
agencies and contractors entrusted with the task of
road construction and maintenance.
Contents of the document are:
1. Advantages of Wet Mix Plant
2. Major Assemblies of Wet Mix Plant
3. Power Requirement
4. Pug Mill Performance
5. Plant Maintenance
6. Plant Safety

64 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Book Review of Latest IRC Publication

IRC:122-2017 “GUIDELINES FOR


CONSTRUCTION OF PRECAST
CONCRETE SEGMENTAL
BOX CULVERTS”
These guidelines cover the requirements related to
Precast Concrete Segmental Box Culverts. These
guidelines deal with the construction methodologies
for single-cell (or) multi-cell precast reinforced
concrete box sections.
Contents of the document are:
1. Specifications for Concrete Mix
2. Construction Methodology
3. Quality Management
4. Precautions and Safety Measures
5. Maintenance

IRC:123-2017 “GUIDELINES ON
GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION FOR
BRIDGES”
Geophysical investigations are becoming
increasingly acceptable and implemented in the
field of geotechnical engineering world over,
on account of its simplicity and advantages over
traditional methods Geophysical methods can
be used to provide volumetric knowledge of
unforeseen, highly variable sub-surface ground
conditions assisting bridge engineers in pin-point
borings, especially in inclined beds for foundations.
The document details various geophysical methods,
brief principle, operations, capabilities, limitations
and method selection criteria. The document also
deals with investigation of existing bridges using
geophysical methods.
Contents of the document are:
1. Geophysical Tools
2. Geophysical Methods for Bridge Site
Investigation
3. Geophysical Methods for Investigating the
Existing Bridge Conditions
4. Integrating Geophysical Methods

INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 65


Book Review of Latest IRC Publication

IRC:65-2017 “Planning and Design of


Roundabouts” (First Revision)
The document was published by IRC in the year 1976.
Our country is undertaking massive road development
programme to improve mobility and connectivity. Road
junctions are points of traffic merging and hence are
prone to accidents. The road junctions include T-junction,
Y-junction, Four-Arm junction and Rail-Crossings. As
reported in Ministry of Road Transport & Highways,
Transport Research Wing document entitled “Road
Accident in India – 2016”, about 37% of total accidents
took place on the junctions itself during the year 2016.
Therefore, a need was felt to revise the IRC:65 for rotary
which is a safer junction control where two or more roads
of comparable traffic volume are intersecting as well as a
junction having considerable right turning traffic.
The contents of the document are definition and
terminologies of Geometric parameters, Flow parameters,
Driver behavior parameters and Performance parameters;
requirements for Roundabouts Single lane and Multi lane;
Planning consideration, Geometric Design, Design speed,
Non-motorized transportation, Roundabout performance
indicators, Capacity estimation, Delay, Level of Service
(LOS) illumination, Landscaping and Safety which include
General consideration and Speed control.

NEW/REVISED PUBLICATIONS OF IRC – NEW ARRIVALS


The IRC has brought out the following New/Revised Publications. These prestigious publications will be quite
useful to the Highway Professionals.
Title of the Document Price Packing & Postage
IRC:7-2017 Recommended Practice for Numbering Culverts, Bridges and 100.00 20.00
Tunnels (Second Revision)
IRC:15-2017 “Code of Practice for Construction of Jointed Plain Concrete 1000.00 40.00
Pavements (Fifth Revision)
IRC:44-2017 “Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for Pavements” 500.00 40.00
(Third Revision)
IRC:65-2017 “Planning and Design of Roundabouts” (First Revision) 400.00 40.00
IRC:121-2017 Guidelines for Use of Construction and Demolition Waste in 300.00 40.00
Road Sector
IRC:122-2017 Guidelines for Construction of Precast Concrete Segmental Box 300.00 40.00
Culverts
IRC:123-2017 Guidelines on Geophysical Investigation for Bridges 600.00 40.00
IRC:125-2017 Guidelines on Dozers for Highway Works 400.00 40.00
IRC:126-2017 Guidelines on Wet Mix Plant 400.00 40.00
IRC:SP-93-2017 Guidelines on Requirements for Environmental Clearance for 1200.00 40.00
Road Projects (First Revision)
IRC:SP:111-2017 Capacity Building of Road Agencies In Charge of 300.00 40.00
Implementation of Road Projects in Urban Areas
IRC:SP:112-2017 Manual for Quality Control in Road and Bridge works 1500.00 40.00
Copies of these publications can be obtained from IRC Office against cash payment. For more details please contact
+ 91 11 2338 7759 and E-mail: ircsale1934@gmail.com

66 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018


Delhi Postal Registration No dl-sw-17/4194/16-18
under ‘u’ Number u(sw)-12/2016-2018
At Lodi Road, PSO on dated 28-29.1.2018 licence to post
ISSN 0376-7256 Newspaper Regd. No. 25597/73 without prepayment

February, 2018
dl-sw-17/4194/16-18
Indian Highways published on 22 January, 2018
`20/- February, 2018

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Edited and Published by Shri S.K. Nirmal, Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress, IRC HQ, Sector-6, R.K. Puram,
Kama Koti Marg, New Delhi - 110 022. Printed by Shri S.K. Nirmal on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress
at M/s. India Offset Press, New Delhi-110 064 https://www.irc.nic.in