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MCA I YEAR I SEMESTER E I T LAB

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MS WORD
Demonstrate Find, Find & Replace, Spelling and Grammar,
header and footer.

Header and footer:

Header and footer are pices of text, or graphics that appear at the top and bottom of
a page. After you set up a header and footer, they will appear on all of your pages.
You can add a page number to a header or footer, and Microsoft Word will
automatically insert the right page number for you.

To set up a header and footer for your Word document, do the following

1. From the view menu, click Header and Footer.

2. Your cursor will be blinking in the header area of your first page. The header
and footer toolbar will also appear.

The cursor will already be flashing inside the Header area, waiting for you to type
some text. Before you type any thing, do this:

1. Set up a Tab stop by clicking on the Format menu at the top, then select
Tab’s.
2. From the dialogue box that pops up, enter 5 cm as a tab stop position.
3. Click the “set” button. Click ok.
4. Next, press the Tab key on your keyboard.
5. Your cursor will jump to the tab stop position you set 5 cm.
6. Type in the words MCA I Year I Semester.

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Microsoft Word allows you to insert page numbers into your document. This is done
usually in the footer area of the page. The Footer is just the opposite of the Header.
To insert page numbers into the footer:

1. Click your mouse anywhere on the first page of your document, so that your
cursor is blinking on and off somewhere in your text.
2. Click on Insert>Page numbers.
3. A dialogue box will appear where we can set the page number position and
also do the alignment as per requirement.

We can use the toolbar also to insert page number in the pages. But as we want our
page numbers to appear at the bottom of the page, we need to switch to Footers.

1. Click on the icon Switch between Header and Footer below to switch to the
Footer area. You will be taken to the Footer area of the page.

2. With the cursor flashing in the footer area, click the “Insert page number” icon
in the toolbar, as in below.

To format text in a Header and Footer just like you can any other text
1. Position your cursor to the left of the Page Number.
2. Your number may now have a gray background.
3. From the menu bar, click Insert.
4. From the drop down menu, select Symbol.
5. Click the Insert button at the bottom of the Symbol.
6. Click the close button.
Similarly we will insert the symbol to right of the page number by positioning the cursor
just to the of the page number.
Finally, click Close on the Header and Footer toolbar.
Now, if we don’t want any page number on the first page we can jump to the Footer area
of our second page quite easily.
Click the “Show Next” icon in the toolbar.

We will be taken to the footer area of your second page. We can now insert our page
numbers.

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Find and Replace:

If you need to find a particular word or piece of text, you can use the Find command. If
you want
to search the entire document, simply execute the Find command. If you want to limit your
search to a selected area, highlight that area and then execute the Find command.

Find:
1. Type the following in a Word document:
“Word processing, in a computer terminology, refer to typing, editing and
formatting of any kind of document, which could be a letter, memorandum balance
sheet or something similar”.
2. Select Edit menu -> Find option.
3. Find and Replace dialogue box is displayed.
4. Type ‘word’ in the ‘Find what’ field.
5. Click Find Next. Note that the ‘word’ gets highlighted.
6. Click Find Next. The following message should appear: “Word has finished
searching the selection do you want to search the remainder of the document?”
7. Click No. Click cancel.
Alternate Method Using Shortcut Keys:

1. Press Ctrl + F key combinations from the keyboard.


2. Find and Replace dialog box gets displayed. Then follow the steps in the
preceding section.
Replace:

1. Select Edit menu > Replace option.


2. Type ‘refer’ in the Find what box?
3. In the Replace with box, type ‘refers’.
4. Click Replace. Word replaces ‘refer’ with ‘refers’.
5. The following message will appear: “Word has finished searching selection. Do
you want to search the remaining of the document?
6. Click No. Click close.
7. Your text should now read: “Word processing, in computer terminology, refers to
typing, editing and formatting of any kind of document, which could be a letter,
memorandum balance sheet or something similar”.

Spelling and Grammar:

If you have spelling as you type “switched on, you should have red lines under the
words in your letter: counsel, library and decision. Microsoft word has a spell checker
that you can use to correct any misspelled words.
To launch the spell checker click on Tools menu, then select Spelling and Grammar or
just press the F7 key on your keyboard. You can have word check the entire document
for spelling mistakes, or you can check the spelling for selected areas.

To check the spelling of a selected area, select the text or word .

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1. Click Tools>Spelling and Grammar. Or just press the F7 key.
To check the entire document:

1. Click Tools > Spelling and Grammar, or press F7.


2. Spelling and Grammar dialogue box is displayed.

There are two text areas in the dialogue box: Not in dictionary, and suggestions.

The “Not in Dictionary” text box, shows part of your text, and one spelling mistake at a
time. The spelling mistake is red in color.

In “suggestions” text box, alternatives to the wrong word are listed. To make the change
and to get the correct word, do the following:

1. Click on the word “library” in the suggestions text box.


2. Click the change button.
3. Word moves on to the next word, you got wrong.

When the spell check is complete, the dialogue box will be replaced by a message box,
with the message ‘the spelling and grammar check is complete’. Click ok.

Table:
We use tables to format all or part of your document into columns and rows.

Create a table to enter the time table of MCA I Year class time
table:

To set up your first table, do the following


1. Click on Table menu.
2. Select Insert option.
3. A sub menu appears, select Table option.

When you select Table menu and click Insert > Table you get a dialogue box popping up,

The table we are going to draw has 3 columns and 2 rows. So change the number of
columns to 3 and number of rows to 2. Then click on ok button.

The square in the table that word has drawn for you are called cells. Your cursor will be
flashing in the first cell. You can go ahead and type into cells.

Merging Cells:

1. Select the cells to be merged.


2. select Table menu.
3. Click on Merge Cells option.
Next step we have to give following column headings
Day, morning session, afternoon session and appropriate times

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Type the following into first column of your table.


Mon, Tue, wed, thur, Fri, sat.

Time Table
Day Morning session Afternoon session
9:10- 10:00- 10:50- 11:40- 1:10- 2:00- 2:50- 3:40-
10:00 10:50 11:40 12:30 2:00 2:50 3:40 4:30
MON
TUES
WED
THURS
FRI LUNCH
SAT

You now need to enter subject to the respected cells


Time Table
Day Morning session Afternoon session
9:10- 10:00- 10:50- 11:40- 1:10- 2:00- 2:50- 3:40-
10:00 10:50 11:40 12:30 2:00 2:50 3:40 4:30
MON CPP PS PS(T) ME
TUES CPP ME SEMINAR LAB-B1(CPP)
WED EIT PS ME DM LAB-B2(EIT)
THURS DM ME CPP EIT
FRI ME CPP PS(T) EIT LAB-B1(EIT):LAB-B2(CPP)
SAT PS EIT CPP DM LUNCH

To format the text in the table:


1. Select the text in the table
2. Make the text bold, align it to center of the cells.
3. click on Table menu, select Table properties, you get a Table Properties
dialogue box popping up, Click on the table tab:
4. Click the borders and shading button right at the bottom.
5. Another dialogue box pops up. Click on the shading tab to bring up the shading
tab strip:
6. Select a background color by clicking on any of the colour.Then click the OK
button.
7. Click the OK button on table properties dialogue box. You will how have
background colors for the table

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Create a table to enter the student roll no., name, date of


birth ,gender,address,fields using MS Word:

Construct the following table:

STUDENT NAME DATE OF GENDER ADDRESS


ROLL NO. BIRTH
137-09-007 Bhaskar 15-07-1988 Male Hyd
137-09-008 Kishore 10-10-1980 Male Rayalaseema
137-09-009 Tulasi 06-10-1988 Male Khammam
137-09-010 Surrender 10-10-1987 Male Warangal
137-09-011 Shambavi 10-12-1980 Female Amalapuram

There are two ways to bring up the table toolbar.


1. Either click on table from the menu bar, then click DRAW TABLE from the
drop down menu.
2. Click on view from the menu bar, then click toolbars>tables and borders from
drop down menu.

Which ever method you use, you’ll get this toolbar popping up:

Select Draw Table tool from the displaying toolbar, the insert table icon:

1. The Insert table dialogue box appears.


2. Change the number of column to 5.
3. Change the number of rows to 3.
4. Click the ok button.
5. Your table should look like the one below.

There is not enough column for the Nationalities .We need an extra column.
To insert another column, do the following:

1. Select the column where we want to insert the new column.


2. On the Table menu, click the Insert option.
3. Select the option Column to the Right or Column to the left, as required.

To adjust the width of your columns, do the following

1. Click on Table menu. From the drop down list click on Table properties.(or
right click on your table and select table properties from the top up menu)

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2. The Table properties dialogue box appears.
3. Make sure the column tab strip is selected.
4. Change the preferred width to something like 1.0 centimeters.

STUDENT NAME DOB GENDER ADDRESS


ROLL NO.

5. Click OK to see the change you made.


6. do the same for the first column, if all of your test is not on the same line
7. Highlight your test and make some formatting changes: bold text, and
centered
8. Enter some number in all the other cells(any number will do)
9. Format the numbers: bold test and centered.
10. Your table should look like thru one below:

Here’s what the table might look like when done:

STUDENT NAME DATE OF GENDER ADDRESS


ROLL NO. BIRTH
137-09-007 Bhaskar 15-07-1988 Male Hyd
137-09-008 Kishore 10-10-1980 Male Rayalaseema
137-09-009 Tulasi 06-10-1988 Male Khammam
137-09-010 Surrender 10-10-1987 Male Warangal
137-09-011 Shambavi 10-12-1980 Female Amalapuram

DRAW A FLOW CHART FOR FINDING THE BIGGEST OF


“N’ NO.S IN MS-WORD:
1. First we have to select Auto shapes option from the Drawing toolbar.

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2. Select flow chart from Auto shapes.

3. Here for starting and ending we use Terminator boxes.

4. For displaying input and output data we use Data boxes.

4. For taking decision we use Decision boxes.

5. For performing any processing we use processing box.

The chart for maximum of two numbers is given below.

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Demonstrate the usage of Macro with an example which


records a macro and another by running that recorded
macro.

Macro:

A macro is a shortcut to a task you do repeatedly .Think about the centre align
operation. You first highlight the word you want centered, the click the centre icon in
the toolbar. This is a macro. it’s the short way of performing the centre task.

A Macro is a way to create a shortcut for a task.

How to create a Macro in Microsoft Word:


1. Open a new word document.
2. Type in a few words of text. Anything you like.
3. Highlight your text, or just a single word of the text.
4. From the menu bar, click on Tools.
5. From the drop down menu click on Macro.
6. A sub menu appears
7. Click on Record New Macro.

Record New Macro, you get the Macro dialogue box popping up.

When you click on

There are four areas to the record macro dialogue box; Macro Name, Assign
macro to, Store macro in, and Description.

1. The first thing to do is to give your macro a name. At the moment is called
“macro1”. That is not a very descriptive name for what we want our macro
to do.
2. We will call our macro Font Changer. Notice that we haven’t put a space
between the two words. This is because macros do not like having spaces
between words. You have to put, the name of your macro as all one word.

So go ahead and type in Font changer as the macro name, instead of


macro1.

The next section is “Assign macro to” .You are given the choice of either
Toolbars or Keyboard.
Ignore this section for now. We’ll see later how to assign our macro to a
toolbar, and to the Keyboard.

The next section is “Store macro in”. Now is reads All Documents (Normal.
dot).Remember what normal. dot is? That is the basic template for all
Microsoft Word documents. In other words, the macro we create will be
available to any new word document. You can change this so that the macro

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is created in only the document you’re working on. Click the black down arrow
to see the title of the document you have open.

The final section is Description. This is just a record of when the macro was
created, and who created it. You can change this to anything you like.
Malicious folk creation nasty macros will definitely change these details.

Once you have given you macro a name , click the OK button . Your dialogue
box will look like this:

The reason the little floating toolbar says Stop is because your macro is
already being recorded. The process has started. You don’t have to panic,
and hurry it along. Take your time and think about what you’re going to do.

The floating toolbar, though, only has two buttons, the square one is the stop
button; the two lines and the circle is the pause button. Notice that the mouse
pointer has changed, with a little cassette tape on the end of it. This indicates
that you are recording a macro.

One thing you can’t do with a macro is record mouse movements. If you want
to move your cursor somewhere in your text, you’ll gave to use the arrow keys
on your keyboard. But the movement of the cursor then becomes part of your
macro.

For our macro, because we highlighted the txt before recording, we don’t need to
move the cursor. Whatever we do from now on will becomes part of our macro.
 So click on Format from the menu bar.
 From the drop down menu, click on font
 The font dialogue box appears
 Select Arial as your font
 Select size 16
 Click the OK button on the font dialogue box
 You are returned to your page click the stop button on your floating
Macro recorder
 The macro will stop recording, and the process is finished: you have
recorded the macro

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If you make a mistake during the recording of your macro, and ever thing goes
horrendously and badly wrong, you can abort the recording and try again. To abort
you recording and try again, do the following:

 Click the stop button on your recorder


 Then from the Tools->macro->>Record New macro
 In the Macro name part of the dialogue box the pops up, type in the name of
the macro that went wrong. In our case that would be Font changer.
 Click OK
 Word displays a message box telling you that a macro with that name already
exists. it asks if you want to replace if
 Click Yes
 You are returned to your document, and the recorder is displayed
 You can now try again
 If things go wrong again, repeat these instructions

If nothing went wrong, you will now have a macro, so how o you get at it? To use
your new macro, do the following
 Type in some new text and Highlight is
 Click on Tools from the menu bar
 From the drop down menu, click on macro
 From the sub menu that appears, click on Macros
 This macros dialogue box appears;

Select the Macro that you want, then click the Run button at the top right of the
dialogue box. As you can see, the macro we created is in the list, and already
highlighted. When the Run button is clicked , the dialogue box will disappear,
and the highlighted text will change to Arial, bold 16 points.

You night argue that by clicking on Tools>macro>Macros, and then fiddling


about with the dialogue box is not exactly a shortcut. Surely it’s jut as easy to
click on Format>Font, and make your changes from there?

How to delete a macro:

If suppose you wanted to delete the macro altogether. How do you do that? To
delete a macro, do the following
 Click on Tools from the menu bar
 From the drop down menu, click Macro
 From the sub menu that appears , click on Macros
 The Macros dialogue box appears
 Click on the Macro you want to get rid of
 Click the Delete button , as in the image bellow:

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You will get a Message Box popping up asking if you are sure that you want to delete
the macro. Click yes to get rid of the macro altogether. You can select any macro you
like here, and then delete it. However, be careful what you delete.
And that wraps up this section on Macros. You have seen how to create there simple
macros.
But it’s a big subject, and entire books are written about is.
Example: Modify your tool bar using macro’s
Steps:
 Select the menu bar, click on Tools.
 From the drop down menu click on macro.
 A sub menu appears.
 Click on Record New Macro.

Record Macro dialog box appears. Select keyboard

 Give the new shortcut key in the given box and assign it. After assigning close
it.
 Now record macro is opened. Now you modify your tool bar i.e change font
style, font size, give bold, assign centre…..etc
 Now click on stop recording
 Open new blank document and press your shortcut key
 See your modification on the tool bar.

Create a letter indicating that your college is conducting


a seminar on Mobile computing. Illustrate the usage of
mail merge feature, and this letter has to be mailed to all
the principals of MCA College

Mail Merge:

The process for mail merge in Word 2002 and later is different from previous
versions. To use mail merge in these versions, do the following.
1. Click on the tools item on the menu bar
2. Select Letters and Mailing
3. From the sub menu, select Mail Merge Wizard.

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When you click on Mail Merge Wizard, the following box will appear:

We are going to set up a Letters merge, so click on the letters item to select it .the
click on Next hyperlink text at the bottom

Step 3:

Step three of the wizard is where you set up the people whose names and
addresses will appear on your labels. Click on type a new list, and then click on
create to set up your list of people.

Type the name and address of a person that will appear on your label. Then click
new entry and type details of next person.

When you have typed out all the names and addresses, you save the data. Click
close and word will give the save address list dialogue box:

The type of file will be an MDB file. This is a Microsoft Database file. Once the list is
saved, one can open this up in Microsoft Access. But just save, and all your names
and address will be saved to disk.
When you click save, you get a dialogue box popping up.

This list of all names and address will appear on your letters. If you do not want
somebody to appear, click on check box and the details of that person will not
appear in the Merge.

To sort the list click on a down arrow then click Advanced. Click the Filter and sort
tab at the top:

Step 4:
 Now we have to Insert Merge Fields at the top of the page. After inserting
merge fields now click on the view merged data.
 Now we can see the total address information what we have given.

Step 5:
 Type the letter or invitation what you want to send your recipients.

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 If you want see all the letters then click on edit individual letters here we can
see all letters one by one.

************************************

MS EXCEL

THE EXCEL BASICS:


There are many uses for Excel. Businesses use it for creating
financial reports and budgeting. School administrators can use it for
preparing school budgets. Teachers use it to analyze data about student
performance and adjust their teaching. Scientists use it analyze data.
Economists use it for statistical analysis. Families use it to manage their
investment portfolios. Microsoft Excel is being far the most widely used,
most powerful spreadsheet program available.

These Excel 2003 will introduce you to the Excel "basics." They will cover the
information that would be covered in an introductory course on Microsoft
Excel2003.

EXCEL PROGRAM SCREEN:


When you launch Excel, the program opens to a blank document
that looks like the one below. From this point, you can add data, change
how it looks, have Excel perform mathematical calculations, summarize the
data, or find information in Excel's help files.

The image below shows the most important parts of the Excel
workbook window. Note that it is possible that depending on the way your

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computer is configured, not every toolbar that you see below may look the
same on your machine. You can select the toolbars to view by selecting View
from the Menu Bar and then choosing "Toolbars."

The most basic part of an Excel document is the box that holds a piece
of data, called a cell. A cell is the box represented by the intersection of a
column and a row. Rows are identified by the numbers down the left side
and columns are identified by letters across the top. Each cell is indicated
by a cell reference. For example, in the image below the Active Cell at the
intersection of Column A and Row 1 is given the cell reference of A1.

CREATE WORKSHEET WITH THE DETAILS OF STUDENT


DATABASE:
STEPS:

1. Create an excel worksheet by inserting the field names Roll No.,


Name, Marks, Total, Percentage, Division.

2. Calculate total, percentage, division by using Mathematics and


Logical function.
3. Calculate total marks with the formula as follows: =sum(C4:G4)

4. Calculate percentage with the formula : =sum(H4*100)/500

5. Calculate the division with the formula:

=IF(AND(C4>=35,D4>=35,E4>=35,G4>=35),IF(I4>=75,”DIS
TINCTION”,IF(I4>=70,”FIRST”,IF(I4>=60,”SECOND”,IF(I4>=
50,”THIRD”,”FAIL”)))),”FAIL ”).

OUTPUT:

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CREATE WORKSHEET TO DEMONSTRATE STATISTICAL


FUNCTIONS
STEPS:

1. Create an excel worksheet by inserting the fields sno, value1 to value5, mean,
median, mode, standard deviation.
2. Calculate the mean, median, mode, standard deviation by using statistical
functions.
3. Click on insert button and select function option then it displays the function
dialogue box as follows:

4. Then find the mean, median, mode, standard deviation values for various data
by using statistical functions.

OUTPUT: The worksheet with statistical functions is displayed as follows:

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CREATE WORKSHEET TO DEMONSTRATE SIMPLE SORTING


STEPS:

Create an excel worksheet y inserting field names and the related data.

1. Select data on list that us to be sorted.


2. Click data menu and select the sort option. The sort
dialog box appears.
3. Select the ascending or descending order option in
the sort by section.
4. Click on button.

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OUTPUT:

ILLUSTRATE THE CORRESPONDENCE OF ADDING COMMENTS


TO A CELL IN MS- EXCEL:
STEPS:

1. Create an excel worksheet with various employee fields.


2. Click insert menu and select comment option.
3. It displays comment dialogue box then, in that write what data must be entered for
a particular field.

OUTPUT: Employee fields with comments are displayed as follows.

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CREATE WORKSHEET WITH VARIOUS FIELDS OF EMPLOYEE:


STEPS:

1. create an excel sheet with employee fields like emp name, emp no , basic
pay, T.A, D.A, H.R. A.I T,P.F ,gross pay, net pay.
2. Enter the data related to the fields
3. Calculate the T.A by using formula: = (d5*17.5)/100.
4. Calculate the I.T-P.F.D. a by using the formula: = (d5*35)/100.
5. Calculate the H.RA by using the formula: = (d5*10)/100.
6. Calculate the I.T by using the formula: = (d5*15)/100.
7. Calculate the P.F by using the formula: = (d5*12.5)/100.
8. Calculate the Gross pay by using the formula as follows: =Gross pay= Basic
pay + T.A+D.A+H.R.A.
9. Calculate the net pay by using the formula as follows : net pay = Gross pay-
I.T-P.F.

OUTPUT:

The excel sheet with various employee details is displayed as follows:

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CREATE WORKSHEET ANY CHART USING MS EXCEL:


STEPS:

 For any chart the procedure is the same


Step 1: Select the data in MS Excel go to insert menu bar and click on chart

Step 2: Then Select the chart you want to select like(bar , pie , line area
…etc) then click on next button

Step 3: After selecting the chart enter the range or select the rows or column
then click on next button

Step 4: After entering the range give the title for the chart then click on next
button

Step 5: After giving the title give the alignment that is where the chart
should lie that either left ,right ,top etc. then click on next button

Step 6: after giving the alignment, you now have to give whether you want
the chart on the same sheet or in other sheet.

Step 7: After this step click on finish.

The output will be displayed on the screen as shown below


Step 1: First enter the data as shown below

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Step 2: Select the data as shown

Step 3: When we follow the above procedure the output is shown below

Step 4: The same can be shown in pie chart

MS-POWERPOINT

Create a power point presentation describing about Andhra


Pradesh:

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Create a power point presentation with five slides


describing about your college:

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*************************************

MS-ACCESS
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Create a table product in MS-Access. Create a form to


display the contents of that table:

Step 1: Select start->programs->MS Office->MS-Access.

Step 2: Select file->new->blank database

Step 3: Give a file name and press create button

Step 4: Select the object as Tables.

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Step 5: Select and right click Create table by using wizard. Press Design view

Step 6: Select table name and the corresponding field’s from table wizard. Press
next button

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Step 7: if you want to change the table name change it and set the primary key for
that table. Press the next button.

Step 8: Select enter data directly into the table and click the finish button.

Step 9: Enter the data in to the table.

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Step 10: Select Forms from objects.

Step 12: Select and right click and select Create forms by using wizard. Select
Design view

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Step 13: Add the fields that we want in out form. Click the next button.

Step 14: Select the layout for our form. Click next button

Step 15: Select the style for the form. Click next button.

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Step 16: Select the title for the form. Click finish button.

Output:

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Create a table employee using MS-ACCESS. Create a report


to list the details of the employee table in the order of
employee number.

Step 1: From start menu->programs->MS Office->MS-Access

Step 2: From file menu->new->blank database

Step 3: Give a file name and press Create button.

Step 4: Select and right click create table by using wizard.

Step 5: Select design view

Step 6: From table wizard select the table and the fields that we want. click next
button

Step 7: Give an appropriate name for the table and set the primary key. Click next
button.

Step 8: Select enter data directly in to the table. Click finish button

Step 9: Enter the data that you want to give to the table.

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Step 10: For creating report select report from the dialogue box.

Step 11: Select and right click create report by using wizard.

Step 12: Select design view and add the fields that we want with in the report. Click
next button.

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Step 13: if we want any grouping level, select it. Click the next button

Step 14: Select the field up on which we want to sort the table. Click the next button

Step 15: Select the layout that we want in our report. Click next button

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Step 16: Select the style that we want to give in our report. Click the next button.

Step 17: Select the title that we want to give for our report. Click the finish button.

Output:
We will get the report in the order of employee number.

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HYPERTEXT
MARKUP LANGUAGE
(HTML)
INTRODUCTION:

WebPages are written in HTML - a simple scripting language.

HTML is short for Hypertext Markup Language.

 Hypertext is simply a piece of text that works as a link.

 Markup Language is a way of writing layout information within documents.

Basically, an HTML document is a plain text file that contains text and nothing
else.

When a browser opens an HTML file, the browser will look for HTML codes in the
text and use them to change the layout, insert images, or create links to other
pages.

Since HTML, documents are just text files they can be written in even the simplest
text editor.

The most important benefits are:

We can use tags the editor does not support.

 We can read the code of other people's pages, and "borrow" the cool
effects.

 We can do the work our self, when the editor simply refuses to create the
effects We want.

We can write our HTML by hand with almost any available text editor, including

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notepad that comes as a standard program with Windows.

All We need to do is type in the code, then save the document, making sure to put
an .html extension or an .htm extension to the file (for instance "mypage.html").
Tags:

To tell the browser that an "A" should be bold we need to put a markup in front of
the A.
Such a markup is called a Tag

All HTML tags are enclosed in < and >.

Example: a piece of text as it appears on the screen.

This is an example of bold text.

HTML: the HTML for the above example:


This is an example of <b>bold</b> text.

The start tag <b> indicates that the text should be written in bold. The
corresponding end tag </b> indicates that the browser should stop writing text in
bold.

Example of basic HTML document Structure...

<html>
<head><title>Title goes here</title></head>
<body>Body goes here</body>
</html>

Example of how titles are viewed...

In Microsoft Internet Explorer...

HEAD SECTION
The head section of the webpage includes all the stuff that does not show directly
on the resulting page.

The <title> and </title> tags encapsulate the title of your page. The title is what
shows in the top of your browser window when the page is loaded

BODY SECTION
The body of the document contains all that can be seen when the user loads the
page

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Different aspects of HTML, includes:

 Text
o Formatting
o Resizing
o Layout
o Listing
 Links
o To local pages
o To pages at other sites
o To bookmarks
 Images
o Inserting images (GIF and jpg)
o Adding a link to an image
 Backgrounds
o Colors
o Images
o Fixed Image
 Tables
 Frames
 Forms
 Metatags
 Hexadecimal Colors

Tags

Basic Tags:
Tag Description
<html> Defines an HTML document
<body> Defines the document's body
<h1> to <h6> Defines header 1 to header 6
<hr /> Defines a horizontal rule
<!--> Defines a comment

Head Tags:
Tag Description
<head> Defines information about the document
<title> Defines the document title
<base> Defines a base URL for all the links on a page

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<link> Defines a resource reference


<meta> Defines meta information

Table Tags:
Tag Description
<table> Defines a table
<th> Defines a table header
<tr> Defines a table row
<td> Defines a table cell
<caption> Defines a table caption
<colgroup> Defines groups of table columns
<col> Defines the attribute values for one or more columns in a table
<thead> Defines a table head
<tbody> Defines a table body
<tfoot> Defines a table footer

Example for table tag:

<table border="1">
<tr>
<th>Heading</th>
<th>Another Heading</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>row 1, cell 1</td>
<td>row 1, cell 2</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>row 2, cell 1</td>
<td>row 2, cell 2</td>
</tr>
</table>

How it looks in a browser:

Heading Another Heading


row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2

HTML Headings:

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Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags.

<h1> defines the largest heading. <h6> defines the smallest heading

HTML Paragraphs:

Paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag.

Text Formatting Tags:


Tag Description
<b> Defines bold text
<big> Defines big text
<em> Defines emphasized text
<i> Defines italic text
<small> Defines small text
<strong> Defines strong text
<sub> Defines subscripted text
<sup> Defines superscripted text
<ins> Defines inserted text
<del> Defines deleted text
<s> Deprecated. Use <del> instead
<strike> Deprecated. Use <del> instead
<u> Deprecated. Use styles instead

The Image Tag and the Src Attribute:

In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag.

The <img> tag is empty, which means that it contains attributes only and it has no
closing tag.

To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Src stands for
"source". The value of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display
on your page.

The syntax of defining an image:

<img src="url" />

The Alt Attribute :-

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The alt attribute is used to define an "alternate text" for an image. The
value of the alt attribute is an author-defined text:

<img src="boat.gif" alt="Big Boat" />

The "alt" attribute tells the reader what he or she is missing on a page if the
browser can't load images. The browser will then display the alternate text instead
of the image

HTML Lists:-
There are three types of lists in html
Unordered Lists:
An unordered list is a list of items. The list items are marked with bullets (typically
small black circles).

An unordered list starts with the <ul> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.

<ul>
<li>Coffee</li>
<li>Milk</li>
</ul>

Here is how it looks in a browser:


 Coffee
 Milk

Ordered Lists:

An ordered list is also a list of items. The list items are marked with numbers.

An ordered list starts with the <ol> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.

<ol>
<li>Coffee</li>
<li>Milk</li>
</ol>

Here is how it looks in a browser:


1. Coffee
2. Milk
Definition Lists:

A definition list is not a list of single items. It is a list of items (terms), with a
description of each item (term).

 A definition list starts with a <dl> tag (definition list).

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 Each term starts with a <dt> tag (definition term).
 Each description starts with a <dd> tag (definition description).

<dl>
<dt>Coffee</dt>
<dd>Black hot drink</dd>
<dt>Milk</dt>
<dd>White cold drink</dd>
</dl>
Here is how it looks in a browser:
Coffee
Black hot drink
Milk
White cold drink

List Tags
Tag Description
<ol> Defines an ordered list
<ul> Defines an unordered list
<li> Defines a list item
<dl> Defines a definition list
<dt> Defines a term (an item) in a definition list
<dd> Defines a description of a term in a definition list
<dir> Deprecated. Use <ul> instead
<menu> Deprecated. Use <ul> instead

Frames:
With frames, you can display more than one HTML document in the same browser
window. Each HTML document is called a frame, and each frame is independent of
the others.

The disadvantages of using frames are:

 The web developer must keep track of more HTML documents


 It is difficult to print the entire page

The Frameset Tag:


 The <frameset> tag defines how to divide the window into frames
 Each frameset defines a set of rows or columns
 The values of the rows/columns indicate the amount of screen area each
row/column will occupy

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The Frame Tag:
 The <frame> tag defines what HTML document to put into each frame

In the example below we have a frameset with two columns. The first column is
set to 25% of the width of the browser window. The second column is set to 75% of
the width of the browser window

<frameset cols="25%,75%">
<frame src="frame_a.htm">
<frame src="frame_b.htm">
</frameset>

Anchor Tag:

To name the part of the document, go to the area you want to name, and place <a
name="name_of_area">text</a>, then to call a link to that place from somewhere
else in the document, use <a href="#name_of_area">text</a>
Example:
<a href="#section2">Go To Section 2</a><br>
blah<br>
blah<br>
blah<br>
blah<br>
blah<br>
blah<br>
<a name="section2">Welcome To Section 2!</a>

Go To Section 2
blah
blah
blah
blah
blah

Demonstration of Heading:

<html>
<head>
<title>Heading tags</title></head>
<body>
<center><h1> Aurora college</h1>
<h2> Aurora college</h2>
<h3> Aurora college</h3>
<h4> Aurora college</h4>
<h5> Aurora college</h5>
<h6> Aurora college</h6></center>
</body>
</html>

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Create a HTML page to display various format tags, font


face, font color, back ground color, paragraph, line break,
marquee, inserting image:

<html>
<head><title>Various tags</title></head>
<body bgcolor="pink">
<font face="Courier New" color="blue" size=2>
<p>Hardware consists of all the machinery and equipment in a computer system.
The hardware includes several devices like keyboard, screen, printer, and the
computer or processing device itself</p>
Hardware consists of all the machinery and equipment in a computer
system.<br>The hardware includes several devices like keyboard, screen, printer,
and the computer or processing device itself.
<p><strong>hardware</strong> consist of all the<strike> machinery</strike>
and<b> equipment</b> in a<u> computer</u> system.<br>The
<i>hardware</i>includes<big>several</big>devices.
<marquee><h1><b>Aurora college</b></h1></marquee>
<image width="50%" height="50%" src="C:\Documents and Settings\All
Users\Documents\My Pictures\Sample Pictures\Water lilies.jpg">
</font>
</body>
</html>

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Create a HTML document to display time table using html:

<body>
<table border="05" celpadding="2" cellspacing="2">
<tr>
<th>day</th>
<th>9.10to10.00</th>
<th>10.00to10.50</th>
<th>10.50to11.40</th>
<th>11.40to12.30</th>
<th>12.30to1.10</th>
<th>1.10to2.00</th>
<th>2.00to2.50</th>
<th>2.50to3.40</th>
<th>3.40to4.30</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>mon</td>
<td>C++</td>
<td>MEA</td>
<td>P&S</td>
<td>DM</td>
<th rowspan="6">lunch break</th>
<th colspan="4">C++ lab&EIT lab</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>tue</td>
<td>DM</td>
<td>C++</td>

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<td>EIT</td>
<td>P&S</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>wen</td>
<td>C++</td>
<td>EIT</td>
<td>P&S</td>
<td>DM</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>thu</td>
<td>C++</td>
<td>MEA</td>
<td>DM</td>
<td>P&S</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>
<td>&nbsp</td>

</tr>
<tr>
<td>fri</td>
<td>EIT</td>
<td>MEA</td>
<td>DM</td>
<td>C++</td>
<th colspan="6">EIT lab&c++ lab</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>sat</td>
<td>EIT</td>
<td>P&S</td>
<th colspan="2">Seminars</th>
<th colspan="6">extra lab</th>
</tr>
</body>
</html>

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Create HTML document to illustrate the Frame tags:


<html>
<frameset rows="33%,33%,33%">
<frameset cols="50%,50%">
<frame src="file1.html" marginheight=30 marginwidth=10>
<frame src="file2.html">
</frameset>
<frameset cols="50%,50%">
<frame src="file3.html">
<frame src="file4.html">
</frameset>
<frame src="file5.html">
</frameset>
</html>
Source code of “file1.html” File:
<html>
<head>
<title>Frame1</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font size=5>file '1'</font><br>
<I>"<u>first Frame Window</u>"</I></h1>
</body>
</html>

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Source code of “file2.html” File:

<html>
<head>
<title>Frame2</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font size=5>file '1'</font><br>
<I>"<u>Second Frame Window</u>"</I></h1>
</body>
</html>

Source code of “file3.html” File:

<html>
<head>
<title>Frame3</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font size=5>file '1'</font><br>
<I>"<u>Third Frame Window</u>"</I></h1>
</body>
</html>
Source code of “file4.html” File:
<html>
<head>
<title>Frame4</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font size=5>file '4'</font><br>
<I>"<u>Fourth Frame Window</u>"</I></h1>
</body>
</html>

Source code of “file5.html” File:

<html>
<head>
<title>Frame5</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1><center>This is:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font size=5>file
'5'</font><br> <I>"<u>Fifth Frame Window</u>"</I></center></h1>
</body>
</html>

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Output:

**************************

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LINUX
Alias - COMMAND:
“alias” Command allows you to Create a Shortcut to a Command. As the
name indicates, you can set ‘alias name’ for the commands/paths which is
too longer to Remember.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is:
alias [options] [ Alias Name = String ]]

OPTIONS:
-a = Removes all alias definitions from the current shell execution
Environment.
-p = Prints the list of aliases in the form alias name=value on
standard output.
Example:
1. To Create a Shortcut Temporarily:
lias lhost=”cd/var/www/html”
This Command will set I host to -> “cd/var/www/html”.
Now I you type home it will take you to the specified
folder/directory.
2. To Create a Shortcut Permanently:
You can put your aliases into the /home/user/.bashrc file. It is good
to add them at the end of the file.
alias home=’cd/var/www/html/hscripts/linux-commands’
Now if you type home it will take you to the specified
folder/directory.
3. To Create a Shortcut for a Command:
alias c=’clear’
This command will set c to clear.
Now if you type c it will clear the screen.

2. banner - COMMAND:
SYNTAX:
banner <argument>
It displays the argument in large banner form in the screen. It does not work
in Linux.
3. bc - COMMAND:

bc command is used for command line calculator. It is similar to basic


calculator. By using which we can do basic mathematical calculations.
SYNTAX:

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The Syntax is : bc [options]
OPTIONS:
-c = Compile only. The output is dc Commands that are sent to
the standard output.
-l = Define the math functions and initialize scale to 20,
instead of the default zero.
filename = Name of the file that contains the basic calculator
commands to be calculated this is not a necessary command.
4. bg COMMAND:

bg command is used to place a job in background. User can run a job in


the background by adding a “&” symbol at end of the command.
SYNTAX:

The Syntax is: bg [options] [job]


OPTIONS:
-l -> Report the process group ID and working directory of the
jobs.
-p -> Report only the process group ID of the jobs.
-x -> process group ID, then execute command passing it
arguments.
job -> Specifies the job that want to run in the background.

5. cal COMMAND:
cal command is used to display the calendar.
SYNTAX:

The Syntax is : cal [options] [month] [year]


OPTIONS:
o -1 -> Displays single month as output.
o -3 -> Displays prev/current/next month output.
o -s -> Displays Sunday as the first day of the week.
o -m -> Displays Monday as the first day of the week.
o -j -> Displays Julian dates (days one-based, numbered from
January 1).
o -y -> Displays a calendar for the current year.
6. cat COMMAND:
Cat Linux command concatenates files and print it on the standard
Output.
SYNTAX:

The Syntax is: cat [OPTIONS] [FILE]…


OPTIONS:
-A -> Show all.
-b -> Omits line numbers for blank space in the output.

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-e -> A $ character will be printed at the end of each line prior to a
new line.
-E -> Displays a $ (dollar sign) at the end of each line.
-n -> Line numbers for all the output lines.
-s -> If the output has multiple empty lines it replaces it with one
empty line.
-T -> Displays the tab characters in the output.
7. cc COMMAND (cc means c compiler) :
 it compiles the c program and creates a binary or output file normally
its output file is a. out. This can be changed with help of “–o” option
with cc command.
Syntax: cc <c filename>

8. cd COMMAND:
 cd command is used to change the directory.
SYNTAX:

The Syntax is : cd [directory | ./ | ../ | -]


OPTIONS:
-L -> Use the physical directory structure.
-P -> Forces symbolic links.
9. chgrp COMMAND:
 chgrp command is used to change the group of the file or directory.
This is an admin command. Root user only can change the group of
the file or directory.
SYNTAX:

The Syntax is: chfrp [options] newgroup filename/directoryname


OPTIONS:
-R -> Change the permission on files that are in the subdirectories of the
directory that you are currently in.
-c -> Change the permission for each file.
-f -> Force. Do not report errors.
 EXAMPLE:
1. Chgrp hiox test.txt (The group of ‘test.txt’ file is root, Change to new
group hiox.)
10. chmod COMMAND:
 chmod command allows you to Alter / Change access rights to files
and directories.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: chmod [options] [MODE] Filename
File Permission:
 # -> File Permission
 0 -> none
 1 -> execute only

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 2 -> write only
 3 -> write and execute
 4 -> read only
 5 -> read and execute
 6 -> read and write
 7 -> set all permissions
OPTIONS:
 -c -> Displays names of only those files whose permissions are being
changed.
 -f -> Suppress most error messages.
 -R -> Change files and directories recursively.
 -v -> Output version information and exit.
 EXAMPLE:
1. To make a file readable and writable by the group and others.
chmod 066 file1.txt
2. To allow everyone to read, write, and execute the file
chmod 777 file.txt
11. chown COMMAND:
 chown command is used to change the owner/user of the file or
directory. This is and admin command, root user only can change the
owner of a file or directory.
SYNTAX:

The Syntax is: chown [options]new ownerfilename/directory name


OPTIONS:
 -R -> Change the permission on files that are in the subdirectories of the
directory that you are currently in.
 -c -> Change the permission for each file.
 -f -> Prevents chown from displaying error messages when it is unable to
change the ownership of a file.
 EXAMPLE:
1. chown hiox test.txt
The owner of the “test.txt” file is root, Change to new user hiox.
2. chown –R hiox test
The owner of the “test” directory is root, With –R option the files and
subdirectories user also gets changed.
12. clear COMMAMD:
 This command clears the terminal screen.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: clear
13. cmp COMMAND:
 cmp linux command compares two files and tells you which line
numbers are different.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: cmp [options…] file1 file2

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OPTIONS:
 -c -> Output differing bytes as Characters.
 -l -> Print the byte number (decimal) and the differing byte values
(octal) for each difference.
 -s -> Prints nothing for differing files, return exit status only.
 EXAMPLE:
 Compare two files:
cmp file1 file2
 The above cmp command compares file1.php with file2.php and
results as follows.

file1.php file2.php differ: byte 35, line 3

14. cp COMMAND:
 cp command copy files from one location to another. If the
destination is an existing file, then the file is overwritten; if the
destination is an existing directory, the file is copied into the
directory (the directory is not overwritten).
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is
1. cp [OPTIONS]… SOURCE DEST
2. cp [OPTIONS]… SOURCE… DIRECTORY
3. cp [OPTIONS]… --target-directory=DIRECTORY SOURCE…
OPTIONS:
 -a -> same as –dpR.
 --backup[=CONTROL] -> Make a backup of each existing destination file.
 -b -> like –-backup but does not accept an argument.
 -f -> if an existing destination file cannot be opened, Remove it and try
again.
 -p -> same as –preserve=mode, ownership, timestamps.
 -- ->preserve the specified attributes (default: Preserve[ATTR_LIST]
mode, ownership, timestamps)and security contexts, if possible
additional attributes: links, all.
 preserve=ATTR_LIST -> don’t preserve the specified attribute.
 --parents -> append source path to DIRECTORY.
 EXAMPLE:
1. copy two files:
cp file1 file2
 The above cp command copies the content of file1.php to file2.php.
15. chfn COMMAND- Change your finger information:
SYNOPSIS:
 chfn [-f full-name] [-o office] [-p office-phone] [-h home-phone][-u]
[-v] [username]
DESCRIPTION:
 chfn is used to change your finger information. This information is
stored in the /etc/passwd file, and is displayed by the “finger”

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program. The Linux “finger” command will display four pieces of
information that can be changed by chfn: your real name, your work
room and phone, and your home phone.
COMMAND LINE:
 Any of the four pieces of information can be specified on the
command line. If no information is given in the command line, chfn
enters interactive mode.
INTERACTIVE MODE:
 In Interactive mode, chfn will prompt for each field. At a prompt,
you can enter the new information, or just press return to leave the
field unchanged. Enter the keyword “none” to make the field blank.
 OPTIONS:
 -f, --full-name -> specify your real name.
 -o, --office -> Specify your room phone number.
 -p, --office-phone -> Specify your office phone number.
 -h, --home-phone -> Specify your home phone number.
 -u, --help -> Print a usage message and exit.
 -v, --version -> Print version information and exit.
16. date COMMAND:
 date command prints the date and time.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: date [options] [+format] [date]

OPTIONS:
 -a -> Slowly adjust the time by sss.fff seconds (fff represents
fractions of a second).
This adjustment can be positive or negative. Only system
admin/ super user can adjust the time.
- sets the time and date to the value specified in the date string.

sdate- -> datestr may contain the month names, time zones, ‘am’,
‘pm’, etc.
 -u -> Display (or set) the date in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT-
universal time).
FORMAT:
 %a -> Abbreviated weekday (Tue).
 %A -> Full weekday (Tuesday).
 %b -> Abbreviated month name (Jan).
 %B -> Full Month Name (January).
 %c -> Country-specific date and time format.
 %D -> Date in the format %m/%d/%y.
 %j -> Julian day of year (001-366).
 %n -> Insert a new line.
 %p -> String to indicate a.m. or p.m.

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 %T -> Time in the format %H: %M: %S.
 %t -> Tab space.
 %v -> Week number in year (o1-52); start week in Monday.
EXAMPLE:

date command
date (The above command will print Fri Dec 17 10:52:34 IST 2009)
17. df COMMAND:
 df command is used to report how much free disk space is available
for each mount you have.
 The first column show the name of the disk partition as it appears in
the /dev directory.
 Subsequent columns show total space, blocks allocated and blocks
available.
SYNTAX:

The Syntax is: df [options]


OPTIONS:
 -a -> Include dummy file systems.
 -h -> Print sizes in human readable format. (e.g., 1k 234m 2g)
 -i -> List inode information instead of block usage.
 -l -> Limit listing to local file systems.
 -P -> use the POSIX output format.
 -T -> Print file system type.
 EXAMPLE:
1. df
output:
File system 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/Volgroup00-LogVol00
150263916 14440324 128067408 11% /
/dev/sda1 101086 10896 84971 12% /boot
tmpfs 253336 0 253336 0% /dev/shm
In the above output:
/dev/mapper/volGroup00-LogVol00 -> Specifies File System.
/dev/sda1 -> Specifies File System.
tmpfs -> Specifies File System.
Prints default format.
18. du COMMAND:
 du command is used to report how much disk space a file or directory
occupies.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: du [options] directories
OPTIONS:
 -a -> Displays the usage of space that each file is taking up.
 -k -> Write the files size in units of 1024 bytes, rather than the
default 512 –byte units.

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 -s -> Instead of the default output, report only the total sum for each
of the specified files.
 -L -> Process symbolic links by using the file or directory which the
symbolic link references, rather than the link itself.
 -x -> when evaluating file sizes, evaluate only those files that have
the same device as the file specified by the file operand.
 EXAMPLE:
1. du –a images
Output:
12 images/chiru.jpg
20 images/pavan.jpg
76 images/nag.jpg
12 images/charan.gif
112 images/pinky.bmp
Displays the size of each file in the specified directory.

19. diff COMMAND:


 diff command is used to find differences between two files.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: diff [options..] from-file to-file
20. dir COMMAND:
 Link DOS it works in Linux environment showing the list of directories
and files in a sorted manner in the current directory.
21. display COMMAND:
 display [options…] file [options…]file
DESCRIPTION:
 display is a machine architecture independent image processing and
display program. It can display an image on amy workstation screen
running an X server. display can read and write many of the more
popular image formats (e.g. JPEG, PNM, TIFF, Photo cd, etc..,)
with display, you can perform these functions on an image:
 load an image from a file
 display a sequence of images as a slide show
 write the image to a file
 delete the image file
 copy & paste a region of the image
 resize the image
22. echo COMMAND:
 echo command prints the given input string to standard output.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: echo [options..] [string]
OPTIONS:
 -n -> do not output the trailing new line
 -e -> enable interpretation of the backslash-escaped characters listed
below
 -E -> disable interpretation of those sequences in STRINGS

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 EXAMPLE:
echo command
echo “hscipts Hiox India”
The above command will print as hscripts Hiox India
23. exit COMMAND:
 Allows you to exit from a program, shell or log you out of a Unix
network.
SYNTAX:
exit
Examples:
Exit -> If supported would exit you from the program; shell of log you out
of network.
24. fg COMMAND:
 fg command is used to place a job in foreground.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: fg [specify job]
OPTIONS:
 There is no options for fg command.
 EXAMPLE:
1. To move a process in foreground:
Lets start some three jobs and suspend those running process in
background.
kmail- start the email client application.
Press “ctrl+z” to stop the current job.
xmms- music player application.
Press “ctr+z” to stop the current job.
sleep 120- a dummy job.
Press “ctrl+z” to stop the current job.
The above command will display the jobs in the shell.
[1] Stopped kmail
[2]- Stopped xmail
[3]+Stopped sleep 120
fg 1
The above command will run the kmail application process in
foreground.
25. file COMMAND:
 file command tells you if the object you are looking at is a file or a
directory.
SYNTAX:
file [options] directory name/filename
OPTIONS:
 -c -> check the magic file for format errors. For reasons of
efficiency, this validation is normally not carried out.
 -h -> do not follow symbolic links.
 -m -> use mfile as an alternate magic file.
 -f -> ffile contains a list of the files to be examined.
 EXAMPLE:

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1. file *.txt
Output:
aprlist.txt: ASCII English text
cal.txt: ASCII text
marchlist.txt: ASCII text
text.txt: ASCII text
prints the ASCII text

26. find COMMAND:


 find command finds one or more files assuming that you know their
approximate filenames.
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: find path [options]
OPTIONS:
 -name -> it search for the given file, in the current directory or any
other subdirectory.
 EXAMPLE:
1. find –name ‘cal.txt’
the system would search for any file named ‘cal.txt’ in the current
directory and any subdirectory.
27. finger COMMAND:
 finger command displays the user’s login name, real name, terminal
name and write status (as a “*” after the terminal name if write
permission is denied), idle time, login time office location and office
phone number..
SYNTAX:
The Syntax is: finger [-lmsp] [user…] [user@host…]
OPTIONS:
 -l -> prints all the information described by “–s” option and also
the user’s home directory, home phone number, login shell, mail
status, and the contents of the files “.plan”, “.project”,
“.pgpkey”, and “.forward” from the users home directory.
 -m -> match arguments only on user name (not first or last name).
 -p -> Suppress the printing format of –l, it will not display the
contents of “.plan”, “.project”, and “.pgkey” files.
 -s -> prints the output in short format.
 EXAMPLE:
1. To print the user information in short format:
finger –s hiox
Login Name Tty Idle Ligin Time Office Office Phone
HIOX HIOX INDIA *:0 dec 14 09:07
HIOX HIOX INDIA *pts/0 9 dec 14 09:08
HIOX HIOX INDIA *pts/1 1:29 dec 14 09:12

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finger command prints the user information as user’s login name, real
name, terminal name and write status, idle time, login name, office
location and office phone number.
28. ftp COMMAND:
ftp [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME]
 Transfer files to and from remote network site hostname. ftp prompts
the user for a command. The command is listed after the option. Some of
the commands are toggles, meaning they turn on a feature when it is off
and vice versa. Note that versions may have different options.
OPTIONS
 -d = Enable debugging.
 -g = Disable file name globing.
 -i = Turn off interactive prompting.
 -n = No auto login up to initial connection.
 -v = Verbose. Show all response from remote server.
29. Is COMMAND:
 Is command lists the files and directories under current working
directory.
SYNTAX:
The syntax is: Is [OPTIONS]…[FILE]
OPTIONS
 -l -> lists all the files, directories and their mode, number of links,
owner of the file, file size, modified date and time and file name.
 -t -> lists in order of last modification time.
 -a -> lists all the entries including hidden files.
 -d -> lists directory files instead of contents.
 -p -> puts slash at the end of each directory.
 -u -> list in order of last access time.
 -i -> display inode information.
 -ltr -> list files order by date.
 -lsr -> list the files order by file size.

 EXAMPLE:
1. Display root directory contents:
Is / : List the contents of root directory.
2. Display hidden files and directories: Is -a
Lists all entries including hidden files and directories.
30. man COMMANDS:
 man command which is short for manual. It provides in depth
information about the requested command (or) allows users to search for
command related to a particular keyword.
SYNTAX:
The syntax is: man command name [OPTIONS]
EXAMPLE:

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1. man mkdir : display the information about mkdir command.
31. mkdir COMMAND:
 mkdir command is used to create one or more directory.
SYNTAX:

The syntax is: mkdir [OPTION] directories


EXAMPLE:

Create directory:
mkdir test : the command is used for create the directory
“test”.
32. more COMMAND:
 more command is used to display text in terminal screen. It allows
only backward movement.
SYNTAX:

The syntax is: more [OPTION] filename


OPTIONS:
 -c = clear screen before displaying
 -e = exit immediately after writing the last line of the last file in the
argument list.
 -n = specify how many lines are printed in the screen for a given file.
 +n = starts up the file from the given number.
 EXAMPLE:
1. more –c index.php
clear the screen before printing the file.
33. mv COMMAND:
 mv command which is short for move . this command is used for
move/rename file from one directory to another. mv command is
different from cp command as it completely removes the file from the
source and moves to the directory specified, where cp command just
copies the content from one file to another.
SYNTAX:

The syntax is: mv [-f][-i] old name new name


EXAMPLE:
1. to rename/move a file
mv file1.txt file2.txt
this command renames file1.txt as file2.txt
2. to move multiple files/more files into another directory
mv file.txt tmp/file2.txt newdir
this command moves the files file1.txt from the current directory and
file2.txt from the tmp folder/directory to newdir.

34. passwd COMMAND:


 passwd command is used to change your password

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SYNTAX:
The syntax is: passwd [OPTION]
EXAMPLE:
1. passwd
entering just passwd would allow you to change the password . after
entering passwd you will receive the following three prompts:
 current password:
 new password:
 confirm password:
 each of these prompt must be entered correctly for the password
to be successfully changed.

35. pwd COMMAND:


 pwd – print working directory. pwd command prints the full filename of
the current working directory.
SYNTAX:
The syntax is: pwd[OPTIONS]
 EXAMPLE:
Displays the current working directory.
pwd
 if you are working in a home directory then, pwd command
displays the current working directory as /home.
36. rm COMMAND:
 rm linux command is used to remove /delete the file from the directory.
SYNTAX:

The syntax is: rm [OPTION..][FILE| DIRECTORY]


EXAMPLE:
To remove /delete a file:
rm file1.txt
 here the rm command will remove /delete the file file1.txt
37. rmdir COMMAND:
 rmdir command is used to remove/delete a directory and its sub
directories
SYNTAX:
The syntax is: mrdir [OPTION..] directory
EXAMPLE:

To remove/delete a directory
rmdir tmp
 rmdir command will remove/delete the directory tmp if the
directory is empty.

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38. vi COMMAND:
 This “vi” tutorial is intended for those who wish to master and advance
their skills beyond the basic feature of the basic editor. It cvers buffer,
“vi” command line instructor, interfacing with UNIX command, and c
tags. The vim editor is an enhanced version of “vi”. The improvements
are clearly noticed in handling the tags.
 The advance of learning “vi” and learning it well is that one will find
“vi” on all unix based system and it does not consume an inordinate
amount of system resources. “vi” works great over slow network ppp
modem connections and on system of limited resources. One can
completely utilize “vi” without departing a single finger from the
keyboard.
39. who COMMAND:
 who command can list the names of the users currently logged in, their
terminal, the time they been logged in, and the name of the host from
which they have logged in.
SYNTAX:

The syntax is: who [OPTIONS][FILE]


OPTIONS:
 am i: print the user name of the invoking user, the ‘am’ and ‘i’
must be space separated.
 EXAMPLE:
1. who -uh
OUTPUT:

Name line time idle pid comment


Hiox ttp3 jul 10 11:08 . 4578
 This sample output was produced at 11 am. The “ . ” indicates
activity within the last minute.
2. Who am i
OUTPUT:
who am i command prints the user name.

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