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Dual-Inverter Drive Systems for Electric Vehicles

Jinseok Hong, Student Member, IEEE, Heekwang Lee, Student Member, IEEE, and Kwanghee Nam, Member, IEEE

Abstract—A dual-inverter with an open-end winding motor con- high efficiency in a high-speed region. In [10]–[15], an mo-

figuration is an attractive method to supply a higher voltage to a tor control scheme for a dual-inverter with a floating capacitor

motor for electric vehicle (EV) applications. A topology utilizing bridge has been developed. However, this scheme provides only

two isolated dc sources is considered to reap the advantages of re-

liability and high voltage. Although this design may require two a reactive voltage component from the secondary inverter to

battery chargers, in this study, the use of only one charger to a the motor. Welchko [16] suggested unity power factor control,

main battery was considered. The central issue is to charge the voltage quadrature control, and an optimum inverter utilization

secondary battery from the main battery via the motor, whether control for a dual-inverter with two isolated dc sources. Rossi

it is at a standstill or running. The inverter voltage margin re- et al. [17], [18] proposed a series hybrid power trains based on an

maining after motor torque production determines the charging

capacity. The unity-power-factor operation is shown to be useful open-winding machine drive. An open-end winding permanent-

to maximize the charging power. Simulations and experiments are magnet (PM) generator was coupled to an internal combustion

presented that show the validity of the proposed scheme. engine (ICE), and the generated power was split into two iso-

Index Terms—Battery charging, dual-inverter, electric vehicle lated dc buses through individual rectifiers.

(EV), interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), Two popular topologies for the dual-inverter drive system are

open-end winding machine, unity-power-Factor (UPF). shown in Fig. 1 with the corresponding voltage vector hexagons.

In Fig. 1(a), two dc links are connected to a single voltage source.

However, two separate voltage sources are utilized in Fig. 1(b).

I. INTRODUCTION Note in the case of a single voltage source that a substantial

HE propulsion motors for electric vehicles (EVs) are char- amount of a triplen harmonic current is caused by a triplen

T acterized by high power densities and wide operating

ranges. The two issues are not separate because the high-speed

harmonic voltage. For this reason, many research efforts in the

field of open-winding motor drives have been spent on pulse

capability is necessary to increase the power density [1]. How- width modulation (PWM) techniques to suppress the triplen

ever, high-speed operation requires a high dc link voltage, as the harmonic current [19]–[26]. Nevertheless, a triplen harmonic

back electromotive force (EMF) grows linearly with the speed. current does not occur, even in the presence of a triplen harmonic

However, a high voltage is not favorable for a battery because voltage if the voltage sources are separated as shown in Fig. 1(b).

the cell balancing pays a penalty for battery efficiency. To ac- The triplen harmonic current is nothing but a common mode

commodate a high voltage, some vehicles, such as the Toyota (zero sequence) current in the motor, which is normally harmful,

Prius, are utilizing a boost converter in the inverter dc link. causing additional copper loss and core saturation. Fig. 1(c)

The Z-source inverter [2] provides another means to increase shows the PWM hexagons constituted by the two sets of inverter

the inverter output voltage without using a separate boosting switch configurations. The switch configurations corresponding

stage. The Z-source inverter, however, requires two bulky ca- to points G, I, K, M, P, and R produce common mode voltages

pacitors and inductors, and the boosting ratio is limited by the in Fig. 1(a). Because they cannot be used, the feasible region is

output voltage and shoot-through zero state. reduced to a small hexagon, HJLNQS, with solid lines.

A dual-inverter with an open-end winding motor configu- Two insulated dc supplies inherently eliminate the common-

ration is one method to supply a higher voltage to the ma- mode voltage and current [27]–[29], thereby no limitation is

chine [3]–[9]. Typically, two inverters are connected to both imposed on PWM switching, i.e., all of the space-vector com-

terminals of an open-end winding motor. Though it requires binations can be utilized, and the PWM region is represented

six additional switches, the increased voltage output leads to by the dotted hexagon, GIKMPR. Furthermore, this topology

offers a highly reliable solution. In fact, in case of a fault in

one inverter, its output terminals can be short-circuited, and the

system can operate using a healthy inverter as a standard three-

Manuscript received November 5, 2013; revised February 12, 2014; phase two-level inverter [30]. However, the main drawback is

accepted March 7, 2014. Date of publication March 17, 2014; date of current that this topology needs two isolated dc power sources and may

version October 7, 2014. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor require two sets of battery chargers if it is applied to an electric

S. Williamson.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Pohang vehicle (EV) or a hybrid EV.

University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea (e-mail: jinsuk00@ In this study, we focus on the EV application of a dual source

postech.ac.kr; draco@postech.ac.kr; kwnam@postech.ac.kr). inverter and consider using one charger for the dual source in-

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. verters. In this proposed scheme, only Battery 1 is charged by an

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2312194 external charger. Battery 2 is charged via Inverters 1 and 2 from

0885-8993 © 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

910 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

(a)

(c)

(b)

Fig. 1. Configuration of dual-inverter system (a) single voltage source, (b) isolated dual voltage source, and (c) corresponding voltage vector hexagon.

Battery 1. The charging algorithms differ based on the motor a separate dc voltage source, as shown in Fig. 1(b). Because it

operation status: at standstill, running under a base speed, and carries two isolated batteries, we may need two separate chargers

running over a base speed in the field-weakening region. This or may need to charge the batteries individually. Using two

paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the open-end wind- chargers is an obvious drawback in EVs from the perspectives

ing interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) of cost, convenience, and weight management. We assume that

model is developed, and the power flow of the dual-inverter sys- only one battery (Battery 1) is charged from the grid at a station

tem is discussed. In Section III, the proposed battery charging or at home. Table I compares the advantages of charge methods.

methods and algorithms are illustrated at various running con- Obviously, additional cost and weight should be paid to the

ditions. Finally, the proposed charging algorithms are verified two charger system. The charging efficiency of the two charger

through simulation and experiments in Sections IV and V. system would be better because it does not include the motor

in the charging path. Thus, the iron and copper losses of the

motor can be avoided. Note that users may get bothered more

II. OPEN-END WINDING MOTOR MODEL WITH TWO

by the two charger method, since it requires two connections

SEPARATE INVERTERS

each charging time.

EV propulsion motors are required to run at a high speed be- Further, we may regard Battery 1 to have a larger energy

cause most EVs use fixed reduction gears. At the same time, the capacity than Battery 2, and consider Battery 2 as an auxiliary

zero-speed torque should be sufficiently high to start the vehicle battery. In this study, we consider charging methods of Battery

on a slope. A high-torque machine, having a high back EMF 2 from the precharged battery (Battery 1) when the motor is at

constant, requires a large dc link voltage as the speed increases. a standstill or running.

However, the battery voltage cannot be easily increased owing

to the efficiency issue in the series cell connection. A. Dynamic Model of Dual-Inverter System

To make a high-voltage battery pack, battery cells are usu-

ally connected in parallel and in series. Overcharging, as well In the dual-inverter system, two inverters are connected at

as overdischarging, causes lithium-ion batteries an irreversible both ends of the stator windings. It follows from Fig. 1(b) that

damage. In a serially connected battery stack, the discharging, as the voltage equations for a dual-inverter system are expressed

well as the charging, process has to be stopped immediately as as

soon as one of the terminal cell voltages fall below the discharge d

vaa = Rs ias + λaa (1)

voltage limit or exceeds the charging voltage limit [31]. As the dt

voltage level increases, the complexity of a battery management d

system (BMS) increases correspondingly, and the battery sys- vbb = Rs ibs + λbb (2)

dt

tem efficiency decreases because the voltage balancing normally

d

fits each cell voltage to a minimum level by burning away the vcc = Rs ics + λcc (3)

excess voltages of the other cells. dt

The dual-inverter topology offers a method of increasing the where vaa , vbb , and vcc are the motor phase voltages;

voltage to the motor, as was indicated in [3], [27], [28], and [29]. λaa , λbb , and λcc are the flux linkages of the a-, b-, and

Throughout the paper, we consider the dual-inverter system with c-phase stator windings, respectively; and Rs is the stator

HONG et al.: CHARGING METHOD FOR THE SECONDARY BATTERY IN DUAL-INVERTER DRIVE SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES 911

TABLE I

ADVANTAGE/DISADVANTAGE OF ONE CHARGER METHOD AGAINST TWO CHARGER METHOD

resistance. Note that resulted from the current polarity. Therefore, the motor power

is equal to

vaa = vao − va o + voo (4)

3 3

vbb = vbo − vb o + voo (5) Pm ot = [(vd1 −vd2 )id +(vq 1 − vq 2 )iq ] = (vdm id + vq m iq ).

2 2

(12)

vcc = vco − vc o + voo (6)

where vao , vbo , and vco are the pole voltages of Inverter 1, III. BATTERY CHARGING METHODS FOR

va o , vb o , and vc o are the pole voltages of Inverter 2, and DUAL-INVERTER SYSTEM

voo is the voltage difference between the dc link center taps of Battery 2 is an auxiliary battery that can be used as an assistant

Inverters 1 and 2. Thus, adding up (1), (2), and (3), we have voltage source when a high voltage is necessary for a motor

(vao + vbo + vco ) − (va o + vb o + vc o ) + 3voo operation. In the low-speed range, Battery 1 acts as the main

power source, and Battery 2 is shut down by setting a 0 or 7

d

= Rs (ias + ibs + ics ) + (λaa + λbb + λcc ). (7) vector at Inverter 2. At a high speed, Inverter 2 contributes to

dt increasing the supply voltage to the motor in series with Inverter

Assume that the terminal voltages of Inverters 1 and 2 are 1. Hence, the use of Battery 2 is not continuous but intermittent.

symmetrical such that vao + vbo + vco = 0, and va o + vb o + Whenever the voltage level is low, it needs to be charged for

vc o = 0. Then, it follows that ias + ibs + ics = 0 and λaa + later operation. First, we consider a method of charging Battery

λbb + λcc = 0 owing to the impedance symmetry of the motor. 2 when the motor is under 1) the stationary state, 2) low-speed

Thus, it follows that voo = 0, i.e., o and o are virtually equipo- operation, and 3) high-speed operation.

tential. It is assumed here that the motor is an IPMSM. In the

synchronous reference frame, we have A. Charging Method at Standstill

did At a standstill, only the d-axis current is utilized for charging

vdm vd1 − vd2 = Rs id + Ld − ωe Lq iq (8)

dt while letting the q-axis current be regulated to zero. Because

diq no torque is produced with the d-axis current, the rotor remains

vq m vq 1 − vq 2 = Rs iq + Lq + ωe Ld id + ωe ψm (9) fixed at a point. Note that, on the other hand, the positive d-axis

dt

current may saturate the motor core, leading to a decrease in

where vdm , vq m , id , iq , Ld , and Lq are the d- and q-axis

inductance. However, a small decrease in inductance is not a

voltages, currents, and inductances of the motor, respectively;

problem in the charging mode. Furthermore, a positive d-axis

vd1 , vq 1 , vd2 , and vq 2 are the d- and q-axis voltages of Inverters

current does not cause a PM demagnetization.

1 and 2, respectively; ωe is the electrical angular frequency; ψm

Because iq = 0 and ωe = 0, it follows from (8) and (9) that

is the rotor linkage flux.

Based on (8) and (9), we obtain an equivalent circuit for the did

vsm = (vdm , vq m ) = (vd1 − vd2 , 0) = (Rs id + Ld , 0).

dual-inverter system as shown in Fig. 2. Note that the volt- dt

age sources representing Inverters 1 and 2 appear in a series (13)

connection. Fig. 3 shows a corresponding equivalent circuit and a vector

The power delivered to the motor from each inverter can be diagram.

written as Note that the maximum inverter terminal voltage that Inverter

2 can generate is vd2 = √13 Vbat2 because the dc link voltage is

3

PI n v 1 = (vd1 id + vq 1 iq ) (10) equal to the battery voltage. Then, it follows from the power

2

relation between Inverter 2 and Battery 2 that

3

PI n v 2 = − (vd2 id + vq 2 iq ) (11) 3 3 Vbat2

2 Vbat2 Ibat2 = vd2 id = √ id . (14)

2 2 3

where the subscripts Inv1 and Inv2 represent Inverters 1 and

2, respectively. It should be noted that the minus sign in (11) Therefore, we have id = √2 Ibat2 .

3

912 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

(a) (b)

Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit of dual-inverter system in a synchronous reference frame: (a) d-axis and (b) q-axis.

Fig. 3. (a) Equivalent circuit and (b) vector diagram for standstill operation of dual-inverter system.

BMS, which monitors the battery state of charge, temperature,

and other variables. For fast charging, Battery 2 is charged in

c

a constant-current mode, and we denote by Ibat2 the allowed

charging current of Battery 2. Then, the d-axis current command

should be chosen as

2 c

i∗d = √ Ibat2 . (15)

3

Utilizing a proportional-integral (PI) controller to the system

(13), we obtain

Fig. 5. Motor voltage vector with the voltage limit and a pair of v s1 and v s2

Ki

vd1 = vd2 + Kp + (i∗d − id ) for unity power factor operation at a low speed.

s

Vbat2 Ki

= √ + Kp + (i∗d − id ) (16) given torque. If there remains a voltage margin for Inverter 1, it

3 s will be used for charging Battery 2.

where Kp and Ki are the proportional and integral gains, In the steady state, the voltage equation for the motor is

respectively. written as

Fig. 4 shows the control scheme for the standstill charging. A vd1 = −ωe Lq iq + vd2 (17)

PI controller is constructed for Inverter 1 with the current com-

√

mands, (15) and i∗q = 0. For Inverter 2, we set vd2 = Vbat2 / 3 vq 1 = ωe Ld id + ωe ψm + vq 2 . (18)

and vq 2 = 0.

The voltage vector, vsm = (−ωe Lq iq , ωe Ld id + ωe ψm ) for the

motor is depicted with a voltage limit curve in Fig. 5. Because

B. Charging Method in Low-Speed Operation

the motor is not operating at high speed, vsm does not hit the

There are numerous ways of charging Battery 2 while the voltage limit, thereby we have numerous choices for Inverter 2

motor is running below a base speed. It is assumed here that voltages vs2 . Several pairs of vs1 and vs2 are drawn in Fig. 5.

the primary task is to produce a desired shaft torque. Hence, It is necessary to consider which vs2 is the most appropriate for

the main job of Inverter 1 is to generate the motor current for a charging Battery 2. This needs to be determined based on the

HONG et al.: CHARGING METHOD FOR THE SECONDARY BATTERY IN DUAL-INVERTER DRIVE SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES 913

Fig. 6. Control block diagram for charging method under low-speed operation.

charging power. Note from (11), (17), and (18) that the charging

power delivered via Inverter 2 is

3 3

PI n v 2 = (vd2 id + vq 2 iq ) = [(vd1 + ωe Lq iq )id

2 2

+ (vq 1 − ωe Ld id − ωe ψm )iq ].

2

Vbat1

max PI n v 2 subject to 2

vd1 + vq21 − ≤ 0.

(v d 2 ,v q 2 ) 3

Hence, we set the Lagrangian with a coefficient of λ

2

Vbat1

+ λ vd1 + vq 1 −

2 2

3

The necessary conditions are Fig. 7. Change in operation points to charge Battery 2 in the field-weakening

region (a) vectors at “B,” (b) vectors at “A,” and (c) operation point change for

∂L a voltage margin.

= id + 2λvd1 = 0 (19)

∂vd1

∂L The charging current of Battery 2, Ibat2 , is calculated as

= iq + 2λvq 1 = 0 (20)

∂vq 1

PI n v 1 − Pm ot

∂L V2 Ibat2 =

2

= vd1 + vq21 − bat1 = 0. (21) Vbat2

∂λ 3

3 Vs1 Is + ωe Lq iq id − (ωe Ld id + ωe ψm )iq

Solving (19), (20), and (21), we obtain = (24)

2 Vbat2

Vbat1

vs1 = (vd1 , vq 1 ) = √ (id , iq ) (22) where Vs1 = vs1 = vd1 2 + v 2 . Note from (24) that the

q1

3Is

charging current depends on the motor speed ωe , as well as the

where Is = i2d + i2q . This shows that the PI n v 2 -maximizing currents id and iq . Therefore, there is a chance that Ibat2 in (24)

c

solution is obtained when the Inverter 1 voltage vector is in is higher than the maximum charging current Ibat2 requested by

c

parallel with the current, i.e., the maximum power delivery to Battery 2 when the motor speed is low. If Ibat2 > Ibat2 , then it

c

Battery 2 is realized when the power factor of Inverter 1 is unity. is necessary to replace Ibat2 by Ibat2 in (24). In such a case, the

Correspondingly, the Inverter 2 voltage is obtained as maximum Vs1 is calculated as

2

− ωe Lq iq id + (ωe Ld id + ωe ψm )iq

c

Vbat1 Vbat1 3 Vbat2 Ibat2

vs2 = (vd2 , vq 2 ) = √ id + ωe Lq iq , √ iq Vs1,lim it ≡ .

3Is 3Is Is

(25)

Fig. 6 shows the whole control scheme under the base speed,

− ωe Ld id − ωe ψm . (23)

and the corresponding algorithm is summarized as follows:

914 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

Fig. 8. Available battery charging current and power depending on the motor output power in high-speed operation: (a) 5000 r/min, and (b) 9000 r/min.

MOTOR PARAMETERS

Fig. 7(b) that

Vbat1

ωe (Lq iq A )2 + (ψm + Ld idA )2 = √ . (27)

3

torque line on the left-hand side of “A.” The best point is a tan-

gential intersection. It should be noted that |vsm | corresponding

TABLE III

VEHICLE PARAMETERS to (idB , iq B ) is less than V√

bat1

3

, i.e.,

Vbat1

|vsm (idB , iq B )| = ωe (Lq iq B )2 + (ψm + Ld idB )2 < √ .

3

(28)

In other words, a voltage margin V√ bat1

3

− |vsm (idB , iq B )| > 0

is secured by changing the operation point from “A” to “B,”

and can be used for charging Battery 2. Fig. 7(a) and (b) shows

1) Choose (i∗d , i∗q ) for a given torque, Te∗ , from the maximum the voltage vectors for (idA , iq A ) and (idB , iq B ) in the voltage

torque per ampere lookup table. plane (vd , vq ). It should be noted that the voltage limits appear

2) Determine the voltage vector for the motor, vsm = as circles in the voltage plane. The voltage margin obtained by

(−ωe Lq iq , ωe ψm + ωe Ld id ). changing the operation points is depicted in Fig. 7(a) and (c).

3) Determine vs1 = VIss1 (id , iq ) for Inverter 1, where Similarly to the previous case (Section III-B), the voltage of

Inverter 1, vs1 for (idB , iq B ), can be set in parallel with a current

Vbat1

Vs1 = min Vs1,lim it , √ . vector IsB so as to achieve a unity power factor at Inverter 1,

3

i.e.,

4) Determine vs2 = (vd2 , vq 2 ) for Inverter 2 such that Vbat1

vs1 = √ (idB , iq B ) (29)

id iq 3IsB

(vd2 , vq 2 ) = Vs1 +ωe Lq iq , Vs1 −ωe Ld id −ωe ψm .

Is Is

(26) where IsB = i2dB + i2q B . Then, the voltage of Inverter 2 is

obtained as

C. Charging Method in the Field-Weakening Region

Vbat1 idB Vbat1 iq B

vs2 = vs1 − vsm = √ + ωe Lq iq B , √

In the field-weakening region, the motor terminal voltage is 3 IsB 3 IsB

limited by the maximum available voltage from the inverter.

However, even in the field-weakening region, some voltage − ωe Ld idB − ω e ψm (30)

margin, though not sufficient, can be attained by increasing

the d-axis current in the negative direction. In such a case, the and used as a charging source voltage for Battery 2.

current vector increases so that the motor copper loss increases In a very high-speed region, the operation point is found

somewhat. uniquely at the tangential point. More specifically, the maximum

Consider a specific example shown in Fig. 7(c). Note that CA torque is determined at a tangential intersection with a voltage

is a voltage curve limited by V√bat1

3

, and “A”= (idA , iq A ) is an limit in a vicinity of (id , iq ) = (ψm /Ld , 0). The locus of those

intersection point with a constant-torque line. Then, “A” is the points is often called the “maximum torque per flux” (MTPF)

HONG et al.: CHARGING METHOD FOR THE SECONDARY BATTERY IN DUAL-INVERTER DRIVE SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES 915

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 9. Simulation results for charging with the motor at a standstill (a) i∗d , id , i∗q , and iq ; (b) v d 1 , v d 2 , v q 1 , and v q 2 (c) three-phase current of the motor,

ia s , ib s , and ic s (d) V b a t 2 and Ibca t 2 .

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 10. Simulation results for charging in low-speed motor operation (300 r/min): (a) i∗d , id , i∗q , and iq ; (b) v d 1 , v d 2 , v q 1 , and id ; (c) A-phase current of the

motor, ia s ; A-phase voltage of Inverters 1 and 2, v a 1 and v a 2 , respectively; (d) V b a t 2 and Ibca t 2 .

[33] or “maximum torque per voltage” (MTPV) [34]. In those Minimize(ωe Ld id + ωe ψm )2 + (ωe Lq iq )2

cases, charging Battery 2 is not possible.

The charging algorithm in the field-weakening region is sum- ∗ ∗

4 (ψm iq + (Ld − Lq )id iq ) = T , where T is a

subject to 3P

marized as follows: given torque. The Lagrangian for this problem is defined as

1) find, if any, in the current plane, a tangential intersection

(idB , iq B ) between a torque curve and a voltage limit

L(id , iq , λ) = (ωe Ld id + ωe ψm )2 + (ωe Lq iq )2

ellipse;

2) determine the motor voltage corresponding to (idB , iq B ); 3P

+λ (ψm iq + (Ld − Lq )id iq ) − T ∗ .

3) determine vs1 for Inverter 1 as (29); 4

4) determine vs2 = (vd2 , vq 2 ) for Inverter 2 as (30).

1) Finding an Operating Point “B” in the Field-Weakening Then, the necessary conditions for minimization are ∂∂iLd =

Region: The operating point to maximize the voltage margin

0, ∂∂ iLq = 0, ∂∂Lλ = 0. Solving the necessary conditions simul-

[“B” in Fig. 7(c)] is found at a tangential intersection between

the torque and voltage limit curves. This can be formulated as a taneously for id , we obtain a fourth-order polynomial

constraint minimization problem:

i4d + Ai3d + Bi2d + Cid + D = 0 (31)

916 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 11. Simulation results for Battery 2 charging in ECE-15 urban driving cycle (a) ECE-15 driving cycle, (b) Battery 2 charging current, and (c) a frequency

map of charging current versus vehicle speeds.

Fig. 12. Experimental setup (a) open-end winding IPMSM, (b) two inverters, and (c) battery pack.

2 2

A = ψm

+ 3ψ m 3ψ m 3ψ m Table II is used. Fig. 8 shows the available charging current

where Ld (L d −L q ) , B= (L d −L q )L d + (L d −L q ) 2 ,

3

3ψ m ψm3 4

ψm

and power for Battery 2 and the motor current versus the motor

C = (L d −L q ) 2 L d + (L d −L q ) 3 , and D = (L d −L q ) 3 L d − output power at 5000 and 9000 r/min. It is obvious that there is

16L 2q T ∗2 no power available for charging the battery if the motor power

9P 2 (L d −L q ) 2 L 2d

.

Then, the meaningful solution for the operating point is ob- reaches its maximum of 100 kW. However, a fairly high charging

tained as follows [32]: rate is feasible even in high-speed operation, as far as the motor

is not operating at the maximum power. For example, Battery 2

√ can be charged at 34 kW if the motor is running at 60 kW and

− α1 + 2ξ1 − − 3α1 + 2ξ1 − √α2β+2ξ 1

A1 1 1 5000 r/min.

idB = − +

4 2

(32) IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

4T ∗ 1 Simulations were performed using Ansoft Simplorer with the

iq B = · (33) motor parameters for an EV shown in Table II. Fig. 9 shows

3P ψm + (Ld − Lq )idα

simulation results with the proposed charging control scheme

2 3

where α = − 3A8 + B, β = A8 − A2B + C, γ = − 256 3

A4 + at a standstill. The command value for battery charging current

2

2 3

was set to 100 A, and the corresponding charging power was

16 A B − 4 AC + D, η = − α12 − γ, κ = − 108 + α3γ − β8 ,

1 2 1 α

μ = − κ2 ± κ4 + η27 , and

2

calculated as 115.5 A, where vd2 = Vbat2 / 3 = 207.8 V, and

⎧ 5 √ η vq 2 = 0. Fig. 9(a) and (b) shows the controlled currents and

⎪

⎨ − α + 3μ − √ if μ = 0 terminal voltages of Inverters 1 and 2. Fig. 9(c) and (d) shows

6 3 3μ

ξ= the motor phase current and the voltage and current of Battery

⎩ − 5 α + √3μ − √3κ

⎪

if μ = 0. 2, respectively.

6 Fig. 10 shows a case when a motor running at 300 r/min

To show the charging capacity during high-speed operation produces 80 Nm of shaft torque. Before t = 0.1 s, charging was

of the motor, an example motor with the parameters listed in not activated. Inverter 1 was dedicated to only operating the

HONG et al.: CHARGING METHOD FOR THE SECONDARY BATTERY IN DUAL-INVERTER DRIVE SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES 917

Fig. 13. Experimental results for charging operation at a standstill: (a) V b a t 1 , V b a t 2 , Ib a t 1 , and Ib a t 2 ; (b) i∗d , id , i∗q , and iq ; (c) v d 1 , v d 2 , v q 1 , and v q 2 ;

(d) three-phase current of the motor, ia s , ib s , and ic s .

Fig. 14. Experimental results for charging operation in the low-speed region (300 r/min): (a) V b a t 1 , V b a t 2 , Ib a t 1 , and Ib a t 2 ; (b) i∗d , id , i∗q , and iq ;

(c) v d 1 , v d 2 , v q 1 , and id ; (d) the magnitude of the terminal voltage of Inverter 1, V s 1 ; A-phase current of the motor, ia s ; A-phase voltage of Inverters 1

and 2, v a 1 and v a 2 , respectively; (e) the output torque.

motor, and Inverter 2 was locked at zero voltage (zero or seven Inverter 1 increased to accommodate the terminal voltage of

vector in the switch status). The charging started at t = 0.1 Inverter 2, as shown in Fig. 10(c). Note that the charging rate

s as shown in Fig. 10(d), by applying a voltage command of was 32.4 kW and a unity power factor operation of Inverter 1

(vd2 , vq 2 ) = (−72, 178) V to Inverter 2. Fig. 10(a) shows that was achieved during the charging.

the motor currents did not change to maintain a constant-torque Fig. 11 shows a scenario of maximum charging effort during

production, even during charging. However, voltage levels of in an ECE-15 urban driving cycle (UDC). The previous same

918 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

Fig. 15. Experimental results for charging operation in the low-speed region (2000 r/min): (a) V b a t 1 , V b a t 2 , Ib a t 1 , and Ib a t 2 ; (b) i∗d , id , i∗q , and iq ;

(c) v d 1 , v d 2 , v q 1 , and id ; (d) the magnitude of the terminal voltage of Inverter 1, V s 1 ; A-phase current of the motor, ia s ; A-phase voltages of Inverters 1

and 2, v a 1 and v a 2 , respectively; (e) the magnified view of Region A; (f) the magnified view of Region B; (g) the output torque.

SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

that the average charging current was 106 A, and a charging

current frequency map versus speed is shown in Fig. 11(c).

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Fig. 12 shows the experimental environments with a specially

manufactured test motor having open ends, two inverters, and

battery packs. The motor specifications are the same as those

(see Table II) used in the simulation. The dc link voltage of

Inverter 1 was fixed at 360 V dc. A battery pack was constructed

with 16 Calcium MF 12 V batteries (lead-acid) by connecting

them serially as shown in Fig. 12 (c). The maximum charging

motor parameters were used, and the vehicle parameters are current was set to 100 A.

listed in III. In this simulation, the maximum charging current Fig. 13 shows the experimental results of charging perfor-

was set to 200 A. Note that the battery was charged to the full mance when the motor was at a standstill. Note that the charging

extent during stops, and that charging action was maintained current was regulated at 100 A. Initially, the battery voltage was

while the vehicle was running, though the proportion decreased 200 V but soon jumped to 300 V as soon as charging started.

as the speed increased. In this simulation, the regeneration Note that the phase currents were dc at standstill.

HONG et al.: CHARGING METHOD FOR THE SECONDARY BATTERY IN DUAL-INVERTER DRIVE SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES 919

Fig. 16. Experimental results for charging operation in the field-weakening region (5000 r/min): (a) i∗d , id , i∗q , and iq ; (b) v d 1 , v d 2 , v q 1 , and id ;

(c) V b a t 1 , V b a t 2 , Ib a t 1 , and Ib a t 2 ; (d) the magnitude of the terminal voltage of Inverter 1, V s 1 ; A-phase current of the motor, ia s ; A-phase voltages of

Inverters 1 and 2, v a 1 and v a 2 ; (e) the magnified view of Region A; (f) the magnified view of Region B; (g) the output torque.

Fig. 14 shows the charging performance when the motor was factor of Inverter 1 was achieved after the charging started.

running at 300 r/min. Note from Fig. 14 (d) that the phase voltage Fig. 15(g) is a shaft torque plot drawn from the controller area

va1 increased from 27.2 to 197.5 V in order to supply charging network (CAN) data and shows that the torque was undisturbed

current to Battery 2. Note, however, that the magnitudes of the even after charging started.

motor current and torque remained fixed. Additionally, note that Fig. 16 shows an experimental result, but the speed was as

82% of the voltage of Inverter 1 was used for charging at this high as 5000 r/min. Before charging, Inverter 1 was already uti-

low-speed operation. lizing its maximum voltage, as shown in Fig. 16(d). As explained

Fig. 15 shows a similar experimental result, but the speed was in Section III-C, the operation point moved to increase the d-axis

increased to 2000 r/min with an 80-Nm load torque (17 kW). current from −60 to −145.7 A, as shown in Fig. 16(a). Thereby,

Note from Fig. 15 (d) that the phase voltage va1 was increased a new voltage margin was developed [observe that Vs1 changed

from 117.5 to 207 V, the maximum phase voltage available from 207 to 133.3 V in Fig. 16(d)]. As the charging started, Vs1

from the 360-V dc link. With the unity power factor option, increased to 207 V again, providing Inverter 2 with a voltage

the charging current reached 60 A, which was the maximum [see vd2 , vq 2 in Fig. 16(b)]. The charging current was 75 A, as

effort. At this time, 43% of the voltage of Inverter 1 was used shown in Fig. 16(c). Fig. 16(e) and (f) shows magnified views

for charging. Fig. 15 (e) and (f) shows the magnified views of the inverter terminal voltages along with the current before

of the terminal voltages and currents of Inverter 1 and 2 along and after battery charging, respectively. It should be noted that

with current before and after battery charging, respectively. Note a negative consequence

of this operation was a current increase

from the a-phase current ias and voltage va1 that the unity power from Is = i2d + i2q = 77 to 150 A.

920 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 30, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2015

Table IV provides the summary of the key working process [17] C. Rossi, G. Grandi, and P. Corbelli, “Series hybrid powertrain based on

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[21] E. G. Shivakumar, K. Gopakumar, S. K. Sinha, A. Pittet, and V. T. Ran-

weakening region, the operating point was moved along the ganathan, “Space vector PWM control of dual inverter FED open-end

constant-torque line to a tangential intersection with a voltage winding induction motor drive,” Proc. IEEE 16th Ann. Appl. Power Elec-

limit curve to gain a potential to charge the battery. Furthermore, tron. Conf. Expo., 2000, pp. 394–404

[22] V. Oleschuk, F. Profumo, G. Griva, R. Bojoi, and A. M. Stankovic,

it was shown that the unity power factor operation of Inverter “Analysis and comparison of basic schemes of synchronized PWM for

1 yielded the maximum power to Battery 2. Evidence from the dual inverter-FED drives,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electr., 2006,

simulation and experiments was provided that demonstrated the pp. 2455–2461.

[23] J. Kalaiselvi and S. Srinivas, “Hybrid PWMs for shaft voltage reduction

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Technol., Feb. 2013, pp. 539–544.

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[3] H. Stemmler and P. Guggenbach, “Configurations of high-power voltage [26] V. T. Somasekhar, S. Srinivas, and K. K. Kumar, “Effect of zero-vector

source inverter drives,” in Proc.Fifth Eur. Conf. Power Electron. Appl., placement in a dual-inverter FED open-end winding induction-motor drive

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no. 2, pp. 312–320, Apr. 2004. Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 1996.

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boosting in an open-ended induction machine using a dual inverter system Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2010.

with a floating capacitor bridge,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, [34] S. Morimoto, Y. Takeda, T. Hirasa, and K. Taniguchi, “Expansion of

no. 3, pp. 1348–1356, Mar. 2013. operation limits for permanent magnet motor by current vector control

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of HEV permanent magnet synchronous motor,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Appl. 871, Sep./Oct. 1990.

Conf., Oct. 2006, no. 1, pp. 488–494.

[13] D. Pan, F. Liang, Y. Wang, and T. A. Lipo, “Extention of the operating

region of an IPM motor utilizing series compensation,” in Proc. IEEE

Energy Convers. Congr. Expo., Sep. 2012, pp. 823–830. Jinseok Hong (S’08) was born in Incheon, Korea, in

[14] Y. Lee and J. I. Ha, “Power enhancement of dual inverter for open-end per- 1982. He received the B.S. degree in electrical en-

manent magnet synchronous motor,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. gineering and mechanical engineering from Hongik

Conf. Expo., Mar. 2013, pp. 1545–1551. University, Seoul, Korea, in 2007, and the M.S. de-

[15] Y. Lee and J. I. Ha, “Six step phase modulation of dual inverter for openend gree in electrical engineering in 2009 from Pohang

permanent magnet synchronous motor,” in Proc. Energy Convers. Congr. University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Ko-

Expo., Sep. 2013, pp. 3874–3879. rea, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D.

[16] B. A. Welchko, “A double-ended inverter system for the combined propul- degree.

sion and energy management functions in hybrid vehicles with energy His research interests include design, analysis, and

storage,” in Proc. IEEE 31st Annu. Conf. Ind. Electron. Soc., Raleigh, control of power electronic systems, ac motor drive,

NC, USA, Nov. 6–10, 2005, pp. 1401–1406. and electric vehicle.

HONG et al.: CHARGING METHOD FOR THE SECONDARY BATTERY IN DUAL-INVERTER DRIVE SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES 921

Heekwang Lee (S’14) was born in Seoul, Korea, in Kwanghee Nam (S’83–M’86) was born in Seoul,

1988. He received the B.S. degree in electronic en- Korea, in 1956. He received the B.S. degree in chem-

gineering from Chungnam National University, Dea- ical technology and the M.S. degree in control and in-

jeon, Korea, in 2012. He is currently working toward strumentation engineering from Seoul National Uni-

the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at the Po- versity, Seoul, Korea, in 1980 and 1982, respectively,

hang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, and the M.S. degree in mathematics and the Ph.D.

Korea. degree in electrical engineering from the University

His research interests include the design, analysis, of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA, in 1986.

and control of power electronic systems, ac motor From 1998 to 2000, he was the Director of the In-

drive, and electric vehicle. formation Research Laboratories and the Dean of the

Graduate School of Information Technology, Pohang

University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Korea, where he

is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering. His current

research interests include ac motor control, power converters, motor design,

and electric vehicle. Now, he is director of POSTECH E-Car Research Center,

developing electric power train. He is the author of a book, “AC Motor Control

and Electrical Vehicle Applications,” published by CRC Press.

Prof. Nam received the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Best Paper Award in 2000.

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