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Question 3

3. Answer the following questions that relate to the analysis of chemical compounds.

(a) A compound containing the elements C , H , N , and O is analyzed. When a 1.2359 g sample is burned

in excess oxygen, 2.241 g of CO2(g) is formed. The combustion analysis also showed that the sample

contained 0.0648 g of H.

(i) Determine the mass, in grams, of C in the 1.2359 g sample of the compound.

2.241 g CO2(g) × × × One point is earned for

44.01 g CO2 1 mol CO2 1 mol C

the correct answer.

= 0.6116 g C

(ii) When the compound is analyzed for N content only, the mass percent of N is found

to be 28.84 percent. Determine the mass, in grams, of N in the original 1.2359 g sample of

the compound.

1.2359 g sample × 0.2884 = 0.3564 g N One point is earned for the correct answer.

(iii) Determine the mass, in grams, of O in the original 1.2359 g sample of the compound.

Because the compound contains only C , H , N , and O , One point is earned for the

mass of O = g sample − ( g H + g C + g N ) answer consistent with the

answers in parts (a)(i) and (a)(ii).

= 1.2359 − (0.0648 + 0.6116 + 0.3564) = 0.2031 g

1 mol C

0.6116 g C × = 0.05092 mol C

12.011 g C One point is earned for all

1 mol H masses converted to moles.

0.0648 g H × = 0.06429 mol H

1.0079 g H

Note: Moles of C may be shown

1 mol N in part (a)(i).

0.3564 g N × = 0.02544 mol N

14.007 g N

1 mol O

0.2031 g O × = 0.01269 mol O

16.00 g O

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AP® CHEMISTRY

2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

Question 3 (continued)

One point is earned for dividing by the

0.05092 mol ÷ 0.01269 mol = 4.013 smallest number of moles.

0.06429 mol ÷ 0.01269 mol = 5.066

One point is earned for the empirical

0.02544 mol ÷ 0.01269 mol = 2.005 formula consistent with the ratio of moles

0.01269 mol ÷ 0.01269 mol = 1.000 calculated.

(b) A different compound, which has the empirical formula CH2Br , has a vapor density of 6.00 g L− 1 at

375 K and 0.983 atm. Using these data, determine the following.

PV

PV = nRT ⇒ = n One point is earned for applying

RT

the gas law to calculate n.

(0.983 atm)(1.00 L)

= 0.0319 mol One point is earned for calculating

(0.0821 L atm mol -1K -1 )(375 K)

the molar mass.

6.00 g

molar mass of gas (M) = = 188 g mol−1

0.0319 mol

OR

OR

DRT 6.00 g L−1 × 0.0821 L atm mol−1 K −1 × 375 K Two points are earned for calculating

M= =

P 0.983 atm DRT

the molar mass using M =

= 188 g mol−1 P

Each CH2Br unit has mass of 12.011 + 2(1.0079) + 79.90 = 93.9 g, One point is earned for the

188 g molecular formula that is

and = 2.00, so there must be two CH2Br units per molecule.

93.9 g consistent with the molar mass

calculated in part (b)(i).

Therefore, the molecular formula of the compound is C2H4Br2 .

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© 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

© 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

© 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

© 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

© 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

© 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved.

Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents).

AP® CHEMISTRY

2006 SCORING COMMENTARY

Question 3

Overview

Students were asked to use different types of data to determine the empirical formula of a compound. With a

different set of data, students were asked to determine a molecular formula.

Sample: 3A

Score: 9

This response is clear, organized, and earned all 9 points: 1 point for part (a)(i), 1 point for part (a)(ii), 1 point for

part (a)(iii), 3 points for part (a)(iv), 2 points for part (b)(i), and 1 point for part (b)(ii).

Sample: 3B

Score: 7

The point was not earned in part (a)(i) because the number of significant figures in the answer is off by more than

one. Only 3 out of 4 points were earned in part (a)(iv) because the numbers are inappropriately rounded to such a

degree that the empirical formula is not valid.

Sample: 3C

Score: 6

No points were earned in part (b) because the number of moles and molar mass are not calculated correctly.

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