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9.12 A 50 wt% Pb-50 wt% Mg alloy is slowly cooled from 700 C (1290F) to 400C (750F).

(b) What is the composition of this solid phase?

(c) At what temperature does the liquid solidify?

(d) What is the composition of this last remaining liquid phase?

Solution

Shown below is the Mg-Pb phase diagram (Figure 9.20) and a vertical line constructed at a composition of

50 wt% Pb-50 wt% Mg.

(a) Upon cooling from 700C, the first solid phase forms at the temperature at which a vertical line at this

composition intersects the L-( + L) phase boundary--i.e., about 560C;

(b) The composition of this solid phase corresponds to the intersection with the -( + L) phase boundary,

of a tie line constructed across the + L phase region at 560C--i.e., 21 wt% Pb-79 wt% Mg;

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(c) Complete solidification of the alloy occurs at the intersection of this same vertical line at 50 wt% Pb

with the eutectic isotherm--i.e., about 465C;

(d) The composition of the last liquid phase remaining prior to complete solidification corresponds to the

eutectic composition--i.e., about 67 wt% Pb-33 wt% Mg.

9.22 For 11.20 kg of a magnesium-lead alloy of composition 30 wt% Pb-70 wt% Mg, is it possible, at equilibrium,

to have α and Mg2Pb phases having respective masses of 7.39 kg and 3.81 kg? If so, what will be the approximate

temperature of the alloy? If such an alloy is not possible, explain why.

Solution

Yes, it is possible to have a 30 wt% Pb-70 wt% Mg alloy which has masses of 7.39 kg and 3.81 kg for the

and Mg2Pb phases, respectively. In order to demonstrate this, it is first necessary to determine the mass fraction of

m 7.39 kg

W = = = 0.66

m mMg2Pb 7.39 kg 3.81 kg

Now, if we apply the lever rule expression for W

CMg 2Pb C0

W =

CMg2Pb C

Since the Mg2Pb phase exists only at 81 wt% Pb, and C0 = 30 wt% Pb

81 30

W = 0.66 =

81 C

Solving for C from this expression yields C = 3.7 wt% Pb. The position along the + Mg2Pb) phase

boundary of Figure 9.20 corresponding to this composition is approximately 190C.

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9.32 For a copper-silver alloy of composition 25 wt% Ag-75 wt% Cu and at 775C (1425F) do the following:

(a) Determine the mass fractions of α and β phases.

(b) Determine the mass fractions of primary α and eutectic microconstituents.

(c) Determine the mass fraction of eutectic α.

Solution

(a) This portion of the problem asks that we determine the mass fractions of and phases for an 25 wt%

Ag-75 wt% Cu alloy (at 775C). In order to do this it is necessary to employ the lever rule using a tie line that

extends entirely across the + phase field. From Figure 9.7 and at 775C, C = 8.0 wt% Ag, C = 91.2 wt% Ag,

and Ceutectic = 71.9 wt% Sn. Therefore, the two lever-rule expressions are as follows:

C C 0 91.2 25

W = = = 0.796

C C 91.2 8.0

C0 C 25 8.0

W = = = 0.204

C C 91.2 8.0

(b) Now it is necessary to determine the mass fractions of primary and eutectic microconstituents for this

same alloy. This requires

us to utilize the lever rule and a tie line that extends from the maximum solubility of Ag in

the phase at 775C (i.e., 8.0 wt% Ag) to the eutectic composition (71.9 wt% Ag). Thus

Ceutectic Ź C0 71.9 25

W' = = = 0.734

Ceutectic Ź C 71.9 8.0

C0 C 25 8.0

We = = = 0.266

C eutectic C 71.9 8.0

(c) And, finally, we are asked to compute the mass fraction of eutectic , We. This quantity is simply the

mass fractions of total and primary as

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